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Automatic Power Supply Control to Ensure No Break Power

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The main objective of this project is to provide uninterrupted power supply to a load, by selecting the supply from any source out of 4 different sources such as mains, generator, and inverter and solar automatically in the absence of any of the source. As we know that the demand for electricity is increasing every day and frequent power cuts is causing many problems in various areas like industries, hospitals, offices and houses which are necessary to be prevented. An alternative arrangement for power source must be used. This project uses four switches to demonstrate the respective failure of that source of supply. A microcontroller of ATmega328 family is used. The output of the microcontroller is given to the relay driver IC, which switches appropriate relay to maintain an uninterrupted supply to the load. When any of the switches is pressed it shows the absence of that particular source. Switches are connected to microcontroller as input signals. The output is observed using a lamp drawing power supply from mains initially. On failure of the mains supply (which is actuated by pressing the appropriate switch) the load gets supply from the next available source, say an inverter. If the inverter also fails it switches over to the next available source and so on. The current status, as to which source supplies to the load is also displayed on an LCD. As it is not feasible to provide all 4 different sources of supply, one source with alternate switches are provided to get the same function.
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IJSRSET196254 | Received : 12 March 2019 | Accepted : 24March 2019 | March-April -2019 [ 6 (2) : 249-255 ]
© 2019 IJSRSET | Volume 6 | Issue 2 | Print ISSN: 2395-1990 | Online ISSN : 2394-4099
Themed Section : Engineering and Technology
DOI : https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET196254
249
Automatic Power Supply Control to Ensure No Break Power
Dr. DVN. Ananth1, Dr. G. Jogarao2, K. Sirisha3, B. Kumar4, K. Anusha Sai Kumar. G5
1Assistant Professor EEE Department, Raghu Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh,
India
1Associate Professor EEE Department, Raghu Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh,
India
3-5B-Tech EEE Department, Raghu Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
The main objective of this project is to provide uninterrupted power supply to a load, by selecting the supply
from any source out of 4 different sources such as mains, generator, and inverter and solar automatically in the
absence of any of the source. As we know that the demand for electricity is increasing every day and frequent
power cuts is causing many problems in various areas like industries, hospitals, offices and houses which are
necessary to be prevented. An alternative arrangement for power source must be used. This project uses four
switches to demonstrate the respective failure of that source of supply. A microcontroller of ATmega328 family
is used. The output of the microcontroller is given to the relay driver IC, which switches appropriate relay to
maintain an uninterrupted supply to the load. When any of the switches is pressed it shows the absence of that
particular source. Switches are connected to microcontroller as input signals. The output is observed using a
lamp drawing power supply from mains initially. On failure of the mains supply (which is actuated by pressing
the appropriate switch) the load gets supply from the next available source, say an inverter. If the inverter also
fails it switches over to the next available source and so on. The current status, as to which source supplies to
the load is also displayed on an LCD. As it is not feasible to provide all 4 different sources of supply, one source
with alternate switches are provided to get the same function.
Keywords:
Power supply block, Microcontroller (ATMEGA328p), Relays, LCD, Resistor, Capacitors.
I. INTRODUCTION
The auto power supply control system is very
convenient system for that consumers who want to
attains uninterruptible power supply from different
sources such as solar, main, generator and inverter. If
we see it at commercial level, then we can estimate
that there are so many consumers or customers which
have the equipment or machines whose requirements
is only uninterruptable power supply. Such as the
data base companies whose all work is done on
computer then it is required an uninterruptable
power supply all the time, otherwise their computer
could be off during the time when the load is shifted
on another source, similarly the companies which
have the data base production machines then it also
could be also off during the load shifted then their
production can be stop or damage. Concentrating on
these above problems we can examine the importance
of this auto power supply control system in this
modern world. Different peoples and companies are
working on this auto power supply control system
which are making this system with the help of
magnetic contactors and power relays but their
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Dr. DVN. Ananth et al
Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol. March-April-2019; 6 (2) : 249-255
250
system is so much costly and do not provide precise
uninterruptible power supply. Here we are making
this auto power supply control system with the help
of power electronics components, microcontroller
ATmega328p and electronic relays.
Fig.1 Block Diagram Auto Power Supply
II. DESCRIPTION
Of the world’s 1.3 billion people who live without
access to power, a quarter about 300 million live
in rural India in states such as Bihar. Nighttime
satellite images of the sprawling subcontinent show
the story: Vast swaths of the country still lie in
darkness.
“It’s a matter of shame that 68 years after
independence we have not been able to provide a
basic amenity like electricity,” Piyush Goyal, India’s
minister of state for power, coal and new and
renewable energy, said recently. The Indian
government has launched an ambitious project to
supply 24-hour power to its towns and villages by
2022 with plans for miles of new feeder lines,
infrastructure upgrades and solar micro-grids for the
remotest areas.
Although 300 million Indians have no access to
power, millions more in the country of 1.2 billion
people live with spotty supplies of electricity from the
country’s unreliable power grid. The grid failed
spectacularly in 2012, plunging more than 600 million
people into total blackout. In the country’s high-tech
capital of Bangalore, for example, residents have
recently had to endure hours of power outages each
day after repairs and a bad monsoon season prevented
the state’s hydroelectric and wind power plants from
generating enough electricity. Many of the giant IT
companies have their own generating systems
Infosys, for example, is building its own solar park
but small businesses and residents in rural and urban
areas are suffering, said Harish Hande, the chairman
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Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol. March-April-2019; 6 (2) : 249-255
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of Selco-India, a social enterprise that provides solar
power in Karnataka.
“How do we manage our supply and make sure we
put money aside for infrastructure? If you look at the
future, it’s what we need,” he said, “but there’s not a
single thing that’s moving ahead.” Estimates show
that India’s power woes cost the economy anywhere
from 1 to 3 percent of gross domestic product an
impediment to Modi’s hopes to expand the economy
and make the country more hospitable to
manufacturing, according to Rahul Tongia, a fellow
with Brookings India. Electricity demand will
increase sevenfold by mid-century as the population
continues to grow, experts say.
Energy access is worse in rural areas. Bihar, one of
India’s poorest states, has a population of 103 million,
nearly a third the size of the United States. Fewer
have electricity as the primary source of lighting
there than in any other place in India, just over 16
percent, according to 2011 census data. Families still
light their homes with kerosene lamps and cook on
clay stoves with cow- dung patties or kindling. In
recent months, the Indian government has
announced plans to modernize its national grid and is
preparing to address the financial woes of the
country’s state-owned utility companies, some of
which are mired in debt, to the tune of $66 billion.
The rescue plan is likely to include power tariff hikes
a politically unpopular concept in a country where
many residents are used to heavily subsidized power.
In 2010, according to a World Bank estimate, 87
percent of all electricity consumed by domestic
customers was subsidized.
Our system integrates the following components in
the design: Power supply block, Ardiono UNO
(ATmega328p),LCD, BC547 Transistors, Resistor,
Capacitors. The system was designed and simulated
using auto power supply control system is very
convenient system for that consumers who want to
attains uninterruptible power supply from different
sources such as solar, main, generator and inverter .
As it is not feasible to provide all the 4 different
sources of supply, one source with alternative
switches are provided to get the same function. In this
project we are having 4 switches which are consider
as 4 different sources of supply. When we press any of
the switches it shows the absence of the particular
source which is connected to microcontroller as input
signals.
Fig.2 Pin diagram of ARDUINO.
The board has 14 Digital pins and 6 Analog pins.
It is programmable with the Embedded C.
The figure above shows the pin diagram of arduino.
LED: There is a built-in LED driven by digital pin 13.
When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when
the pin is LOW, it's off.
VIN: The input voltage to the Arduino/Genuino
board when it's using an external power source (as
opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other
regulated power source). You can supply voltage
through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the
power jack, access it through this pin.
5V: This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the
regulator on the board. The board can be supplied
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Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol. March-April-2019; 6 (2) : 249-255
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with power either from the DC power jack (7 - 20V),
the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board
(7-20V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins
bypasses the regulator, and can damage the board.
3V3: A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board
regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.
GND: Ground pins.
IORef: This pin on the Arduino/Genuino board
provides the voltage reference with which the
microcontroller operates. A properly configured
shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select
the appropriate power source or enable voltage
translators on the outputs to work with the 5V or
3.3V.
Reset: Typically used to add a reset button to
shields which block the one on the board.
Serial: pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX)
and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are
connected to the corresponding pins of the
ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip.
External Interrupts: pins 2 and 3. These pins can be
configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a
rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
PWM(Pulse Width Modulation) 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and
11 Can provide 8-bit PWM output with the
analogWrite() function.
SPI(Serial Peripheral Interface): 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI),
12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI
communication using the SPI library.
TWI(Two Wire Interface): A4 or SDA pin and A5
or SCL pin. Support TWI communication using the
Wire library.
AREF(Analog Reference: Reference voltage for the
analog inputs.
LCD Display Unit:
LCD display is used for displaying the message sent
from the remote location. The LCD module (Fig. 5)
displays alphanumeric, kana (Japanese characters) and
symbols. It consists of 16 pins (8 data lines, 3 control
lines, 2 power lines, 1 contrast line and 2 pins for
back light LED connection). Data line and control
line are connected to the microcontroller. The LCD
display power rating is as stated below:
Current (𝐼𝐷𝐷) (𝑉𝐷𝐷=5.0𝑣)………….1.0𝑚𝐴 3.0𝑚𝐴
𝑚𝑎𝑥
Range of 𝑉𝐷𝐷𝑉0……………….1.5~5.25𝑉 𝑜𝑟
5.0±0.25
Fig.3 LCD Display Unit
III. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This project uses an arrangement of 4 different
sources of supply which are channelized to a load so
as to have an uninterrupted operation of the load. As
it is not practicable to get 4 sources of supply such as
mains supply, generator supply, inverter supply and
solar supply, we used one source and a set of relays.
We have taken first source with mains supply and
assumed as if being fed from 4 different sources by
connecting all the 4 incoming sources in parallel. The
ac source to the lamp is connected to four relays by
making the entire normally open contacts parallel and
all the common contacts in parallel. 4 push button
switches are used which represent failure of
corresponding supply respectively and are interfaced
to the controller. Initially we have given high input
International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology ( www.ijsrset.com)
Dr. DVN. Ananth et al
Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol. March-April-2019; 6 (2) : 249-255
253
signal to the microcontroller, so as a result the
controller generates a low output to activate the first
relay driver which will result in the relay being
energized and the lamp glows. While the push button
for mains is pressed that represents failure of mains
supply as a result the supply is provided from the next
source and the microcontroller receive high input and
generates low output to activate the second relay
driver which will result in the second relay being
energized and the lamp glows . When we press the
generator button, it indicates the generator fails to
operate and the supply comes from the next source
and the next source will supply high input to the
controller and which will provide low signal to the
third relay and the lamp switches ON and when we
press the third push button the supply will chose next
source now the fourth source will provide input to
the microcontroller and controller activates the
fourth relay and the load will get the supply and the
lamp continues to glow.
When all the relays are off leaving no supply to the
lamp, the lamp is switched off. One 16 x 2 lines LCD
is used to display the condition of the supply sources
and the load on real time basis.
A. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION:
The software design consists of a free running
program by using aurdino UNO ATMEGA328P.
Fig..4 Device Programming
B. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM COMPONENTS:
1.Bridge Rectifier:
A bridge rectifier is commonly used in electronic
devices. It converts AC to DC which takes AC input
and gives the DC-output.
Fig.5 Bridge Rectifier
2.Voltage Regulator:
A Voltage regulator is designed to automatically and
maintain a constant voltage level, It may be a simple -
Feed forward design or may include negative
feedback control loops. It may use an
electromechanical mechanism or electronic
components, It will depend upon design, It may be
used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.
3.Embedded System:
A combination of hardware and software which
together form a component of a large machine. An
example of an embedded system is a microprocessor
that controls an automobile engine.
Fig.6 Embedded System
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4.Relay:
It is an electromagnetic switch used to control the
electrical devices. Copper core magnetic flux plays an
important role.
Fig 7. Relay
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Therefore, we obtained the uninterrupted power
supply from four different sources using Arduino
in accordance with programme in Arduino.
Fig.8 Output
The main scope of this project is to provide a
continuous power supply to the output load through
any of the sources from which we are operating the
device, i.e., generator, and inverter and solar
automatically in the absence of any of the source. The
complete operation of this project is based on the
microcontroller. This project is a low-cost, reliable,
effective and efficient system. This project gave us
confidence and practical knowledge and makes us to
learn about good things.
V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We express our thanks to the support given by the
management in completing our project. We express
our sincere gratitude & deep sense of respect to Dr.
G.Joga Rao, Head, Department of Electrical &
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Dr. DVN. Ananth et al
Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol. March-April-2019; 6 (2) : 249-255
255
Electronics Engineering. We express our sincere
thanks to our project guide Dr. DVN Ananth
Assistant Professor for his support to completion of
this project. We thankful to the teaching and non-
teaching staff of Electrical department for their direct
as well as indirect help in our project.
VI. REFERENCES
[1]. https://microcontrollerslab.com/auto-power-
supply-control-system/
[2]. https://www.academia.edu/5019675/auto_powe
r_supply_control_from_4_different_sources_sol
ar_mainsgenerator_and_inverter_to_ensure_no
_break_power
[3]. http://www.rsetrx.in/files/abstracts/auto%20po
wer%20supply%20control%20from%204%20di
fferent%20sources.pdf
[4]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzp8s63rcd
8
[5]. G.Joga Rao, M. Bhavani, Design and
Development of Single Board Multipurpose
Power Converter in IJIREEICE Vol. 6, Issue 3,
pp. 12-17 March-2018 DOI
10.17148/IJIREEICE.2018.634
[6]. Dr. G. Joga Rao, K. Jiten Solar Power based
Wireless Electronic Notice Board by Using
GSM, International Journal of Scientific
Research in Science, Engineering and
Technology (ijsrset.com), Volume 3 | Issue 2
|pp. 444-451, March-April-2017.
[7]. D. V. Sai subhanand1, v.akhila automatic power
supply switching control systembetween three
different sources international journal for
research in applied science & engineering
technology (ijraset)
[8]. Gagari Deb and Arijit Bardhan Roy,
International Journal of Computer and
Electrical Engineering, Vol.4, No.1, February
2012
Cite this article as :
Dr. DVN. Ananth, Dr. G. Jogarao, K. Sirisha3, B.
Kumar, K. Anusha Sai Kumar. G, "Automatic Power
Supply Control to Ensure No Break Power",
International Journal of Scientific Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET), Online ISSN :
2394-4099, Print ISSN : 2395-1990, Volume 6 Issue 2,
pp. 249-255, March-April 2019. Available at doi :
https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET196254
Journal URL : http://ijsrset.com/IJSRSET196254
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Design and Development of Single Board Multipurpose Power Converter in IJIREEICE
  • G.Joga Rao
  • M Bhavani
G.Joga Rao, M. Bhavani, Design and Development of Single Board Multipurpose Power Converter in IJIREEICE Vol. 6, Issue 3, pp. 12-17 March-2018 DOI 10.17148/IJIREEICE.2018.634
Jiten Solar Power based Wireless Electronic Notice Board by Using GSM
  • G Dr
  • K Rao
Dr. G. Joga Rao, K. Jiten Solar Power based Wireless Electronic Notice Board by Using GSM, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (ijsrset.com), Volume 3 | Issue 2 |pp. 444-451, March-April-2017.
  • Gagari Deb
  • Arijit Bardhan Roy
Gagari Deb and Arijit Bardhan Roy, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol.4, No.1, February 2012 Cite this article as :