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Abstract

In Brazil, gaited horses are selected based on field tests, during which they move at speeds of 3 to 4 m/s for 30 to 60 min. To cover their nutrient requirements, feed manufacturers have developed oil-rich dietary supplements and concentrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of increasing the density of dietary fats in the feed of 16 Campolina horses undergoing intense gaited training. The training schedule consisted of training 4 × a week: 3 days riding for 60 min (10’ warm-up, 40’ doing marcha gait, and 10’ cool down, and 1 day walking for 90’). The horses were divided in two groups: control and supplemented. The dietary supplementation was isocaloric, with the control group receiving an ordinary concentrate (3.5% fat) and the supplemented group fed 1.0 kg of the supplement (18% fat) plus the ordinary concentrate. Both groups had free access to fresh grass, salt and water. Blood samples were collected prior to and after 4 and 8 weeks of supplementation to calculate the complete blood count, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The results were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P < 0.05). The supplemented group showed elevated levels of NEFA, red blood cells and haematocrit (P < 0.05), while the control group showed high triglyceride concentrations; both groups showed reduced plasma protein concentrations (P < 0.05). The other indices did not change (P > 0.05). The increase in dietary fat intake increased the blood lipid biomarkers and antioxidant capacity of gaited horses during intense training, possibly contributing to improve their metabolic performance.
Use of oil-rich diet for gaited horses during physical training
Hélio Cordeiro Manso Filho, Monica Miranda Hunka, Luzilene Araújo de Souza,
Helena Emília Cavalcanti da Costa Cordeiro Manso
Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Equine Research Center, Recife, PE, Brazil
Received August 2, 2018
Accepted February 12, 2019
Abstract
In Brazil, gaited horses are selected based on eld tests, during which they move at speeds
of 3 to 4 m/s for 30 to 60 min. To cover their nutrient requirements, feed manufacturers have
developed oil-rich dietary supplements and concentrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate
the eects of increasing the density of dietary fats in the feed of 16 Campolina horses undergoing
intense gaited training. The training schedule consisted of training 4 × a week: 3 days riding for
60 min (10’ warm-up, 40’ doing marcha gait, and 10’ cool down, and 1 day walking for 90’).
The horses were divided in two groups: control and supplemented. The dietary supplementation
was isocaloric, with the control group receiving an ordinary concentrate (3.5% fat) and the
supplemented group fed 1.0 kg of the supplement (18% fat) plus the ordinary concentrate.
Both groups had free access to fresh grass, salt and water. Blood samples were collected prior
to and after 4 and 8 weeks of supplementation to calculate the complete blood count, glucose,
total protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and non-esteried fatty acids (NEFA).
The results were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P < 0.05). The supplemented group
showed elevated levels of NEFA, red blood cells and haematocrit (P < 0.05), while the control
group showed high triglyceride concentrations; both groups showed reduced plasma protein
concentrations (P < 0.05). The other indices did not change (P > 0.05). The increase in dietary
fat intake increased the blood lipid biomarkers and antioxidant capacity of gaited horses during
intense training, possibly contributing to improve their metabolic performance.
Aerobic exercise, antioxidant, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides
Over the last few decades, the increasing popularity of equestrian sports such as endurance
and pacer riding events has led to changes in dietary standards for these athletes, in terms
of both energy sources and the increase in sources of antioxidant nutrients. Thus, the use
of concentrates of high calorie density due to the addition of oils allows for the inclusion
of nutrients to cover the energy expenditure during training and competitions, improving
metabolic eciency for endurance training by reducing muscle glycogen depletion and
improving the stamina of these athletes (Kronf e l d et al. 1994; H a r ris 2009). However,
other studies have found that the increase in ethereal extract in diets can reduce the elevation
of body temperature and water needs induced by exercise (Kron f e l d et al. 1994; Hyyp p a
et al. 1999). These facts are important and should be kept in mind when the inclusion of
dietary oils is prescribed for speed and endurance exercises because, in the long run, they
contribute to the longevity and well-being of equine athletes.
It has also been shown that the inclusion of oils rich in omega 3 and 6 fatty acids could
contribute to improve antioxidant capacity of dierent groups of horse athletes. It has
been shown that the tissues of endurance riding and gaited horses undergo a major loss of
antioxidant capacity during competition (Ha rgre a v e s et al. 2002; Me l o et al. 2017). That
is why the use of antioxidant-rich dietary oils may contribute to improve the performance
of endurance athletes. It has recently been shown that the inclusion of oils rich in omega
3 and 6 fatty acids in the diet of horses undergoing 8 weeks of gait training increased the
concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and uric acid
ACTA VET. BRNO 2019, 88: 25–31; https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201988010025
Address for correspondence:
Hélio Cordeiro Manso Filho
Núcleo de Pesquisa Equina
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco
Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros s/n, 52171-900 Recife, PE, Brasil.
E-mail: helio.mansofo@ufrpe.br
http://actavet.vfu.cz/
(Mel o et al. 2016). In weaned foals, an increase in the percentage of the ethereal extract
in diet reduced the degree of anisocytosis and increased the leukocyte concentration. This
eect was attributed to the improved antioxidant functions in these cells, followed by the
positive eects on plasma cell membrane stability (M o f farts et al. 2007; Mel o et al.
2012).
However, it should be kept in mind that a calorie increment through the inclusion of oils in
food concentrates can lead to reduced food intake, faecal production and plasma triglyceride
concentration, and can extend the recovery time of muscle glycogen concentrations
(Kro n f e l d et al. 1994; Or m e et al. 1997; Hyypp a et al. 1999; OConn o r et al. 2007).
Finally, it should be noted that the time required for the body’s metabolism to fully adapt
to the use of dietary oil supplementation may vary according to the type and amount of
oil used, and that many of these eects quickly disappear when the supplementation is
discontinued (Hyy p p a et al. 1999; O Connor et al. 2007; NRC 2007).
Campolina horses are a typical Brazilian breed. They are able to perform a four-beat gait
exercise used in marcha challenges that consist of an aerobic exercise. Given the importance
of including oil in the diet of equine athletes, not only as a source of energy but also to
improve the animal’s antioxidant capacity, an experiment was performed to determine the
eects of an increased ethereal extract in the diet of horses undergoing gait training on their
body condition score, lipid biomarkers, and complete blood count (CBC). Maintaining the
body condition score and increasing the concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the
blood of horses undergoing endurance training may improve their performance due to the
greater contribution of calories typically used in these sports, and may also improve the
antioxidant capacity and maintain the composition of the plasma membrane.
The aim of this research was to determine the eects of oil supplementation on blood
biomarkers in gaited horses under intense training program.
Materials and Methods
This study involved 16 Campolina horses, which were randomly assigned to two groups a supplemented
group and a control group, each comprising 4 males and 4 non-pregnant females. The horses were of the mean age
of 6.5 years and body weight of 480 kg. All the horses were housed in single stalls, but in visual contact with each
other, and on their day o were allowed to graze on a 5-ha pasture covered with Massai grass (Panicum maximum).
All the handling and training procedures at the experimental site involved the use of positive stimuli and reduction
of negative stimuli, according to the ve domains described in the literature (Mel l or 2017; M cGr e ev y et al.
2018). An evaluation scale of good practices for horse athletes was adopted for the training evaluation (Coe l ho
et al. 2018), and all the practices, as well as sampling, were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use of
the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco – CEUA/UFRPE, under Protocol No. 026/2013.
Both groups spent more than 3 months by the training for gaited competitions. The training protocol consisted
of 3 days/week riding for gaited competition training (10 min walking to warm up, followed by 40 min riding
at pacer gait (3–4 m/s), and ending with 10 min walking to cool down), and 1 day/week walking outdoors for
90 min. The rest of the time they stayed in their individual stalls (16 m2) at rest, or were allowed to graze freely
for a maximum of 5 h per day on the pasture.
The animals were fed isocaloric diets in individual troughs, 3 × a day. The control group received only
a commercial concentrate (5.0 kg/day per animal, CP [crude protein]: 12%, EE [ether extract]: 3.5%, DE
[digestible energy]: 3.0 Mcal/kg), while the supplemented group was fed the commercial concentrate (3.5 kg/day
per animal) plus an oil-rich supplement (1.0 kg/animal/day, CP: 10.0%, EE: 18.0%, DE: 4.4Mcal). In addition to
the concentrates, all the animals fed on fresh Massai grass, about 15 kg/animal/day, and had ad libitum access to
salt and water. The body condition score was determined on a scale of 1 to 9 at three time points: before, 30 days,
and 60 days after starting supplementation, as described in the literature (Hen n ek e et al. 1983). The recovery
heart rate was measured once a week, using a stethoscope applied to the left side of the heart region, 20 to 30 min
after the gait training exercises.
Blood samples were collected before beginning the supplementation, and 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the
supplementation. All samples were drawn from fasting animals by jugular venipuncture into heparin vacuum
tubes. The whole blood was used to perform blood cell counts within no more than 2 h after collection. The
samples were then centrifuged to separate the plasma, which was used for the determination of glucose, total
plasma protein (TPP), FFAs, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HLD) cholesterol
and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The complete blood count (CBC) was performed in semi-
26
automated haematology analyser (Sysmex pocH-100iV Di, Roche, São Paulo, Brazil), and biochemical
analyses were carried out in a semi-automated spectrophotometer (Doles D-250, Goiás, Brazil) using
commercial kits.
One-way ANOVA (treatment) and Tukey’s test were employed to analyse the results. In both cases, the P value
was set at 0.05. The analyses were performed using SigmaPlot 13.0 for Windows (Systat Software Inc., San Jose,
CA, USA). The results are expressed as mean ± standard error.
Results
The results indicated that, at the end of the 8 weeks, the non-esteried fatty acid (NEFA)
concentrations in the supplemented group were 10-fold higher than those before the
testing and in the control group (P < 0.05). The control group showed a higher triglyceride
concentration before the testing and over the time than the supplemented group (P < 0.05)
(Table 1). Total plasma protein (TPP) contents were also found to decrease over the time
in both groups compared to the level before the testing (P < 0.05). However, the body
condition score, glucose concentration and cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL) did not vary
throughout the experiment (P > 0.05).
The evaluation of the haematological biomarkers revealed that the erythrocyte counts
and haematocrit levels increased in the supplemented group (P < 0.05), with the highest
levels measured after 8 weeks of supplementation (Table 2). All the other evaluated indices
remained unchanged over the 8 weeks of the experiment.
Lastly, it should be noted that during the experimental period, the animals consumed all
the concentrated feed without any problem, and their clinical status remained unchanged.
Moreover, the animals showed no lameness, injuries or other problems related to training
during the experiment. The recovery heart rate was consistent with the welfare assessment
scale for equine athletes (Coelho et al. 2018) on the days when the horses did their walking
exercises.
Discussion
This study demonstrated that the inclusion of an oil-rich dietary concentrate over an
8-week period resulted in a signicant increase in NEFA levels in the supplemented group,
even when these horses underwent intense competitive training. This supplementation was
27
Table 1. Body condition score and chemical biomarkers of athletic gaited horses without and with supplementation of
concentrate rich in ethereal extract.
Dierent superscripts in one row indicate that P < 0.05 by Tukey’s test. NEFA - non esteried fatty acids.
Group of athletic horses
Biomarker Before testing Control (n = 8) Supplemented (n = 8)
(n = 16) + 30 d + 60 d + 30 d + 60 d
Body condition score 5.2 ± 0.2 5.3 ± 0.2 5.9 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 0.2 5.9 ± 0.1
Glucose, mmol/l 4.92 ± 0.11 5.24 ± 0.01 5.06 ± 0.07 5.11 ± 0.05 4.83 ± 0.11
Total plasma protein, g/dl 7.8 ± 0.2A 7.2 ± 0.1B 6.8 ± 0.2B 7.2 ± 0.1B 7.1 ± 0.1B
NEFA, mmol/ml 0.034 ± 0.004B 0.053 ± 0.005B 0.030 ± 0.008B 0.106 ± 0.017AB 0.361 ± 0.167A
Triglycerides, mmol/l 0.33 ± 0.02A 0.31 ± 0.02AB 0.28 ± 0.04AB 0.22 ± 0.04B 0.19 ± 0.02B
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 2.25 ± 0.12 2.17 ± 0.08 2.34 ± 0.12 2.50 ± 0.15 2.77 ± 0.27
HLD cholesterol, mmol/l 1.17 ± 0.06 1.19 ± 0.05 1.46 ± 0.29 1.33 ± 0.06 1.28 ± 0.09
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.08 ± 0.12 0.97 ± 0.07 1.24 ± 0.07 1.17 ± 0.13 1.49 ± 0.19
also found to elevate haematocrit levels and red blood cell counts, which are important
factors for athletic performance, probably because they support the stabilization of red
blood cell membranes (Moff a r t s et al. 2007). Both groups of horses also showed no
modications in their total cholesterol, HDL and LDL concentrations. Both groups showed
low TPP levels throughout the experimental period. However, this may be attributed to the
improved physical conditioning of the horses, revealed by regular heart rate monitoring,
given that animals undergoing endurance training may have a high plasma volume
(McK e e v e r et al. 1987; McKeev e r 2002).
Although the assessment of the body condition score is a subjective measure, it can be an
important tool for evaluating the nutritional and training program of animal athletes. Horses
tend to lose or gain body mass when their feeding program and/or training intensity are not
balanced. This indicator should also be used in equine welfare standards, since excesses
are detrimental to the well-being of animals (Mell o r 2017; Co e l ho et al. 2018). The body
condition score not only enables the athlete’s nutritional program to be evaluated, but also
helps to clarify the eects of the training program. There is no specic body condition
score for each equestrian discipline, but in general, racehorses have a lower body condition
score and body fat index because their fat mass percentage is lower than that of gaited
horses (Kearns et al. 2002; Abr e u et al. 2009). Moreover, it should be kept in mind that
the source of energy for racehorses is more closely associated with carbohydrates, whereas
that of endurance horses is associated with oils.
In this experiment, modications in the body condition score were not expected because
the animals were receiving dietary supplementation for low to moderate intensity sports of
medium to long-term duration, as recommended in the literature (NRC 2007), and because
they were being properly trained for the type of exercise they engaged in and enjoyed
regular rest. Maintenance of the body condition score indicates that good breeding and
training practices were followed.
Supplementation with dierent types of fat has proved to be an important factor for
improving the performance of animals during medium to long duration exercises. The
NEFA and triglyceride levels before the testing were similar to those described for fasting
28
Table 2. Blood biomarkers of athletic gaited horses without and with supplementation of concentrate rich in ethereal
extract
Dierent superscripts in one row indicate P < 0.05 by Tukey’s test. MCV - mean corpuscular volume; MCHC - mean
corpuscular haemoglobin concentration; RDW-SD - red cell distribution width-standard deviation; RDW-CV - red cell
distribution width-coecient of variation
Group of athletic horses
Biomarker Before testing Control (n = 8) Supplemented (n = 8)
(n = 16) + 30 d + 60 d + 30 d + 60 d
Erythrocyte count, X106/µl 7.6 ± 0.4B 7.5 ± 0.3B 7.7 ± 0.3AB 8.8 ± 0.3AB 8.9 ± 0.4A
Haemoglobin, g/dl 11.55 ± 0.4 11.9 ± 0.6 11.9 ± 0.5 12.8 ± 0.4 13.0 ± 0.2
Haematocrit, % 34.2 ± 1.2B 35.2 ± 1.8AB 35.9 ± 1.2AB 38.1 ± 1.2AB 39.6 ± 0.9A
MCV,  45.1 ± 1.2 46.9 ± 1.7 46.7 ± 1.6 43.5 ± 1.2 44.9 ± 1.4
MCHC, g/dl 33.5 ± 0.2 33.8 ± 0.3 33.3 ± 0.4 33.7 ± 0.3 33.3 ± 0.4
RDW-SD,  36.4 ± 0.7 37.9 ± 0.9 37.6 ± 0.5 36.5 ± 0.5 36.8 ± 0.6
RDW-CV, % 20.3 ± 0.4 20.0 ± 0.5 19.0 ± 0.6 21.0 ± 0.7 20.7 ± 0.6
Platelets, X103/µl 134.5 ± 18.1 117.3 ± 24.2 110.7 ± 10.2 159.7 ± 21.7 160.0 ± 19.8
Leukocytes, X103/µl 9.8 ± 0.6 9.2 ± 0.8 8.5 ± 0.4 9.8 ± 0.7 9.5 ± 0.7
Lymphocytes, X103/µl 4.5 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.5 5.3 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 0.6
Other cells, X103/µl 5.4 ± 0.3 4.8 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.2 4.6 ± 0.3
Marchador horses (NEFA: ~0.025 mmol/ml; triglycerides: ~32.0 mg/dl) (F e r r eira et al.
2017). However, in the supplemented group, NEFA levels increased while triglyceride
levels decreased compared to the concentrations measured before the testing or in the
control group, in addition to those described in the literature (Ferr e i r a et al. 2015). The
results of this experiment are similar to others reported in the literature, which indicate
a reduction in triglyceride levels and an increase in NEFA levels, but dier in terms of
total cholesterol (Gleene n et al. 1999). However, some dierences may be attributed to
the composition of the oil used in this study and the characteristics of the exercises that the
animals performed.
The eects of exercising on lipid biomarkers may vary depending on the dietary oil
supplementation and types of exercises. In racehorses, supplementation with oil elevated
plasma lipase activity and muscle antioxidant capacity, but did not increase muscle
glycogen and triglyceride levels (Or me et al. 1997). In contrast, gaited horses show
increased NEFA and triglyceride levels during and immediately after exercise (F e r r eira
et al. 2015), similar to what has been described for other equine sport disciplines (Kronfe l d
1996; Orme et al. 1997). In the latter disciplines, which are typically aerobic, the
increased availability of fats in feed can support athletic performance because they provide
high-energy sources and antioxidant capacity in the blood of horse athletes.
It is noteworthy that no changes were detected in the glucose or cholesterol (total, HDL
and LDL) levels in either of the groups, unlike what has been described in the literature
(Gle e n e n et al. 1999). With regard to blood glucose, this indicator was measured when
the horses were fasting and no changes were expected, although it has been reported that
the inclusion of dietary oil could modify the postprandial concentration of this metabolite
(Orm e et al. 1997). The availability of fat in the diet as an energy source of this group of
horses could support lipolysis in the aerobic exercise and thus help maintain the glucose
levels. Other authors have described changes in the dierent types of cholesterol, which
in some cases have been ascribed to the type of fat used in supplementation (Orme et al.
1997; O’ C o n nor et al. 2007). Thus, the kind of fat source used in the current study could
explain the absence of changes in the cholesterol levels in the four-beat gait horses.
Dietary fat supplementation and its eects on equine erythrocytes and leukocytes have
not yet been clearly described in the literature. The results of this experiment indicated
that erythrocyte counts in the non-supplemented group, both before and throughout the
experiment, were below the previously described levels (F e rreira et al. 2015). However,
the dietary supplementation raised the erythrocyte counts to levels similar to those reported
in the literature for Campolina and Mangalarga Marchador horses (Ferre i r a et al. 2015),
while the leukocyte levels in all the animals of this experiment were within the range
described by those authors.
Very few studies so far have attempted to determine the eects of the inclusion of dietary
oil on the blood indices of horses. In young animals (< 12 months old), the inclusion of
dietary oil was shown to lower one of the indices of anisocytosis and raise the percentage
of lymphocytes (M e lo et al. 2012), but in adult racehorses this inclusion led only to a
discrete elevation in leukocytes and had no inuence on erythrocytes (Ha rris et al. 1999).
It has also been shown that increasing the amount of oil added to horse diets increases the
concentration of blood antioxidant biomarkers (Mel o et al. 2016), which may improve
the stability of plasma membranes in blood cells (Moff a r t s et al. 2007), even when
horse athletes are subjected to oxidative conditions, such as physical exercise. Thus,
supplementation with oils may have indirect eects on performance by improving the
haematological biomarkers.
Plasma membrane exibility is maintained by achieving a better balance between
oxidants and antioxidants, and is important for cell function (Hollán 1996; Mof f a rts
et al. 2007). In this context, the inclusion of dietary oil may support a higher concentration
29
of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids in the membranes of erythrocytes and leukocytes, thus
stabilizing the plasma cell membranes and osetting the antioxidant eects caused by
dierent sources (Barros et al. 2013; El tweri et al. 2017). The stabilization of these
cell membranes supports not only oxygen transport through the erythrocytes but may also
contribute to the immune system by stabilizing the leukocyte cell membranes. Marchador
horses are known to be subject to lymphopaenia and reduced antioxidant capacity following
marcha contests (Wanderl e y et al. 2015; Melo et al. 2017), similar to what occurs in
endurance riding horses or in other endurance contests. Thus, the increment in calories
and antioxidants aorded by supplementation with oil rich in omega 3 and 6 fatty acids
may contribute to enhancing the performance and recovery of Marchador horses and other
groups of animals that participate in endurance contests or in frequently repeated exercises.
As previously mentioned, animals trained for endurance competitions tend to have an
increased plasma volume, which means there may be some decrease in red blood cell
concentration, particularly in erythrocytes (M c K e e ver et al. 1987; M c K e e ver 2002).
This adaptation is important to increase the amount of water stored in plasma and reduces
the eects of water and mineral loss in horses through hypertonic sweat. Increased plasma
volume may also reduce TPP levels. In this study, both groups showed a decrease in TPP
levels unrelated to their feed, which was expected, given that their protein levels remained
within the range indicated by the NRC (2007) for the type of physical exercise the animals
were engaged in. Lastly, it should be kept in mind that Marchador horses may present
slight dehydration after riding contests (Wa n d e r ley et al. 2010;
Melo
et al. 2017), and
a possible increase in plasma volume may contribute to reducing the negative eects of
post-exercise dehydration.
Supplementation with higher calorie density, using a concentrate rich in omega 3 and
6 fatty acids, increases the availability of free fatty acids for the tissues and supports the
antioxidant capacity. In this context, an increase in free fatty acids concentration helps
to decrease the body temperature and saves glucose during exercise, increasing the time
to fatigue. Moreover, increased antioxidant capacity reduces the negative eects of exercise
on the body’s tissues. Therefore, taken together, these processes support performance and
contribute to faster recovery of gaited horses, which often compete several times over the
course of a few days in the main horse riding competitions.
In conclusion, the use of diets rich in oil for horses that perform an aerobic exercise could
benet the horses’ well-being by increasing the antioxidant capacity and saving glucose
levels by utilizing high energy sourced from fat.
Conict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conicting interests.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Guabi Nutrição Animal for providing the feed for the animals; Haras Abreu for
providing the animals; and CNPq and CAPES for the granting of scholarships.
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... Infelizmente o número de estudos específicos sobre a aplicação dos 5D + ainda são escassos, mas demonstram que este sistema pode e deve ser aplicado regularmente nas pesquisas com os cavalos e outros equídeos, sejam em centros de pesquisas ou em haras/fazendas privadas 24,20 , pois ele pode ser aplicado quantas vezes forem necessários para que seja estabelecido uma avaliação continuada do BEA durante à aplicação dos processos científicos. ...
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Background & aims: The importance of route of administration of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (oral vs intravenous (iv)) is not clear. We determined the relative concentrations of fatty acids in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and several tissues after short-term oral or iv administration of soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO). Methods: Wistar rats (n = 6/group) received saline, FO, or SO by gavage or saline, FO based-lipid emulsion (FLE), or SO based-lipid emulsion (SLE) iv. The oils were provided at 0.2 g/kg/day for three consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last administration, blood was collected for plasma, WBC and RBC separation and tissues removed. Fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Results: FO resulted in higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in plasma PC and liver than the control. FLE resulted in higher EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total n-3 PUFA in plasma PC, WBC and liver than both the control and SLE groups. EPA, DHA and total n-3 PUFA were higher in the heart with FLE compared with SLE. Individual and total n-3 PUFA were higher in plasma PC, WBC, liver and heart with FLE than with FO given by gavage. Conclusion: Short-term iv administration of n-3 PUFA appears to be more effective at increasing EPA and DHA status in plasma, WBC, liver and heart than oral administration. This might be important for rapid treatment with n-3 PUFA.
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This article reviews the principles of feeding management for endurance horses. The amount and type of dietary energy (calories) are key considerations in dietary management, because (1) there is evidence that the body condition score, an indicator of overall energy balance, influences endurance exercise performance, and (2) the source of dietary energy (ie, carbohydrate versus fat calories) impacts health, metabolism, and athletic performance. Optimal performance is also dependent on provision of adequate feed, water, and electrolytes on race day.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic hypervolemia would accompany endurance exercise training in the horse. Six mature previously inactive horses were utilized for this study. During the 5-wk experiment, five of the horses were trained for 14 d on a treadmill ergometer at a constant treadmill speed of 5.6 km X hr-1 and a constant grade of 12.5% for graduated lengths of time. One horse was trained by lunging at a trotting pace in a round pen. Following training, plasma volume increased by 4.7 1 (29.1%, P less than 0.05). Although the rate of daily water intake did not change during the training period, 24-h urine output decreased by an average of 3.5 1 X d-1 (-24.5%, P less than 0.05). Resting glomerular filtration rate and the rate of sodium clearance were not altered by training. However, urea, potassium, and osmotic clearance were decreased by training (P less than 0.05) while free water clearance was increased (P less than 0.05). Resting plasma aldosterone and arginine vasopressin concentrations were not altered by training. Plasma potassium concentration was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) following the 2 wk of training. These data would appear to suggest that renal control mechanisms affecting water reabsorption via the re-absorption of urea and osmotically active substances other than sodium provide the primary route for the training-induced hypervolemia seen in horses.