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A Survey on LoRa for IoT: Integrating Edge Computing



Increased automation and intelligence in computer systems have revealed limitations of Cloud-based computing such as unpredicted latency in safety-critical and performance-sensitive applications. The amount of data generated from ubiquitous sensors has reached a degree where it becomes impractical to always store and process in the Cloud. Edge computing brings computation and storage to the Edge of the network near to where the data originates yielding reduced network load and better performance of services. In parallel, new wireless communication technologies have appeared to facilitate the expansion of Internet of Things (IoT). Instead of seeking higher data rates, low-power wide-area network aims at battery-powered sensor nodes and devices which require reliable communication for a prolonged period of time. Recently, Long Range (LoRa) has become a popular choice for IoT-based solutions. In this paper, we explore and analyze different application fields and related works which use LoRa and investigate potential improvement opportunities and considerations. Furthermore, we propose a generic architecture to integrate Edge computation capability in IoT-based applications for enhanced performance.
A Survey on LoRa for IoT:
Integrating Edge Computing
V. K. Sarker1, J. Pe ˜
na Queralta1, T. N. Gia1, H. Tenhunen2and T. Westerlund1
1Department of Future Technologies, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
2Department of Electronics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Email: 1{vikasar, jopequ, tunggi, tovewe},
Abstract—Increased automation and intelligence in computer
systems have revealed limitations of Cloud-based computing
such as unpredicted latency in safety-critical and performance-
sensitive applications. The amount of data generated from ubiq-
uitous sensors has reached a degree where it becomes impractical
to always store and process in the Cloud. Edge computing brings
computation and storage to the Edge of the network near to
where the data originates yielding reduced network load and
better performance of services. In parallel, new wireless commu-
nication technologies have appeared to facilitate the expansion
of Internet of Things (IoT). Instead of seeking higher data rates,
low-power wide-area network aims at battery-powered sensor
nodes and devices which require reliable communication for a
prolonged period of time. Recently, Long Range (LoRa) has
become a popular choice for IoT-based solutions. In this paper,
we explore and analyze different application fields and related
works which use LoRa and investigate potential improvement
opportunities and considerations. Furthermore, we propose a
generic architecture to integrate Edge computation capability
in IoT-based applications for enhanced performance.
Index Terms—IoT, Edge Computing, Fog Computing, Smart
Cities, Smart Agriculture, Farming, Animal Tracking, IIoT,
Smart Metering, LoRa, LoRaWAN, LPWAN, Survey.
The number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications has
exponentially increased in recent years. Often these require
low-power operation and long-range communication which
cannot be provided by traditional communication protocols
such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Low power wide area network
(LPWAN) becomes one of the most prominent candidates
satisfying the requirements. LPWAN have been extensively
studied over the last decade and multiple protocols related to
LPWAN have been developed [1]–[5]. LoRa/LoRaWAN and
Sigfox are the mostly used among LPWAN related protocols
as they provide very low power consumption and long-range
transmission. The main drawback of these technologies is
that the data rate is significantly lower compared to Wi-Fi
or Bluetooth.
The big data generated by an exponentially increasing
number of connected devices has yielded system architec-
tures based on new computational paradigms such as Edge
computing [6]. Unlike traditional IoT-based architecture [7]
where the collected raw data is sent from end-devices to
gateways and then forwarded to Cloud servers, Edge-assisted
IoT architecture consists of an extra layer between end-devices
and gateways. The Edge layer refers to the action of data
processing and analysis capabilities near where the data origi-
nates. We emphasize that by leveraging the advantages of Edge
computing, end-devices can provide rich information with a
limited amount of transmitted data. This lowers the burden
of the Cloud servers through a more distributed computing
approach, and simultaneously reduces network load.
Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) have emerged
to overcome some disadvantages of short-range communi-
cation protocols (i.e., Bluetooth and Wi-Fi). For example,
LPWANs help maintain low-power operation which cannot
be achieved with Wi-Fi [8]–[11]. LPWANs also offer a long-
range communication up to kilometers. The two prominent
protocols of the LPWAN family are LoRa (Long Range) and
Sigfox [12]. Sigfox uses narrow-band modulation while LoRa
is a modulation scheme which uses chirp spread spectrum
(CSS). Different open and proprietary standards for the link
and network layers have been designed and some of them can
be independently deployed by end-users.
Although there are different protocols in LPWAN family
such as Weightless,Ingenu RPMA,Symphony Link, we have
conducted a study of recent use cases where LoRa has
been applied. We have chosen LoRa, among other LPWAN
technologies, because of its market penetration and wide use
in the industrial, educational and amateur community. LoRa
is a technology that defines a physical layer for low-power
and long-range communication, and can be operated on sub-
gigahertz unlicensed radio bands. LoRaWAN is the standard
protocol for the link and network layers over LoRa backed
by the LoRa Alliance. Private LoRaWAN networks can be
deployed by individuals or organizations. Among several open
and public ones existing across the globe, the Things Network
is one of the largest public LoRaWAN networks [13].
Due to the open standard, LoRaWAN has been deployed in
many public networks such as the ones in Amsterdam and
Bristol [14]. However, from another viewpoint, LoRaWAN
cannot be considered as a fully open standard since the LoRa
patents are property of Semtech Corporation and only devices
manufactured by them can be used for data transmission with
LoRa. Fortunately, the LoRa network is open for everyone for
professional and non-professional usage. This has boosted the
popularity of LoRa in general and particularly LoRaWAN for
a myriad of applications related to the IoT.
Multiple studies on LoRa and LoRaWAN have been pub-
lished over the past few years [1] [9] [10]. However, the fast
adoption of the technology and its increasing adoption by
industry and academia demonstrate its applicability in new
scenarios every day. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge,
previous surveys and studies on LoRa has been focused on
its applicability for the IoT in general. This mostly includes
applications where lower volume of data are acquired and
transmitted over the network. In this paper, in addition to an
overview of up-to-date LoRa-based applications, we provide
a proof-of-concept (PoC) of an Edge-assisted IoT architec-
ture suiting to high data rate LoRa-based applications while
maintaining LoRa and LoRaWAN’s advantages of low power
consumption and long-range communication. The architecture
can open the door to a myriad of new possibilities and
The rest of the paper is structured as follows. Section II
discusses different applications based on LoRa and LPWAN
technologies which would benefit from Edge computing. Sec-
tion III presents the advantages of leveraging Edge computing
in applications that rely on LoRa communication. Section
IV discusses aspects which should be taken into account for
LoRa-based solutions. Finally, Section V concludes the work.
In this section, we discuss multiple recent IoT applications
based on LoRa and LPWAN and analyze possible enhance-
ment possibilities.
A. Smart Cities
IoT has been closely related to the concept of smart cities
[15]–[19]. Mitton et al. proposed integration with Cloud ser-
vices and software as a service (SaaS) platforms. They defined
a high-level modular architecture that offers adaptability to a
wide variety of sensor data. A variety of sensors is since being
deployed in cities across the world to provide city admin-
istrators with more in-depth information of the environment
and the interaction of citizens with a city’s infrastructure [20]
[21]. In earlier applications, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or GSM/3G/LTE
were the mainly used wireless technologies, but more recent
solutions have been presented that use LoRa for low-rate, low-
power, long battery life applications in Smart Cities [12], [22]–
[26]. Regarding the reliability of LoRa, Pasolini et al. have
shown that the range of LoRa in a dense urban environment
is about 1 to 2 km, with the gateway deployed in a favorable
position at 71 m above average ground level [23]. The authors
have run different simulations to estimate the bit error rate, and
the percentage of packets successfully received at the gateway
for different configurations.
B. Industrial IoT
With the increased variety of applications in industrial envi-
ronments where connectivity, monitoring, tracking and control
are necessary, there has always been a need of a cost-effective
solution [27]. In such scenario, LoRa technology has gained
popularity due to its small hardware footprint, low-power
operation and long range. Addabbo et al. [28] proposed a
system based on LoRa LPWAN to monitor chemical emissions
in industrial plants. The system consists of sensor nodes in
which an array of humidity, temperature and electrochemical
gas sensors are managed and thus compensates temperature
sensor data dependency when monitoring gases such as CO,
NOxand O2. In addition, a network architecture for acquiring
and managing data is presented with tests ensuring that in
noisy urban areas it is possible to achieve a communication
range of 3 km.
The latest industry standard encourages digitization, compu-
tation and use of multi-nodal data exchange. With a time-based
channel hopping mechanism of LoRa and specific planning of
the parameters such as time, frequency and spreading factor,
it is possible to access up to 6000 individual nodes in a
minute cycle, as investigated by Rizzi et al. [29]. Huang et
al. [30] shown a simulation that constitutes a multi-hop long-
chain topology to analyze and find the optimal path for power
lines in smart grids, resulting in greater performance in long-
distance transmission.
Waste management from growing industries is a chal-
lenge particularly for manufacturing plants and consumer
production. Mdukaza et al. [31] proposed an IoT-based smart
waste management system using LoRa and LPWAN with
improvement in usability and performance due to problems
caused by weather conditions, unauthorized access, range.
Another approach by Chung et al. [32] presented a system
for intelligent classification and environment monitoring with
LoRa. The system focuses on automatic classification, easier
monitoring and actuation based on a wide range of sensors for
the trash containers and provides historical data from different
locations for enhanced garbage collection management.
C. Animal Tracking and Farming
Yim et al. deployed an IoT-based crop monitoring system
and recognized the LoRa LPWAN as appropriate technology
for using in agriculture [33]. They noted that there were incon-
sistency in RSSI and data reliability during the communication
with respect to distance and that LoRa technology is affected
by Fresnel Zone. However, they have not shown a clear way
of solving those and to improve performance in rural areas
where there is lot of interference.
In another work, Ali et al. [34] proposed a precision agricul-
ture monitoring system with Green IoT in focus for observing
different aspects such as weather, soil, water, pesticide, fire and
intrusion from anywhere. The authors considered LoRa as a
better alternative compared to other communication protocols
such as ZigBee, Wi-Fi and GSM for periodic updating of data
while using lower energy. The system is supposed to reduce
emission of greenhouse gases and lower the time it takes to
deploy such infrastructure in a cost-effective way.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) paved the way to system-
atic surveillance of wildlife. An interesting attempt was made
by Ibrahim et al. [35] to better understand the life of Swiftlet
birds by using LoRa communication and video analytics with
a simulation of optimum condition inside a bird’s nest. The
proposed system uses LoRa alongside 3G GSM connectivity
to monitor temperature, humidity, oxygen level and number of
birds going in and out of a particular nest.
Li et al. presented a LoRa LPWAN based data acquisition
collar for monitoring the vital signs of grassland roaming
cows [36]. The system enhances husbandry of animals with
the use of sensors such as GPS sensor and accelerometers
taking the advantage of long-distance communication of LoRa
technology to reduce human labor and related resources.
The proposed system consists of different sensor-equipped
nodes communicating over SX1278-based LoRaWAN besides
gateways and severs.
D. Smart Metering
In an extensive analysis, Tome et al. illustrated how event-
based monitoring can be used to reproduce a user’s electricity
consumption profile rather than using the traditional time
based monitoring [37]. They used LoRa communication to
send the data of which the interval of transmission is reduced
because data is sent only when a change in the monitored
load is detected rather than continuously sending. The authors
have focused on LoRa based meters to send average power
requirement to a gateway during a given period. Being event-
driven the system is inherently able to detect peak consumption
and could reach a 90% similarity with respect to when
monitored continuously.
Li et al. analyzed water consumption metering system for
consumers and presented a multilevel remote meter reading
architecture based on LoRa and GPRS [38]. The system
relies on three components- a meter node, a repeater and a
concentrator which stores the acquired data and then sends it to
the server for remote management and monitoring. They also
defined an uplink communication data packet format to ensure
data integrity and system reliability. However, their proposed
system uses multiple communication technologies at the lower
level of the hierarchy which could be simplified by using the
LoRa as it has longer range and lower power requirement.
Monitoring electricity consumption in a secure and properly
managed way is another challenge in developing countries
where the digital infrastructure is just emerging and there
are a lot of customers. Dalpiaz et al. presented an impressive
low-cost battery-free power meter based on energy harvesting
and LoRa wireless transmission [39]. The authors claim that
it can drastically reduce energy consumption due to zero
standby energy requirement at zero-load situation as the device
harvests energy from the load it monitors and transmits data
only when there is a threshold voltage present. This approach
reduces the cost of installation, maintenance and eliminates
need of replacing batteries.
In another work, Wibisono et al. has presented an advanced
metering infrastructure based on LoRaWAN for eco-friendly
smart grid [40]. As the single phase meters do not require
lot of data to be transferred, the authors preferred LoRa
communication technology over GSM-based solutions due
to its low-power operation, cost-effectiveness and unlicensed
frequency band availability. They claimed that the proposed
system achieved full control accuracy of the meters while
reducing investment and operational cost to 60% and 90%,
respectively. The authors discussed how LoRaWAN can still
be used under special IoT category in countries where the
exact frequency is not available through sub-licensing and
compliance certification. However, the system sends all data to
a central base transceiver station (BTS) without any processing
in terms of compression, encryption and data integrity check
which can cause problem when the number of customer
increases or when covering large area.
E. Environment Monitoring
Wu et al. presented a wearable sensor node named WE-Safe
based on LoRa for monitoring levels of carbon monoxide,
carbon dioxide, ultra-violet rays and other general environ-
mental parameters [41]. The low-power sensor node connects
to a gateway for sending data to the Cloud. However, the
proposed system is not feasible when the number of nodes
increases. In addition, the authors did not mentioned if any
kind of processing is done after receiving the data and how it
is handled in situations when the network is not available. The
system would benefit from data pre-analysis before uploading
the data to the Cloud considering the fact that numerous nodes
can generate a huge amount of data resulting in a unpredicted
latency and possible bottleneck in the network.
Guibene et al. has presented a PoC for monitoring river
environment by deploying a buoy with multiple sensors,
LoRa LPWAN-based transceiver and a 3G modem [42]. They
measured water depth, temperature, velocity and GPS location.
The performed experiment validated that it was possible to
cover a large area with near-line-of-sight LoRa transceivers. A
boundary condition was set to prevent erroneous sensor data
when the data bytes got changed due to long distance but
were received with a valid CRC. Introducing Edge computing
capable gateways before the central gateways and applying
compression and appropriate error handling mechanism would
improve the system.
In a similar work, Nordin et al. has implemented a narrow-
band IoT-based hydrological monitoring system for a rural
lake marked as UNESCO biosphere [43]. The authors have in-
vestigated network performance predictability, limitations and
reliability of wireless networks in rural area and with 2G and
LoRa. They concluded that GSM-based data communication is
not reliable in rural areas due to irregular terrain and non line
of sight operation and decided that LoRa is a better alternative
in terms of RSSI with high altitude antenna placement.
In summary, although the mentioned LoRa and LoRaWAN-
based applications show benefits of long-range communica-
tion, these cannot be considered the most appropriate solutions
as those are not scalable. When the number of LoRa-based
sensor nodes increases significantly and the collected data is
large, the system will collapse. Consequently, high latency
and data errors may occur due to bandwidth overload or
LoRaWAN regulation cannot be fulfilled. Therefore, a new
architecture is required which can both harvest advantages of
LoRa and provide scalability.
Sensor Nodes Edge Gateway Cloud
Node 1
Node 2
Node N
Global Storage
Power Computing
LoRa Gateways
Fig. 1. The proposed system architecture with integration of Edge computing
Edge and Fog computing is a paradigm which refers to the
concept of distributed computing by bringing advantages of
Cloud paradigm to the Edge of the network [44]. With this
approach, benefits including load-shedding in the Cloud and
efficient bandwidth utilization can be achieved. Moreover, by
bringing services such as advanced analytics, artificial intel-
ligence and distributed storage closer to end-devices, overall
system latency can be significantly reduced.
While Cloud computing has been playing a remarkable role
in IoT applications for smart cities, more recently Fog and
Edge computing have been leveraged to reduce the network
load and the amount of unprocessed data transmission while
enabling a more balanced and intelligent solution with dis-
tribution of computational tasks across different layers in the
network. Perera et al. presented the integration of Cloud and
Fog computing as a sustainable solution for a smart city to
minimize the waste of resources such as network capacity,
Cloud storage and computational capability of Cloud servers
[45]. A mobile Edge computing architecture has been tested by
Chen et al. using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to gather
environmental data from different points of a city [24]. In this
case, sensors are not static and the drones move towards points
of interest to obtain data.
Giordano et al. introduced a platform that enables Edge
computing for tasks carried out by multi-agent systems [46].
Tang et al. presented a pipeline monitoring system with
sequential learning algorithms and a prototype for a PoC [47].
The authors also introduced a hierarchical Fog Computing
architecture for big data analysis in smart cities [48]. The
advantages of adopting Edge computing in a smart city en-
vironment have been studied by He et al. in an extensive
framework that enables organization of computing, networking
and caching resources to enhance the performance of different
applications [49]. Improving the quality of service (QoS) with
mobile Edge computing (MEC) by realizing the ’Follow Me
Edge’ concept has been addressed by Taleb et al. [50]. The
proposed MEC network architecture has ultra-short latency.
Suresh et al. [51] presented an architecture based on LoRa for
monitoring animal health. Machine learning is applied at Edge
device for data compression and feature-extraction and then
sent via LoRa to gateway for forwarding to Cloud servers. The
experimental results show that the proposed approach helps to
extend the battery life of sensor nodes from 13 to up to 39
As illustrated in Figure 1, we show a PoC of an Edge-
assisted IoT applications using LoRa and LoRaWAN. The
proposed architecture is different from the Edge-assisted or
Fog-based papers mentioned above. In addition to traditional
IoT architecture, the proposed architecture consists of an
extra layer of Edge-assisted gateways. In detail, sensor nodes
can collect different information and transmit the data over
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), nRF, or IPv6 over Low-Power
Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) to a Edge-
assisted gateway. The Edge-assisted gateway is often equipped
with a high-computation capable hardware, fixed in a place
and uses socket power or a large battery. Therefore, the Edge-
assisted gateway is able to perform complex algorithms while
maintaining its operation for a long period of time. These
protocols can transmit data with a data rate up to 250 kbps in
theory and 150 kbps in practice [52], [53] while they consume
approximately 70 mW of power. Correspondingly, these are
suitable for high data rate applications such as real-time
ECG monitoring. When the number of sensor nodes increases
significantly, extra hardware modules (i.e., nRF, 6LoWPAN or
BLE) can be added into one or several Edge-assisted gateways
depending on the application. In case when an application
requires extremely high data rate such as video streaming, Wi-
Fi can be used as the main wireless communication between
sensor nodes and Edge gateways. However, this results in an
increase in energy consumption of sensor nodes.
At Edge-assisted gateways, data can be compressed by
lossy or lossless algorithms depending on the application. The
lossless compression does not provide high compression rate
as possible in lossy ones such as approximately 10:1, but
the data can be correctly decoded without compromising any
information. It is suitable for critical applications such as real-
time health monitoring whilst lossy one suits to non-critical
applications such as video streaming. The compressed and
summarized data is sent from an Edge-assisted gateways to
a LoRa gateway which helps to utilize bandwidth efficiently
[54]. In addition, data can be processed at Edge-assisted
gateways for extracting useful information which will be
transmitted to LoRa gateways for saving bandwidth. In this
Scheme Encrypt Decrypt
(mS) (mS)
AES-128 0.984 1.312
AES-192 1.176 1.592
AES-256 1.384 1.864
Scheme Encrypt Decrypt
(mS) (mS)
SECP160R1 1323 1317
SECP192R1 2158 2165
SECP224R1 3213 3222
paper, we demonstrate a few features such as data compression
and data encryption at both sensor nodes and Edge-assisted
In our experiments, data is encrypted at a sensor node based
on an 8-bit AVR mirco-controller. Then, the encrypted data
is decrypted at an Edge-assisted gateway for processing. The
processed data is compressed with a lossless LZW algorithm
at an Edge-assisted gateway implemented upon a Raspberry
Pi 3 before being sent to a LoRa-based gateway. As seen in
Table I, latency varies depending on the encrypted algorithm.
Depending on the application, a specific encryption algorithm
should be chosen. At our Edge-assisted gateway, it took
approximately 13.2 ms for compressing 3800 bytes of data and
the data compression rate is about 4 times. The results show
that Edge computing helps to save bandwidth significantly at
the cost of slight increase in latency.
Development of traditional IoT solutions widely rely on
wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, and have
client-server models with a strong dependency on Cloud
servers. When using low-power, low data-rate solutions such
as LoRa, some aspects need to be taken care of which are not
commonly addressed.
A. Regulatory Issues
Most of the LPWAN technologies relying on unlicensed
free-to-use ISM radio bands have regional or country-specific
regulatory limitations. Although bandwidth and spreading
factor can be configured to achieve different modulation,
LoRaWAN is still limited to a single carrier frequency for
a given transmission. For European Union, section 7.2.3 of
the ETSI EN300.220 standard states the maximum radiated
power limit, channel spacing, spectrum access and mitigation
requirements for unlicensed frequency bands [55]. In Europe,
868.0 MHz frequency is commonly used for LoRa. The 868.0
MHz to 868.6 MHz band has a maximum radiated power limit
of 25 mW and a maximum duty cycle of 1%. It significantly
limits real-time transferable amount of data. This ensures a
fair network usage and hence a large number of devices can
connect to a single access point. The modulation directly
affects range and thus the distance to the access point limits
maximum attainable data rate.
B. Security and Reliability
Reliability is an important feature of wireless communica-
tion protocols. A reliable protocol needs to fulfill requirements
of low error rate and robustness against interference and packet
collision. QoS ensures that the communication is predictable,
i.e. delays and variation in delay during data transfer are
managed properly. Besides, environmental factors and spatial
location can affect the performance of the communication. For
example, interference from nearby overhead power-line and
high-rise buildings can reduce the range and increase packet
error rate (PER) [56]. Therefore, a set of situation-aware
QoS management rules should be implemented and proper
authorization, data integrity verification and recovery plan be
applied in cases where errors cannot be avoided completely.
In LoRaWAN protocol, the security needs to satisfy the
criteria of LoRaWAN such as low cost, low installation and
implementation complexity and low power consumption [57].
Therefore, AES-128 [58] is used in LoRaWAN. Although
LoRaWAN does not support originally, it is recommended
that AES-192, AES-256 or other lightweight cryptography
algorithm based on elliptic curve digital signature (ECDSA)
be considered for applications requiring secure end-to-end
data transfer. These provide a stronger data authentication
compared to an error-detection code or simple check-sum.
However, using these algorithms can cause some extra over-
head of latency and energy consumption.
In this paper, we presented a general discussion of LoRa
wireless communication technology and its advantages and
limitations. We enumerated different application scenarios
which use LoRa to achieve agile, low-power and cost-effective
communication to adopt newer practices and standards rang-
ing from Industrial operation networks to simpler IoT-based
infrastructure. In addition, important aspects such as regulatory
bindings, communication range, security and power optimiza-
tion were also considered for optimizing the parameters while
keeping reliable performance as the goal. Furthermore, we
have investigated how different applications could benefit
from implementing Edge and Fog computing paradigm which
currently use LoRa. In addition, we provided a PoC of an
Edge-assisted IoT architecture using LoRa. Data compression
and encryption demonstrated via the experiment accredits that
the proposed architecture can provide a robust solution for
overcoming some of the drawbacks of the existing LoRa-based
IoT applications. In future, more services will be applied,
demonstrated and analyzed via the experiments in specific
applications such as smart home monitoring systems. In sum-
mary, LoRa communication technology together with Edge
computing can bring a promisingly positive influence on IoT-
based applications in boosting operational performance and
energy efficiency whilst maintaining reliability and security of
the system.
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... However, to the best of our knowledge, no detailed survey investigating the effect on energy efficiency of the various categories of communication protocols for LoRaWAN has been so far documented in the research literature. Several state-of-the-art surveys on LoRAWAN [3,5,6,[16][17][18][19][20][21] have proposed that focus on various aspects. For instance, [3] reviews LoRaWAN scalability issues and the proposed solutions in massive IoT networks. ...
... In [6], the authors provide an overview of LPWAN technologies, a discussion about the challenges and critical aspects of LoRaWAN and their recent solutions, as well as a comparison of the most commonly used LoRaWAN simulation tools. The authors of [16] present a general discussion of long-range (LoRa), explore different applications of LoRa, and propose a solution to integrate edge computing in IoT-based applications. In [17], the authors present a brief overview of LoRa, investigate the challenges of LoRa and their recent solutions, and discuss some open issues. ...
... Description [3] Survey LoRaWAN scalability issues and the proposed solutions in massive IoT networks [5] A technical overview of LoRaWAN technology and state of the art studies proposed about LoRaWAN [6] Discuss about LPWAN technologies, challenges, and critical aspects of LoRaWAN as well as the most used LoRaWAN simulation tools [16] Present a general discussion of LoRa, explore different applications of LoRa and propose a solution to integrate edge computing in IoT-based applications [17] Provide a brief overview of LoRa, investigate the challenges of LoRa and their recent solutions, and discuss some open issues [18] Categorize state of the art works for LoRaWAN focusing on aspects that affect LoRaWAN performance [19] Provide an overview of the different routing protocols and the challenges to be addressed in routing protocols, as well as issues faced by multi-hop communication [20] Discuss about design and research challenges, as well as research issues of LoRa technology [21] Analyze LPWAN solutions, describe LoRaWAN use-cases and discuss about research challenges among LoRa and other technologies ...
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Long range wide area networks (LoRaWANs) have recently received intense scientific, research, and industrial interest. LoRaWANs play a pivotal role in Internet of Things (IoT) applications due to their capability to offer large coverage without sacrificing the energy efficiency and, thus the battery life, of end-devices. Most published contributions assume that LoRaWAN gateways (GWs) are plugged into the energy grid; thus, neglecting the network lifetime constraint due to power storage limitations. However, there are several verticals, including precision agriculture, forest protection, and others, in which it is difficult or even impossible to connect the GW to the power grid or to perform battery replacement at the end-devices. Consequently, maximizing the networks’ energy efficiency is expected to have a crucial impact on maximizing the network lifetime. Motivated by this, as well as the observation that the overall LoRaWAN network energy efficiency is significantly affected by the selected communication protocol, in this paper, we identify and discuss critical aspects and research challenges involved in the design of a LoRaWAN communication protocol, under an energy efficiency perspective. Building upon our findings, research directions towards a novel GreenLoRaWAN communication protocol are given, focusing on achieving energy efficiency, robustness, and scalability.
... In [5] the authors provide a comprehensive study on the wireless networks used in IoT applications and beyond, including the technical challenges of deploying LoRa networks and recent solutions in the field. Based on the LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Networking) technologies, by investigating the challenges they face during the deployment of LoRa networks, the recently developed solutions are discussed in detail in [5]. ...
... In [5] the authors provide a comprehensive study on the wireless networks used in IoT applications and beyond, including the technical challenges of deploying LoRa networks and recent solutions in the field. Based on the LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Networking) technologies, by investigating the challenges they face during the deployment of LoRa networks, the recently developed solutions are discussed in detail in [5]. In [6] the authors use LoRa to propose and implement a smart home system for remote monitoring and maintenance of sensors and IoT devices using the concept of artificial intelligence (AI). ...
The emergence of new technologies and their implementation by different manufacturers of electronic devices are experiencing an ascending trend. Most of the time, these protocols are expected to reach a certain degree of maturity, and electronic equipment manufacturers use simplified communication standards and interfaces that have already reached maturity in terms of their development such as ModBUS, KNX or CAN. This paper proposes an IoT solution of the Smart Home type based on an Analysis and Prediction System. A data acquisition component was implemented and there was defined an algorithm for the analysis and prediction of actions based on the values collected from the data update component and the data logger records.
... For this purpose, Edge-AI can provide the required facilities and effectively improve the range measurements. Moreover, by taking advantage of edge computing we are bringing computation and storage to the edge of the network, near to where the data originates yielding reduced network load and better performance of services [24]. In this paper, the advantages of using Edge-AI for range estimation improvement in LoRaWAN are evaluated. ...
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Localization is an essential element of the Internet of Things (IoT) leading to meaningful data and more effective services. Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) is a low-power communications protocol specifically designed for the IoT ecosystem. In this protocol, the RF signals used to communicate between IoT end devices and a LoRaWAN gateway (GW) can be used for communication and localization simultaneously , using distinct approaches, such as Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) or Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA). Typically, in a LoRaWAN network, different GWs are deployed in a wide area at distinct locations, contributing to different error sources as they experience a specific network geometry and particular environmental effects. Therefore, to improve the location estimation accuracy, the weather effect on each GW can be learned and evaluated separately to improve RSSI-based distance and location estimation. This work proposes an RSSI-based LoRaWAN location estimation method based on Edge-AI techniques, namely an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that will be running at each GW to learn and reduce weather effects on estimated distance. Results have shown that the proposed method can effectively improve the RSSI-based distance estimation accuracy between 6% and 49%, and therefore reduce the impact of the environmental changes in different GWs. This leads to a location estimation improvement of approximately 101 m.
... Long Range (LoRa) and Low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN) [50]. The review showed how these networks can provide better connectivity to IoT devices that can work at lower bitrates and showed a comparison to other connection networks like Bluetooth, Edge, UAVs, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Wi-Fi, ZigBee and GSM connections. ...
Wireless devices for smart farming can be of great help in remote sensing, machinery automation and precision farming, but they can also provide safety enhancements by reducing risks like exposure to physical agents, chemicals, and tractor overturn. Although technology advances can be beneficial to agricultural safety, it must be said that the integration of wireless devices with farming machinery represents a possible new source of hazards: loss of communication, wrong timing, incorrect or partial information could lead to accidents even without any preexistent or latent failure as a trigger. This review aims therefore to frame the evolution of safety advances in wireless and smart farming applications for agriculture with a focus on safety designs, fail-safe system engineering and wireless network infrastructures such as Bluetooth, GSM, Wi-Fi 802.11 and 802.15 like ZigBee, Lo-Ra technologies and even unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). A set of 53 papers starting from 1987 until 2021, involving practical applications, have been deeply analyzed and as a result advantages and disadvantages for every solution have been identified. Further conclusions have been drawn about limits and perspectives of sensing systems for obstacle avoidance like lasers, image processing, Bluetooth low-energy, RFID passive systems and Artificial Intelligence (AI).
... Therefore, LoRA technology is not viable in applications where monitoring with a transfer of large amounts of information in real-time is required. On the other hand, intelligent cloud-based LPWAN monitoring systems present important limitations such as unpredicted latency in safety-critical and performance-sensitive applications [4]. ...
Full-text available
The digitalisation of freight rail is an essential improvement to create modern functions that offer a cost-effective, attractive service and improved operational opportunities to operators. These modern functions need intelligence, detection, actuation and communications. For this, generally, it is possible to process raw data in the Edge and send meaningful data over a communication link. However, the power supply is not granted in a freight wagon and so low power strategies need to be adopted. This paper presents the implementation and testing of a wireless connected heterogeneous multiprocessing architecture. From the power consumption point of view, this system has been stressed by means of a generic FFT function to evaluate the different on-board computing devices that have been decided. From the communication point of view, the LPWAN LoRa technology has been tested and validated on robustness and coverage. Thanks to the heterogeneous nature of this architecture and its configurability, it allows us to propose the most suitable computing ressources, data analysis and communication strategy in terms of efficiency and performance for the functions that this wagon on board unit needs to host and support. With this approach, operation data are reported to the centralised freight driver assistant system.
... Authors in [25] provide a brief overview of the most popular LPWAN technologies such as LoRa and NB-IoT. In [24] the authors reviewed various LoRa applications, mainly to propose its integration with edge computing for IoT. These later were obtained from the simulation in NS-3 based on the following three metrics: Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), packet inter-reception time, and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). ...
Full-text available
Long Range (LoRa) is the most widely used technology for enabling Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) on unlicensed frequency bands. Despite its modest Data Rates (DRs), it provides extensive coverage for low-power devices, making it an ideal communication system for many Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In general, LoRa radio is considered as the physical layer, whereas Long Range Wide Area Networks (LoRaWAN) is the MAC layer of the LoRa stack that adopts star topology to enable communication between multiple End Devices (EDs) and the network Gateway (GW). The Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) modulation deals with LoRa signals interference and ensures long-range communication. At the same time, the Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) mechanism allows EDs to dynamically alter some LoRa features such as the Spreading Factor (SF), Code Rate (CR), and carrier frequency to address the time variance of communication conditions in dense networks. Despite the high LoRa connectivity demand, LoRa signals interference and concurrent transmission collisions are major limitations. Therefore, to enhance LoRaWAN capacity, the LoRa alliance released many LoRaWAN versions, and the research community provided numerous solutions to develop scalable LoRaWAN technology. Hence, we thoroughly examined LoRaWAN scalability challenges and the state-of-the-art solutions in both the PHY and MAC layers. Most of these solutions rely on SF, logical, and frequency channel assignment, while others propose new network topologies or implement signal processing schemes to cancel the interference and allow LoRaWAN to connect more EDs efficiently. A summary of the existing solutions in the literature is provided at the end of the paper by describing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution and suggesting possible enhancements as future research directions.
... The camera can be further enabled with computer vision processing for applications like taking a census of fish population in a pond or monitoring a specific aquatic organism to observe its behavior and use the insights for further study. An automation task can be linked to the Aqua-Vision through an IoT network grid and further enhanced using local edge computing [12]. Further, the actuators on the Aqua-Vision are modular and can be changed as per the requirement, making it a multi-functional device. ...
Full-text available
In the present social media-bound lifestyle, capturing memories and keeping them accessible is gaining a significant demand globally. For this purpose, a robust, portable camera system for recreational or commercial purposes can be of substantial advantage to society. Aqua-Vision intends to bring an affordable underwater camera system with various innovative features to the hands of consumers. The smart module consists of a waterproof gimbal camera that can be used underwater, providing a hassle-free and reliable user experience and offers rotary motion along two axes. The camera features various general modes like panorama, burst shot, and smart modes using inbuilt computer vision algorithms. The gimbal camera setup can be controlled and switched remotely between all possible modes using a mobile application. All the above features will allow the user to capture photos/videos in any possible setup and use the camera module for various applications. The advent of such innovative, convenient, and robust modules will help cater to the market demands effectively.
Full-text available
The rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT) technology has provided ample opportunity for the implementation of intelligent agricultural production. Such technology can be used to connect various types of agricultural devices, which can collect and send data to servers for analysis. These tools can help farmers optimize the production of their crops. However, one of the main problems that arises in agricultural areas is a lack of connectivity or poor connection quality. For these reasons, in this paper, we present a method that can be used for the performance evaluation of communication systems used in IoT for agriculture, considering metrics such as the packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet collisions. To achieve this aim, we carry out an analysis of the main Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN) protocols and their applicability, from which we conclude that those most suited to this context are Long Range (LoRa) and Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). After that, we analyze various simulation tools and elect Omnet++ together with the Framework for LoRa (FLoRa) library as the best option. In the first stage of the simulations, the performances of LoRa and LoRaWAN are evaluated by comparing the average propagation under ideal conditions against moderate propagation losses, emulating a rural environment in the coastal region of Ecuador. In the second phase, metrics such as the package delivery ratio and energy consumption are evaluated by simulating communication between an increasing number of nodes and one or two gateways. The results show that using two gateways with the Adaptive Data Rate technique can actively increase the delivery ratio of the network while consuming the same amount of energy per node. Finally, a comparison is made between the results of the simulation scenario considered in this project and those of other research works, allowing for the validation of our analytical and simulation results.
Full-text available
Long Range (LoRa) is a Low-power Wide-area Network technology designed for the Internet of Things. In recent years, it has gained significant momentum among industrial and research communities. Patented by Semtech, LoRa makes use of chirp spread spectrum modulation to deliver data with promises of long battery life, far-reaching communication distances, and a high node density at the cost of data rate. In this article, we conduct a series of experiments to verify the claims made by Semtech on LoRa technology. Our results show that LoRa is capable of communicating over 10km under line-of-sight environments. However, under non-line-of-sight environments, LoRa’s performance is severely affected by obstructions such as buildings and vegetations. Moreover, the promise of prolonged battery life requires extreme tuning of parameters. Last, a LoRa gateway supports up to 6,000 nodes with PRR requirement of >70%. This study also explores the relationship between LoRa transmission parameters and proposes an algorithm to determine optimal settings in terms of coverage and power consumption under non-line-of-sight environments. It further investigates the impact of LoRa Wide-area Networks on energy consumption and network capacity along with implementation of a LoRa medium access mechanism and possible gains brought forth by implementing such a mechanism.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted widespread applicability not only limited to smart cities and communities but also in water, waste management and so on. It strength lies in the high impacts it created in the daily life and the potential user’s behavior. However, for it to be more effective and increase its adoption, it is require to be energy efficient, able to communicate and share information across extended coverage. Existing technology such as Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) with Long Range (LoRa) has been promising. In the perspective of waste management, several different IoT-enable solutions have been proffered with each having its own strengths and weaknesses that requires improvements. Therefore, this paper performs a review of existing IoT-enabled solutions in smart cites’ waste management to bring together the state-of-the-art. The objective is to gain insights into the strengths and weaknesses in order to bring improvements and innovations to manage waste effectively and efficiently as well as maintain a healthy environment in our cities. We performed reviews on 15 research articles in the literature and the results obtained shows that existing solutions were similar in the technologies used but have some drawbacks such as sensing accuracy hindered by various weather conditions, users prone to unauthorized access and short range capabilities. This thus, calls for further improvement and innovation.
Conference Paper
This research is intended to provide practical insights to empower designers, developers and management to develop smart cities underpinned by Long Range (LoRa) technology. LoRa, one of most prevalent long-range wireless communication technologies, can be used to underpin the development of smart cities. This study draws upon relevant research to gain an understanding of underlying principles and issues involved in the design and management of long-range and low-power networks such as LoRa. This research uses empirical evidence that has been gathered through experiments with a LoRa network to analyse network design and identify challenges and then proposes cost-effective and timely solutions. Particularly, practical measurements of LoRa network dependencies and performance metrics are used to support our proposals. This research identifies a number of network performance metrics that need to be considered and controlled when designing and managing LoRa-specific networks from the perspectives of hardware, software, networking and security.