Design, Manufacture, and Analysis of Photonic Materials for Historical and Modern Visual Art: feature issue introduction

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History has seen many significant contributions by artists in science and vice versa, e.g. Leonardo Da Vinci's flying machines, and Isaac Newton's color theory. More recently, with the advent of nanofabrication techniques, lasers, and materials, photonics research has found exciting new applications in art. The 14 papers positioned at the boundary between art and science in this feature issue capture this breadth of topics. Creative art-scientists/science-artists create new art using the colorful properties of metallic nanostructures, birefringence of liquid crystals, interference in thin films, and coherence of lasers. A noteworthy new art form that is gaining interest uses metals as the "canvas", lasers and nanolithography as the "brush", and resonant nanostructures as the "paint". We hope the reader will enjoy the spectrum of topics here that illustrate the potential of cutting edge photonic research for art-related applications: from the generation of modern visual art to the preservation and tagging of precious historical art.

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... [203] Material design methodologies involving nanostructure engineering has since benefitted various material functionalities including electronics materials, photocatalysts, optoelectronics, and, most recently, energy storage materials. [104,[204][205][206] Construction of hierarchical nanostructures, involving the assembly of single-unit low-dimensional nanoparticles as building blocks into highly porous and welldefined structures, considerably increases surface area and attributes to significant performance storage enhancement. [19] Various types of hierarchically nanostructured materials and strategies include 0D hollow, multi-shell, and/or yolk-shell nanostructures, 1D nanowires, 2D nanosheets, and 3D networks. ...
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The successful development of post-lithium technologies depends on two key elements: performance and economy. Because sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) can potentially satisfy both requirements, they are widely considered the most promising replacement for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the similarity between the electrochemical processes and the abundance of sodium-based resources. Among various SIB anode materials, metal sulfides are most extensively studied as materials for high-performance electrodes due to the versatility of their synthesis procedure, utilization potential, and high sodiation capacity. Herein, some of the most effective strategies aimed at effectively alleviating the performance shortcomings of these materials from the materials engineering/design perspective are summarized. In terms of facilitating ion transport in SIBs, which represents one of the most critical aspects of their performance, a specific family of strategies related to a particular operational mechanism is considered rather than categorizing based-on individual sulfide materials. In the foreseeable future, the development of highly functional SIBs electrode materials and utilization of metal sulfides will become highly relevant due to their stability and performance characteristics. Therefore, it is anticipated that this review will guide further research and facilitate the realization of various applications of sulfide-based high-performance rechargeable batteries.
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Structural colors traditionally refer to colors arising from the interaction of light with structures with periodicities on the order of the wavelength. Recently, the definition has been broadened to include colors arising from individual resonators that can be subwavelength in dimension, e.g., plasmonic and dielectric nanoantennas. For instance, diverse metallic and dielectric nanostructure designs have been utilized to generate structural colors based on various physical phenomena, such as localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs), Mie resonances, thin-film Fabry–Pérot interference, and Rayleigh–Wood diffraction anomalies from 2D periodic lattices and photonic crystals. Here, we provide our perspective of the key application areas where structural colors really shine, and other areas where more work is needed. We review major classes of materials and structures employed to generate structural coloration and highlight the main physical resonances involved. We discuss mechanisms to tune structural colors and review recent advances in dynamic structural colors. In the end, we propose the concept of a universal pixel that could be crucial in realizing next-generation displays based on nanophotonic structural colors.
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