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Banggai cardinalfish conservation: priorities, opportunities, and risks


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Human actions are undoubtedly the major factor affecting the biosphere in this Anthropocene era, making it vital to involve all levels of society in the stewardship of natural resources, in particular marine ecosystems and biodiversity. The Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni is a unique species at risk of extinction and an object of global conservation concern. The endemic range of P. kauderni is limited to around 500km2, mostly in the Banggai Archipelago, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the priorities for P. kauderni conservation, with a focus on the recently declared Banggai Dalaka MPA, the National Plan of Action (NPOA-BCF) and the decisions taken at CITES CoP 17 in 2016. Risks identified include the loss of genetic diversity and structure, serial depletion of populations/stocks, loss of identity ("branding" issues), local threats to habitat/microhabitat, and the impacts of global change. Opportunities include local, national and international awareness, the CITES Animal Commission processes, iconic status, and stakeholder capacity. Key priorities identified included: (i) prioritise endemic (not introduced) P. kauderni populations; (ii) protect genetic diversity through site/stock-based management (conservation, ornamental fishery, monitoring), initiated using existing genetic population structure data, while seeking to develop a database of genetically unique (reproductively isolated) stocks; (iii) protect and rehabilitate P. kauderni habitat and microhabitat (especially Diadema urchins and sea anemones) within the Banggai Dalaka MPA; (iv) investigate, record (and where necessary restrict) in-country movements of P. kauderni, especially removal from the endemic range (e.g. currently unrecorded shipping to Kendari), as well as export and international movements; (v) regulate and restrict the release of P. kauderni to the wild from captivity and/or between known/suspected genetic stocks; (vi) institutionalisation at multiple levels in a holistic socio-ecological context to provide robust and resilient conservation management and capitalise on the "flagship species" potential of the Banggai cardinalfish.
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IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Banggai cardinalfish conservation: priorities, opportunities, and risks
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IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 253 (2019) 012033
IOP Publishing
Banggai cardinalfish conservation: priorities, opportunities,
and risks
S Ndobe 1, A Moore 2, I Yasir 3 and J Jompa3
1Aquaculture Study Program, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Tadulako
2Doctoral Program, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Hasanuddin University
3Marine Science Department, Faculty of Marine Science and Fisheries, Hasanuddin
Abstract. Human actions are undoubtedly the major factor affecting the biosphere in this
Anthropocene era, making it vital to involve all levels of society in the stewardship of natural
resources, in particular marine ecosystems and biodiversity. The Banggai cardinalfish
Pterapogon kauderni is a unique species at risk of extinction and an object of global
conservation concern. The endemic range of P. kauderni is limited to around 500km2, mostly
in the Banggai Archipelago, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to
evaluate the priorities for P. kauderni conservation, with a focus on the recently declared
Banggai Dalaka MPA, the National Plan of Action (NPOA-BCF) and the decisions taken at
CITES CoP 17 in 2016. Risks identified include the loss of genetic diversity and structure,
serial depletion of populations/stocks, loss of identity ("branding" issues), local threats to
habitat/microhabitat, and the impacts of global change. Opportunities include local, national
and international awareness, the CITES Animal Commission processes, iconic status, and
stakeholder capacity. Key priorities identified included: (i) prioritise endemic (not introduced)
P. kauderni populations; (ii) protect genetic diversity through site/stock-based management
(conservation, ornamental fishery, monitoring), initiated using existing genetic population
structure data, while seeking to develop a database of genetically unique (reproductively
isolated) stocks; (iii) protect and rehabilitate P. kauderni habitat and microhabitat (especially
Diadema urchins and sea anemones) within the Banggai Dalaka MPA; (iv) investigate, record
(and where necessary restrict) in-country movements of P. kauderni, especially removal from
the endemic range (e.g. currently unrecorded shipping to Kendari), as well as export and
international movements; (v) regulate and restrict the release of P. kauderni to the wild from
captivity and/or between known/suspected genetic stocks; (vi) institutionalisation at multiple
levels in a holistic socio-ecological context to provide robust and resilient conservation
management and capitalise on the "flagship species" potential of the Banggai cardinalfish.
1. Introduction
Human actions are undoubtedly the major factor affecting the biosphere in this Anthropocene Epoch
[1,2] threatening the life-support system on which we, as a species, depend [2,3]. In addition to the
many direct impacts often clearly visible to stakeholders at the local level, the so-called indirect
impacts generated by the cumulative actions of people around the world are increasingly evident at all
scales from the molecular level to the planetary scale, from the deepest ocean trenches to the outer
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reaches of our atmosphere, and we are now facing multiple crises at local to global levels. Of the nine
"planetary boundaries", within which it is proposed that a "safe operating space for humanity" might
be found, "biosphere integrity" is in the "red" (high risk) zone [4], and many consider that the sixth
mass extinction is now underway, in both terrestrial and marine biomes [5]. Indeed In view of the
complexity and pervasiveness of the problems faced, it is vital to involve all levels of society in the
stewardship of natural resources, in particular marine ecosystems and biodiversity.
The seas around Sulawesi and its satellite archipelagos are recognised for their high biodiversity,
resulting from the complex interweaving of tectonic history and biological evolutionary processes;
however the species and ecosystems of this unique region are under threat from increasing local
pressures as well as global trends [6]. The Banggai Archipelago east of Sulawesi is a case in point.
Home to the endemic Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni Koumans 1933), much of the
archipelago is now within the recently declared Banggai Dalaka provincial level MPA, spanning three
districts (Banggai, Banggai Kepulauan and Banggai Laut). Encompassing at least 90% of the P.
kauderni endemic (native) distribution and populations [7], this MPA has four main conservation
targets: tropical coastal ecosystems (coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangrove forests); P. kauderni
populations and habitat; other protected/priority conservation species; and fisheries resources (finfish
and invertebrates).
Considered at risk of extinction [8], P. kauderni has become an object of local, national, and global
conservation concern [9,10]. In 2016, the second proposal for listing P. kauderni in CITES
(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) Appendix II
resulted in several decisions (17_259 to 17_263) at the 17th CITES Conference of Parties (CoP 17)
( In brief, the decisions task Indonesia with
implementing conservation and management measures to ensure the sustainability of international
trade in Pterapogon kauderni. Progress should be reported to the Animals Committee at specific
intervals, and all CITES parties and other relevant organisations are encouraged to assist Indonesia.
Indonesia has taken several actions including the compilation of a National Plan of Action (NPOA-
BCF), the implementation of which relies heavily on appropriate and effective management of the
Banggai Dalaka MPA, which is still in the planning stage. One outcome of the decisions was the
commissioning of a study by the CITES Secretariat through the IUCN in May-July 2018, prior to the
30th CITES Animal Commission meeting in 2018. The objective of this study [11] was to evaluate the
priorities for P. kauderni conservation, with a focus on the recently declared Banggai Dalaka MPA,
the National Plan of Action (NPOA-BCF) and the decisions taken at CITES CoP 17 in 2016.
Conservation of the Banggai cardinalfish should be grounded in sound science, taking into account
existing conditions; in particular, the current status of P. kauderni populations and trade as well as
knowledge regarding the biology and ecology of this species, its symbionts and habitat. Furthermore
in this Anthropocene Epoch, it is vital to consider the likely short and long-term impacts of global
change on this species. In this context it is considered important to evaluate the priorities for effective
conservation of the Banggai cardinalfish and its habitat, from local, national and global perspectives.
Opportunities and risks need to be identified, including those which may be time-bound, for example
due to national governance cycles as well as the CITES processes.
2. Methods
This study was based largely on secondary data (published as well as so-called "grey literature") on
the current condition of endemic P. kauderni populations and habitat, past and current management
initiatives for this species and it's habitat in the Banggai Archipelago, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Data on the movement (trade) of P. kauderni were sourced from the Indonesian Fish Health and
Quarantine Service on-line database ( Also included in the
analysis were unpublished (primary) data collected during field surveys in the Banggai Archipelago
and during a study commissioned by the IUCN to support implementation of CITES CoP 17 Decisions
17.259-17.263, as well as preliminary (qualitative) results from an experimental study on the effects of
rising sea temperatures on P. kauderni and Diadema urchins. Data were analysed descriptively to
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identify key priorities, opportunities and risks in the context of P. kauderni conservation.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Current status of Pterapogon kauderni population and ESUs
There is overwhelming evidence that Pterapogon kauderni populations have declined substantially
since the species was "rediscovered" in the mid-1990's [7,11,12]. Furthermore, there is evidence for at
least two cases where populations have been extirpated [7,11,13]. The most recent survey in 2017
found extremely low P. kauderni densities at four sites, with at least one (Mandel) considered at risk
of extirpation; furthermore, there was a low percentage of juvenile fish at 14 out of 24 sites [11]. The
fine scale genetic population structure of P. kauderni [14,15] makes the Evolutionarily Significant
Unit concept [16] especially relevant at a sub-species level for this species. Existing genetic and
morphometric data [14,15,17,18,19] indicate that each small island with a P. kauderni population is a
separate ESU; meanwhile the larger islands appear to host several P. kauderni ESUs, as several
apparently reproductively isolated populations (stocks) have been identified, separated by as little as 2
km. At least 21 ESU's are supported by existing genetic data, while a similar or greater number of
unidentified ESUs are suspected. Of these 21 ESUs, 18 are within the Banggai Archipelago, although
one is just outside the Banggai Dalaka MPA (Figure 1), and 3 are on small islands further east, off the
coast of Taliabu Island.
Figure 1. Pterapogon kauderni endemic distribution and introduced populations within the
Banggai Dalaka MPA, showing ESUs supported by existing genetic population structure data
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The situation with respect to the genetic diversity and structure of P. kauderni has been further
complicated by the capture and subsequent release of P. kauderni both within and outside of the
endemic (native) distribution. The former has resulted in the mixing of genetic strains, some thought
to have been isolated reproductively for around 100,000 years or more [15], while the latter has led to
the establishment of introduced populations (Figure 1) within the Banggai region at other sites in
Sulawesi, and across the Indonesian Archipelago [11,13,14,20,21,22,23,24]. While early introductions
were mostly in connection with the P. kauderni ornamental fishery and trade, more recent
introductions have occurred under Government programs, including the intentional release of P.
kauderni at a second site in Luwuk (called Kilo 5) in 2017 and 2018.
3.1.1. Pterapogon kauderni habitat and microhabitat. Pterapogon kauderni habitat within the native
distribution (Figure 1) is limited to shallow waters (mostly 0.5-5m depth) including coral reefs/reef
flats, seagrass beds, some mangrove (Rhizophora sp.) stands, and lagoons [7,8,11,12,20], with an
estimated total extent of less than 30 km2 [7]. Within these habitats, P. kauderni is highly dependent
on symbiotic relationships with a range of protective microhabitats, especially for reproductive
success [7,25,26]. The shallow-water habitat of P. kauderni is typically subject to threats from
intensive human activity, resulting in environmental degradation [14,27]. Key P. kauderni
microhabitats are also under increasing pressure, with declining population trends observed in
Diadematid sea urchins (primarily the genus Diadema) and sea anemones as well as suitable hard
coral life-forms at a majority of sites surveyed since 2004 [12,13, 25,27,28]. While the main cause of
Diadema and sea anemone population decline is a sharp increase in harvesting since around 2007, the
drivers of hard coral degradation include all the commonly reported threats to corals in this region.
The harvest of a wide variety of shallow-water marine invertebrates (mostly through gleaning) is
pervasive throughout the region, but is rarely (if ever) reported in any statistics and has received very
little attention compared to fin-fish fisheries. In the past, such activities were generally for subsistence,
limited in terms of the number of people involved, and often seasonal [20]. The increase in scale and
shift towards commercial exploitation (e.g. large-scale bi-monthly collection and sale of Diadema at
Tolokibit) now appear to pose a real threat to P. kauderni populations and indeed to the integrity of
coastal ecosystems. An overview of trends at 10 P. kauderni sites monitored in 2011/2012 [13] and in
2017/2018 (this study) is shown in Table 1. In the case of Diadema microhabitat, declining trends
were observed in both abundance and average size (test diameter), with predominantly juvenile
individuals remaining at several sites in 2017 and 2018.
Table 1. Trends in P. kauderni habitat (ecosystem) and microhabitat at 10 sites
Survey Site
Habitat Condition
phase shift
to seagrass
Bone Baru
Tinakin Laut
a CR coral reef (crest/upper slope); RF = reef flat; SG = seagrass; MG = mangroves (dominated by Rhizophora sp.)
b Comparison with 2004-2007 data, adapted from [13]; c Primary data 2017-2018, compared to 2011/2012 data
d Diadema populations dominated by small (presumed mostly juvenile) individuals of less than 3 m test diameter
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3.1.2. Pterapogon kauderni trade. There is a broad consensus that the trade in P. kauderni has not
been managed sustainably [7,11]. A study on the population dynamics of P. kauderni estimated an
exploitation rate E of 0.5 [12], well above the range recommended for such species. After the first
proposal for listing P. kauderni under CITES Appendix II in 2007, a number of measures were
implemented which had some success in reducing the volume and the impacts of the trade [29].
However at the end of the first NPOA (2007-2012) there was no statutory protection or other
regulation in place [10,13]. The shift in jurisdiction over waters 0-4 nm from the coastline (from
District to Provincial level) under the new regional autonomy law in 2014 (UU 23/2014) has been a
major factor driving an increase in many illegal and often destructive practices over the past four years
[10,11,27]. By 2017, both informal instruments (e.g. the community MPA in Bone Baru) as well as
formal fisheries management (e.g. routine patrols) in place before 2014 had, to all practical intents and
purposes, ceased to function. Meanwhile, as of the time of writing, the Banggai Dalaka MPA is not yet
One regulatory instrument currently functioning is the statutory obligation to report inter-regional
movement of fish and fisheries products to the Fish Health and Quarantine Service. There has been a
marked and sustained improvement in reporting of ornamental fish consignments to the Luwuk Fish
Quarantine, which has a branch office in the town of Banggai. The volume of consignments from
Luwuk represents the legal trade volume in P. kauderni from the Banggai Archipelago (i.e. from the
native/endemic distribution). However, these data do not represent all, or even the majority, of fish
leaving the Archipelago. Analysis of data from the national Fish Health and Quarantine database on
the (reported) movement of commodities between jurisdictions within Indonesia for the period from
2008 (when records began) to May 2018 (Figure 2) has revealed a major and hitherto unsuspected
shift in the P. kauderni trade since 2014. It also shows a mismatch between recorded dispatches and
arrivals, with no record of the arrival of the majority (50-90%) of fish dispatched between 2015 and
May 2018.
Figure 2. Recorded volume of P. kauderni dispatched to ornamental fish export centres (primarily
Denpasar; less than 20% to other destinations) from 2008 to May 2018 and recorded arrivals in
Denpasar from 2015 to May 2018 (Data source:
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Ornamental fish collected in the Banggai Archipelago are typically destined for major export trade
centres, with Denpasar consistently the main point of export, followed by Jakarta and Surabaya. From
the beginning of the trade up to the early 2000's, the majority of P. kauderni traded were collected by
Bajo fishermen from Tumbak, working with local fishermen in the Banggai Archipelago, transported
by sea to Tumbak in wooden boats, and then carried overland to Manado; the remainder were mostly
collected and/or transported by ornamental fishing boats from Bali and Banyuwangi [20]. By 2008,
three routes from shared most of the trade, with almost equal volumes (via Luwuk and/or Palu, via
Kendari and via Manado) [28]; this was reflected in a quota system allocating 5,000 fish/month to
each route. Thereafter, the route to Manado continued to decline, and ostensibly so did the route via
Kendari, with Luwuk apparently becoming the main exit port, increasingly via air freight.
However, the national level data in Figure 2 show that dispatches from Kendari increased
exponentially from 2014-2016. Recorded shipments of P. kauderni into Kendari represent a tiny
fraction (approximately 2%) of this volume, and it is extremely unlikely the introduced populations in
Kendari could have produced this volume of fish. Based on these data, the only logical conclusion is
that most of these fish must have been caught in and illegally transported out of the Banggai
Archipelago. While as yet unsupported by field verification in Kendari, this conclusion is supported by
anecdotal evidence from the southern area of the Banggai Archipelago (sightings of fishing boats from
outside the area by fishermen, unreported consignments of many commodities to Kendari known to
now powerless district level fisheries officers).
The results of the T0 survey in 2017 under the NPOA-BCF [11] and additional data collected at the
same sites (Moore, unpublished data) also support this conclusion. Low or extremely low P. kauderni
densities were found at several remote sites reportedly not fished by the local ornamental fishers, and
population structures displayed a tell-tale gap in the marketable juvenile size class (approximately 25-
35 mm standard length). This gap was in fact more marked than it would appear from the official
results. The size classes recorded were: under 18mm SL (recent recruits); 18-35 SL (juveniles); and
over 35 SL (sub-adults and adults). The juvenile class at most sites in the southern Banggai
Archipelago (Bokan Kepulauan Sub-District) was dominated by individuals under 25 mm SL.
3.1.3. Pterapogon kauderni and global change. The global bleaching event in 2016 affected P.
kauderni coral reef habitat [30]. Coral genera and life-forms serving as P. kauderni microhabitat were
fully or severely bleached; furthermore, P. kauderni-hosting sea anemones were also affected.
Preliminary results from experimental research on the response of P. kauderni and Diadema setosum
to elevated temperatures indicate that adult D. setosum are capable of survival for at least a month at
sea temperatures of 32-33ºC, around 2ºC above recent average day-time values, and similar to
temperatures recorded during the 2016 global bleaching event. However, the survival of adult P.
kauderni decreased and morbidity increased above 31ºC, with close to 50% mortality after 1 week at
33ºC. Qualitatively, as temperature increased the amount of feed consumed by both organisms also
increased, indicating an increase in metabolic rate. However, at around 33ºC P. kauderni began to
appear emaciated, despite still consuming similar or higher amounts of feed compared to controls
(ambient temperature, around 28ºC). Pairing behaviour (although no spawning) was observed in most
experimental units below 32ºC, but none in units at 32-33ºC. Furthermore, predation of D. setosum on
P. kauderni was observed at 32-33ºC.
A review of likely global climate change impacts on P. kauderni and its microhabitats (this
volume) indicates that other negative impacts are likely, which cumulatively could reduce
reproductive success, recruitment, and growth of P. kauderni and its major symbionts. This study
concludes that while short term measures are vital, the long-term survival of native (endemic) P.
kauderni populations most likely hinges on global success in limiting climate change.
3.2. National Initiatives
The umbrella national instrument for P. kauderni conservation (developed shortly after CITES CoP 17
in 2016) is the National Plan of Action (NPOA), the implementation of which is strongly linked to the
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Banggai Dalaka MPA. One component of this NPOA is Ministerial Decree Kepmen 49/2018 by the
Minister for Marine Affairs and Fisheries dated 4 April 2018 and socialised in early May. This decree
gives limited protected status to the Banggai cardinalfish, with spatial and temporal limitations on
harvest. Temporally, the closed seasons are February-March and October-November. The rationale
behind this regulation is to reduce or eliminate disturbance of P. kauderni populations during peak
breeding seasons. Although P. kauderni spawning can occur (subject to lunar cycles) throughout the
year [7], there is strong evidence for an annual peak in recruitment during the inter-monsoonal calm
season (September/October to November/December) [12].
Spatially, seasonal closures under Kepmen 49/2018 apply within the restricted use area of the
Banggai Dalaka MPA (by definition the core zone is comprised of no-take areas). All or part of at
least 10 P. kauderni populations (known or inferred ESUs) within the MPA are included in core zone
areas, with the remainder in the restricted use zone (tourism, traditional fishery and aquaculture sub-
zones), or rehabilitation zone (Figure 1). As pointed out in [11], to be effective these closures will
need to be complemented by other fishing regulations (e.g. quotas during the fishing seasons), and
management of P. kauderni habitat and microhabitats (e.g. prevent overexploitation of the
microhabitat organisms such as Diadema urchins). This regulation does not include any provisions to
promote ESU-based management or prevent a serial depletion of ESUs during the open seasons.
The NPOA is structured under 6 focal aspects. An overview of the main planned activities (period
2017-2021) under each aspect (Table 2) also contains remarks. These aim to provide clarification and
highlight areas considered to be of particular concern.
Table 2. Overview of the NPOA for P. kauderni conservation
Focal Aspect
Core components/activities
Development of
information and
of P. kauderni
in natural
habitat and
introduced areas
P. kauderni population monitoring
(manual, training, 24 sites)
Initial survey in 2017 (T0) with 24 sites
selected; T1 in late 2018
Conduct genetic tests on P.
kauderni populations outside native
habitat (Banggai Laut, Gilimanuk,
Palu Bay, Kendari, Ambon,
Jakarta, Kepulauan Riau, Lombok,
Genetic characterisation of introduced
populations is not meaningful until there is a
comprehensive reference database on the
endemic populations, with diagnostic markers
to identify source ESUs
Note: Banggai Laut is native habitat
Develop database and information
system on P. kauderni fisheries
No information on progress; Fish Health and
Quarantine Data show an urgent need for this
of protection
and preservation
of P. kauderni
and its habitat
Spatial protection
a. Identify crucial habitat
b. Expansion of conservation area
(MPA) under provincial authority
to incorporate P. kauderni habitat
c. Gazette the MPA
d. Develop MPA management plan
and zonation
e. Establish MPA management unit
Steps a to c: achieved through the
promulgation of the Banggai Dalaka MPA
(Decree of the Governor of Central Sulawesi
Number 523/635A/Dis.Kan GST/2017, dated
27 December 2017.
Step d: well underway.
Step e: no management unit to date.
Limited protected status for P.
kauderni and asses benefit of
Status decreed through Kepmen 49/2018.
Decree socialised in May 2018, no
information on planned assessment.
of sustainable P.
kauderni use
and distribution
Population assessments in
designated areas (Banggai Laut,
Gilimanuk, Palu Bay, Kendari,
Ambon, Jakarta, Kepulauan Riau,
Lombok, Lampung)
Banggai Laut: seems to be a duplicate of
population monitoring under aspect 1.
Introduced populations: strange that the
Luwuk population is omitted, some sites
probably captive P. kauderni.
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Focal Aspect
Core components/activities
of sustainable P.
kauderni use
and distribution
Conduct extraction rate
assessments in each trade chain
Figure 2 confirms the urgency of this measure;
as far as is known, assessments not yet
Establish and disseminate a quota
Previous quota is still perceived as in vigour
by many stakeholders, with conflicting views
as to volume and allocation.
Needs to be ESU-based; a potential quota
system is outlined in [11].
Surveillance and enforcement on
harvest, distribution, and trade
Currently very weak or non-existent; will
require significant resources and strong
community support/participation
Regulation of international trade,
including export data collection;
registration of potential exporters;
establishing a P. kauderni business
Exporters of all ornamental fish should be
registered, and there is a trade association for
these stakeholders. It is unclear what benefit
could be gained from a species-specific
Develop SOP for P. kauderni
extraction from other habitats and
hatchery units
From a conservation viewpoint, the native
habitat should be the priority.
capacity in P.
Community based surveillance
Empowering existing coast-watch
groups/system has potential for wide-ranging
positive impacts on conservation and
community welfare.
Potential for use of village regulations to make
the system effective/efficient.
Establish sustainable use of BCF to
deliver economic benefit for local
Unlikely to have a significant impact if based
on the fishery or culture.
Tourism and "flagship" role of P. kauderni
could have much wider impact.
Training on BCF management
(aquaculture, restocking, trade
chain, etc.)
Aquaculture training underway in Bone Baru
(NGO LINI, supported by MMAF).
So-called restocking to date is actually
introduction, impoverishing endemic
populations to found/enlarge introduced
populations (e.g. Luwuk Kilo 5)
Goal to train 50 people for restocking is
questionable; one (small) team for exceptional
circumstances should suffice.
Socialization and public awareness
on the ecological importance of P.
kauderni and its habitat and
promotion of P. kauderni
management by local communities
to national and international forums
Various posters and other items produced.
P. kauderni displayed at many events, often
with significant fish mortality.
Local community management needs to
become a reality ; promotion of the concept
could prompt support.
Cardinal Fish
Optimize Banggai Cardinalfish
Centre (BCFC)
Note: under the 2007-2012 NPOA,
the BCFC was designed as an
umbrella organisation for all
aspects of P. kauderni management
Original BCFC organisation and building left
with unclear status after the separation of
Banggai Laut from Banggai Kepulauan
District in 2013.
This issue, brought up at every stakeholder
meeting since 2013, is still unresolved
Development of ex-situ aquaculture
and training centre
Bali and Ambon (government research
centres); possible role for the Bone Baru unit.
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Focal Aspect
Core components/activities
Cardinal Fish
Protect habitat to support P.
kauderni resilience in Indonesia
(Banggai Laut, Gilimanuk, Palu
Bay, Kendari, Ambon, Kepulauan
Riau, Jakarta, Lombok, Lampung)
This is clearly oriented toward introduced
Ideally limited resources should be focussed
on the native (endemic) P. kauderni range.
Mainstream BCF within national
fish governance; Trade network
and national promotion; Increase
the role of national forum or
national working group on
management of ornamental fish
The leading role of the MMAF in initiatives
post CITES CoP 17 BCF is a positive sign.
P. kauderni fishery and trade management
should indeed be integrated into the
ornamental fish system as a potentially
sustainable mechanism.
of P. kauderni
Provide training to communities to
breed P. kauderni (Bali, Jakarta,
Ambon, Kepulauan Riau, Lombok,
Kendari, Banggai Laut, Palu Bay,
Develop P. kauderni breeding
program (Banggai Laut, Banggai,
Banggai Kepulauan)
The rationale for training communities outside
the native P. kauderni distribution in breeding
this species is unclear, and likely to cause
resentment in the native area.
Breeding initiated in Bone Baru (Banggai
Laut); facilities in Liang (Banggai Kepulauan)
partial, not operational; unclear why Banggai
District (Sulawesi mainland) is included
unless as holding station for fish from the
Archipelago (captive-bred or wild caught).
Conduct assessment on broodstock
(Banggai Laut, Palu Bay,
Gilimanuk, Ambon)
The three introduced /captive populations are
of uncertain origin in terms of ESU, and thus
unsuitable for true re-stocking (replenishment
of native/endemic populations)
Needs assessment and guidelines
on P. kauderni population and
habitat rehabilitation
Guidelines currently under preparation. It is
crucial that the guidelines address the issue of
genetic structure to maintain ESU integrity.
Carry out socialization for re-
stocking programs (Banggai Laut,
Gilimanuk, Palu Bay, Kendari,
Ambon, Jakarta, Kepulauan Riau,
Lombok, Lampung)
This should be oriented towards well-studied
sites in the endemic range only (Banggai Laut
and Banggai Kepulauan Districts)
The need for care in sourcing broodstock from
the target ESU should be stressed.
Strengthen community group for
surveillance of re-stocking program
implementation and implement
population monitoring in re-
stocking areas (Banggai Laut,
Gilimanuk, Palu Bay, Kendari,
Ambon, Jakarta, Kepulauan Riau,
Lombok, Lampung)
These items should not be a priority, and it is
even questionable if they should be carried out
outside the native P. kauderni distribution.
The precautionary principle needs to be
strongly implemented in protocols and in field
implementation, especially with respect to
genetic stocks/ESUs and biosecurity issues
(e.g. pest and disease transmission).
Training on P. kauderni restocking
and implement re-stocking program
(Banggai District)
Fish captured in the endemic range were
released at Luwuk Kilo 5 introduced site on 1-
2 May 2018. Such actions are against accepted
conservation principles.
Of the six NPOA focal aspects, aspect 6 is by far the most controversial. In the field of endangered
fish management, it is vital to consider conservation genetics [31]. In particular, restocking should be
limited to native fish and even then only in cases of exceptional need (e.g. extirpation or high risk of
extirpation within the native distribution of a species) [11,31]. Furthermore, such restocking should
follow good practices such as those developed by the IUCN [11]. In the case of P. kauderni, this
means paying due attention to ESU issues. Furthermore, there needs to be a distinction between wild
broodstock (F0), their offspring (F1) and further generations (F2 and beyond).
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The issue of genetic structure and ESUs should not only be a prime consideration in restocking, but
also in all release of P. kauderni (wild or captive bred) at sites other than their native site within the
native (endemic) distribution of this species. In the case of introduced populations, the appropriateness
of introducing and thereafter increasing the population of a new species should be given mature
consideration. Invasive potential is a serious concern, especially as it has been reported that P.
kauderni has become an invasive alien species in Lembeh Strait [7,21]. In all cases, biosecurity should
be a concern, in particular the health of the fish being released, to avoid the potential spread of pests
and disease [11].
In addition to the ecological aspects, socio-economic aspects of the proposed activities should be
considered. Stakeholders in the Banggai Archipelago have expressed concern over what they see as a
loss of identity of "their" fish when it is produced in other areas, and even sold under names which no
longer reflect the origin of the species, for example “capungan Ambon”. This "branding issue",
important in trade and other economic sectors, for example in tourism, is also reflected in the
(erroneous) perception among some scientists that P. kauderni is no longer and endemic species
because it is now found (as yet in comparatively small numbers) outside of its native distribution. This
perception played a key role in the failure of efforts to give limited protected status to P. kauderni
under the 2007-2012 NPOA, significantly delaying effective protection measures for the species.
3.3. Priorities, opportunities and risks
The future of P. kauderni is at a crossroads, where the success or failure of the current NPOA will
have far-reaching effects. At this crucial point in time, a number of key priorities, opportunities and
risks based on the findings of this study are presented in Table 3.
Table 3. Priorities for P. kauderni conservation
Priority for action
Risk factors/needs
Prioritise endemic (not
introduced) P. kauderni
Central government support for
Banggai Dalaka MPA.
CITES recommendations and
international concern.
Local stakeholder awareness.
Scarce resources may be allocated to
actions with little or no impact on native
(endemic) P. kauderni populations.
Risk of negative impacts, e.g. loss of
ESU integrity.
Protect genetic diversity
through site/stock-based
management (including
conservation ornamental
fishery, monitoring),
ideally ESU-based.
Can be initiated using existing
genetic population structure
data, while seeking to develop a
database of genetically unique
(reproductively isolated) stocks
Potential support for research to
determine ESUs and diagnostic
Risk of delay while waiting for
comprehensive ESU data.
Such delay is likely to enable further
loss of ESU integrity through
inappropriate actions at all levels, as
well as increase the risk of further
extirpations; this is likely even with
measures (e.g. quotas) applied
effectively, if they are set and
implemented at a spatial resolution
greater than the ESU/site/stock level.
Protect and rehabilitate P.
kauderni habitat and
microhabitat (especially
Diadema urchins and sea
Potential for regulations and
other mechanisms through
Banggai Dalaka MPA as well as
village regulations and funds.
Growing body of relevant
research as well as growing
awareness of and interest in the
(lack of) sustainability of
invertebrate fisheries, including
Poorly designed rehabilitation could be
counterproductive (e.g. damage to donor
sites/organisms, as well as target site)
Risk of low compliance (e.g. urchin
collectors, traders and consumers) and
horizontal conflict (e.g. between local
communities and roving fishers).
Need for knowledge and technology,
e.g. on connectivity and culture to
support urchin conservation.
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Priority for action
Risk factors/needs
Investigate, record (and
where necessary restrict)
in-country movements of
P. kauderni, especially
removal from the endemic
Existing Fish Health and
Quarantine systems, including
trained staff, promotional
materials, stakeholder relations,
and on-line database (albeit
database could be made more
National and international
interest (linked to CITES).
Potential for wider application
to ornamental/other fisheries.
Transport by sea and overland much less
well documented than airfreight; fish
arrivals poorly documented compared to
dispatches. These discrepancies need to
be studied and remedied.
The logistics involved in compliance
provide some justification for
unrecorded shipping (e.g. to Kendari).
Need to improve data on export and
international as well as in-country
movements [11].
Regulate and restrict the
release of P. kauderni to
the wild from captivity
and/or between
known/suspected genetic
Regulations being drafted with
MMAF support under the P.
kauderni NPOA.
Potential for synergetic
measures under the Banggai
Dalaka MPA and through
village ordinances.
Awareness among fishermen of
subtle differences between P.
kauderni populations [11,22]
Risk that commercial and sectoral
interests could over-ride science-based
approaches, and allow (de jure or de
facto) the inappropriate release of fish.
The health and genetic integrity of an
ESU could be compromised through the
introduction of fish: from a different
ESU; descended from mixed/uncertain
strains; in poor health; poorly adapted or
acclimated to the release site; etc.
Institutionalisation at
multiple levels in a holistic
socio-ecological context to
provide robust and
resilient conservation
P. kauderni as an icon at village
to regional level, including on
the Banggai Laut District shield.
Opportunity to capitalise on the
"flagship species" potential of
the Banggai cardinalfish to
promote more sustainable
coastal resource management,
especially in the intensively
used shallow-water ecosystems
comprising P. kauderni habitat.
Lack of capacity at some levels and lack
of integration between levels, including
substantial decline in capacity through
dismantling of previous systems and
many other mechanisms under the new
regional autonomy law (UU 23/2014).
Project-oriented, short-term, and partial
or sectoral approaches driven by the
regulatory framework, including annual
budgetary mechanisms and political (e.g.
electoral) time-frames and systems.
Further research on
potential climate change
impacts and their
mitigation in a local
context (spatial scale)
Growing body of research and
research methods/tools.
Current momentum and concern
at national level and globally,
likely to increase as the 15th
IPCC report [3] is disseminated.
Risk of "too little, too late".
Risk of "ego-sectoral" approaches
impeding research and its application.
Limited appropriate funding for research
and its dissemination/application.
Despite the potentially grim threats we all face in the Anthropocene [1,3], it is important to
maintain optimism, and work to conserve our irreplaceable natural heritage at the local level, while at
the same time working to address issues requiring concerted global action, in particular on climate
change. We hope that this study and the suggestions it contains will be of use to stakeholders in
working to sustain the Banggai cardinalfish, together with its habitat and microhabitat, as part of a
vibrant socio-ecological system.
4. Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge support for this research from the Indonesian Ministry of
Research and Higher Education Pascadoktor grant scheme (Contracts 703.b/UN28.2/PL/2017 and
285.a/UN28.2/PL/2018). The authors also wish to recognise the valuable input from Sarah Foster and
Monique Biondo and to thank all colleagues and stakeholders who have supported the research on
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IOP Publishing
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... The still recent Banggai MPA officially established on 27 November 2019 covers 8566.4913 km 2 (MMAF-RI, 2019), including most of the P. kauderni endemic range (Moore et al., 2021;Ndobe et al., 2019). ...
... During this study some bleached and recently dead (pure white) colonies were observed, as well as extensive coral rubble and some recently broken corals. However, the cause of the decline in potential P. kauderni coral microhabitat is unknown, and in 2017 all P. kauderni were associated with Diadema urchins despite the presence of apparently suitable coral microhabitat (Moore et al., 2019). Sea anemones were already relatively scarce at the Kilo 5 site in 2017 (Moore et al., 2019), and the only sea anemone seen during this study was at a depth of around 5 m, below the depth at which most P. kauderni and Diadema were found. ...
... However, the cause of the decline in potential P. kauderni coral microhabitat is unknown, and in 2017 all P. kauderni were associated with Diadema urchins despite the presence of apparently suitable coral microhabitat (Moore et al., 2019). Sea anemones were already relatively scarce at the Kilo 5 site in 2017 (Moore et al., 2019), and the only sea anemone seen during this study was at a depth of around 5 m, below the depth at which most P. kauderni and Diadema were found. ...
Full-text available
The Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni is the Indonesian national marine ornamental fish mascot, and an object of national and international conservation concern. The endemic population of this species is limited to the Banggai Archipelago in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia and a few nearby islands in North Maluku. In addition, introduced populations have become established, mainly along ornamental fish trade routes. The National Action Plan for Banggai Cardinalfish Conservation (NAP-BCFC) calls for monitoring and management of all P. kauderni populations. A survey of the Luwuk introduced P. kauderni population was carried out in October 2021. Data were collected at three sites with established P. kauderni populations: the ferry harbour, public harbour (Teluk Lalong) and a recreational area on the nearby coast (Kilo 5). P. kauderni were recorded by microhabitat association and size class (recruits, juveniles, adults). Data collected were compared with data from previous surveys where available. With the exception of one group in a sea anemone at Kilo 5, all P. kauderni were associated with Diadema sea urchins (D. setosum at all sites; D. savignyi at Kilo 5). At Kilo 5 P. kauderni the population structure indicates the possible capture of market-sized juveniles. Overall abundance was also lower compared to the polluted but unfished harbours. The proportion of recruits was significantly negatively correlated with the ratio of adult P. kauderni to Diadema urchins. The results will inform regional legislation currently in preparation to support sustainable management of P. kauderni populations, habitat and microhabitat in Central Sulawesi, as well as contributing to NAP-BCFC targets. Keywords: Banggai cardinalfish Endangered species Diadema Microhabitat, Monitoring Ornamental fishery Local regulation
... Later, the Indonesian Government showed its determination regarding both terrestrial and marine resources conservation through the ratification of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) in 1992 and the issuance of Act No. 5 of 1994 [23]. Since then, there has been a significant increase in both the number and the extent of MPAs in Indonesia [14,[21][22][23][24][25]. ...
... For example, in West Papua Province the RMPA management model in Raja Ampat is heavily reliant on marine conservation tourism; while the RMPAs in the area have experienced challenges in adjusting to a more centralized governance structure, the transition has received substantial support from non-state actors and international NGOs [14]. In some other provinces, the approach has included the amalgamation of RMPAs previously spread across several districts and/or substantial re-drawing of RMPA boundaries, as in the case of the three-district Banggai MPA in Central Sulawesi Province [25]. Such differences between regions indicate that research similar to the case studies presented here will be needed for other provinces, and should be considered an important research agenda. ...
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Indonesia has adopted the establishment of regional (sub-national) marine protected areas (RMPAs) as a key strategy for achieving ambitious national marine spatial management targets. Under Act No. 32 of 2004, regency governments were given a mandate to autonomously manage marine resources, including RMPA establishment and management. Under the direction of these local governments, management strategies established through a co-management framework were providing good management systems in terms of personnel capacity, financing and monitoring. However, in 2014 the authority of the regency governments was revoked and transferred to the provincial governments under Act No. 23 of 2014. To date, the authority transference process is still incomplete for many of Indonesia's RMPAs. This paper identifies and analyses the problems faced by regency and provincial governments in undertaking this transition process using case studies from South Sulawesi Province and SouthEast Sulawesi Province. Problems identified at the local scale include limited funds, limited number and capacity of personnel and a strong sense of ownership of regency governments towards their assets. These hamper management, asset and document transfer, and zoning processes. The transfer of management authority has also severed partnerships with local communities previously playing important roles in RMPA management. At national scale, we found the national government has paid little attention to the problems occurring in the provinces and regencies. A strong willingness from the provincial and regency governments to co-manage the RMPAs is arguably vital and can become the point of departure for creating authority-sharing models that work under the new legal framework.
... The Banggai cardinalfish is a popular marine ornamental fish in the marine aquarium trade since 1995, and is considered at risk of extinction in the wild [1] throughout its very limited endemic area [2,3]. The natural distribution of dragonflies in the Banggai Islands is about 23 km 2 in area. ...
... The generally positive trend for sites 3-6 is typical of Banggai Island, where the most intensive conservation efforts are being carried out [5]. The only location on the island with a negative trend from 2017 to 2018 was Tolokibit, where a traditional subsistence-grade collection of sea urchins began to be commercialized around 2017, resulting in a drastic reduction of sea urchin microhabitat in 2018 as well as disturbances that tended to increase predation from BCF recruits [2]. ...
The Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni) is a species of ornamental fish endemic to the Banggai Archipelago, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The high level of exploitation has caused the population of the proud fish to decline. The government seeks conservation by issuing KEPMEN KP Number 49 of 2018 concerning the Protection Status of Banggai cardinalfish. The purpose of this study/research is to determine the effectiveness of implementation after the policy is issued. Bali is one of the exit points for the export trade of the Banggai cardinalfish commodity. Banggai cardinalfish export from Bali in 2019-2020 only reached 60 thousand, increasing to 111 thousand fish with a frequency of 303 export data in 2021. Export destinations are the United Kingdom, France, China, Taiwan, Hongkong, Denmark, Netherlands, Brazil, Poland, and Germany. Banggai cardinalfish in its trade must be free from disease infections, listed in the Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of the Republic of Indonesia No. 17 of 2021. Commodities must be examined by checking for types of quarantine fish diseases, namely Megalocytivirus infection. The prevalence value of Megalocytivirus or Banggai Cardinal Iridovirus (BCIV) from Banggai cardinalfish to exporters in Bali in 2020 was 1.49 and in 2021 it was 4.10. The current condition of the Banggai fishery in its utilization must meet the requirements attached to the Indonesian Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Decree No. 21 of 2021 regarding quotas, and Government Regulation Number 85 of 2021 regarding PNBP rates.
... Banggai cardinalfish are highly dependent on protective microhabitat, especially sea urchins (all sizes), sea anemones and anemone-like animals (mainly recruits and juveniles) and some hard corals (mainly adults) [17,19,21,23,24]. Recruits are especially vulnerable to predation, including cannibalism by adult conspecifics [15,17] and microhabitat loss is considered a major threat to P. kauderni populations [21,25,26]. ...
... Several endemic P. kauderni populations have been severely depleted due to overexploitation and/or sharp declines in protective microhabitat, especially diadematid sea urchins, prompting calls for both passive active interventions to aid their recovery [24,25,32,33]. The fine-scale genetic structure of the endemic P. kauderni population with an estimated 20-30 putative Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) means that "re-stocking" should only be done with fish from the same ESU [25,26,34,35]. The "BCF Garden" concept for in-situ recovery is to promote P. kauderni reproductive success through increasing microhabitat availability [25,34,36]. ...
Full-text available
Post-disaster recovery of marine ecosystems and species is still poorly understood. The Banggai cardinalfish ( Pterapogon kauderni ) is an ornamental fish endemic to the Banggai Archipelago and a few nearby islands. Classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List, this fish has limited protected status under Indonesian law. Introduced to several sites in Palu Bay in the early 2000’s, two populations had become established by 2006. Until the triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami, liquefaction) in September 2018, these populations were used for research and education as well as the aquarium trade. The tsunami devastated habitat and microhabitat at the Mamboro site; a census in 2019 found 10 surviving juvenile Banggai cardinalfish in one sea anemone. Monitoring in June 2021 revealed signs of ecosystem recovery, especially seagrass. Despite limited microhabitat with few corals and a lack of Diadema sea urchins, there was a substantial increase in Banggai cardinalfish abundance with all life stages present. New recruits were observed in sea anemones and upside-down jellyfish ( Cassiopea sp.). These sites present a natural laboratory for P. kauderni population and post-tsunami ecosystem recovery. Lessons learned can be used to inform conservation management of depleted P. kauderni populations in the endemic range of this endangered fish.
... Thus, several genera of cardinalfish develop species complexes [16,37] with behavioral, ecological, and genetic factors that favor pre-or post-zygotic isolation [16,76]. Because of their high economic interest [22,61], they are under intense capture pressure, raising concerns regarding species conservation [49,50]. ...
Cardinalfishes are a diverse family of small fish found in reef habitats. Some species exhibit bioluminescence and unusual characteristics of buccal egg incubation. Cytogenetic data on the family are confined to Pacific species but reveal remarkable karyotype diversity, as highlighted by low diploid values (2n = 34–46), which likely resulted from centric fusions. Therefore, chromosomal investigations, including samples from different marine regions and with a broader phylogenetic range, are required to elucidate the karyotype history of this group. In this study, we analyzed species from the Atlantic Ocean (Apogon americanus and Phaeoptyx pigmentaria) and the Indo-Pacific region (Sphaeramia nematoptera and Pterapogon kauderni) using conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NORs, and C-banding) and molecular (in situ mapping of rDNAs, retrotransposons, and microsatellites) cytogenetic methods. A noticeable karyotype reduction (2n = 46 in S. nematoptera and Pte. kauderni, 2n = 38 in P. pigmentaria, and 2n = 36 in A. americanus) was detected, as well as a decrease in C-positive heterochromatin content (limited to telomeric and centromeric areas). In Indo-Pacific Ocean species, 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA are situated on distinct chromosomes, whereas in Atlantic Ocean species, they are syntenic. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in S. nematoptera, A. americanus, and P. pigmentaria, indicating that in tandem fusions played a role in the chromosomal decrease in this group. Cardinal fish karyotype variability is remarkable, given the conservative diploid number that characterizes other Percomorpha species. It is probable that biological traits, such as buccal incubation and a brief pelagic larval stage, influence their genetic structure and the rapid rate of chromosomal differentiation.
... Therefore, caution is needed in planning, particularly related to the restocking of captive breeding results into their wild natural areas. (2014) The introduction of P. kauderni initiated significant trade outcome in several areas of the commercial route, including Lembeh Strait, Tumbak Luwuk, Palu, Kendari, Bali, Ambon (Moore & Ndobe 2007;Ndobe et al 2018b;Ndobe et al 2019). These actions were unintentional, such as the destruction of cages, but were deliberately distributed in certain locations, due to the inability to fulfill the trade standards or were stocked for cultivation/conservation purposes (Wibowo et al 2019). ...
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Pterapogon kauderni, also known as Banggai cardinalfish (BCF), is a popular high demand ornamental fish prevalent in Banggai Regency, Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia which increase the catch process and cause the P. kauderrni specified in IUCN as a threatened species, with an estimated population decline of 90%. There are other factors that possibly endanger this population, such as the degradation and alteration of marine ecosystems, species susceptibility to predator, environmental change and the relatively limited size distribution. A major effort preventing P. kauderni extinction involves the adoption of conservation measures. This is because the fish exploitation is perceived as irrepressible, in terms of the socioeconomic factors of the surrounding community in its endemic area Banggai. In this context, Indonesia is committed to conservation and related researches in ensuring adequate sustainability for this species. As a result, the need for data is important in relation to determining the status, trends and various similar researches. Literature reviews on P. kauderni provide channels to ascertain the extent of the research. This review assesses the research trends of P. kauderni, including the topic, applied methods, introduction status as a non-native species from trade activities either intentionally or unintentionally presented for cultivation purposes, progress of conservation efforts, and future risks potentially threatening aquatic survival. The evaluation of previous researches help to identify and characterize key aspects of the species' conservation process as well as detect vital information gaps for future considerations. A systematic review method was subsequently adopted in this research, while Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, and Scopus served as databases to eliminate barriers to language differences in publications. The data analysis results showed that various research on P. kauderni have been conducted, which provided relevant conservation policies and recommendations. Poor collaboration with international researchers and language factors are possible hindrances to future development of this species. Furthermore, the data variations were due to inadequate standards and values necessary for a significant impact in research results. Conversely, researches on the effects of introductions in non-native areas and the local ecology are currently very limited.
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The global marine aquarium trade has created new local markets across the planet, including in Indonesia, now the second largest exporting country of marine aquarium fish in the world. Participating in the global aquarium trade has been touted as a potentially sustainable addition to fisher livelihoods, but scant data exist showing the numbers of fish coming off the reef and how those fish contribute to income. To determine how small-scale fishers and traders incorporate aquarium species in their livelihoods, we examine source-level aquarium fish collecting and trading data in the Banggai Archipelago, a region in Central Sulawesi that has become a significant source for popular aquarium fishes. From one year of buying and selling data at the fisher, intermediary buyer, and regional trader levels we show that catching and selling fish for the aquarium trade represents an average of nearly 20% of annual income and provides added diversity and flexibility to fisher and trader livelihoods in the region, especially during seasons of rough weather.
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The Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni is a restricted range marine fish classified as Endangered in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. Traded as an ornamental fish, the Banggai cardinalfish (BCF) is of national and international conservation concern. The “BCF Garden” concept aims to replenish depleted BCF stocks through community-based habitat and microhabitat rehabilitation. Under the National Action Plan for Banggai cardinalfish conservation, selected BCF populations have been monitored annually since 2017. Eight endemic BCF populations in the Bokan Kepulauan District, Banggai Laut Regency, Central Sulawesi Province, were monitored using a standardized belt transect method in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2021. Data were collected on BCF abundance, size/age structure and microhabitat association, and critical microhabitat abundance (sea urchins, mainly Diadema and sea anemones). Despite the inter-site variation, overall abundance declined significantly for BCF (p = 0.02) and sea urchins (p=0.02). Total counts of BCF (4646) and urchins (498) in 2021 were 31% and 11%, respectively, of 2017 values (4921 and 4460); sea anemone count increased (61 to 87) but remained well below historical abundance levels. These results confirm the need for targeted measures to promote the recovery of BCF populations in Bokan Kepulauan. The holistic BCF Garden approach is recommended, especially at sites where Diadema urchins are heavily exploited.
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The weight length relationship (LWR) and condition factors can be an indicator of fish growth and environmental suitability. This study aims to calculate the length-weight relationships and condition factor of six Apogonidae species and compare them with Pterapogon kauderni as an introduced species in the same area and condition. The sample is collected monthly from January to December 2020 using a trap net in the Lembeh Strait area of North Sulawesi. A total of 699 specimens from sampling obtained seven species from the Apogonidae family, with the most specimen belonging to Pterapogon kauderni (33%) and the lowest being Pristicon trimaculatus (4.4%). The results indicated that almost all species exhibited a negative allometric growth pattern with the b value ranging from 2.49 to 2.98, except for Ostorhinchus hartzfeldii resulted in a positive allometric growth pattern (3.24). The condition factor ranges are 0.89-1.32 from all the seven species, with only Apogonichthyoides melas, Pterapogon kauderni , and Ostorhinchus sealei values below one and significantly different from the other group (p<0.05). This result can be caused by various factors and need to be investigated further. This data is useful in establishing a management and monitoring system for Pterapogon kauderni in its introduced area.
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Buku ini adalah salah satu luaran dari kegiatan multi years tentang status ikan capungan Banggai atau Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni) di Indonesia. Selama empat tahun (2018-2021), kami melakukan studi, kajian, pengumpulan informasi dan pengambilan data di lapangan, serta hal-hal lain yang terkait dengan ikan capungan Banggai. Dua tahun pertama, fokus utama kami adalah di lokasi-lokasi yang berdasarkan berbagai sumber informasi merupakan lokasi introduksi. Sedangkan dua tahun terakhir fokusnya digeser ke wilayah sebaran endemik di perairan Kepulauan Banggai. Di lokasi-lokasi introduksi, pengumpulan data dan informasi dilakukan secara menyeluruh, yang meliputi aspek bio-ekologi (populasi, sebaran, kelimpahan, habitat, dan lainnya) dan aspek sosio-ekonomi (kronologi penyebaran, status perdagangan, dan sebagainya). Belum banyaknya informasi ilmiah menjadi salah satu latar belakang kuat dilakukannya kajian di lokasi-lokasi introduksi. Di wilayah sebaran endemik, penelitian lebih dititikberatkan pada studi keanekaragaman genetik untuk mengetahui dan sekaligus membuktikan adanya pengelompokan ikan capungan Banggai ke dalam sejumlah subpopulasi. Hal ini sangat penting diketahui sebagai data dasar untuk mendukung tujuan upaya konservasi, juga sebagai acuan untuk mengetahui lokasi nenek moyang dari populasi ikan capungan Banggai yang ada di lokasi introduksi. Awalnya, jumlah lokasi yang diketahu sebagai lokasi introduksi ikan capungan Banggai ini tidak banyak, yaitu: di Teluk Gilimanuk (Bali), Tumbak dan Selat Lembeh (Sulawesi Utara), Luwuk dan Teluk Palu (Sulawesi Tengah), Teluk Kendari (Sulawesi Tenggara), dan Teluk Ambon (Maluku). Namun, seiring dengan semakin sering dibicarakan dan semakin luas jejaring informasi yang terbuka, maka bermunculan lokasi-lokasi introduksi yang baru diketahui, antara lain: di Ternate (Maluku Utara), Banyuwangi (Jawa Timur), Pantai Utara Bali (Bali), Batam (Kepulauan Riau), Pulau Tegal (Lampung), Kepulauan Seribu (Jakarta), Kepulauan Spermonde (Sulawesi Selatan), Buton (Sulawesi Tenggara) dan Sekotong (Nusa Tenggara Barat). Akhirnya, diterapkan strategi cadangan untuk sedapat mungkin mendapatkan data dan informasi lebih lanjut mengenai populasi ikan ini di lokas-lokasi tersebut. Dari lokasi-lokasi tersebut, sebagian besar telah dilakukan observasi langsung di lapangan, namun masih ada beberapa lainnya yang belum. Dalam buku ini, selain ingin menyampaikan hasil kajian ikan capungan Banggai di lapangan, penulis juga mencoba menyajikan data dan informasi hasil-hasil studi yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya oleh sejumlah peneliti terdahulu sebagai pendukung hasil kajian yang kami lakukan. Penulis sangat menyadari ketidaksempurnaan buku ini karena berbagai faktor, seperti masih kurangnya data dan informasi yang diperlukan, keterbatasan ketajaman analisis, dan masih dibutuhkannya serangkaian penelitian lanjutan tentang ikan capungan Banggai ini. Sebagian data hasil kajian yang kami lakukan pun tidak disajikan dalam buku ini untuk alasan tertentu. Saran, kritik, dan masukan sangat diharapkan untuk menuju proses penyempurnaan yang substansial. Semoga hadirnya buku ini dapat sedikit memberikan tambahan informasi mengenai status ikan endemik yang telah ditetapkan menjadi ikon ikan hias air laut nasionaltahun 2021 ini.
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We explore the risk that self-reinforcing feedbacks could push the Earth System toward a planetary threshold that, if crossed, could prevent stabilization of the climate at intermediate temperature rises and cause continued warming on a "Hothouse Earth" pathway even as human emissions are reduced. Crossing the threshold would lead to a much higher global average temperature than any interglacial in the past 1.2 million years and to sea levels significantly higher than at any time in the Holocene. We examine the evidence that such a threshold might exist and where it might be. If the threshold is crossed, the resulting trajectory would likely cause serious disruptions to ecosystems, society, and economies. Collective human action is required to steer the Earth System away from a potential threshold and stabilize it in a habitable interglacial-like state. Such action entails stewardship of the entire Earth System-biosphere, climate, and societies-and could include decarbonization of the global economy, enhancement of biosphere carbon sinks, behavioral changes, technological innovations, new governance arrangements, and transformed social values.
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The endemic Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni) is one of conservation priority marine species in Indonesia. With a conservation status of Endangered, Indonesia has made a commitment to P. kauderni conservation, and policy development is underway. P. kauderni lives in symbiosis with sea urchins (Diadema sp.), sea anemones and branching corals. This research evaluated the current status of and threats to P. kauderni microhabitat, including the climate change context. Primary data were collected using Coral-Watch and swim survey methods during the 2016 global bleaching event, and compared with survey data collected since 2004. The study revealed a sharp decline in Diadema sp. population abundance as well as reduced sea anemone abundance, in both cases largely due to sharp increases in exploitation by local communities, mostly for human consumption. Corals and other microhabitats had also suffered from increased coral reef degradation related to local-scale destructive human activities, as well as climate-related coral bleaching. Wherever microhabitat availability was greatly reduced, P. kauderni abundance had declined sharply, irrespective of fishing pressure on this species. Microhabitat protection and recovery is considered a sine qua non prerequisite for successful in-situ P. kauderni conservation. The results contribute to the scientific basis for sustainable management of endemic P. kauderni stocks and habitat. Keywords Endangered species; symbiosis; microhabitat; overfishing; coral bleaching
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The endemic Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni) is an Indonesian conservation priority with Endangered species. The goal of this research was to develop a site-based conservation concept appropriate from a bio-ecological viewpoint, based on the unusual characteristics of this species, in particular: (i) mouthbrooder with direct development, leading to reproductively isolated stocks and fine scale genetic structure; (ii) high level of reliance on habitat, in particular symbiosis with benthic animals providing protective micro-habitat. Methods used include review and analysis of published literature and unpublished data, including an analysis using the Marxan spatial planning software. We suggest several policy options and identify research needs, including: (i) base P. kauderni conservation (protection, rehabilitation and sustainable use) on stocks as the basic management unit; (ii) use data on P. kauderni genetic stocks in the zonation of the proposed Banggai Archipelago marine protected area (MPA); (iii) undertake further research to identify stocks/stock boundaries; (iv) apply the "BCF gardens" concept to fine-scale rebuilding of P. kauderni populations and enabling sustainable use through micro-habitat rehabilitation, with a community-based approach supported by a multi-phase scientific research program. The outputs from this study should support efforts towards sustainable management of the Banggai cardinalfish, particularly in the context of strategies to develop and manage an effective sub-national MPA. Keywords genetic stock; habitat/micro-habitat rehabilitation; community-based conservation; marine protected area; Marxan
Conference Paper
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Coral reef ecosystems worldwide are experiencing increasingly frequent episodes of temperature-related “coral bleaching”. The Banggai Archipelago in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, has extensive coral reefs and is home to the endemic Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, a species listed as Endangered in the IUCN red List. A rapid survey was undertaken at seven sites (1.2°S-2°S) in this archipelago, in response to the national call for action during the 2016 global bleaching event. The CoralWatch method (6 point colour scale: CW1-CW6) was used; colony life-form (Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network categories) and genus (Indo-Pacific Coral-finder) were recorded. Partial and full bleaching were observed at all sites; of 1166 colonies, 64.7% were fully bleached (CW1) or very pale (CW2); with 13.5% in CW4-CW6. Water temperatures were 1-3°C above recorded maxima from 2004-2012. Branching and encrusting life-forms had the highest full/severe bleaching rates. Common genera with above average bleaching rates included Stylophora, Seriatopora, Pocillopora, Isopora, Merulina, Galaxea, some forms of Acropora and Porites. Algal overgrowth was observed on both live (fully/partially) bleached and dead colonies. Densities of Diadema sp. urchins, a key simbiont of the Banggai cardinalfish, until recently the most abundant coral reef herbivore, were extremely low (orders of magnitude less than 2004 densities), with few adult individuals present at 5/7 sites. The Caribbean experience underlines the urgency of addressing the unregulated Diadema fishery which has developed in the Banggai Archipelago since around 2007. Rehabilitating populations of this key invertebrate herbivore would contribute to biodiversity conservation and reef resilience/recovery in this equatorial archipelago.
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The unique endemic Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni)(BCF) is still among the top 10 imported species of marine aquarium fish in the US. The fish has been classified as an endangered species due to concerns over its collection for the aquarium trade. The fish was only re-discovered in 1995, and only limited studies have been undertaken in the field. In an effort to complement these studies, surveys on the the distribution, population density, and current levels of trade of the BCF were conducted from 2007 to 2012. Using the belt transect method, three classes of BCF (recruits, juveniles, and adults) encountered along each transect were counted, as well as BCF habitats including soft corals, hard corals, sea grasses, sea urchins and anemones. Some areas were surveyed more than once, and showed a decline in population densities. The causes of these declines were most likely due to overexploitation, habitat destruction and extensive removal of microhabitats and species for human consumption. A number of measures have been taken to prevent BCF populations from further declines, to ensure that they are being collected in a more sustainable manner. However, control and enforcement of these measures are still lacking in the field. An initiative to include the BCF in the protected species list under Indonesian law has not yet been realized. There is a call for the aquarium industry to actively support the work in Indonesia by promoting and supporting the purchase of BCF from sustainable collection areas and methods only.
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The oft-repeated claim that Earth's biota is entering a sixth " mass extinction " depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the " background " rates prevailing in the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 114 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.
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The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundary framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries. Two core boundaries—climate change and biosphere integrity—have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth system into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.
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The Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni (Koumans, 1933) is an ornamental reef-associated fish endemic to the Banggai Archipelago in Central Sulawesi. Introduced populations have become established at several sites along trade routes, including Luwuk and Palu Bay in Central Sulawesi, Lembeh and Tumbak in North Sulawesi and several locations in North Bali. This attractive small fish, with an unusual reproductive cycle (paternal mouthbrooder, no pelagic phase), has potential as a “flag-ship” species to drive conservation efforts involving local stakeholders (including P. kauderni fishers). Local research and conservation efforts began in 2004-2006 and were presented at the 1st APCRS. When international concern prompted a proposal for CITES listing at CoP 14 in 2007 (and the subsequent listing of P. kauderni as Endangered in the IUCN Red List), local research data supported the position of the Indonesian Government, who were committed to an alternative approach to the con-servation of P. kauderni populations and habitats. The multi-stakeholder multi-year Banggai Cardinal Fish (BCF) Action Plan drawn up in 2007 covers 3 main aspects: Conservation, Management and Trade. While there is still a long way to go to ensure the long-term conservation of P. kauderni populations and habitats, the implementation to date includes the establishment of the Banggai Cardinalfish Centre (BCFC) as an umbrella organization; the drafting of legislation; the establishment of protected areas; habitat conservation/restoration activities; improvements in fishing methods and post-harvest handling; monitoring of the trade; the development of more efficient and equitable trading; ongoing research and seeking/developing partnerships with national and international organisations.
The Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, is a fascinating species that possesses a series of remarkable biological characteristics making it unique among coral reef fishes. It has been the focus of studies in reproduction, ecology, population genetics and evolution. In addition, since its rediscovery in the late 1990s, it has become tremendously popular in the international ornamental fish trade, and indiscriminate collecting has led to its inclusion in the 2007 IUCN Red List as an endangered species. This book is divided into three main parts: a general introduction to the fish, including a historical synopsis with an overview of the Banggai Archipelago; a comprehensive treatment of the species' natural history (distribution, morphology, reproduction, embryology, ecology, genetics, systematics and evolution); an account of the conservation of the species, including descriptions of its fishery, attempts to protect it under CITES, and introduction programmes. The book also includes an appendix offering information on captive breeding, juvenile mortality reduction, and common diseases. This book is a unique resource for ichthyology students and researchers working on fish biology, ecology and conservation, and for marine ornamental fish hobbyists and aquarium professionals. Visit to access the figures and tables from the book.