ArticlePDF Available

Rational Approach To Diagnosis And Management of Kapha Predominant Skin Diseases in Ayurveda : A Review

Authors:
  • Chaudhary Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, New Delhi
  • Ch Brham Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
206
RATIONAL APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF KAPHA
PREDOMINANT SKIN DISEASES IN AYURVEDA: A REVIEW
1*Dr. Yogesh Kumar Pandey, 2Dr. Abhilasha Jareda, 3Prof. M. B. Gaur and 4Dr. Pooja Sabharwal
1Associate Professor, PG Department of Kayachikitsa, Ch. Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, Khera Dabar,
New Delhi-43.
2PG Scholar, PG Department of Kayachikitsa, Ch. Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, Khera Dabar, New
Delhi-43.
3Professor, PG Department of Kriya Shareer, Ch. Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, Khera Dabar, New Delhi-
43.
4Assistant Professor, PG Department of Rachna Shareer, Ch. Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, Khera Dabar,
New Delhi-43.
Article Received on 17/10/2018 Article Revised on 07/11/2018 Article Accepted on 27/11/2018
INTRODUCTION
The skin covers the external surface of the body and is
the largest organ of body.[1] It provides protection to the
body in various ways from microbes, abrasion, heat and
chemicals.[2]
In Ayurveda, Twacha word is used for skin. Twacha is
derived from tvac dhatu, which means „cover‟.[3] The
origin of the twacha is due to the combination of shukra
(sperm) shonita (ovum) in intra uterine life just like a
cream on the surface of milk after boiling of the milk.[4]
According to the Astanga Hardyam, The skin originates
from rakta dhatu in 6th month of embryo[5] by the same
process.[6] Acharya Charak has considered the six layers
of skin but Acharya Sushrut and Vagabhata said that the
skin is made up of 7 layers.[7] The seven layers of the
skin are Avabhasni(1st layer), Lohita(2nd), Shweta(3rd),
Tamra(4th), Vedini(5th), Rhohini(6th) and
Mamsadhara(7th layer).[8] Avabhasni is the outer most
layer of the skin. It is seat of the five gyanendriyas and is
responsible for sparsha gyan or touch sensation. It also
covers all other sense organ. Twacha is bahya roga marg
(location of the disease).[9]
According to modern medicine, skin contains sweat
glands, blood vessel, hair follicles, erector pilli (smooth
muscle) which are responsible for proper functioning of
skin. Any abnormality in them leads to skin disease. As
per Ayurvedic literature imbalance of tridosha (corporeal
humours) and dhatus(tissue factors) is responsible for
skin disease. Doshas are three fundamental energies in
our body and are known as vata, pitta and kapha.
Large community prevalence studies have demonstrated
that between 20-30% of the population have various skin
problems requiring attention.[10] Most of the skin diseases
are mentally agonising and have negative impact on
quality of life.
Description of skin diseases are spread over in various
samhita in many chapters. Two broad categories in
which skin diseases are mentioned as kustha roga and
ksudra roga, other common headings wherein skin
SJIF Impact Factor 4.161
Review Article
ISSN 2394-3211
EJPMR
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL
AND MEDICAL RESEARCH
www.ejpmr.com
ejpmr, 2018,5(12), 206-216
*Corresponding Author: Dr. Yogesh Kumar Pandey
Associate Professor, PG Department of Kayachikitsa, Ch. Brahm Prakash Ayurved Charak Sansthan, Khera Dabar, New Delhi-43.
ABSTRACT
Skin is outermost covering of the body. Its functions as antimicrobial and chemical barrier, and protects body from
a number of external hazards. In Ayurveda, skin diseases are described in various texts. Cause of the skin disease is
vitiation of tridosha (three corporeal humors) and dhatus (tissue factors) in ayurvedic text. Out of one hundred
sixty six skin diseases are described in brihattrayi, twenty five are kapha prominent skin diseases. While most of
skin diseases are described under the kushtha and kshudraroga, description of some of other skin diseases is
scattered. A compilation and critical analysis of all kaphaja skin diseases from Charak samhita, Shusruta samhita
and Vagbhatta, is presented in this study. It is observed that basic treatment protocol is swedana (~fomentation),
vamana (~emesis) and ruksha upnaha (~poultice application) and raktamokshana (~bloodletting) for all kapha
predominant skin diseases. Vamana (elimination of doshas through the mouth) is specifically indicated in kaphaja
diseases. Go-mutra, ushana virya (hot potency) and bitter, Pungent taste dominant herbs are mainly use for
pacification treatment for aggravate kapha dosha.
KEYWORDS: kapha, kushtha, skin diseases, dermatological manifestations.
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
207
disease are mentioned as visarpa, nanatmaj vyadhi,
bahya vidhradhi, shukadosha, prmeha-pidika, granthi,
arvuda, upadansh, shilipada and shoth. Present article is
a compilation and critical analyses of the kapha
predominant skin diseases described in three major
ayurvedic texts namely charaka samhita (6thcentury BC),
sushrut samhita (3rd century BC), Vagbhatta (2nd century
AD).
In Ayurveda, major skin diseases have been described
under kushtha. Literary meaning of Kushtha is “kushnati
vapuh eti kushtham” which means any diseases which
deforms the skin is known as kushtha. There are two type
of kushtha; first is Mahakushtha, which is further
classified into seven subtypes and second kshudra-
kushtha is further classified into eleven subtypes.
Kshudr-kustha and Maha-kustha term are mentioned in
Shusruta samhita. The nomenclature maha-kushtha is
based on chronicity of the disease and severity of their
symptoms. Less severe skin diseases are described as
kshudra-kushtha.
Table 1: Kapha dominant major skin diseases.
Disease Name
Dominant dosha
Charak
Susrut
Vagbhata
Mandal
Kapha
-
Kapha
Pundarika
kapha-pitta
Kapha
kapha-pitta
Dadru
kapha-pitta
Kapha
kapha-pitta
Arushaka
-
Kapha
-
Sidhma
vata-kapha
Kapha
vata-kapha
Rakasa
-
Kapha
-
Mahakushtha
-
Kapha
-
Ekakushtha
vata-kapha
Kapha
vata-kapha
Vicharchika
-
-
Kapha
Remaining skin diseases are enumerated in kshudraroga,
nanatmaja vyadhi, shukadosha, visarpa, bahaya
vidradhi, bahya granthi and arbud, shilipad, upadansha,
bahaya shoth.
Kshudraroga is described in a separate chapter in Susrut
samhita. Kshudra roga is derived of two words i.e.
kshudra and roga. kshudra means alpa or short/ small/
minor and roga means disease. So kshudraroga‟s nidan
(etiology), lakshan (clinical features) and chikitsa
(treatment) are described in brief. According to Susruta
samhita, kshudraroga are of fourty four in number while
vagbhata has mentioned thirty six ksudra-rogas Out of
44 ksudra-rogas described in Susruta samhita 42 are
skin diseases while two diseases namely Gudabhransha
and sannirudhgud are not included in skin diseases.
Among ksudrarogas Anushayi, Rakasa, Jatumani,
Ahipootana and Vrashankachhu are kapha predominant
skin diseases. There is no description available in
Astanga Hradya and Astanga Sangrah releated to only
kapha dominant kshudra roga.
In “Maharoga Adhyaya” (20th chapter) of sutrasthana of
charak samhita, endogenous diseases (Nija vyadhi) are
two types; Samayaja vyadhi- caused by vata, pitta and
kapha in different combinations and nanatmaja vyadhi-
specific diseases caused by individual dosha.
Nanatmajvyadhi of kapha dosha are enumerated as 20
types of diseases.[11] Out of these 20 diseases, 2 are
kaphaja skin diseases namely Udarda and
Shvetaavbhasta.[12]
Male genital organ are affected in shukadosha by the
malpractice of instruments, pastes, medicated oils and
ointments. Eighteen shukdoshas are mentioned in
Sushrut Samahita. Three among them namely sarsapika,
grathita and avamantha are kapha dominant.
Visarpa is an acute inflammatory dermatological
manifestation. It spreads very quickly like sank (visarpa)
in various directions.[13] It is characterized by clinical
features such as aashu- anunnatashopha (quickly raised
and subside), daha (burning sensation), jwara (fever)
vedana (pain). Natures of sphotas, pidika (vesicles) are
so specific that it is described as agnidagdhavat (with
intense burning sensation).[14] Based on dosha
predominance, they are seven types as per Charak.
According to Sushruta Samhita, it has five variants. One
of type of the visarpa is kaphaja visarpa In terms of
similarities Visarpa is similar to erysipelas and herpes.
Troublesome round pus filled swelling which is bulging
up rapidly is called vidhradhi.[15] It is similar to abscess.
Round knot like swelling is called granthi.[16] Symptoms
of granthi are similar to cyst. Cyst is a fluid filled sac.
Round immovable deep seated and non suppurates
painless swelling is called Arbuda.[11] Symptoms of
Arbud are similar to tumour. Tumour is a swelling of a
part of the body without inflammation, caused by an
abnormal growth of tissue. Symptoms of Shlipad are
similar to elephantiasis. Symptoms of Updansh are
similar to syphilis.
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
208
Table 2: Identification of all kaphaja skin diseases.
S.No
Name of Disease
Group of Disease
Site
Clinical Features
1
Mandala
Maha-kushtha
All over body
Reddish-white rounded, balsamic and indurate
plaques attached with each other.[18]
2
Vicharchika
Kshudra-kushtha
In any part of body
Blackish pustule associated with itching and
excessive secretion.[19]
3
Sthularushka
Kshudra-kushtha
Large Joints of
upper & lower limbs
Thick, hard and chronic ulcer.[20]
4
Mahakushtha
Kshudra-kushtha
All over body
Contractions and cracks in skin with loss of
sensibility to touch.[21]
5
Pundareeka
Maha-kushtha
In any part of body
Hypopigmented papule with red edges and burning
sensation which appear as leaf of lotus
6.
Dadru
(~Tinea corporis/
Ringworm)
Kshudra-kushtha
In any part of body
Sa kandu- itching
Raga- redness
Pidaka-pimples
Mandala udgatam-circular patches with elevated
edges.
7
Sidhma
(~Tenia versicolor)
Maha-kushtha
Chest region
(generally)
Svetam, tamram- white and coppery in color.
Tanu, Ghrustam vimuchati- thin and when rubbed
it emits small particle of the skin in the form of
dust.
Alabu pushpa varna- it resembles the flower of
alabu (Lagenaria siceraia)
8
Ek-kushtha
(~plaque psoriasis)
Kshudra-kushtha
All over body
Aswedanam- anihidrosis/ dry lesion Mahavastum-
spread over large area, Matsyashakalopama-
macules, papules or plaques covered with silvery
scales
9
Anushayi
Kshudra-roga
Upper part of body
Deep seated/ mild swelling, of the skin color. Pus
formation in the inner part of its.[22]
10
Rakasa (~dry eczema)
Kshudra-roga
Whole body
Plaque lesions associated with itching.[23]
11
Jatumani
(~congenital mole/birth
Mark)
Kshudra-roga
-
Painless, smooth, reddish plaque in round shape.
It‟s congenital.[24]
12
Ahipootana (~napkin
rash/sore buttock)
Kshudra-roga
Buttock region in
childhood
Itching present due to lack of cleanliness, Vesicles
appear after scratching.[25]
13
Vrashanakachhu
(~eczema of scrotum)
Kshudra-roga
Scrotum in
childhood
Similar to Ahipootana[26]
14
Udarda (~Urticaria)
Kaphaja
nanatajmak
All over body
Highly irritating Reddish round plaque during
winter[27] And depressed in center
15
Shvetaavabhasat
Kaphaja
nanatajmak
All over body
Pallor
16
Sarsapika
Shukadosha
Male genital organ
Yellowish papules like yellow mustard seeds.[28]
17
Grathita
Shukadosha
Male genital organ
Feeling Full of thorns (pricking pain) in penis.[29]
18
Avamantha
Shukadosha
Male genital organ
Multiple large plaques and tearing on the middle
part of male genital organ associated with pain and
horrification.[30]
19
Kaphaja Visarpa
Visarpa
All over body
Whitish pustular inflammation associated with mild
pain, excessive itching
Onset-slow.[31]
20
Kaphaj vidradhi
Bahya vidradhi
In any part of body
Pale color Abscess resembling a saucer in shape,
stable, having mild pain with itching and cold in
touch.
Onset-slow.[32]
21
Kaphaj granthi
Granthi
(cyst)
In any part of body
Skin color cyst that is cold in touch and hard as
stone, excessive itching, mild pain present.
Secretion: white thick pus.
Onset- slow.[33]
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
209
22
Kaphaj Arbud
Arbud
In any part of body
Tumor without forming pus
Their other symptoms are similar to kaphaja
granthi.[34]
23
Kaphaj upadansh
Upadansh
Male genital organ
The penis becomes hard swollen, glossy, itching
and mild pain.[35]
24
Kaphaj shilipad
Shlipada
(elephantiasis)
leg, arm, ear, nose,
lips, eyelid
Glossy White Cutaneous horn associate with
heaviness and mild pain.[36]
25
Kaphaj shoth
Soth
( swelling)
All over body/ Any
part of body
yellowish- white hard swelling associated with
itching, cold in touch
Other symptoms- excessive sleep, vomiting,
indigestion.[37]
Table 3: Various type of cutaneous lesions with their representative diseases as per Ayurveda.
Skin lesion
Description
Example
Papule
Elevated, solid lesion<1cm in diameter
Sarsapika
Plaque
Elevated solid confluence of papule >1cm.
Jatumani, Avamantha, Udarda, Rakasa
Pustule
Papule with pus.
Vicharchika, Visarpa
Vesicle
Elevation with clear fluid lesion <0.5 cm in diameter.
Ahipputana
Ulcer
Loss of epidermis and partial loss of dermis.
Sthularunshaka
Cyst
Nodule with fluid
Granthi
Prognosis: kapha predominant skin diseases are easily
curable if it is not compounded with vitiation of other
doshas and diseases.
Treatment
In kushtha disease, first of all predominant dosha should
be treated. After that, other doshas can be treated.[38]
Skin disease is treated with medicated ghrit pana[38] with
predominance of tikta (pungent) and kashaya (astringent)
drugs in taste.[40]
Ayurveda give special importance on three fold
therapeutic management of the disease viz. Shodhana
(~bio- purification), Samshamana (~pacification) and
Nidana parivarjana (avoiding causative factors) for all
types of disease including skin diseases.
Shodhan (bio-purification) therapy is done when the
body accumulates excessive amount of the doshas
(toxins) and body is unable to excrete these toxins
naturally.
Samshamana (~pacification) therapy is used when there
is a small amount of doshas in the body. Its also use
after shodhana therapy due to mitigation for small
amount of doshas.
In shodhan therapy; the principle for the management of
kapha predominant skin disease is use vamana (emetic)
therapy at first.[41] vamana repeat on every fifteen days
according to patient condition and severity of disease.[42]
Table no 4: Shodhan (~bio- purification) therapy.
S.No.
Disease
Treatment
Specification
1
Kaphaja
kushtha
Vamana (~emesis)
Decoction of kutaja, madanphala, mulethi and leaves of
patol mixed with the juice of nimba ptra.[43]
Nasya
saindhava (rock salt), danti, maricha, pippali, fruit of
karanja, black seed oil.[44]
Virechanika
Dhumapana[43]
(~smoking)
Varti made by Aprajita, hartala, meinshila,
Agara, Tejapatra with the help of black seed oil.[46]
2
Sarshapika[39]
Raktamookshan
(~bloodletting)
Scraped with sharp instrument after that powder of the
astringent trees in taste is applied on the scraped area.
Ropana
(healing material)
Heal the wound with the help of astringent oil in taste.
3
Grathita[40]
Swedana (steam)
Upnaha (Poultices)
Aragvadhadi gana
4
Avamantha
Incision
Anoint
When the excretion of Pus, anointed with oil cooked by
dhava, asvakarna, sallaki and tinduka herbal drug.[49]
5
kaphaj
vidradhi[41]
Swedana
Constantly fomented.
Upnaha (poultice)
Aragvadhadi gana
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
210
Vamana (emesis)
Decoction of kutaja, madanphala, mulathi and leaves of
patol mixed with the juice of nimba ptra.[51]
Raktamokshana
(bloodletting)
Elimination of the pus into the ripe abscess with the help
of incision and wash with the help of decoction of
aragvadha.
Ropana (healing material)
wound should be filled the paste of haridra, trivrt, corn
flour oil and honey
6
Kaphaja
Visarpa
Lamghana (Fasting therapy)
Vamana (emeisis)
Decoction of kutaja, madanphala, mulathi and leaves of
patol mixed with the juice of nimba ptra.[52]
Raktamokshana
(bloodletting)
Leech therapy.[53]
Virechana (purgative)
Purgative ghee.[54]
7
Kaphaja
shlipada[42]
Sirabhedana
Puncture on vein of the big toe.
Local application
Paste of deudaru and chitaka.
8
Kaphaja
granthi[43]
Snehana (~local lubrication)
Aragvadhadi tail (made by aragvadhaadi gana)
Swedana (fomentation)
Vamana(emesis)
Decoction of madanphala, mulethi, indrajo nimb.[57]
Virechana (purgation)
Trivrita, danti, triphala (haritaki, bibhitaki, amala)[58]
Raktamokshana
(bloodletting)
Leech therapy
Mardana (massage)
Gently pressed with thumb, iron and stone piece.
9
Kaphaja
Arbud[44]
Vamana
Decoction of madanphala, mulethi, indrajo nimba.[60]
Raktamokshana (blood
letting)
Leech therapy
Local application
Paste with ash of bell-metal, kalihari, kakadanit. Urine
mixed with alkali. Paste of jeemutaka, ghoshvati, danti,
dravanti.
Table no 5: Shamana treatments.
S.no
Disease
Yoga
Ingredient
Anupana/Dose
1
Kaphaja
kushtha
Triphaladi
powder[61]
Haritki, bibhitaki, amalaki, kutaki, nimb, vacha,
patol, haldi,indryava, chirayata
Honey and ghee
Triphaladi
decoction[62]
Haritki, bibhitaki, amalaki, kutaki, nimb, vacha,
patol, haldi, manjishtha
Internal use
2
Mandal
kushtha
Kankaksheeri
oil[63]
Kankaksheeri, meinshila,danti, chameli, mustard,
Arka,chitrak, gunja, tulsi,hartal, phitkari, kasisa rock
salt, sajjika kshara
Massage
Mandal
kushthahar lepa
Karanja , devadaru, jatamamsi, kaknasi,
mudagparni mixed by the help of honey.[64]
Local application
Edagajadi lepa[65]
Edagaja(sarjarasa), rock salt, mustard, Vidanga,
Kustha
Phalgavadi
lepa[66]
Kathgular, chitrak, rock salt, go mutra
Trapyadi lepa[67]
Tin, Iron, Lead
Chitrakadi
lepa[68]
Chitrak, Badi Elaichi, Adusa, Nishotha, Shunthi,
Arka leaves, Palasha
3
Kaphaja
visarpa
Triphalaadi
pradeha[69]
Haritki, bibhitaki, amalaki, ananta root, kaner root,
khasa, lagvanti
Local application
Khadiradi
alepa[70]
Khadir, aaragvadha, devdaru, chhativana, dhava,
musta, cow ghee
4
Kaphaja
granthi
Dantyadi lepa[71]
Danti, chitrak, snuhi, madar, bhallatka,kasis ,jiggery
Local application
5
Kaphaja
shopha
Aaragvadhadi
tail[72]
Drugs of Aaragvadhadi gana
Kaphaja
shothahar lepa[73]
Chorak(Angelica glauca), Aguru (Aquilaria
malaccensis)
6
Dadru kushtha
Saindhvadi
lepa[74]
Rock salt, Chakrmarda (Cassia tora),nagakeshara
(Mesua ferrea),rasota, juice of kapitha (Limonia
Local application
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
211
acidissima)
Swanksheeri
lepa[75]
Swanksheeri, aaragvadha, shirisha, neema, rala,
sala tree
7
Mahakushtha
Churna kriya[76]
Powderand decoction of salasaradi gana+ decoction
of Aragvadhadi gana
Internal use
8
Kaphaja
vidhradi
Aragvadhadi
decoction[77]
Aragvadhadi gana
Local application
9
Kaphaja
visarpa
Varunadi kwath
Drugs of varunadi gana[61]
Internal use
Ajagandhadi
lepa[79]
Vana-tulsi, aswgandha, nishotha, manjishtha,
shatavari,ajashrngi, go-mutra
Local application
Triphaladi
pradeha[80]
Haritki, bibhitaki, amla, lajjvanti, kanera, sariva,
khasa, kamala
Khadiradi
pradeha[81]
Kattha, motha, aragvadha, dhava, piyavasa,
devdaru, chhativana
10
Kaphaja
granthi
Kantakari lepa[82]
Kantakari, Aargvadha, rakta gunja, madar,bharngu,
karanja, madana-phala, ingudi, katutumbi
Dantyadi lepa[83]
Danti, chitaka, shunda, madar, bhallatak, kasis,
jiggery
11
Kaphaja
upadansha
Salaswakarnadi
lepa[84]
Sala, ashwkarna, ajakarna, dhava, sura oil
Local application
use in hot form
Bringrajadi
lepa[85]
Bhringraja, haritaki, bibhitaki, amla, danti, tamr
bhasm, loha bhasm
12
Kaphaja
shilipada
Paste of Devdaru and chitrak[62]
Local application
Paste of mustard[63]
Vidangadi tai[88]
Vidanga, marich, madar,sotha, chitrak, devdaru,
alooa, black salt, rock salt, sea salt.
Internal use
Haritki paste[89] use with one of Ashata mutra (hasti mutra, aja mutra,
mahisha mutra, ushtra mutra, avi mutra, Ashwa mutra, khara mutra, go
mutra)[64]
Internal use
13
Ahiputana &
Vrashankachhu
Patoladi ghrita[91]
Patol leaves, haritki, bibhitaki, amla, rasota and
ghee of cow
Internal use
Triphaladi
kashayam[92]
Haritki, bibhitaki, amla, bera, khadira
Use for wound
healing
Kasisadi lepa[93]
Kasisa, gorochana, tuthya, hartala, rasanjan, rock
salt kanji
Local application
14
Kaphaja
shotha
Aragavadhadi
ghrit[94]
Aaragvadhadi gana, ghee of cow
Internal use
Vyoshadi
churn[95]
Sotha, pipali, maricha, nishotha, kutaki, iron bhasm,
Internal use with
triphala juice.
Gudaadraka[96]
Use jaggery and ginger paste in equal amount(~5gm)
Internal use
Chitrak ghrit[97]
Chitrak paste, go ghrit
Internal use
Internal use of jaggary and haritaki powder in the same amount.[98]
Internal use of haritaki powder with cow urine.[99]
Note- The treatment of the Anushayi is similar to the kaphaja vidradhi.
Effected area of the Jatumadi skin disease should be
treated with caustic alkali or fire often.
Ahiputana and Vrashanakachhu: it‟s should be treated
after purifying the breast milk of mother with the help of
medicated ghee made by leaves of patol, triphala,
rasanjan. Decoction of triphala, kola and khadira are
used for healing of this wound.
Aaragvadhadi gana: Aaragvadha (cassia fistula),
madanaphal (randia dumetorum), supari (Areca
catechu), patha (Cissampelos pareira), patala
(Stereospermum suaveolens), murva (marsdenia
tenacissima), indrayava (Holarrhena antidysenterica),
nimb (Azadirechta indica), saptapani (Alstonia
scholaris), giloya (Tinospora cordifolia), chitraka
(Plumbago zeylanica), bitter gourd, chirata (Swertia
chirata), patola (Trichosanthes dioca), putikaranja
(holoptelea intergrifolia), karanja (Millettia pinnata),
kakajangha (Asparagus racemosus).[100]
Varunadi gana: varun (crataeva nurvala), piyawasa
(barleria prionitis), sahajana (moringa oleifera), jayanti
(Sesbania seaban), puti karanja (millettia pinnata),
murava (marsdenia tenacissima), agnimantha
(Clerodendrum phlomidis), seireyaka (barleria prionitis),
bimbi (Coccinia indica), vasuka (Calotropis gigantean),
apamarga (Achyranthes aspera), chitraka (Plumbago
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
212
zeylanica), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), bilva
(Aegle marmelos), kusha (Desmostachya bipinnata),
kateri (Solanum xanthocarpum), kakadasinghi (Pistacia
integerrima).[101]
3 Nidana varivarjana (avoiding causative factors)
Pathya (does) - rice, barley, wheat, mudga, masura
seeds, bitter vegetables, desert animals meat[102]
Apathya (don‟t) - sour, salty, pungent, curds, milk,
jiggery, oil, meat of animals of marshy land[103]
According to Ayurvedic texts, properties of kapha dosha
are heaviness, cold, softness, sweet taste, stability and
lubrication.[104] The form of kapha dosha is whitish.[105]
kapha dosha gets aggravated by use of diet and activities
that are similar to the properties of kapha in high amount
for a long time. And when this aggravated kapha vitiate
into the skin, skin disease is produced. It‟s also called
kapha predominant kushtha disease. According to Bhela
samhita, kapha predominant kushtha is characterised by
pale colour glossy rashes, heaviness in these rashes and
cover the large area or multiple rashes appear.[106]
Table no 6: Description of Kapha predominant skin diseases.
S.no.
Disease
skin lesion
lesion Colour
Other symptoms
Secretion
1
Kaphaja shotha
Swelling
Yellowish- White
Hardness in lesion, excessive itching,
cold in touch, mild pain
Onset- slow
Absent
2
Kaphaja upadansh
Small
swollen
Skin colour
Hardness in lesion, Excessive itching,
mild pain
Absent
3
Kaphaja granthi
Cyst
Skin colour
Hardness in lesion, excessive itching,
cold in touch, mild pain
Onset- slow
White thick
pus
4
Kaphaja Arbud
Tumour
Skin colour
Hardness in lesion, excessive itching,
cold in touch, mild pain
Onset- slow
Absent
5
Kaphaja bahaya
Vidradhi
Abscess
Pale
Excessive itching, cold in touch, mild
pain
Onset- slow
White thick
pus
6
Kaphaja Visarp
Pustule
Whitish
Excessive itching, mild pain
Onset- slow
Mild pus
It can be seen that kapha predominant skin diseases are
similar to each other due to aggravation of kapha dosha
but there is some variation in morphology of their lesions
due to the involvement of different dhatu and site, such
as plaque, pustule, abscess, cyst etc. Some kapha
predominant skin disease show some extra symptoms
other than that of kapha dosha due to involvement of
vitiated other doshas and dhatu.
Kushtha is tridoshaj vyadhi. Therefore, all doshas are
taken into consideration and treated. But predominant
dosha is treated first. So kapah dosha is treated in kapha
predominant skin disease. After that, other doshas may
be treated according to conditions. In some of skin
diseases such as udarada and svetaavbhasta only kapha
dosha is treated.
In most of the kapha predominant skin diseases, the best
pacification treatment is use of specific herb with honey
or animal urine while the best bio-purification treatment
is vamana.[107]
Vamana: internal lubrication and fomentation should be
done as per requirement before emesis so that aggravated
doshas of the body comes into the stomach. vamana is a
process of expelled aggravated dosha through the upper
part of body (mouth) and the place of the kapha dosha is
considered as the upper part of the body. Vamaka drugs
mainly act on stomach and its foul smell is stimulates
vomiting center in cerebral cortex so that aggravated
kapha dosha in stomach could is expelled through
mouth.
Raktmokshana: hard lesions such as some papules,
pustule, cyst and tumour due to aggravated kapha is
subside with bloodletting after sweating and poultice.
Drugs mentioned in table 7 can be used in kapha
dominant skin diseases.
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
213
Table 7: Mitigation drugs of kaphaja skin diseases.
S. no.
Drug
Latin name
Taste
Potency (virya)
1
Haritaki
Terminalia chebula
Sweet, sour, pungent, bitter, astringent
Ushna
2
Bhallataka
Samecarpus anacardium
sweet, astringent
Ushna
3
Chitraka
Plumbago zeylanica
Pungent
Ushna
4
Danti
Baliospermum montanum
Pungent
Ushna
5
Arka
Calotropis procera
Sweet, bitter
Ushna
6
Aragvadha
cassia fistula
sweet
Ushna
7
Murava
marsdenia tenacissima
Sweet, bitter
Ushna
8
Saraso
Brassica compestris
pungent, bitter
Ushna
9
Karanja
Millettia pinnata
pungent
Ushna
10
Kasisa
Ferrous sulphate
Sour
Ushna
11
Animal urine
Cow or elephant urine
Salty and bitter
Ushna
CONCLUSION
One hundred sixty six skin diseases are described in
bruhattrayi. Out of one hundred sixty six skin diseases
these twenty five kapha predominant skin diseases are
mandala kushtha, mahakushtha, dadru, sthularunshika,
pundareeka, ekakushtha and anushi, raksa, ahiputana,
jatumani, vrashankachhu, udarda, shvetaavabhasta
kaphaja nanatmaja twak roga, sarshapika, avamanth,
grathita and kapha predominant visarpa, vidhradi,
granthi, arbuda, upadansha, shilipada, shotha.
All twenty five kaphaja skin diseases show symptoms
similar to the kapha dosha such as hardness, excessive
itching, cold in touch, mild pain and slow progress etc.
The specific characteristics of the all skin disorder
depend on extent of vitiation of properties of kapha
dosha, various dushyas (tissue factors) and adhishthans
(site). Some kapha predominant skin diseases are present
with additional symptoms in addition to kapha dosha due
to involvement of vitiated doshas and dhatu such as
abscess, nodules, bulla, pustules, swelling.
In most of the kapha predominant skin diseases, it has
been observed that basic treatment protocol follows
swedana (heat), vamana (~emetic), upanaha (pouting)
and raktmokshana (~bloodletting) for hard lesions, tikta /
kashaya rasa dominant medicated ghee. Vamana
(emetic) is prime therapies in elimination of aggravated
kapha dosha. Most of the herbal compounds used in
mitigation therapy for kapha predominant skin disease
are ushana virya (hot potently), sweet, pungent and bitter
dominant.
All kapaha predominant skin diseases are described
according to the dosha, site and symptoms and these
classics treatment are in tabulated form in this article so
that diagnosis and classical management of the kaphaja
skin disease can be approached easily.
REFERENCES
1. Tortora G., Derrickson B. The Integumentary
System. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology vol.1
(edition. 12th). John wiley & Sons, Inc. Asia.
copyright Print, 2009; 5: 148.
2. Tortora G., Derrickson B. The Integumentary
System. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology vol.1
(edition. 12th). John wiley & Sons, Inc. Asia.
copyright Print, 2009; 5: 161.
3. Williams M.M., Tvac, A Sanskrit English
Dictionary. Bharatiya Granth Niketan, New Delhi.
Edition 2010: 463.
4. Shastri A., Garbhvyakarana, Sharir sathan. Sushrut
Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 4/4:37.
5. Gupta K.A., Garbha-kranti, Sharira-sthan.
Aashtang Hrdyam, vidyotini hindi commentary.
Chaukhambha orientalia, Varanasi, 2009; 1/57: 237.
6. Gupta K.A., Anga-sharira, Sharira-sthan. Aashtang
Hrdyam, vidyotini hindi commentary.
Chaukhambha orientalia, Varanasi, 2009; 3/8: 250.
7. Gupta K.A., Anga-sharira, Sharira-sthan. Aashtang
Hrdyam, vidyotini hindi commentary.
Chaukhambha orientalia, Varanasi, 2009; 3/8: 250
8. Shastri A., Garbhvyakarana, Sharir Sathan. Sushrut
Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 4/4: 37.
9. Sastri K., Tristeishaniya, Sutra Sthan. Pandeya G.
(ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 1,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2014; 11/48: 235.
10. Khot K., Jain K.J. management of Herpes Zoster
(visarpa) through Ayurveda. Ejpmr, 2016; 3(11):
263-268.
11. Sastri K., Maharoga. Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak
Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 1, Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2014; 20/10: 399.
12. Sastri K., Maharoga. Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak
Samhita,Vidhyotinitika vol. 1, Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2014; 20/16: 404.
13. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/6: 586.
14. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/20: 560.
15. Shastri A., Vidradhinam Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 9/4-5: 341.
16. Shastri A., Granthyapachi-Arbud-Galgandanam
Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-
sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi,
2010; 11/3: 350.
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
214
17. Shastri A., Granthyapachi-Arbud-Galgandanam
Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-
sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi,
2010; 11/13: 353.
18. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/16: 251.
19. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/26: 252.
20. Shastri A., Kushtha Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 5/9: 321.
21. Shastri A., Kushtha Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 5/9: 321.
22. Shastri A., Kshudraroga Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 13/22: 367.
23. Shastri A., Kushtha Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 5/15: 322.
24. Shastri A., Kshudraroga Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 13/41: 372.
25. Shastri A., Kshudraroga Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 13/60: 374.
26. Shastri A., Kshudraroga Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 13/61: 374.
27. Tripathi B., Sitpitta-Udarda-Kotha Nidanam.
Lochan K.(ed.). Madhava-Nidana. Chaukhamba
Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, 2014; 50/5: 744.
28. Shastri A., Shookadosha Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 14/4: 375.
29. Shastri A., Shookadosha Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 14/6: 375.
30. Shastri A., Shookadosha Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 14/8: 375.
31. Shastri A., Visarpa-Nadi-Stanaroga Nidanam.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 10/6: 346.
32. Shastri A., Vidradhinam Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 9/9: 342.
33. Shastri A., Granthi-Apchi-Arbuda-Galaganda
Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-
sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi,
2010; 12/12: 361.
34. Shastri A., Granthi-Apchi-Arbuda-Galaganda
Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-
sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi,
2010; 12/14: 353.
35. Shastri A., Vridhi-Updansh-Shilipad Nidanam.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 12/12: 361.
36. Shastri A., Vridhi-Updansh-Shilipad Nidanam.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi. 2010; 12/14: 364.
37. Shastri A., Shotha chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 23/5: 129.
38. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/31-32:
253.
39. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi. 2009; 7/39: 255.
40. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/58: 258.
41. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/39: 255.
42. Shastri A., Kshuraroga Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 20/8: 116.
43. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/43: 255.
44. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/48:257.
45. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita,Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/49:257.
46. Sastri K., Matrashitiya Sutrasthan. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 1,
Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, 2014;
5/26-27: 117.
47. Shastri A., Shookdosh Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 21/3: 120.
48. Shastri A., Shookdosh Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 21/5: 120.
49. Shastri A., Shookdosh Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 21/10: 120.
50. Shastri A., vidradhi chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 16/23-26: 96.
51. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/43: 255.
52. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/43: 255.
53. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/69: 601.
54. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/47: 599
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
215
55. Shastri A., vriddhi-updansha-shlipada chikitsa.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 19/56-62:
114-115.
56. Shastri A., granthi-apachi-arbud-galgand chikitsa.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 18/13:105.
57. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/51:600.
58. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/44: 256.
59. Shastri A., granthi-apachi-arbud-galgand chikitsa.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 18/35-
36:107.
60. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/51:600.
61. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/68: 265.
62. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/100: 267.
63. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/116: 266.
64. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/123: 267.
65. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/127: 267.
66. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/89: 263.
67. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/88: 263.
68. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 7/86: 263.
69. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/87: 604.
70. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/88: 604.
71. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/126:
610.
72. Tripathi B., shavathu Chikitsa. Astanga Hrdayam,
nirmala hindi commentary. Chaukhamba Sanskrit
pratishthan delhi, 2009; 17/33: 547.
73. Tripathi B., shavathu Chikitsa. Astanga Hrdayam,
nirmala hindi commentary. Chaukhamba Sanskrit
pratishthan delhi, 2009; 17/36: 547.
74. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 9/13:64.
75. Sastri K., Kushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 9/14: 64.
76. Sastri K., Mahakushtha Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 10/10: 72
77. Tripathi B., Vidradhi- Vridhi Chikitsa. Astanga
Hrdayam, Nirmala hindi commentary.
Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi, 2012;
13/5: 723.
78. Sastri K., Visarpa-Nadi-Stanaroga Chikitsa.
Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika,
vol. 2. Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi. 2009;
17/16: 100.
79. Sastri K., Visarpa-Nadi-Stanaroga Chikitsa.
Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika,
vol. 2. Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi. 2009;
17/15:99.
80. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/87: 604.
81. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21//88: 604.
82. Sastri K., Granthi-Apchi-Arbud-Galgand Chikitsa.
Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika,
vol. 2. Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009;
18/13: 105.
83. Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/126:
610.
84. Sastri K., Vriddhi-Upadansha-Shilipada Chikitsa.
Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika
vol. 2, Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009;
19/34-34: 113.
85. Sastri K., Vriddhi-Upadansha-Shilipada Chikitsa.
Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika
vol. 2, Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009;
19/47: 114.
86. Sastri K., Vriddhi-Upadansha-Shilipada Chikitsa.
Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika
vol. 2, Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009;
19/58: 114.
87. Sastri K., Shavathu Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.),
Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2,
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 12/ 98: 378.
88. Shastri A., Vriddhi-Upadansha-Shilipada Chikitsa.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 19/59:114.
89. Tripathi B., Granthi-Arbuda-Shilipada-Apachi-Nadi
Pratishedh, Uttar Sthana. Astanga Hrdayam,
Nirmala hindi commentary. Chaukhambha Sanskrit
Pratishthan, Delhi, 2012; 30/11: 1107.
90. Shastri A., Vriddhi-Upadansha-Shilipada Chikitsa.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 19/57:114.
Pandey et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
www.ejpmr.com
216
91. Shastri A., Kshudraroga Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 20/57:118.
92. Shastri A., Kshudraroga Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 20/58:118
93. Shastri A., Kshudraroga Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 20/59:118.
94. Shastri A., Shopha Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 23/11:130.
95. Shastri A., Shavathu Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 12/ 21: 359.
96. Shastri A., Shavathu Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 12/ 48: 364.
97. Shastri A., Shavathu Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 12/ 49: 368.
98. Shastri A., Shopha Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 23/12:130.
99. Shastri A., Shavathu Chikitsa. Sushrut Samhita,
Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha
Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 12/21: 359.
100. Shastri A., Dravyasangrahniya, Sutra Sthana.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 38/6:183.
101. Shastri A., Dravyasangrahniya, Sutra Sthana.
Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatva-sandipika vol.1
Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 38/8:183.
102. Tripathi B., Kushtha Chikitsa. Astanga Hrdayam,
nirmala hindi commentary. Chaukhamba Sanskrit
pratishthan delhi, 2009; 19/ 25-26:786.
103. Tripathi B., Kushtha Chikitsa. Astanga Hrdayam,
nirmala hindi commentary. Chaukhamba Sanskrit
pratishthan delhi, 2009; 19/ 27:786.
104. Pandey K., chaturvedi G., Dirghjeeviteeya
sutrasthan. Charak samhita vidhotini tikka. Vol-1,
Chaukhambha bhartiya Academy, 2016. 1/61.
105. Pandey K., chaturvedi G., maharogadhyay
sutrasthan. Charak samhita vidhotini tikka. Vol-1,
Chaukhambha bhartiya Academy, 2016. 20/18: 405.
106. Katyayana A., kushthachikitsa. hindi commentary of
Bhela-Samhita. Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan,
Varanasi, 6/ 14: 321.
107. Gaur B.L., Ayushakamiya, Sutrasthan. Aashtang
Hrdyam, Samvartika commentary. Vol-1.
Chaukhambha orientalia, Varanasi, 2007; 1/26: 13.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
  • M M Williams
  • Tvac
  • Sanskrit English
  • Dictionary
Williams M.M., Tvac, A Sanskrit English Dictionary. Bharatiya Granth Niketan, New Delhi. Edition 2010: 463.
Anga-sharira, Sharira-sthan. Aashtang Hrdyam, vidyotini hindi commentary. Chaukhambha orientalia
  • K A Gupta
Gupta K.A., Anga-sharira, Sharira-sthan. Aashtang Hrdyam, vidyotini hindi commentary. Chaukhambha orientalia, Varanasi, 2009; 3/8: 250
  • K Sastri
  • Sutra Tristeishaniya
  • Sthan
Sastri K., Tristeishaniya, Sutra Sthan. Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 1, Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2014; 11/48: 235.
  • K Khot
  • K J Jain
  • Management Of Herpes
  • Zoster
Khot K., Jain K.J. management of Herpes Zoster (visarpa) through Ayurveda. Ejpmr, 2016; 3(11): 263-268.
  • K Sastri
  • Maharoga
  • G Pandeya
Sastri K., Maharoga. Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 1, Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2014; 20/10: 399.
  • K Sastri
  • Visarpa Chikitsa
Sastri K., Visarpa Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika vol. 2, Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 21/6: 586.
  • A Shastri
Shastri A., Granthi-Apchi-Arbuda-Galaganda Nidanam. Sushrut Samhita, Ayurvedatatvasandipika vol.1 Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2010; 12/14: 353.
  • K Sastri
  • Visarpa-Nadi-Stanaroga Chikitsa
Sastri K., Visarpa-Nadi-Stanaroga Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika, vol. 2. Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi. 2009; 17/16: 100.
  • K Sastri
  • Granthi-Apchi-Arbud-Galgand Chikitsa
Sastri K., Granthi-Apchi-Arbud-Galgand Chikitsa. Pandeya G. (ed.), Charak Samhita, Vidhyotinitika, vol. 2. Chaukhambha Sanskrit, Varanasi, 2009; 18/13: 105.