Article

Optimizing Efficiency of Aerosol Mating Disruption for Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

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Abstract

Improved cost efficiency for aerosol mating disruption for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker, was examined in experiments performed between 2015 and 2017. A programmable dispenser was used to explore the effects of frequency of treatment, time of night when pheromone was emitted, and the concentration of pheromone required. A negative curvilinear trend of males captured as a function of emission frequency was evident in the range of 2-12 emissions per hour. A subsequent experiment found greater trap suppression when the same amount of active ingredient was emitted seven times per hour compared with the same amount of material emitted at twice the concentration but half the frequency. Another experiment found no significant difference in cumulative trap suppression between treatment for the last 4 or 6 h of the night compared with 12 h. A subsequent experiment comparing a current commercial mating disruption system emitting for 12 h with a proposed alternative emitting more material per hour for fewer hours showed similar levels of suppression of males in pheromone traps. A season-long efficacy trial using dispensers deployed and programmed based on these findings demonstrated significant reduction of damage to Nonpareil almonds treated with mating disruption. These data reveal important information about the response of the navel orangeworm to aerosol mating disruption, which provides improved cost-effectiveness compared with the status quo ante. These findings for navel orangeworm are discussed in relation to studies of aerosol mating disruption for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2019.

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... It is used primarily against lepidopteran pests, although there are examples of mating disruption for control of Hemiptera [8,9], Coleoptera [10][11][12], and Hymenoptera [13]. Historically, synthetic pheromones and dispenser systems have been expensive [14,15]. Mating disruption use is most widespread in protection of high-value commodities such as horticultural crops, or in programs for management of invasive pests on public lands or across entire jurisdictions where management tactics are determined by policy objectives rather than cost-return criteria [5]. ...
... Mating disruption mechanisms are broadly categorized as competitive (the male interacts with the dispenser) or noncompetitive (the male is made unresponsive to females without interacting directly with dispensers). The mechanism seems to be a hypothesized hybrid which initially involves attraction to the dispenser but then makes males unresponsive to females without continued interaction with the dispenser [2,15,45]. Like a purely non-competitive mechanism, the hybrid mechanism is less density dependent than competitive mechanisms [2,15,45]. Mating disruption for navel orangeworm provides the greater economic return with greater pressure within a range from moderate to high baseline damage [35]. ...
... The mechanism seems to be a hypothesized hybrid which initially involves attraction to the dispenser but then makes males unresponsive to females without continued interaction with the dispenser [2,15,45]. Like a purely non-competitive mechanism, the hybrid mechanism is less density dependent than competitive mechanisms [2,15,45]. Mating disruption for navel orangeworm provides the greater economic return with greater pressure within a range from moderate to high baseline damage [35]. ...
Article
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Damage from Amyelois transitella, a key pest of almonds in California, is managed by destruction of overwintering hosts, timely harvest, and insecticides. Mating disruption has been an increasingly frequent addition to these management tools. Efficacy of mating disruption for control of navel orangeworm damage has been demonstrated in experiments that included control plots not treated with either mating disruption or insecticide. However, the navel orangeworm flies much farther than many orchard pests, so large plots of an expensive crop are required for such research. A large almond orchard was subdivided into replicate blocks of 96 to 224 ha and used to compare harvest damage from navel orangeworm in almonds treated with both mating disruption and insecticide, or with either alone. Regression of navel orangeworm damage in researcher-collected harvest samples from the interior and center of management blocks on damage in huller samples found good correlation for both and supported previous assumptions that huller samples underreport navel orangeworm damage. Blocks treated with both mating disruption and insecticide had lower damage than those treated with either alone in 9 of the 10 years examined. Use of insecticide had a stronger impact than doubling the dispenser rate from 2.5 to 5 per ha, and long-term comparisons of relative navel orangeworm damage to earlier- and later-harvested varieties revealed greater variation than previously demonstrated. These findings are an economically important confirmation of trade-offs in economic management of this critical pest. Additional monitoring tools and research tactics will be necessary to fulfill the potential of mating disruption to reduce insecticide use for navel orangeworm.
... A previous study of aerosol mating disruption for the navel orangeworm has demonstrated qualitatively that commercial aerosol mating disruption substantially suppresses pheromone lures over distances of at least 2 km from the orchard under treatment (Burks 2017). Another study found that effectiveness increased with emission rate (Burks and Thomson 2019), implying that a uniform cloud of disruptant was important and therefore suggesting that camouflage might be an important part of the mechanism in this system. If so, ending mating disruption before the end of the nightly period of sexual activity, as some have done in commercial practice, could be deleterious. ...
... These experiments used a series of eight square 65 ha management units as replicate blocks. These sites were to the west of and part of the same 1,375 ha pistachio orchard used in a previous study (Burks and Thomson 2019), and was chosen because the site offered a large navel orangeworm population in an orchard not treated with mating disruption, and because its size and configuration supported the present study. The four square 16 ha quarters of these replicate blocks served as treatment plots, and grids of five pheromone traps were placed in the middle of a 0.4 ha square of four Isomate NOW Mist units, as described in the previous section. ...
... The experiments on the effect of time of termination of aerosol disruption were to address the question of whether camouflage might be an important aspect of mating disruption for the navel orangeworm (Burks and Thomson 2019). If so, then disruption should be transient, and ending disruption before the end of the period of sexual activity for this pest would be a problem. ...
Article
Mating disruption is used to help manage the navel orangeworm on approximately 200,000 ha of tree nut crops. Aerosol dispensers are the most common formulation, and all formulations use an incomplete pheromone blend consisting solely of (Z11,Z13)-hexadecadienal. Profile analysis (examination of capture and males in pheromone traps as a function of spatial density of dispensers) demonstrated a sharp drop of males captured with a very low density of dispensers, and then an approximately linear relationship between 90 and approaching 100% suppression. This near-linear portion of the profile includes both dispenser densities in which crop protection has been demonstrated, and densities in which it is unlikely. Suppression of males in pheromone traps was lost the next night after dispensers were removed, suggesting that the active ingredient was not persistent in the orchard environment. During most of the summer preharvest period, turning the dispensers off 1 or 2 h before the end of the predawn period of sexual activity provides the same amount of suppression of sexual communication as emission throughout the period of sexual activity. This suggests that encountering the pheromone from the mating disruption dispensers had a persistent effect on males. During the autumn postharvest period, only emission prior to midnight suppressed communication on nights on which the temperature fell below 19°C by midnight. These findings and the analysis will help manufacturers refine their offerings for mating disruption for this important California pest, and buyers of mating disruption to assess cost-effectiveness of competing offerings.
... The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) is the primary insect pest of California's economically important tree nut industry (Wilson et al. 2020). Mating disruption is an established management technique for this pest (Higbee et al. 2017, Burks and Thomson 2019Haviland et al. 2021, Higbee and. Aerosol technology is used in three of the four commercial formulations for which efficacy has been demonstrated (Haviland et al. 2021). ...
... Aerosol technology is used in three of the four commercial formulations for which efficacy has been demonstrated (Haviland et al. 2021). The three available aerosol dispensers each have slightly different approaches to the frequency, timing, and amount of pheromone released (Burks and Thomson 2019). A recent study showed that releasing pheromone before the start of the mating period did not increase control, suggesting that cost-effectiveness is optimized by releasing closer to the actual mating period (Burks andThomson 2019, 2020). ...
Article
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Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is a key pest of walnuts, pistachio, and almonds in California. Pheromone mating disruption using timed aerosol dispensers is an increasingly common management technique. Dispenser efficiency may be increased by timing releases with the active mating period of navel orangeworm. Past work found that the peak time of sexual activity for navel orangeworm females is 2 h before sunrise when temperatures are above 18°C. Inference of male responsiveness from data collected in that study was limited by the necessity of using laboratory-reared females as a source of sex pheromone emission to attract males and the inherent limitations of human observers for nocturnal events. Here we used camera traps baited with artificial pheromone to observe male navel orangeworm mating response in the field over two field seasons. Male response to synthetic pheromone exhibited diel patterns broadly similar to females, i.e., they were active for a brief period of 2–3 h before dawn under summer conditions and began responding to pheromone earlier and over a longer period of time during spring and fall. But contrary to the previous findings with females, some males were captured at all hours of the day and night, and there was no evidence of short-term change of pheromone responsiveness in response to temperature. Environmental effects on the response of navel orangeworm males to an artificial pheromone source differ in important ways from the environmental effects on female release of sex pheromone.
... Timely and judicious insecticide treatment at key times is also frequently necessary to hold navel orangeworm damage to acceptable limits (Siegel et al. 2019a,b). In addition, mating disruption is increasingly used for navel orangeworm pest management in these crops (Higbee and Burks 2008, Burks and Thomson 2019. Currently, it is estimated that up to 200,000 ha (Higbee, unpublished data) of the California almond and pistachio crops (totaling >600,000 ha, USDA-NASS 2019) are under mating disruption for control of navel orangeworm. ...
... Mating disruption in the 2017 was provided by the cooperator using a commercial application of Suterra Puffer NOW (Suterra LLC), In 2018 and 2019, this cooperator used ISOMATE NOW Mist (Pacific Biocontrol, Vancouver, WA). Differences between these two systems are described in Burks and Thomson (2019). Briefly, the Puffer system emits around 90 mg active ingredient per ha per night using dispensers placed at a density of 5/ha and emitting at a frequency of four times an hour for 12 h (17:00 to 05:00), whereas Journal of Economic Entomology, 2020, Vol. ...
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The use of aerosol mating disruption for management of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) in California tree nuts has increased markedly. This treatment suppresses pheromone monitoring traps in neighboring orchards as well as in the orchard under treatment. The current study, therefore, addresses the interrelated topics of which attractant is most effective, how the number of adults captured is affected by trap design, and what sex is captured. Under most circumstances, wing traps baited with phenyl propionate (PPO) captured more adults than those baited with a 5-compound kairomone blend. Adding a pheromone lure along with the dispenser for the experimental attractant increased the number of adults captured with PPO both in and near-mating disruption. In contrast, addition of a pheromone lure along with the kairomone blend only increased the number of adults captured in orchards near but not under mating disruption. Delta traps, which are preferred by the industry, captured fewer adults than wing traps. Improvements in the number of adults captured with PPO in delta traps from addition of a pheromone lure and from design modifications were additive. Both sexes were captured by all attractants and trap designs tested, and the sex ratio was highly variable. Open traps like the wing trap captured a slightly higher proportion of males than closed traps. These findings are discussed in the context of management of the navel orangeworm.
... Therefore, both MD technologies cannot achieve complete control when targeting high-density populations [50]. Codling moth research showed a little loss of efficiency with a decreased emission frequency [53], while the effectiveness of navel orangeworm mating disruption increases with emission frequency [54]. Possible factors leading to this difference include the chemical nature of the A. transitella pheromone compound involved (aldehyde moiety of the Z11,Z13-16:Ald has a potential to polymerize) and differences in the mechanism of disruption of sexual communication [54]. ...
... Codling moth research showed a little loss of efficiency with a decreased emission frequency [53], while the effectiveness of navel orangeworm mating disruption increases with emission frequency [54]. Possible factors leading to this difference include the chemical nature of the A. transitella pheromone compound involved (aldehyde moiety of the Z11,Z13-16:Ald has a potential to polymerize) and differences in the mechanism of disruption of sexual communication [54]. ...
Article
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Pheromone-mediated mating disruption (MD) represents an important tool to manage insect pests in agriculture and forestry. MD relies on the release of synthetic sex pheromones from dispensers in crops, interfering with mate finding and reproduction of a pest through both competitive and non-competitive mechanisms. MD programs primarily rely upon “passive” dispensers, used at high densities per hectare (200–3000 units∙ha−1). In addition to the labor required for their application, another disadvantage of “passive” dispensers is the continuous release of pheromones, regardless of the time of day or the pest flight activity. Aerosol delivery systems can overcome the drawbacks of passive dispensers as they are applied at far lower density (2–5 units∙ha−1) and they can be programmed to release pheromones at selected time intervals when the target pest is active. However, the mode of action of aerosol dispensers is still not well understood and there are concerns of whether they are as effective as passive dispensers. This review focuses on the history of aerosol dispensers, mode of action, and effectiveness on various crops; deployment strategies; and the movement of pheromone once released. Limitations of aerosols and challenges for future research and commercial use are discussed.
... The use of these devices has grown exponentially, primarily because only 2-5 dispensers are needed per ha. Additionally, aerosol dispenser-based MD treatments have been successfully used to control Cydia pomonella (L.) [19][20][21][22], Lobesia botrana [23,24], Grapholita molesta [25], Plodia interpunctella [26], Amyelois transitella [27,28], and Trichoplusia ni [29]. ...
Article
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Abstract The olive moth (OM), Prays oleae (Bern.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), is a major olive grove pest worldwide; however, until now, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mating disruption (MD) techniques against this pest. Experiments were carried out for two successive years (2019 and 2020) in three different olive groves in Andalucía (Southern Spain) to evaluate mating disruption’s efficacy in controlling the OM from the first to the third generation. The effectiveness of MD formulations against the three generations of OM was assessed by determining the percentage of infested olive fruits, the reduction of pheromone trap catches, and the number of affected inflorescences in both MD-treated and untreated control olive groves. The number of release points (one or two aerosol devices per ha) was also evaluated. In all years and trials, the mean number of males caught in traps placed in the MD-treated plots was significantly lower than untreated sites. Mating disruption registered a high suppression of male captures (>75%) in treated plots for two consecutive seasons. Concerning infested olive fruits, substantial reductions (about 80%) were observed in the MD plots of locations B and C, and a reduction of about 40% was detected in location A, compared to the control plot. Results showed that the installation of two aerosol devices/ha reduced fruit damage below 20% of infested olive fruits except for one site where a reduction of about 71% in the MD plot was recorded in 2019. Although few significant differences were associated with OM male catches and infested olive fruits between plots treated with one aerosol/ha and two aerosols/ha in most of the comparisons, significant differences in the number of olive inflorescences infested by P. oleae were found, suggesting a similar performance between the two tested aerosol densities. Results of two-year field trials in Andalucía demonstrated the potential of Mister P X841 aerosol devices as an effective tool for controlling the olive moth, P. oleae.
... Several aerosol devices at the experimental or commercial development level have already been reviewed by Benelli et al. (2019). As there is a lack of knowledge on active aerosol dispensers performance in the field, current research aim (1) to explore their efficacy compared to established passive dispenser types (2) to find the right release dosage and (3) to minimize the density of dispensers under maintenance of their efficiency (Burks & Thomson 2019;Shorey et al. 1996;Vacas et al. 2016). Burks and Thomson (2020) demonstrated that the active aerosol dispensers are highly suitable to insect behavioral studies, as aerosol dispensers can release the semiochemical, in the study the sex pheromone for navel orangeworm for mating disruption, in a controlled manner, unaffected by the formulation properties and the effect of abiotic factors, in special temperature and wind-speed. ...
Article
The potential of semiochemicals for the targeted behavior manipulation of insects has been known for a long time. Their low impact on non-target organisms makes them interesting candidates for use in insect control for various applications such as agricultural and forestry pest control, stored-product protection and protection against hematophagous insects. Due to their high volatility and chemical instability against UV light and oxidation, their use often remains limited. Tailor-made formulations can protect semiochemicals from environmental factors and can improve release performance and duration triggering a desired reaction in the target insect at the place of application. This review provides an overview of recent formulation types developed for insect behavior manipulation by semiochemicals, with emphasis on formulation aspects and formulation potential for slow and controlled release. The focus was set on inventions and studies aiming to elucidate material and formulation properties that affect the semiochemical release and, with specific attention, enable targeted release manipulation. © 2021 E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 70176 Stuttgart, Germany.
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The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is the most significant pest of California almonds. Direct feeding on the kernel by the larvae causes reductions in salable crop, crop quality, and exportability. Pheromone mating disruption (MD) targeting navel orangeworm is a relatively new technique with the potential to improve management. In 2017, we used replicated ~16-ha plots to compare the efficacy of four commercial MD systems (CheckMate, Cidetrak, Isomate, and Semios) for their relative impacts on the number of navel orangeworm in monitoring traps and crop quality. From 2017 to 2018, we conducted nine direct comparison studies in 16 to 40 ha almond orchards to compare conventional pest management programs to programs incorporating pheromone MD systems. Across all studies, MD reduced male moth captures in pheromone traps by >94%. In the efficacy study, use of mating disruption led to 35% and 53% reductions in kernel damage in Nonpareil and pollinizer cultivars, respectively, and an average increase in crop value of $370 ha−1. In the direct comparison, kernel damage to Nonpareil and pollinizer cultivars was reduced by 65% and 78%, respectively, resulting in an average increase in crop value of $357 ha−1. Economic analyses showed that increases in crop returns exceeded the costs of implementing MD systems with the break-even point ranging from 0.86 to 1.06% of kernel damage. These results suggest that adding MD to an existing navel orangeworm management program is a cost-effective way to reduce damage while promoting sustainable pest management practices.
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Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is a primary pest of almonds, pistachios, and walnuts in California. These specialty tree nut crops are widely planted across the state and account for a significant share of total agricultural revenue, with 1.7 million combined acres generating a total farm-gate value of $8.9 billion. Larvae of A. transitella cause direct damage to the nut, burrowing into the kernel and contaminating it with frass and webbing, while adults are able to introduce fungi during oviposition that produce aflatoxin, a known human carcinogen that is heavily regulated both domestically and in key foreign markets. As such, there is little tolerance for A. transitella infestation, and most operations aim for <2% crop damage from this pest. Currently, integrated management of A. transitella involves a combination of orchard sanitation, well-timed insecticide sprays, timely harvest, and, most recently, mating disruption. Additional novel tools, such as sterile insect technique, are currently being explored. This species has a strong dispersal capacity, and given the extensive, and many times contiguous, acreage of tree nuts in California, long-term management will require the development of an effective area-wide management strategy. Tools, tactics, and conditions are in an ongoing state of change, and therefore pest management for this economically important species is a work in progress. Here, we discuss the biology, seasonal phenology, monitoring, and management of A. transitella across almonds, pistachios, and walnuts.
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The use of aerosol mating disruption for management of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) in California tree nuts has increased markedly. This treatment suppresses pheromone monitoring traps in neighboring orchards as well as in the orchard under treatment. The current study, therefore, addresses the interrelated topics of which attractant is most effective, how the number of adults captured is affected by trap design, and what sex is captured. Under most circumstances, wing traps baited with phenyl propionate (PPO) captured more adults than those baited with a 5-compound kairomone blend. Adding a pheromone lure along with the dispenser for the experimental attractant increased the number of adults captured with PPO both in and near-mating disruption. In contrast, addition of a pheromone lure along with the kairomone blend only increased the number of adults captured in orchards near but not under mating disruption. Delta traps, which are preferred by the industry, captured fewer adults than wing traps. Improvements in the number of adults captured with PPO in delta traps from addition of a pheromone lure and from design modifications were additive. Both sexes were captured by all attractants and trap designs tested, and the sex ratio was highly variable. Open traps like the wing trap captured a slightly higher proportion of males than closed traps. These findings are discussed in the context of management of the navel orangeworm.
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Pheromone-mediated mating disruption (MD) represents an important tool to manage insect pests in agriculture and forestry. MD relies on the release of synthetic sex pheromones from dispensers in crops, interfering with mate finding and reproduction of a pest through both competitive and non-competitive mechanisms. MD programs primarily rely upon “passive” dispensers, used at high densities per hectare (200–3000 units∙ha−1). In addition to the labor required for their application, another disadvantage of “passive” dispensers is the continuous release of pheromones, regardless of the time of day or the pest flight activity. Aerosol delivery systems can overcome the drawbacks of passive dispensers as they are applied at far lower density (2–5 units∙ha−1) and they can be programmed to release pheromones at selected time intervals when the target pest is active. However, the mode of action of aerosol dispensers is still not well understood and there are concerns of whether they are as effective as passive dispensers. This review focuses on the history of aerosol dispensers, mode of action, and effectiveness on various crops; deployment strategies; and the movement of pheromone once released. Limitations of aerosols and challenges for future research and commercial use are discussed.
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The recent availability of sex pheromone lures for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), improves options for monitoring this key pest in conventionally managed almonds. These lures are, however, minimally effective in the presence of mating disruption. Experiments were conducted to determine if phenyl propionate (PPO), an attractant for the navel orangeworm, acts in an additive or synergistic manner when presented together with the pheromone. In the absence of mating disruption, traps baited with PPO captured significantly fewer adults than traps baited with a sex pheromone lure. There was no difference in the number of adults captured in traps with both attractants when mating disruption was not used. In the presence of mating disruption, pheromone traps were completely suppressed, yet traps with both pheromone and PPO captured significantly more adults than traps baited with only PPO. Traps with only PPO captured equal numbers of both sexes, whereas traps with both attractants had significantly more males. These findings demonstrate that PPO is likely to be useful for monitoring navel orangeworm in fields treated with mating disruption.
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The polyphagous navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive pest of nut crops, including almonds and pistachios, in California orchards. Management of this insect has typically been a combination of cultural controls and insecticide use, with the latter increasing substantially along with the value of these commodities. Possibly associated with increased insecticide use, resistance has been observed recently in navel orangeworm populations in Kern County, California. In studies characterizing a putatively pyrethroid-resistant strain (R347) of navel orangeworm, susceptibility to bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin was compared with that of an established colony of susceptible navel orangeworm. Administration of piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate in first-instar feeding bioassays with the pyrethroids bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin produced synergistic effects and demonstrated that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterases contribute to resistance in this population. Resistance is therefore primarily metabolic and likely the result of overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterase genes. Resistance was assessed by median lethal concentration (LC50) assays and maintained across nine generations in the laboratory. Life history trait comparisons between the resistant strain and susceptible strain revealed significantly lower pupal weights in resistant individuals reared on the same wheat bran-based artificial diet across six generations. Time to second instar was greater in the resistant strain than the susceptible strain, although overall development time was not significantly different between strains. Resistance was heritable and may have an associated fitness cost, which could influence the dispersal and expansion of resistant populations in nut-growing areas in California.
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The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of high-value irrigated nut crops in the arid Central Valley of California. Mating disruption is an established pest management technique for this pest, with reduced non-target impacts. This study compared labo-ratory survivorship and fertility data with field measurements to improve understanding of factors determining abundance of this species in the presence and absence of mating disruption. While the relative humidity is generally higher in almond orchards compared to readings from meteorological stations, the data indicate little free water in the absence of irrigation. Access to free water has a minor effect on the fertility of females if they mate soon after emergence, but a major effect if mating is delayed for 7 days. Leslie matrix projections indicate that changes in adult survivorship have much less impact than changes in larval survivorship. These findings indicate that control tactics limiting reproduction and survival of immature stages are more important for this species than those targeting adults.
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The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three-or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.
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The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangeworm of ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d posteclosion was examined using flight mills. As a group, females flew farther and longer than males, but the differences were not statistically significant. Flight speed did not differ between sexes. Flight duration and distance did not differ with age, except that 7-d-old adults performed worse for these parameters than did 1- and 2-d-old adults. Females began their flights ≍1.5 h after the onset of dusk, and ≍1.5 h earlier in the night than males. Flight capacity and propensity were substantial for both sexes and all age classes tested. At least 20% of adults (except 7-d-old males) made a continuous flight ≥5.5 h, and median total distances flown during the 10.5-h night ranged from 7 to 15 km depending on age class. Thus navel orangeworm flight mill performance was greater than that of most pests tested from the families Pyralidae and Tortricidae. Surface area and length of forewings and hindwings were greater in females than males, but had little effect on flight performance. The results are generally consistent with field observations of navel orangeworm dispersal, but it will be important to characterize the effects of mating on flight, and flight on fecundity.
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Isomate® CM MIST aerosol emitters (Pacific BioControl Corp, Vancouver, WA) containing 36 grams of codlemone, (E, E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, were deployed at various densities in a commercial apple orchard to generate dosage-response profiles in order to elucidate the behavioral mechanism of disruption. Moth captures decreased asymptotically as Isomate® CM MIST densities increased. Data fit to Miller-Gut and Miller-de Lame plots yielded straight lines, with positive and negative slopes respectively. Catch of male moths decreased from 28 / trap in the control to 0.9 / trap at the highest emitter density. Disruption of > 90% was realized at emitter densities greater than 3 units per ac. The resulting set of profiles explicitly matched the predictions for competitive rather than non-competitive disruption. Thus, these devices likely disrupt by inducing false plume following rather than by camouflaging traps and females. Five MIST units per ha would be necessary to achieve the same level of CM control provided by a standard pheromone treatment with passive reservoir dispensers. The need for only a few aerosol emitters, 2.5 - 5 units per ha, mitigates the cost of labor required to hand apply hundreds of passive reservoir dispensers; however, a potential weakness in using this technology is that the low deployment density may leave areas of little or no pheromone coverage where mate finding may occur. This technology is likely to benefit substantially from treatment of large contiguous blocks of crop.
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Communicational disruption mechanisms for Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were determined using a suite of mathematical tools and graphical operations that enable differentiation between competitive attraction and non-competitive mechanisms of disruption. Research was conducted in 20 field cages, each covering 12 mature apple trees. Commercial monitoring lures releasing Oriental fruit moth pheromone at a rate of 0.04 μg h−1 and distributed at densities of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 17 per cage were used to evaluate the effect of low-releasing dispensers on the disruption of sexual communication. Graphical analyses revealed that near-female-equivalent pheromone dispensers disrupted Oriental fruit moth competitively. Commercial mating disruption dispensers releasing Oriental fruit moth pheromone at 60 μg h−1 and deployed at 0, 4, 6, 10, 15, 20, and 30 per cage were used to evaluate the effect of high-releasing dispensers on the disruption of sexual communication. Oriental fruit moth disruption shifted to a non-competitive mechanism for high-releasing dispensers. This is the first time such a shift in disruption mechanism has been demonstrated against a background of otherwise identical experimental conditions. Near-female-equivalent pheromone dispensers were also used to quantify the additive effect of an attract-and-remove control strategy compared with competitive mating disruption. We report a five-fold reduction in Oriental fruit moth captures under attract-and-remove compared to mating disruption using near-female-equivalent dispensers. Surprisingly, release of female Oriental fruit moths into these large-cage disruption studies had no measurable impact on male trapping.
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The trajectories of pheromone plumes in canopied habitats, such as orchards, have been little studied. We documented the capture of male navel orangeworm moths, Amyelois transitella, in female-baited traps positioned at 5 levels, from ground level to the canopy top, at approximately 6 m above ground, in almond orchards. Males were captured in similar proportions at all levels, suggesting that they do not favor a particular height during ranging flight. A 3-D sonic anemometer was used to establish patterns of wind flow and temperature at 6 heights from 2.08 to 6.65 m in an almond orchard with a 5 m high canopy, every 3 h over 72 h. The horizontal velocity of wind flow was highest above the canopy, where its directionality also was the most consistent. During the time of A. transitella mating (0300-0600), there was a net vertical displacement upward. Vertical buoyancy combined with only minor reductions in the distance that plumes will travel in the lower compared to the upper canopy suggest that the optimal height for release of pheromone from high-release-rate sources, such as aerosol dispensers ("puffers"), that are deployed at low densities (e.g., 3 per ha.) would be at mid or low in the canopy, thereby facilitating dispersion of disruptant throughout the canopy. Optimal placement of aerosol dispensers will vary with the behavioral ecology of the target pest; however, our results suggest that current protocols, which generally propose dispenser placement in the upper third of the canopy, should be reevaluated.
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Codling moth female calling and male pheromone responsiveness under the defined conditions of 23°C and light:dark (LD) 16:8 occurred primarily during scotophase. Under either continuous photophase or scotophase females called with periodicities very similar to their periodicity under the LD cycle, indicating that the rhythmicity is circadian. Male response rhythmicity was maintained under continuous photophase. A decrease in the temperature from 23° to 16°C resulted in a reduction in the proportion calling when the decrease in temperature occurred during scotophase and a shift of maximal calling into photophase when the decrease in temperature occurred 3 hr prior to the initiation of scotophase. Decreases of temperature from 23° to 16°C and of light intensity did not produce similar shifts in the periodicity of male upwind orientation. Of 6 pheromone dosages from 10−5 to 102 μg, 10−1 and 100 μg elicited the most male upwind orientation.
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Large-scale field efficacy trials of methoxyfenozide (Intrepid), a reduced-risk molting agonist insecticide, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 in an orchard containing 'Nonpareil' and 'Sonora almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] located in Kern County, CA. Methoxyfenozide applied one to three times, the organophosphate phosmet (Imidan) alone or in combination with methoxyfenozide, or the pyrethroid permethrin (Perm-Up) were tested for efficacy against the primary lepidopteran pest navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and three other lepidopteran pests of almond: oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Two or three applications of methoxyfenozide (bracketing hull split or spring plus bracketing hull split) were more effective than a single hull split application of phosmet, phosmet combined with permethrin, or methoxyfenozide. In these trials, a spring application followed by a posthull split application was as effective as the applications bracketing hull split. Navel orangeworm accounted for > 60% of the total damage, whereas oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer were the dominant secondary pests. In experiments conducted in 2010 to assess the direct toxicity of methoxyfenozide to navel orangeworm eggs under field conditions, exposure to methoxyfenozide reduced survival by 96-99%. We conclude that this reduced-risk insecticide is effective, although its efficacy is maximized with more than one well-timed application.
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A two-year study was conducted evaluating Puffer® aerosol dispensers (Suterra LLC, Bend, OR, USA) for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The Puffer® dispenser consists of a pressurized metal canister loaded with pheromone active ingredients dissolved in solvent and housed within a circuit-controlled, plastic dispensing cabinet programmed to release an aerosol spray of pheromone at regular intervals. Puffers® were deployed at the label-recommended rate of 2.5ha−1 and released ca. 5–10mg of pheromone (depending on treatment) per 15min during a 12-h cycle beginning each day at 15:00h for the duration of the season. In 2005, commercially-managed apple plots (3.2–4.9ha) were treated with Puffers® releasing both species’ pheromone simultaneously (dual-species) or with twice the number of adjacently-deployed Puffers® (4–6m apart) releasing each individual species’ pheromones (single-species), while maintaining comparable overall release rates of pheromone between these two treatments. Plots 100m away and not treated with pheromone served as the control. Disruption of male C. pomonella and G. molesta orientation to pheromone-baited traps was 46–75 and 91–98%, respectively, in Puffer®-treated plots compared with untreated controls. There was no statistical difference in moth disruption between plots treated with dual-species and single-species Puffers®. Fruit injury was not statistically different between Puffer®-treated plots and control plots not receiving pheromone. In 2006, disruption of male moth orientation to traps was 24–26 and 84–97% in Puffer®-treated plots (2.9–5.7ha) for C. pomonella and G. molesta, respectively, compared with untreated controls. During this season, fruit injury was lower in pheromone-treated plots compared with untreated controls at mid-season, but not at pre-harvest. Combining the pheromone of both species into single Puffer® units did not decrease efficacy of disruption compared with deploying twice as many Puffers® releasing a similar amount of each individual species’ pheromone suggesting that multi-species disruption using Puffers® is a viable option. However, we conclude that the efficacy of disruption attained with low-densities (2.5ha−1) of Puffers® at the moth densities recorded in this study is insufficient for effective control of C. pomonella without input of companion insecticides.
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Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths, respectively, from trees during 0900-1800 h. Our results suggest that distributing pheromone dispensers throughout the tree canopy may be more effective than placing them in one location, such as near the tree crown.
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The behavioral mechanisms of mating disruption in Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora were studied using the sex pheromone components, (E)-3-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-3-dodecenyl acetate, and dodecyl acetate, formulated in a 100:1:20-ratio mimicking the female-produced blend, and in a 100:56:100 off-blend ratio. The mode of action of these two blends was tested in mating disruption experiments in the field and in a greenhouse, as well as in a laboratory wind tunnel. Field treatments with both blends at 80 g pheromone per ha reduced male attraction to trap lures baited with 100 μg of female sex pheromone. In mesh-house treatments, these two blends were equally effective at reducing male attraction to traps baited with live females and mating of caged females. Subsequent flight tunnel tests corroborated that both blends reduced attraction of naive males to calling females, and pre-exposure of males with either dispenser blend for 24 hr resulted in a strongly reduced response to calling females. The pre-exposure effect was reversible, with males again responsive after 24 hr in clean air. The two dispenser formulations produced a similar effect on male behavior, despite the differences in blend composition. One mating disruption dispenser formulated with either the female-blend or off-blend elicited the same rate of male upwind attraction in a wind-tunnel bioassay. Sensory overload and camouflage, therefore, are contributing mechanisms to mating disruption using either blend. The off-blend, which is more economical to synthesize, is a valuable tool for further development of mating disruption against this major pest of potatoes in Latin America.
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Hull split date, shell seal, and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), infestation data for 19 varieties of almonds, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb, were analyzed to determine the relationship of shell seal and hull split date on A. transitella infestation. Data for all varieties were collected from three University of California regional almond variety trials from 2003 to 2005, with a total of 8,550 nuts evaluated. A significant negative relationship was found between percentage of shell seal and percentage of navel orangeworm infestation, with lower percentage of shell seal correlating to higher percentage of infestation. Similarly, hull split date was negatively correlated with percentage of infestation, with later splitting varieties trending toward lower percentage of infestation. Although there are outlying varieties, hull split and shell seal are indeed significant components in varietal differences in almond navel orangeworm infestation. Understanding such factors gives insight into both the predictive value of almond characteristics related to navel orangeworm damage as well as other potential indicators.
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The attractiveness to male navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella, of various combinations of a four-component pheromone blend was measured in wind-tunnel bioassays. Upwind flight along the pheromone plume and landing on the odor source required the simultaneous presence of two components, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-tricosapentaene, and the addition of either (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol or (11Z,13E)-hexadecadien-1-ol. A mixture of all four components produced the highest levels of rapid source location and source contact. In wind-tunnel assays, males did not seem to distinguish among a wide range of ratios of any of the three components added to (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal. Dosages of 10 and 100 ng of the 4-component blend produced higher levels of source location than dosages of 1 and 1,000 ng. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9799-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Two experiments in 2003 examined the effects of different ways of dispensing the principal sex pheromone component on sexual communication among and crop damage by the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Nonpareil almonds and pistachios. A third experiment in 2004 compared the effect on navel orangeworm damage to several almond varieties using one of these dispensing systems by itself or with phosmet, phosmet alone, and an untreated control. Additional data are presented estimating release rates from timed aerosol release devices (PuffersNOW, Suterra LLC, Bend, OR) and hand-applied membrane dispensers. In 2003, puffers placed peripherally around 16-ha blocks, evenly spaced Puffers, and hand-applied dispensers reduced males captured in virgin-baited traps by > or = 95% and mating in sentinel females by > or = 69%, with evenly placed Puffers showing greater reduction of males captured and females mated compared with the other dispensing systems. Mating disruption with gridded Puffers or hand-applied devices in almonds resulted in an approximately 37% reduction of navel orangeworm damage (not significant), whereas peripheral Puffers resulted in a 16% reduction of navel orangeworm damage to almonds. In pistachios neither peripheral nor gridded Puffers reduced navel orangeworm damage, whereas insecticide reduced damage by 56%. In 2004, Puffers alone, insecticide alone, and both in combination significantly reduced navel orangeworm damage in Nonpareil almonds. In other, later harvested varieties, the insecticide treatments reduced damage, whereas the mating disruption treatment alone did not. We discuss application of these findings to management of navel orangeworm in these two crops.
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Using molecular- and sensory physiology-based approaches, three novel natural products, a simple ester, and a behavioral antagonist have been identified from the pheromone gland of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In addition to the previously identified (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal, the pheromone blend is composed of (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-tricosapentaene, (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene, ethyl palmitate, ethyl-(Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienoate, and (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate. The C(23) and C(25) pentaenes are not only novel sex pheromones, but also new natural products. In field tests, catches of A. transitella males in traps baited with the full mixture of pheromones were as high as those in traps with virgin females, whereas control and traps baited only with the previously known constituent did not capture any moths at all. The navel orangeworm sex pheromone is also an attractant for the meal moth, Pyralis farinalis L. (Pyralidae), but (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate is a behavioral antagonist. The new pheromone blend may be highly effective in mating disruption and monitoring programs.
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The effect of brief pheromone exposures on responses of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) males was tested by flight-tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) studies. Males were preexposed to pheromone for up to 3 min as they sat in release cages or for shorter times (a few seconds to several min) upon initiating flights or orienting in plumes. Brief exposures to Isomate-C Plus dispensers nearly eliminated moth orientations to 0.1 mg codlemone [(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol] and 0.1 mg three-component (codlemone/12OH/14OH, 100:20:5 ratio) lures 15 min later. However, there was no associated change in EAG responses between preexposed and control moths. Behavioral responses of Isomate-C Plus-exposed males were normal 24 hr following exposure. The reduced sexual responsiveness observed following exposure to Isomate dispensers appeared to be associated with an elevation of response threshold. Brief preexposure to 0.1 mg codlemone and three-component lures also reduced orientational behavior of males 15 min later, but to a lesser degree than when preexposed to Isomate-C Plus dispensers. Male behavior following preexposure to a 0.1 mg codlemone/pear ester [(2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate] lure (1:1 ratio) was no different from exposure to codlemone only. Orientational disruption in plots treated with 10 dispensers of Isomate-C Plus per tree was 88.3 and 95.9% for 1.0 and 0.1 mg codlemone lures, respectively. Some males did orient to 0.1 mg codlemone lures so we caution that flight-tunnel experiments on preexposure may overestimate the actual pheromone exposure dosage received by feral moths in treated orchards. Importantly, this work documents that a portion of feral males within a population has the capacity to overcome communicational disruption by high densities of Isomate-C Plus dispensers.
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Eleven out of 13 disruption profiles (plots of dispenser density vs. male catch) from moth sex pheromone literature were consistent with a competitive-attraction mechanism, in which dispensers attract males and thereby divert them from females. Mean dispenser activity (D a) across all competitive-attraction cases was 0.04 ± 0.06 (SD); values ranged from 0.0005 for a tiny laminated flake dispenser of racemic disparlure targeting gypsy moth to 0.2 for polyethylene tube dispensers used against lightbrown apple moth. A dispenser application activity (\(D_{{\overline{\rm A}\rm a}} \)) can be calculated by multiplying D a by the number of such dispensers applied per hectare of crop. The highest dispenser application activity (\(D_{{\overline{A} a}} \)) values approached 200 and corresponded to >99% inhibition of catches of male moths in monitoring traps. Relative to the \(D_{{\overline{A} a}} \) scale, % inhibition of catches of male moths compressed and obscured large differences in \(D_{{\overline{A} a}} \) when % disruption exceeded 90%. For cases of competitive attraction, these two efficacy scales can be interconverted by using the formula: \(D_{{\overline{A} a}} \approx {100} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{100} {{\left( {100{\text{ }}{\text{ minus }}\% {\text{ disruption}}} \right)}}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {{\left( {100{\text{ }}{\text{ minus }}\% {\text{ disruption}}} \right)}}\). When disruptive point sources of pheromone were directly observed, male moths were seen approaching pheromone dispensers whose disruption profiles matched competitive attraction. Two cases fit non-competitive disruption mechanisms, which include camouflage, desensitization (adaptation and/or habituation), and sensory imbalance. In these cases, pheromone was released at rates higher than for cases of disruption by competitive attraction. Practical ramifications of the finding that competitive attraction appears to be the prevalent mechanism for moth mating disruption by pheromone point sources are listed. We believe that the congruence of diverse sets of mating disruption field data with explicit a priori predictions validates competitive-attraction theory. The analytical tools and principles governing competitive attraction that were uncovered during this study of mating disruption of moths should be generally applicable to competitive-attraction phenomena.
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To get a better understanding of the mating behavior of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), we developed a robust laboratory colony derived from larvae collected in Bakersfield, California and fed on dried, roasted pistachio. In the lab at 25 degrees C, most of the mating activity was observed during the last hour of the scotophase and for the first 30 min of the photophase. Female calling was characterized by the abdomen being protruded between the wings with the distal segments perpendicular to the body and exposing a pheromone gland, as well as by continuous antennation. Males approached calling females from a short distance by displaying wing fanning and antennation. When a male antennated on a calling female's abdomen, she either accepted the male and lowered the abdomen, or walked away. The accepted male made a final approach parallel to the female's body, but after coupling he rotated 180 masculine with male and female remaining in a linear, abdomen-to-abdomen position for over 3 h in average. In a possible strategy to maximize the chances of mating, the sex ratio was significantly skewed towards males in the first two days of emergence. Almost 80% of mating took place in the first two days after adult emergence, with females mating only once. About 55% of males mated only once and approximately 40% of the observed males mated twice and 5% tree times.
Chapter
This book addresses many of the key issues surrounding integrated pest management (IPM), particularly of insects. Topics include the pesticide paradox in IPM; risk-benefit analysis; transgenic crops in IPM; and consumer response to IPM. This book will be of great use to researchers in crop protection, entomology and pest management.
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The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection. In petri dish arenas, larvae showed a preference for 1-octen-3-ol and 2-phenylethanol, volatiles characteristic of damaged plants, as well as methanolic extracts of almond meal with 1-octen-3-ol and the fungal volatile conophthorin. In contrast, larvae displayed aversion to ethyl benzoate, an inhibitor of fungal growth. When we assessed oviposition behavior relative to substrates with and without A. flavus, females laid almost twice as many eggs near inoculated surfaces. Moreover, an average of 63% of eggs laid near inoculated substrates were fertilized, compared with 24% of eggs near uninoculated sites. We also tested the hypothesis that unfertilized eggs are laid on nutrient-poor substrates to provide supplemental nutrition for larvae in an assay comparing larval survivorship in the presence and absence of unfertilized eggs. Neonates given eggs survived 2.5 times longer on an average than unprovisioned neonates (208.8 h vs. 85.2 h), indicating that this species may compensate with cannibalism for oviposition on lower-quality food sources. We conclude that larvae orient to probable host plant and fungal volatiles associated with hull split and document a possible strategy for larvae to establish on low-quality hosts.
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Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating monitoring and management of this key pest. Phenyl propionate is an attractant used to capture adults in the presence of mating disruption, completely suppressing pheromone traps, and lures combining phenyl propionate with a pheromone lure (PPO-combo lure) synergize trap capture in the presence of mating disruption. In this study, laboratory and field trials of different phenyl propionate dispensers indicate a useful life of six weeks. Controlled experiments found similar numbers of adults captured in phenyl propionate and PPO-combo lures in the presence of varying levels of mating disruption intensity. A subsequent trial compared monitoring of field plots at various distances from fields under commercial mating disruption for much of the growing season with pheromone and PPO-combo lures. Although there was some evidence of partial suppression of capture in PPO-combo traps closer to mating disruption compared with lures farther away, there was no failure of detection as occurred with pheromone lures. The ratio of adults in pheromone and PPO-combo traps varied with proximity from treated fields. These results indicate that, in addition to monitoring in mating disruption plots, phenyl propionate lures can be useful for insuring against failure of detection of navel orangeworm pressure in areas where mating disruption is widely used.
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Attraction of California red scale males, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), to different release rates of the sex pheromone compound 3-methyl-6-isopropenyl-9-decen-1-yl acetate was evaluated in field trials. This study was aimed to study pheromone emission-response correlations and the existence of an optimum release rate that maximizes trapping efficacy. Release profiles of the pheromone dispensers deployed were determined by gas chromatography to estimate the various emission rates tested. The results reveal that the mean number of A. aurantii males caught correlates with the daily pheromone release rates by means of a quadratic model. The obtained model indicates the existence of a relative maximum of the captures corresponding to an optimum release rate of ca. 300 μg/day. Higher emission rates (up to 1 g/day) resulted in lower captures. Implications for the mating disruption technique are discussed.
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Background: Gear Up, Throttle Down (GUTD) and Inward Only strategies represent potential alternatives to conventional airblast applications to reduce spray drift. This study evaluates Inward Only and a modified version of GUTD in almonds, the largest U.S. tree crop, at the recommended hull split treatment timing for control of navel orangeworm (NOW), the key almond insect pest. Results: Conventional treatment produced the most drift (15.6% of total bifenthrin load) while the GUTD and Inward Only treatments produced only 7.6% and 9.7%, respectively. For all methods 92-94% of the drift was found in the first 15.2 m downwind of the orchard. NOW control was lower for the Inward Only treatment compared with the GUTD and Conventional treatments. NOW control was consistently lower at the 4.88 m height relative to 2.44 m in all treatments, reflecting the reduced deposition higher in the tree canopy recorded in deposition samples. Conclusion: While Inward Only treatments reduced spray drift relative to the Conventional application method, poorer control of NOW, the key insect pest of almonds, in the Inward Only treatment would likely limit its voluntary use by growers. However, GUTD holds promise for use at the hull split treatment timing to address spray drift.
Article
Progress toward proof of the principal cause of insect mating disruption under a particular set of conditions has been hindered by a lack of logical rigor and clean falsifications of possible explanations. Here we make the case that understanding of mating disruption and optimization of particular formulations can be significantly advanced by rigorous application of the principles of strong inference. To that end, we offer a dichotomous key for eight distinct categories of mating disruption and detail criteria and methodologies for differentiating among them. Mechanisms of mating disruption closely align with those established for enzyme inhibition, falling into two major categories-competitive and noncompetitive. Under competitive disruption, no impairments are experienced by males, females, or the signal of females. Therefore, males can respond to females and traps. Competitive disruption is entirely a numbers game where the ratio of dispensers to females and traps is highly consequential and renders the control pest-density-dependent. Under noncompetitive disruption, males, females, or the signal from females are already impaired when sexual activity commences. The control achieved noncompetitively offers the notable advantage of being pest-density-independent. Dosage-response curves are the best way to distinguish competitive from noncompetitive disruption. Purely competitive disruption produces: a smoothly concave curve when untransformed capture data are plotted on the y-axis against density of dispensers on the x-axis; a straight line with positive slope when the inverse of catch is plotted against density of pheromone dispensers; and, a straight line with negative slope when catch is plotted against density of pheromone dispensers × catch. Disruption operating only noncompetitively produces: a straight line with negative slope when untransformed capture data are plotted on the y-axis against density of dispensers on the x-axis; an upturning curve when the inverse of catch is plotted against density of pheromone dispensers; and, a recurving plot when catch is plotted against density of pheromone dispensers x catch. Hybrid profiles are possible when some males within the population begin the activity period already incapacitated, while those not preexposed have the capacity to respond either to traps or pheromone dispensers. Competitive mechanisms include competitive attraction, induced allopatry, and induced arrestment. Noncompetitive mechanisms include desensitization and inhibition, induced allochrony, suppressed calling and mating, camouflage, and sensory imbalance. Examples of the various disruption types within the two major categories and suggested tactics for differentiating among them are offered as seven case studies of the disruption of important pest species using various formulations are analyzed in depth. We point out how economic optimizations may be achieved once the principal and contributory causes of disruption are proven. Hopefully, these insights will pave the way to a broader and more reliable usage of this environmentally friendly pest management tactic. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Article
Sex pheromone-mediated mating disruption using pheromone puffer dispensers was evaluated to control Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) at three red clover seed production fields in Alberta, Canada. The objectives of the study were to determine aspects of the biology of C. deauratella which may affect successful mating disruption, evaluate the ability of aerosol-emitting pheromone puffers to reduce male moth catch in small-plot trials, and evaluate the ability of puffers to reduce male capture in traps, larval numbers and damage in large-plot trials. The median longevity of male and female C. deauratella was 6 d in the laboratory where males emerged in larger numbers earlier than females (protandry). Male response to pheromone peaked at sunrise; thus, puffers were programmed to dispense pheromone throughout this time period. Small-plot (0.25 ha) mating disruption trials indicated that pheromone released from puffers could reduce male C. deauratella orientation to traps by 60.7 ± 18.6% compared with that in untreated control plots. Reduction of male orientation to traps in large-plot (5 ha) trials over the course of the season was also successful (93.7 ± 1.6%). However, there was no corresponding decrease in larval numbers or increase in seed yield in pheromone-treated plots. Challenges of mating disruption of C. deauratella appear to be immigration of mated females combined with high population densities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Article
The absorption and release of the pheromone ofEpiphyas postvititana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),E 11-14: OAc andE,E 9, 11-14: OAc (95:5) by apple leaves was studied using electroantennograms (EAG) and sticky traps baited with pheromone-treated leaves. Leaves exposed to an airstream containing pheromone reached a constant level of pheromone release within 3 min. Release occurred over a period greater than 24 hr, following removal of leaves from the pheromone-saturated environment. Pheromone-treated leaves were effective as lures in sticky traps for at least three nights, although the average catch per night decrease logarithmically with time. In the field, pheromone was detected by EAG on leaves harvested from up to 25 cm away from a central point source of pheromone. The shape of a surface representing equal pheromone re-release from leaves around a central point source was defined by interpolation from a three-dimensional transect. Leaves harvested from 5 cm under the dispensers showed the highest pheromone release rate. Leaves downwind of the dispensers also had higher release of pheromone. In a treated orchard, significantly higher EAG measurements were recorded in the rows of trees that contained dispensers, compared to grass interrows or untreated trees. The implications of foliar pheromone adsorption and release on atmospheric concentrations and insect behavior require further investigation.
Article
Uptake and release of pheromone and behavioral inhibitor ofEpiphyas postvittanna by apple leaves was tested using field electroantennograms (EAG), trap catches to synthetic lures and virgin females, and chemical analysis. Trap catches in single apple trees (N=3) were monitored for six cycles of six days' duration, using delta traps baited with synthetic pheromone. Polyethylene dispensers (0, 1, 10 per tree) releasing pheromone and inhibitor were present for only the first three days of each cycle. Application of 10 dispensers per tree resulted in complete disruption of trapping, which continued for one day after dispensers were removed. Over the three nights following the removal of the dispensers (days 4-6), trap catch was 0, 10, and 15% of the control catch. In contrast, the presence of only one dispenser per tree led to 0-20% of control catches, but on the three nights following dispenser removal catches were 35, 40, and 80% of the control catch. Field EAGs indicated significantly higher relative pheromone concentrations in the trees with 10 dispensers present, compared to trees with single dispensers, but removal of dispensers produced no detectable treatment effect compared to the control trees one day after dispenser removal. In a second experiment, releases of marked male moths into apple orchard plots following the removal of polyethylene dispensers (1 hr earlier that day) resulted in significantly lower catches in traps baited with virgin females in blocks that had been treated, compared to controls. Recovery of pheromone by solvent washing of leaves loaded with 50 µg of the main component of the sex pheromone (1.26 µg/cm(2)) was low (2.5%). Leaves held in a pheromone-saturated atmosphere were loaded with 0.045±0.007 µg pheromone/cm(2). Analysis of apple leaves taken from a pheromone-treated tree at different distances from the pheromone dispenser showed a decay of the pheromone load per square centimeter with increasing distance from the dispenser, as previously indicated by EAG.
Article
Several compounds were tested for disruption of sex pheromone communication in Amyelois transitella (Walker). Catches of males in female-baited traps were significantly reduced by in-trap treatments with (Z)-9- and (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol formate and isomers of 9, 11-tetradecadien-1-ol formate. Disruption by air permeation with (Z,Z)-9,11,tetradecadien-1-ol formate was better with a plastic laminate formulation than hollow fibers or polyvinyl-chloride rods but was still inferior to treatments with the navel orangeworm pheromone (Z,Z)-11, 13-hexadecadienal.
Article
The female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), produces a sex pheromone that elicits both sexual excitation and upwind flight of males in laboratory bioassays. Quantitative bioassays were developed that employed either orientation (upwind movement) or activation (locomotion, wing-fluttering, clasper extension) as response criteria. Pheromone was released by females only during the last ⅓ of a 10-h scotophase, a time that coincided with maximal male pheromone responsiveness and mating. There were no significant differences between 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-day-old unmated females in either the percentage of females calling or in the quantity of pheromone present in the superficial rinses of of excised abdominal tips during the 8th–10th h of the scotophase. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in pheromone responsiveness in 2- to 3-, or 4-day-old unmated males. Mating resulted in >90% reduction in female calling and at least a 10-fold decrease in the quantity of extractable pheromone. The activation and orientation responses of laboratory males did not differ significantly when pheromone extracts were prepared from either laboratory-reared or feral (collected as last-instar larvae) females.
Article
Machines for dispensing puffs of pheromone at preselected time intervals, containing (Z, Z)-ll,13-hexadecadienal, a sex pheromone component of the female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), moth were positioned at 40-m separations around the perimeters of square 16-ha blocks of pistachios, almonds, and walnuts. With a 30-min puff interval, which continued throughout the day and night for up to 5 d; these puffers delivered an effective release rate of 23 mg of (Z, Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal per ha/d within each 16-ha block. The resulting pheromone permeation of the air completely prevented males of the navel orangeworm from locating females used as bait in traps in the centers of the blocks that were >200 m from the closest puffer. In a smaller, square walnut block of 4.4 ha, with puffers located 30 m apart along the perimeter, less-than-complete communication disruption occurred, even though the female-baited traps were now only =100m from the closest puffer.
Article
(Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal was tested in almond orchards for disruption of mating in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella (Walker). Best results were obtained in air permeation trials with this pheromone formulated in laminate dispensers at 8.9 g/ha. Orientation of males to caged females positioned near the bottom of the orchard canopy (2 m) was disrupted 99% for the 39-day period after treatment. Disruption was less effective at 5 m. Disruption of male catches in female-baited traps was accompanied by reductions in the mating success of dealated females placed in test plots.
Article
Exposure of E8,E10-dodecadienol, the major component of codling moth pheromone, to sunlight and air resulted in extensive degradation ,primarily to nonvolatile oligomers and polymers. Contents and surface residues of new and field-aged pheromone dispensers used in codling moth mating disruption were also analyzed. The tacky film on the surface of field-aged dispensers was primarily nonvolatile decomposition products, and the pheromone remaining in the reservoir of field-aged dispensers degraded significantly. Carbon black, which physically blocks light, and 2 phenylenediamine antioxidants were effective stabilizers that hindered pheromone degradation.
Article
Field observations were made on the timing of sexual activity of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), for 18 nights, from early April through October, 1979 and 1980. Throughout most of the summer, female calling and male attraction to calling females occurred from 1 to 3 h before sunrise but shifted to earlier, warmer hours on cool spring and autumn nights. A linear relationship existed between temperature and time of onset of female calling when measured from sunrise. Male activity was limited to temperatures >11°C and may have been inhibited by the increasing light intensity of approaching sunrise.
Article
At harvest, female moths of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), did not oviposit on almonds of the `Nonpareil' cultivar that had been knocked to the ground. Oviposition continued on nuts still remaining in trees and ranged as high as 60 to 80 eggs per 100 almonds. In one 3-week test, damage to nuts remaining in trees increased from 9.2 to 18.6%, whereas damage to grounded nuts essentially did not increase. Seventy to 90% of the larvae and pupae in grounded nuts receiving direct sunlight were killed by excessive heat. In addition, other larvae exited these heated almonds and were killed on the hot soil surface. This mortality was in contrast to that for larvae and pupae, either in nuts still on trees (no more than 3% mortality) or in nuts on the ground which were continually shaded. Nut, air, and ground temperatures recorded in one test are reported. These results demonstrate that navel orangeworm oviposition is halted and that further nutmeat damage can be restrained significantly when the crop is knocked to the ground.
Article
Four 6-8 ha plots in almond orchards were treated with (Z,Z)-ll,13-hexadecadienal, a sex pheromone of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), to prevent mating, reduce populations, and reduce nut damage at harvest. Mating successrates of dealated females placed in plots were reduced 87.4, 65.2, 85.3, and 64.6% in the four tests. Nut damage at harvest was reduced by 27, 34, 12, and 22% in treated plots compared with control plots.