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HARMFUL EFFECTS OF 5G RADIATIONS: REVIEW

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Increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. A massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G, and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects. It is argued that the addition of this added high-frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives. In this paper, the harmful effect of 5G radiation is discussed for various verticals such as health, environmental issues, privacy, thermal etc.
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Proceedings of IRAJ International Conference, 24th March, 2019, Bengaluru, India
71
HARMFUL EFFECTS OF 5G RADIATIONS: REVIEW
1SUBHASH CHANDER VERMA, 2TEJASWINI T M, 3DEVASIS PRADHAN
1,2UG Students, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bengaluru-107,
Karnataka, India
3Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Acharya Institute of Technology,
Bengaluru-107, Karnataka, India
E-mail: subhas.beec.15@acharya.ac.in, tejaswini.beec.15@acharya.ac.in, devasispradhan@acharya.ac.in
Abstract - Increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with
increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a
variety of devices and infrastructure. A massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of
broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain
unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G, and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies
are far less studied for human or environmental effects. It is argued that the addition of this added high-frequency 5G
radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both
physical and mental health perspectives. In this paper, the harmful effect of 5G radiation is discussed for various verticals
such as health, environmental issues, privacy, thermal etc.
Keywords - Public Health Issues; Environmental Issue; Thermal Effects; SAR
I. INTRODUCTION
The use of mobile wireless technologies continues to
increase worldwide. A new faster 5th generation (5G)
telecommunication system has recently been
approved by the Federal Communications
Commission(FCC) with new antennas which is
already being installed and tested. While it may give
us uber automation and instantaneous “immersive
entertainment” a lot of questions remain with regards
to public health and safety of wireless devices. 5G
will include the higher millimeter wave frequencies
never before used for internet and communications
technology. The 5G deployment proposes to add
frequencies in the microwave spectrum in the low-
(0.6 GHz – 3.7 GHz), mid- (3.7GHz 24 GHz), and
high-band frequencies (24 GHz and higher) for faster
communications.
As these higher frequencies do not travel far and are
blocked by buildings, this system will have to use a
dense network of fixed antennae outdoors every 300
meters as well as indoor systems. This radiation, like
the 2G, 3G, 4G telecommunications systems, has not
had pre-market testing for long term health effects
despite the fact that people will be exposed
continuously to this microwave radiation. Fig 1.
Shows the low-frequency cell to MMW cell with a
frequency range for wireless communication.
Fig. 1. Frequency cells used for wireless communication
II. PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE
Millimeter waves (MMWs) are mostly absorbed
within 1 to 2 millimeters of human skin and in the
surface layers of the cornea. Thus, the skin or near-
surface zones of tissues are the primary targets of the
radiation. Since skin contains capillaries and nerve
endings, MMW bio-effects may be transmitted
through molecular mechanisms by the skin or through
the nervous system.
2.1 5G radiations are Carcinogenic
5G high spectrum range can leads mutation of cells
and induces tumors which might later become cancer.
Exposure to the 5G radiation increases the production
of ROS. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a normal
part of cellular processes and cell signaling.
Overproduction of ROS that is not balanced with
either endogenous antioxidants (superoxide dismutase
(SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase
(GPx), glutathione (GSH), melatonin), or exogenous
antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids,
polyphenols) allows the formation of free radicals
that oxidize and damage DNA, proteins, membrane
lipids and mitochondria.
Mitochondrial doesn’t have histones has a result of
which it can’t repair DNA damage and is not
protected from mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
(Görlach et al., 2015). Excess ROS is produced due to
radiation exposure, have been associated with
exposure to toxic chemicals, pesticides and metals
(Abdollahi et al., 2004; Sharma et al., 2014: Drechsel
and Patel, 2008). Oxidative damage from ROS has
been increasingly linked to the development and/or
exacerbation of a number of chronic diseases and
cancer. Fig.2 depicts the formation of cancer due to
radiation.
Harmful Effects of 5G Radiations: Review
Proceedings of IRAJ International Conference, 24th March, 2019, Bengaluru, India
72
Fig2.1 formation of cancer due to radiation
2.2 Effect on Skin
A number of experiments have shown that surface
effects of low-intensity MMW can be quite
substantial, inducing a number of biological changes,
even at nonthermal levels, including cell membrane
effects. short term application of certain frequencies
stimulates a release of endogenous opioids in the
skin. It appears that the 95 GHz MMW range affects
the cutaneous nociceptors and act as a threatening
stimulus without heating or thermal damage.
Researchers have proposed the sweat glands as a
target. Feldman et al. (2008;2009) demonstrated that
the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped
tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution.
Their research indicates that sweat ducts in the skin
could behave as antennas and thus respond to
millimeter waves.
2.3 Effects on Eyes
Cataract has remained a leading cause for blindness.
There is a particular concern for 5G applications as
the eyes would also receive significant radiation
especially for near field exposures. Well established
risk factors in the development of cataracts are age,
smoking, diabetes, and UVB exposure. Research is
pointing towards oxidative damage as a general
mechanism for age-related cataracts. Ellwein and
Urato, 2002). Well established risk factors in the
development of cataracts are age, smoking, diabetes,
and UVB exposure. Research is pointing towards
oxidative damage as a general mechanism for age-
related cataracts (Spector, 1995; Ye et al., 2001;
Abraham et al., 2006). Microwave radiation is also a
known cause of cataracts with heat being an
undisputed mechanism. The eyes lack sufficient
blood flow to dissipate heat effectively. There is
some evidence that repeated low-level exposures to
microwave radiation could cause cataracts but
researchers agree that more studies are needed.
Fig.2.3 Cataract affected the eye 2.4 Effects on Immune System
5G spectrum might also induce electromagnetic
sensitivity. Electromagnetic sensitivity has the
following characteristics headaches, insomnia,
dizziness, nausea, lack of concentration, heart
palpitations, and depression.
Research work took for the effect of radiation at
higher frequency band analyzed by the different
researcher (worked on mice) shown in table 2.4.1
Sl.No.
Researcher
Year Observation
Name
1
Kolomytseva 2002 Exposing healthy mice to low- intensity extremely
high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0
GHz, 0.15 mW/cm2 , 20 min daily). The study showed 50%
suppression of phagocytic activity of neutrophils after a single
exposure to MMW radiation with the authors noting a profound
effect on nonspecific immunity.
2
Lushnikov 2003 Investigate cell-mediated immunity and nonspecific
inflammatory response in mice exposed to
low-intensity extremely high-frequency
electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.1
Harmful Effects of 5G Radiations: Review
Proceedings of IRAJ International Conference, 24th March, 2019, Bengaluru, India
73
mW/cm2, 20 min daily)
3
Gapeev 2003 Investigate low-intensity extremely high- frequency
MMH electromagnetic radiation in vivo causes
effects on spatial organization of chromatin in cells
of lymphoid organs. Chromatin is a complex of DNA
and proteins that forms chromosomes within the
nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
2.5 Neurological effects
When the nervous system or the brain is disturbed, by
EMR, morphological, electrophysiological, and
chemical changes can occur. A significant change in
these functions will inevitably lead to a change in
behavior. Indeed, the neurological effects of EMR
reported in the literature include changes in blood-
brain-barrier, morphology, electrophysiology,
neurotransmitter functions, cellular metabolism,
calcium efflux, responses to drugs that affect the
nervous system.
III. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Birds and other wildlife are disappearing from areas
that are saturated with 4G “non-ionizing” radiation.
The horrific manmade frequencies emanating from
our devices are literally killing innocent living
creatures or causing them to flee en masse. Mankind
is next. No life form will be able to withstand 5G for
any amount of time. Its presence in our world is a
genocidal, murderous attack against Creation.
3.1 Effects on plants
In 2010, a study on aspen seedlings determined
exposure to radio frequencies caused leaves to exhibit
necrosis symptoms, while Armenian-based trials
revealed low-intensity millimeter waves invoke
peroxidase (a stress protein in plants) isoenzyme
spectrum changes of wheat shoots. In the present
work, the influence of EMI EHF on peroxidase total
activity and isoenzyme spectrum in wheat seedling
cells has been investigated.
Fig 3.1 5G radiation effect on plants
3.2 Effects on Wildlife
Since 3G technology has arrived, there have been
increased reports of birds abandoning their nests as
well as health issues like plumage deterioration,
locomotion problems, reduced survivorship, and
death,” says researcher Alfonso Balmori. Bird species
that are affected by these low levels, non-ionizing
MMWave radiation are the House Sparrows, Rock
Doves, White Storks, Collared Doves, and Magpies,
among others. But it’s not just the birds. The
declining bee population is also said to be linked to
this non-ionizing EMF radiation. It reduces the egg-
laying abilities of the queen leading to a decline in
colony strength.
There has been an incident in Netherlands because of
an 5G experiment 287 birds were killed in november
2018.
IV. THERMAL EFFECTS
1) When EM radiation is absorbed, it is converted
into heat. A readily understandable mechanism
of the effect of radiation is tissue heating
(thermal effect). Biological systems alter their
functions as a result of a change in temperature.
When electromagnetic radiation is incident on
the matter, it causes the charged particles to
oscillate and gain energy. The ultimate fate of
this energy depends on the situation. It could be
immediately re-radiated and appear as scattered,
reflected, or transmitted radiation. It may also get
dissipated into other microscopic motions within
the matter, coming to thermal equilibrium and
manifesting itself as thermal energy in the
material.
2) Intense radio waves can thermally burn living
tissue and can cook food. In addition to infrared
lasers, sufficiently intense visible and ultraviolet
lasers can also easily set paper afire. Ionizing
electromagnetic radiation can create high-speed
electrons in a material and break chemical bonds,
but after these electrons collide many times with
other atoms in the material eventually most of
Harmful Effects of 5G Radiations: Review
Proceedings of IRAJ International Conference, 24th March, 2019, Bengaluru, India
74
the energy gets downgraded to thermal energy,
this whole process happening in a tiny fraction of
a second.
3) The inverse or time-reversed process of
absorption is responsible for thermal radiation.
The resulting radiation may subsequently be
absorbed by another piece of matter, with the
deposited energy heating the material. Radiation
is an important mechanism of heat transfer.
Fig 4.1 Ionising and Non-ionising Spectrum
V. SPECIFIC ABSORPTION RATE (SAR)
The rate at which radiation is absorbed by the human
body is measured by specific absorption rate (SAR),
measured in units of watts per kg (W/kg) of tissue. If
the heat generated is small, the body’s
thermoregulatory mechanism can dissipate it without
causing adverse effects. If the temperature exceeds
this capacity, about 1 to 2 degree Celsius, tissue
damage may occur. Every mobile phone comes with
a SAR rating (although some manufacturers try to
hide it). Regulating agencies has set its maximum
levels for handsets. Radiations depend on its design,
antenna, how it is held and used. Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Committee on Man and Radiation, national and
international organizations have established safety
guidelines for exposure to RF energy. Testing has
shown a wide range in radiation exposure to the user
of various brands and models of cellular phones. The
SAR values of a few cell-phone models are tabulated:
Sl No. Model Series SAR(W/Kg)
1
LG
Phoenix 4
1.0
Risio 3 1.0
X Power 3 1.0
Xpression Plus
1.04
Aristo 2 Plus
1.05
2
Tambo
TA-1 1.019
3 Vivo
BLU XL4
1.03
BLU XL3
1.04
4
Mobilstar C1 Shine
1.037
5
Samsung
G S10+
1.04
6
Xiaomi
Mi 9
1.04
Table 5.1 SAR Values for the different cellular model
5.2 FCC Exposure limits for 5GMMWave
SAR levels are used for cell phones, tablets, and other
handheld wireless devices to determine regulatory
compliance. For millimeter wavelength devices and
infrastructure power density above 6 GHz (FCC) and
above 10 GHz (ICNIRP) needs to be measured with
power density (FCC, 1997; Wu et al., 2015a) This is
due to the higher energy absorption in a shallow area
that causes heating more rapidly resulting in much
higher SAR levels.
The FCC maximum permissible exposure (MPE) in
terms of power density for frequencies between 1.5
and 100 GHz is 10 mW/cm2 over a 30 min period
(FCC, 1997; Romanenko et al., 2014). Heat generated
is a concern in handheld devices for 5G but is still
considered the only valid measure of harm, no
biological cellular alterations are considered (Wu et
al., 2015a).
CONCLUSION
In this era of evolving communication technologies, it
has more disadvantages than the advantages, and it
has become life-threatening as well. In 5G
technology, MMWave is giving high data rates and
making everything IOT connected, which can be
considered as a positive point but the hazardous
effects of 5G MMWave on human health and wildlife
is not negligible, if we try to decrease the effects by
considering the value of SAR then 5G technology can
be considered as fruitful.
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
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We measured total peroxidase activity and the activities of peroxidase isoforms in leaves of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings exposed to wounding and plant hormones in the greenhouse. Activity of specific peroxidase isoforms was induced differentially by gypsy moth wounding, mechanical wounding, and the wound-associated plant hormone jasmonic acid. Activity of one isoform was enhanced modestly by treatment with salicylate. A study of peroxidase activity in naturally occurring galls elicited on red oak leaves by 12 hymenopteran and dipteran insect species found 16 POD isoforms, 11 of which were differentially induced or suppressed in galls compared with leaves. In both studies, total peroxidase activity as measured spectrophotometrically was not clearly related to activity of these isoforms. These results indicate that red oak seedlings and trees may respond specifically to wounding, particular insects, and plant signals through changes in the activities of individual isozymes.
US EPA Office of Air and Radiation and Office of Research and Development: Summary of Results of the
EPA, 1993. US EPA Office of Air and Radiation and Office of Research and Development: Summary of Results of the April 26-27, 1993.
Radiofrequency Radiation conference
Radiofrequency Radiation conference. Analysis of Panel Discussions. Volume 1. March 1995
Influence of low intensity coherent electromagnetic millimeter waves on growth and peroxidase total activity of wheat germs
  • P O Vardevanyan
  • A V Nerkararyan
  • M A Shahinyan
Vardevanyan PO, Nerkararyan AV, Shahinyan MA (2013). Influence of low intensity coherent electromagnetic millimeter waves on growth and peroxidase total activity of wheat germs. J. of Exp. Biol. and Agricult. Sci., 1(1): 39-44.
Activity and thermostability of antioxidant enzymes of roots of wheat seedlings after eczogene effect of hydrogen peroxide
  • Y V Karpets
  • T O Yastreb
  • A I Oboznii
  • Y E Kolupaev
Karpets YV, Yastreb TO, Oboznii AI, Kolupaev YE (2009). Activity and thermostability of antioxidant enzymes of roots of wheat seedlings after eczogene effect of hydrogen peroxide. Vestnik of Kharkov National Agrarian University, Series Biology, (In Russian), 17(2): 62-70.
What constitutes a public health problem? Epimonitor (AccessedSept30
  • R H Bernier
Bernier, R.H., 2017. What constitutes a public health problem? Epimonitor (AccessedSept30,2017).〈http://epimonitor.net/List_of_Public _H ealth_Issues.htm〉.