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Nutritional Profile and Chemical Composition of Juices of Two Cashew Apple's Varieties of Benin

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  • Université d' Abomey-Calavi / Université nationale des sciences, technologies, ingénierie et mathématiques

Abstract and Figures

Despite the innumerable virtues of cashew apple juice, and considering its astringency and the fact that its consumption with milk constitute taboo in several African countries, the cashew apple remains abandoned in its production areas. The present study aims to promote agro-resources and reduce post-harvest losses by highlighting the nutritional value and chemical composition of the cashew apple. For this purpose, two varieties of cashew apple collected in Central Benin were analyzed for nutrient and phenolic compound contents. The antiradical activity of the apple juice was evaluated by DPPH test. From the results obtained, it appears that the high juice content of the cashew apple (87.25 ± 4.14% and 80.90 ± 3.53% respectively for yellow and red varieties) confirms its character of perishable foodstuff. The juice of the cashew apple (especially the red variety) is rich in vitamin C (0.99% to 1.01%), minerals (3609.93 ± 1.15 mg/L of potassium, 218.03 ± 0.22% of sodium, 44.80 ± 0.11 mg/L of iron and 19.75 ± 0.02 mg/L of manganese) and phenolic compounds (45.99 ± 1.15 g/L of total polyphenols). This richness in vitamin C and phenolic compounds gives this juice its antioxidant power (IC 50 = 4.8 mg/mL). The therapeutic and nutritional virtues of the cashew apple show that this agro-resource can be used as an interesting food.
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Chemistry Journal
Vol. 4, No. 4, 2018, pp. 91-96
http://www.aiscience.org/journal/cj
ISSN: 2381-7674 (Print); ISSN: 2381-7682 (Online)
* Corresponding author
E-mail address:
Nutritional Profile and Chemical Composition of
Juices of Two Cashew Apple’s Varieties of Benin
Agbangnan Dossa Cokou Pascal
1, *
, Ggohaïda Virginie
3
,
Bothon Fifa Théomène Diane
3
, Kanfon Rose Estelle
3
, Avlessi Félicien
1
,
Wotto Dieudonné Valentin
2
, Sohounhloue Koko Codjo Dominique
1
1
Department of Chemical Engineering-Processes, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
2
Department of chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
3
Laboratory of Study and Research in Applied Chemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
Abstract
Despite the innumerable virtues of cashew apple juice, and considering its astringency and the fact that its consumption with
milk constitute taboo in several African countries, the cashew apple remains abandoned in its production areas. The present
study aims to promote agro-resources and reduce post-harvest losses by highlighting the nutritional value and chemical
composition of the cashew apple. For this purpose, two varieties of cashew apple collected in Central Benin were analyzed for
nutrient and phenolic compound contents. The antiradical activity of the apple juice was evaluated by DPPH test. From the
results obtained, it appears that the high juice content of the cashew apple (87.25 ± 4.14% and 80.90 ± 3.53% respectively for
yellow and red varieties) confirms its character of perishable foodstuff. The juice of the cashew apple (especially the red
variety) is rich in vitamin C (0.99% to 1.01%), minerals (3609.93 ± 1.15 mg/L of potassium, 218.03 ± 0.22% of sodium, 44.80
± 0.11 mg/L of iron and 19.75 ± 0.02 mg/L of manganese) and phenolic compounds (45.99 ± 1.15 g/L of total polyphenols).
This richness in vitamin C and phenolic compounds gives this juice its antioxidant power (IC
50
= 4.8 mg/mL). The therapeutic
and nutritional virtues of the cashew apple show that this agro-resource can be used as an interesting food.
Keywords
Cashew Apple Juice, Nutrients, Phenolic Compound, Valorization
Received: September 30, 2018 / Accepted: October 11, 2018 / Published online: December 21, 2018
@ 2018 The Authors. Published by American Institute of Science. This Open Access article is under the CC BY license.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
1. Introduction
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a booming
cash crop and represents a great opportunity for Africa to
export its nuts. World production almost doubled in one
decade from 2 361 384 tons in 2002 to 4 152 315 tons in
2012, thanks in particular to the renewed interest of some
African countries in this crop [1]. With a national production
of 170 000 t, Benin is ranked fifth among the world's leading
exporters of raw nuts in 2012 [2], after Vietnam (1 190 900
t), Nigeria (836 500 t), India (680 000 t) and Côte d'Ivoire
(450 000 t).
The cashew apple is the false fruit of the cashew tree. It
corresponds to the hypertrophied peduncle of the walnut and
represents five to nine times the nut mass [3]. The cashew
apple is most often considered a by-product of the cashew
industry and remains very poorly valued despite its richness
in secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds,
carotenoids, aromatic compounds [4] and is not consumed
because of its astringency due to the presence of tannins [5].
92 Agbangnan Dossa Cokou Pascal et al.: Nutritional Profile and Chemical Composition of
Juices of Two Cashew Apple’s Varieties of Benin
Indeed, in addition to the water content (86%), the cashew
apple has a high tannin content which limits its conservation
for useful purposes [6]. However, it is processed in some
countries into several products such as juice, jam, wine,
vinegar and alcohol [7]. The food value of the cashew apple
as a percentage of dry matter (12.32% DM) is in the range of
6.45 to 12.5% crude protein, 3.5 to 10.85% total fiber, 6 to
54.7% total sugar (glucose), 30.8 mg/100 g vitamin C and
12.48 MJ/kg energy and minerals [8]. A better valorization of
cashew apple, co-produced from nuts production, will
contribute to stabilize cashew trees exploitation. It will also
help to create new economic activities that create jobs [4].
Fruits have been incorporated into the daily human diet ever
since. Having very attractive colors, tastes and aromas, they
are one of the essential elements for a balanced diet and are
known for their role in the interview of the vital functions of
the human organism. Fresh or in the form of processed
products, fruits constitute an inexhaustible source of nutrients
whose secondary metabolites are among the most important
[9]. They are often considered as "functional foods" thanks to
their richness in metabolites such as phenolic compounds
(known especially for their high antioxidant power),
minerals, vitamins, etc. The raw juice of apple cashew is less
appreciated by consumers because of its astringency [4],
despite its richness in water, sugars, vitamins, minerals,
phenolic compounds; these latter being mainly responsible
for the antioxidant activity. In this context, the objective of
the presented work was to evaluate the nutritional value of
the raw juice of the cashew apple and its chemical
composition.
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Study Areas and Sampling
The present study focused on juices extracted from two
varieties of cashew apples collected in the cotton zone of
Center-Benin in the communes of “Bantè” and Savalou. The
municipality of “Bantè” is located at 8°25'00 "north latitude
and 1°58'32" east longitude. The commune of Savalou is
located at latitude 7°55'41 "North and longitude 1°58'32"
East. The different varieties of cashew apples collected by
field picking were transported in ice-strengthened "Eskimo"
iceboxes and stored in the freezer at -10°C until analysis.
2.2. Cashew Apple Juice Extraction
The juice of the different varieties of cashew apple was
extracted by mechanical pressing using a screw press. The
volume of juice collected was measured on the graduated
test-tube before characterization. The apple juice yield (R)
was calculated using the formula below:
R%=Juicevolume ∗ volumicmassofjuice
Freshcashewapplemasseused ∗ 100
2.3. Biochemical Characterization of
Cashew Apple Juice
Calcium, magnesium and total hardness were measured by
titrimetric method while total iron and manganese were
determined by a HACH DR/2400 UV-Visible
spectrophotometer according to the analysis methods of the
French Association for Standardization, AFNOR [10, 34]. In
addition, potassium, sodium, copper and zinc were measured
by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The total sugars
were evaluated using the UV-Visible spectrophotometer
(JENWAY 50/60 Hz) method according to Dubois et al. [11].
The pH of the juices was measured with HANNA pH meter
previously calibrated with buffer solutions of pH 4.0 and 7.0
[12]. Total acidity (g acetic acid/L) was determined on 10 mL
of juice by titrimetric method with sodium hydroxide (0.1 N)
with phenolphthalein as colored indicator. The total soluble
dry matter content (degree Brix) of the juice was evaluated
using a PAL 3-ATAGO 0-95 digital refractometer [1].
Vitamin C was determined by iodine titration [13]. The
Kjeldahl method was used for proteins dosage. After
mineralization, distillation and titration, the crude protein
content is determined from the nitrogen content. This
nitrogen rate, with a coefficient of 6.25, was converted into
protein content [14]. The lipids were assayed by soxhlet
extraction with hexane for 6 h at 69°C. The extraction is
followed by drying in an oven at 105°C for one hour and the
balloons are cooled in the desiccator and then weighed. The
lipid content is expressed as a percentage on a dry basis [15].
2.4. Chemical Characterization of Cashew
Apple Juice
2.4.1. Determination of Phenolic
Compounds
The juice of each variety of cashew apple was subjected to
the colorimetric dosage by UV-Visible spectrophotometry
(JENWAY 50/60 Hz) to quantify the phenolic compounds.
Total polyphenols: Total polyphenols were assayed by Folin-
Ciocalteu reagent [16, 17]. The Folin reagent used consists of
a mixture of phosphotungstic and phosphomolybdic acid
which is reduced, during the oxidation of phenols as a
mixture of blue oxides of tungsten and molybdenum [18].
The absorbance was measured at the spectrophotometer at
765 nm. Gallic acid was used as a reference and juice total
polyphenol content was expressed in g equivalent gallic acid
per L juice.
Total flavonoids: Total flavonoids were quantified by the
method of aluminum trichloride (AlCl
3
). This technique is
Chemistry Journal Vol. 4, No. 4, 2018, pp. 91-96 93
based on the formation of the flavonoid-aluminum complex
which has a maximum absorption at 500 nm [19, 20].
Condensed tannins: The condensed tannins have been
identified by the vanillin sulfuric method [21]. The principle
of this assay is based on the fixation of the vanillin's
aldehyde group on the carbon at position 6 of the ring A of
the catechin to form a red chromophoric complex which
absorbs at 510 nm [18].
2.4.2. Evaluation of Anti-Radical Activity
The antiradical activity was evaluated according to the
DPPH method [22]. The principle of this method is based
on measuring scavenging percent of DPPH solution's free
radicals. T his trapping is visualized by the disappearance
of DPPH's purple color. The vats are incubated in the dark
for one hour and the absorbances measured at 517 nm
[23]. Percentage of trapping was calculated using the
formula:
P = [(Abl - Aech)/Abl] x 100.
P: Percentage of trapping; Abl: absorbance of white; Aech:
absorbance of the sample
2.5. Statistical Processing of Results
Repeated trials were used to calculate the mean and standard
deviation associated with each measure based on Microsoft
Excel 2013. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for appreciating
the difference significance between some averages was made
with the Minitab 16.0 software. The method employed to
discriminate averages is that of the smallest significant
difference at the probability threshold P <5%. Indeed,
statistical differences with a probability value of less than
0.05 (P <5%) are considered significant. On the other hand, if
the probability is greater than 0.05 (P> 5%), the
corresponding statistical differences are said to be
insignificant.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Juice Content of Cashew Apples
The results obtained for the juice extraction yield of cashew
apple are reported in Table 1. The analysis of this table
shows that cashew apple's yellow variety refluxed the highest
juice extraction yield with (87.25±4.14)% followed by the
red variety with (80.90±3,53)%. So the yellow variety of
cashew apple presents a higher water content than red. Our
results on the juice content of cashew apples are similar to
those obtained in Côte d'Ivoire by Soro [4], who obtained the
same juice content (86%) for the two varieties of cashew
apple. By against, in South Africa, Deenanath et al. [24]
obtained a juice content of 26.52% (v/w) for all varieties,
three times lower than those found in this study. In addition,
Dédéhou et al. [13] obtained for the cashew apple in Benin
an average yield of 60.62% by mass of raw juice extracted
compared to apples. This low juice content would be justified
not only by the poor performance of the screw press used, but
also by the coarse cutting of the apple.
Table 1. Juice extraction yield of cashew apples
Yellow Red
Weighed mass (g) 200.3±0.1
b
302.1±0.1
a
Volume of juice (mL) 170±2
b
235±2
a
Yield (%) 87.25±4.14
a
80.90±3.53
b
Values with the same letter in the same line are not significantly different (P
< 5%) according to ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests.
3.2. Biochemical Parameters of Cashew
Apples Juice
The results of the biochemical parameters investigated are
reported in Tables 2 and 3. Apple juice investigated showed a
high total hardness (2 g/L), regardless of the variety, with
high conductivity values: 4490 µS/cm for the yellow variety
and 4440 µS/cm for the red variety. The measurement of the
conductivity of the samples determines the dilution factor
applicable to the different samples for mineral salts's dosage.
The hardness is based on dissolved salts concentration
(calcium and magnesium) contained in the liquid medium to
be analyzed.
The results obtained from the analysis of the physico-
chemical parameters (pH, titratable acidity, density and
Brix degree) of the juices of different cashew apple
varieties have been reported in Table 2. The physico-
chemical parameters investigated presented virtually no
significant difference. The analysis of the table shows that
pH of fruit juices were between (4.40±0,01) and
(4.43±0,01); which makes it possible to classify the samples
in the category of more or less acidic fruits [25]. pH's low
values of fruit juices would been essentialy due to the fruits
internal acidity. Juices pH are similar to those obtained
(4.00 and 4.60) by Michodjehoun-Mestres et al. [26] in
Brazil on the juices of the two cashew apple varieties. Also,
titratable acidity values were perfectly correlated with pH
values recorded. The juices showed a density between
(1.04±0.01) and (1.05±0.01). So juices were slightly denser
than distilled water. Our results corroborate those of
Deenanath et al. [27] in their investigations on cashew
apple juice, with respect to pH (4.52) and specific density
(1.050) in Johannesburg, South Africa. The highest Brix
degree (12.63±0.06) °Bx is obtained with cashew apple red
variety. déhou et al. [13] have obtained, in their
investigations on drinks based on cashew apple juice, Brix
degrees between 11 °Bx and 14 °Bx.
94 Agbangnan Dossa Cokou Pascal et al.: Nutritional Profile and Chemical Composition of
Juices of Two Cashew Apple’s Varieties of Benin
Table 2. Physico-chemical characteristics of cashew apple juice
Cashew apple variety Yellow Red
pH 4.40±0.01
a
4.43±0.01
a
Acidity (%) 2.52±0.16
a
2.44±0.07
a
Density 1.04±0.01
a
1.05±0.01
a
Brix Degree (°Bx) 9.25±0.26
b
12.63±0.06
a
Values with the same letter in the same line are not significantly different (P
< 5%) according to ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests.
Table 3 presents the nutritional composition of the juices of
two cashew apple varieties studied in this work. This table
recapitulates contents of macronutrients (total sugars,
proteins and lipids) and micronutrients (minerals and vitamin
C). The values observed with all metered nutrients except the
total sugars were significantly different for the two cashew
apple varieties (P<5%). The red variety revealed highs
macronutrient contents with values of (2.37±0.19)%,
(1.09±0.01)% and (2.99±0.01)%, respectively for total
sugars, proteins and lipids. Glucose and fructose represent 96
to 98% of the total sugars of cashew apples [4]. As these
reducing sugars are highly fermentable, this characteristic
contributes to the great perishability of cashew apples which,
once harvested, must be transformed within 24 hours,
otherwise they will ferment. Moreover, this richness in
reducing sugars makes cashew apple products particularly
sensitive to non-enzymatic brownings (for example
coloration of the juice during pasteurization). Both varieties
contained virtually the same amounts of vitamin C (0.99%
and 1.01%) according to Tukey test (P = 0.293). Also, It was
noticed that micronutrients such as potassium, calcium and
sodium were detected in high content in cashew apple juice
analyzed mainly with the red variety, except that magnesium
is more than three times concentrated in the yellow variety
(413.44 mg/L). The other micronutrients such as copper, iron,
zinc, manganese and iodine were observed in low
proportions. The protein content obtained in the present work
was greater than that of Adou et al. [28] at Yamoussoukro in
the Ivory Coast regardless of cashew apple variety. The work
by Dédéhou et al. [13] on clarified cashew juice's drinks
revealed a vitamin C content ranging from 147.07 to 185.79
mg/100 mL. These values are about six (06) times lower than
those obtained in the present work. Also, these beverages
contain potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, iron and
calcium. Potassium was the mineral with the highest content
(145.03 to 134.26 mg/100g), while calcium and iron had the
lowest contents with respectively (2.01 to 2.09 mg/100 g)
and (1.54-2.97 mg/100 g). The high potassium content was
confirmed in this study. Unfortunately, despite its nutritional
value, this pseudo-fruit has remained largely untapped in its
production areas. Until now, consumption of raw cashew
apples or processed apples does not exceed 10% of total
production. This implies practically an annual post-harvest
loss of about 90% of production [29]. Furthermore, Adou et
al. [30] in their “in vivo” toxicity tests on mixed of cashew
apple juice and milk on mice at Abidjan in Côte d'Ivoire, had
not detected any trace of toxicity of this mixture.
Table 3. Nutritional composition of the juice of two cashew apple varieties
Variety Yellow Red
Micronutrients contents (mg/L)
Potassium 3609.93±1.15
b
4361.28±4.31
a
Calcium 120.24±0.10
b
601.20±0.51
a
Magnesium 413.44±0.31
a
121.60±0.24
b
Sodium 218.03±0.22
b
234.01±0.42
a
Copper 0.86±0.01
b
1.28±0.01
a
Iron 44.80±0.11
a
35.10±0.10
b
Zinc 3.55±0.01
b
4.47±0.01
a
Manganese 19.75±0.02
a
3.16±0.02
b
Iode 6.25±0.01
b
22.00±0.01
a
Macronutrients contents (%)
Total sugars 1.56±0.13
b
2.37±0.19
a
Proteins 0.79±0.01
b
1.09±0.01
a
Lipids 2.25±0.01
b
2.99±0.01
a
Vitamine C 1.01±0.01
a
0.99±0.01
a
Values with the same letter in the same line are not significantly different (P
<5%) according to ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests.
3.3. Phenolic Composition of Cashew Apple
Juice
The results of the quantitative analyzes of phenolic
compounds (total polyphenols, total flavonoids and
condensed tannins) by UV-visible spectrophotometry of the
juices of two cashew apple varieties are summarized in Table
4. These results are expressed in g/L of juice and indicate that
the juices studied contain mostly total polyphenols; but
they're less concentrated in flavonoids and condensed
tannins. The two varieties of cashew apple showed no
significant difference (P>0.05) in their phenolic composition.
The red variety of cashew apple presented the highest content
in total polyphenol (45.99±1.15) g/L and condensed tannins
(0.43±0.02) g/L. The same total flavonoid content (1.68 g/L)
was observed in both varieties. The work of Deenanath et al.
[27] revealed in Brazil a condensed tannin content (55.34
mg/L) on cashew apple's raw juice, about ten (10) times
lower than that obtained in this study. Drinks based on
cashew apple juice clarified with cassava starch or rice gruel
revealed tannin contents ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 g/L [13].
Also, Deenanath [31] obtained in Brazil a low content of
condensed tannins (15.34 mg/L) in the previously treated
cashew apple. These contents are very low compared with
those obtained in the present work; which confirms
clarification processes' beneficial effect of cashew apple juice
with the aim of eliminating tannins to improve its
organoleptic quality before any food consumption. In
addition, Castro et al. [32] revealed low contents of tannins
(0.16% and 0.12%) respectively in the apples of two species
of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale and A.
microcarpum) in Brazil. The richness in tannins of the apple
Chemistry Journal Vol. 4, No. 4, 2018, pp. 91-96 95
gives it a particularly strong astringency.
Table 4. Phenolic composition of juices of two cashew apple varieties
Phenolic composition (g/L) Cashew apple variety
Yellow Red
Total polyphenols 36.12±3.01
a
45.99±1.15
a
Total flavonoids 1.68±0.20
b
1.68±0.19
b
Condensed tanins 0.25±0.11
b
0.43±0.02
b
Values that do not share any letters in the same row are significantly
different (P<5%) according to ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison
tests.
3.4. Antioxidant Power of the Juices of Two
Cashew Apple Varieties
The antioxidant activity of the juices of the two varieties of
cashew apple by the DPPH method was determined by
referencing to quercetin (Q), a standard antioxidant (IC50 =
0.1 mg/mL). The juices exhibited a lower antiradical power
than that of the reference compound (Table 5). Nevertheless,
the yellow variety has proved to be the most active (4.8
mg/mL) followed by the red variety (5.8 mg/mL). The
richness of polyphenols in the juice of the cashew apple gives
it its antioxidant properties [28].
Table 5. Juices and standards' antiradical activity.
Samples IC50 (mg/mL) ARP
Yellow cashew apple 4,8 0,21
Red cashew apple 5,8 0,17
Q 0,1 10
ARP (Antiradical power)= 1/IC
50
.
Indeed, cashew apple is a source rich in sugars, vitamin C
and polyphenols as also indicated by the work of
Michodjehoun-Mestres et al. [26] and contains significant
amounts of carotenoids [33] and more than 50 aromatic
compounds [4]. The work of Gordon et al. [29] showing the
variation in the composition of bioactive compounds and
antioxidant power of cashew apples during maturation
revealed the presence of fourteen (14) phenolic compounds
in this pseudo fruit, which compounds decreased during
process. These works has also proved that cashew apple is an
excellent source of ascorbic acid, a compound that
contributes most to its antioxidant activity by its ability to
trap radicals.
4. Conclusion
In the present study, characterization tests were investigated
on the juices of two varieties of cashew apple. The evaluation
of the chemical composition and nutritional profile of the
juices of the two cashew apple varieties showed that the
cashew apple is rich in vitamin C, minerals and phenolic
compounds. The therapeutic and nutritional virtues of cashew
apple show that this agro-resource can well be used as an
interesting food. Its food valorization will contribute to
solving health problems for the consumer and bring added
value to this agro resource. It will also help fight
environmental problems associated with rotting in fields after
harvesting the nut.
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