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COSMETICS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED ADVERSE EFFECTS: A REVIEW

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Abstract

The word ‘cosmetics’ is taken from a Greek word “kosmeticos” which means to adorn. Since early days materials used for beautification or improvement of appearance comes under the category of cosmetics. People want to look beautiful and the concept of cosmetics is as old as mankind and civilization. The urge to beautify one’s own body and look beautiful has been an urge in the human race since the tribal days. Assorted beauty products such as skincare products, hair products, fragrances, oral hygiene, and nail products, which may contain toxic chemicals that can be harmful to health are used especially by women. Since long time cosmetics have been known to enhance the appearance of the human body. In a society obsessed with beauty, people are lured to fake their appearance as a cure for their insecurities. The estimated value of cosmetic industry today is around 20 billion dollar globally. As a consumer, we are constantly attracted in using beauty and personal care products. But these products, which are supposed to make us feel healthy and look beautiful, have a deep dark side. Various toxic ingredients and hazardous chemicals used in cosmetics are incorporated in beyond acceptable limits. These chemicals may cause serious ill effects on skin and may also enter skin and other organs causing carcinogenicity. Cosmetics have not only seeped into the fashion world but are also playing a prominent role in one’s day-to-day life. Thus, it becomes a necessity to make people aware of various harmful effects of cosmetics and chemicals used in cosmetics.
JAPSR, 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1-6 1
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
Review Article
E-ISSN: 2581-5520
http://www.japsr.in
JAPSR, 2(1):1-6
COSMETICS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED ADVERSE
EFFECTS: A REVIEW
Khan AD*1, Alam MN1
Assistant Professor, Ram-Eesh Institute of Vocational and Technical Education, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT
The word cosmetics is taken from a Greek word kosmeticos which means to adorn. Since early days materials used for beautification or
improvement of appearance comes under the category of cosmetics. People want to look beautiful and the concept of cosmetics is as old as
mankind and civilization. The urge to beautify ones own body and look beautiful has been an urge in the human race since the tribal days.
Assorted beauty products such as skincare products, hair products, fragrances, oral hygiene, and nail products, which may contain toxic chemicals
that can be harmful to health are used especially by women. Since long time cosmetics have been known to enhance the appearance of the human
body. In a society obsessed with beauty, people are lured to fake their appearance as a cure for their insecurities. The estimated value of cosmetic
industry today is around 20 billion dollar globally. As a consumer, we are constantly attracted in using beauty and personal care products. But
these products, which are supposed to make us feel healthy and look beautiful, have a deep dark side. Various toxic ingredients and hazardous
chemicals used in cosmetics are incorporated in beyond acceptable limits. These chemicals may cause serious ill effects on skin and may also
enter skin and other organs causing carcinogenicity. Cosmetics have not only seeped into the fashion world but are also playing a prominent role
in ones day-to-day life. Thus, it becomes a necessity to make people aware of various harmful effects of cosmetics and chemicals used in
cosmetics.
Keywords: Health, Skin, Hazards, Cosmetics, Chemicals, Heavy Metals.
Article info:
Received: December 03, 2018
Revised: January 16, 2019
Published Online: April 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31069/japsr.v2i1.1
Correspondence:
Azhar Danish Khan
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy, Ram-Eesh Institute of
Vocational & Technical Education, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Phone: +91-8802235141
Email: azhardk@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION
Cosmetics are products applied to the body for the purpose of
beautifying, cleansing or improving appearance and enhancing
attractive features. [1] Cosmetics consist of a range of products such
as tooth paste, shampoo, conditioners, mascara, after shave lotion,
styling gel, creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks,
fingernail and toenail polish, eye and facial make-ups, hair wavers,
hair dyes, hair sprays, deodorants and antiperspirants. The word
make up is defined as a cosmetic which refers primarily to
colored products intended to alter the users appearance. [2]
Schneider et al defined skincare products or cosmetics as mixtures
of synthetic or natural chemical compounds used to improve the
appearance or smell of the body. [3] They are articles intended to be
rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on, introduced into, or
otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for
promoting attractiveness, cleansing, beautifying or altering the
appearance without affecting the body structure or functions
Historical significance of Cosmetics
The Science of cosmetology is believed to have originated in
ancient world in countries like Egypt and India, but the earliest
records of cosmetic substances and their application dates back to
Circa 2500 and 1550 B.C, to the Indus valley civilization. [4] An old
remedy for cracked lips is found in history. Cracked lips, besides
being painful, spoil the beauty of the face. The rind of Bel fruit
(Aegle marmelos Corr.) is powdered and mixed in womans milk
and the paste thus prepared is applied to the cracked lips. The
cracking will stop and the cracks will heal within 10 days the
Superfluous hair was considered to be a mark of disgrace and a
large number of depilatory agents were recommended to get rid of
it. Dried fruits of Aavalakatti (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and
dried fruits of Pimpali (Piper longum Linn.) were used. The
mixture was soaked in the milky latex of Nivadunga (Cactus:
Euphorbia nivulia Ham.) This compound was applied to the
desired place, the hairs from that area were found to fall off. [5]
The use of kajal has a long history in Hindu Culture. Various
beauty rituals in the present day rituals such as coloring of hair,
depilation and exfoliation find their roots in ancient Egyptian
culture.[5] In earlier days, the Romans, Greeks and Egyptians used
various cosmetics which contain white Lead and Mercury.[6] Oils
with essence and ointments were used to clean and soften the skin
and mask body odor while dyes and natural paints were used to
color the face, mainly for ceremonial and religious occasions.[7]
Khan et al, Cosmetics and Adverse Effects
JAPSR, 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1-6 2
There was a common ancient belief that eye makeup could remove
evil spirits and improve sight. [6]
Common Cosmetics Products and associated toxicities
Some factors such as advertisement, peer pressure and social
acceptance, influence the choice of skincare products applied by
most women. Robertson et al conducted a study and reached a
conclusion that women who use make-up have some sense of
insecurity, and are anxious and lack confidence about them. [8]
Cosmetic products contain various harmful or toxic chemicals
capable of causing harmful effects to the skin. Manufacturers of
Cosmetic products do not only use synthetic ingredients but also
natural products, such as Shea butter, Rose extract, and cane sugar
which are sustainable, cheap and less harmful to the consumer. [9]
Skincare products such as perfumes, make up, nail polish etc,
remain on the skin for a longer period of time and can cause
harmful effects like allergic reactions. [10] Moisturizers increase the
hygroscopic properties of the skin particularly when used in high
concentration. It can cause irritation and exfoliation.
Skin Lightening agents
Skin lightening agents such as hydroquinone (HQ) is found to be
one of the most harmful chemicals. There have been found reports
of ochronosis and potential mutagenicity. Ochronosis is an
uncommon adverse effect of HQ, with features like progressive
darkening of the area to which the cream containing high
concentrations of HQ is applied for many years. Hydroquinone is a
hydroxyphenolic compound that inhibits the synthesis of melanin
by inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme t may also function by interfering
with the formation or degradation of melanosomes and by
inhibiting the synthesis of DNA and RNA within melanocytes.
Hydroquinone is a most commonly used depigmenting agent at
present, but it is found to be highly cytotoxic to melanocytes and
potentially mutagenic to mammalian cells. [11] It causes irritation
redness and burning, also causing exogenous ochronosis.
Ochronosis may result in loss of elasticity of the skin and impaired
wound healing which has resulted in a ban on its over-the-counter
use in America and many other countries. It was allowed only for
small areas of skin and for treating things like age spots or sun
spots. [12]
Black Henna
Black henna is the combination of red henna with p-
phenylenediamine (PPD), and is used for temporary black henna
tattoos .Black henna tattoo is a chemical stain due to the presence
of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), available in the form of commercial
hair dye mixed into the henna paste. PPD is added to henna to
accelerate the dyeing and drying process (to only 30 min), to
strengthen and darken the color, to enhance the design pattern of
the tattoo, and to make the tattoo last longer Negative effects of
PPD include blisters, surface oozing, swelling and erythromatous
rashes on the skin. Studies have been done and reports given about
the immediate allergic reactions on using henna dyes. Various
cases involving sneezing, runny nose, cough and shortness of
breath instead of skin reaction have been found. [13] [14] There have
been some reports of the appearance of localized hypertrichosis
after black henna tattoos without allergic reactions to the tattoo. [15]
Many cases of toxicity from the black powder were noted in Sudan
in early 80s which were used for body painting, some cases were
found to be fatal,. The initial symptoms are massive edema of the
face, lips, glottis, pharynx, neck, and bronchi, occurring within
hours of application of the dye mix to the skin, and sometimes
requiring emergency tracheotomy for respiratory obstruction. The
symptoms were found to progress on the second day to anuria and
acute renal failure. Dialysis helped some patients, but others have
died from renal tubular necrosis. [16]
Sunscreen products
Sun-screening agents used nowadays can cause irritant, allergic,
phototoxic or photo-allergic reactions. The most common
sensitizers are Benzophenones. While debenzoyl methanes, para-
aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and cinnamates may cause photo-
allergic dermatitis. [17] The allergic reactions which are related with
deodorant/anti perspirants and fragrances are mostly caused by the
fragrance or other ingredients. Fragrances may enter the body
through skin(adsorption), lungs, air ways, ingestion and through
pathways from the nose directly to the brain and can cause
headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritation to eyes, nose and throat,
forgetfulness and other symptoms. When used the fragrances are
sprayed in the air or found in air can cause air-borne contact
dermatitis. Coumarins, phethleugenol which are usually found in
fragrances are suspected carcinogens, while phthalates are
suspected hormones disrupters. [18]
Shampoos
The contact time of shampoos and conditioners with the skin is
very less; they are only applied to the hair and as such, thus
causing less adverse effects. However, the problem arises when
they come in contact with the eyes during washing of the hair. The
most common effect of using shampoo is the matting of the scalp
hair also referred to as tangling of hair. [19]Another factor to be
considered is pH of the shampoo. Most of the shampoos have an
alkaline pH, which causes hair shaft swelling, making the hair
liable to damage. A shampoo with neutral pH is the best choice for
chemically treated hair from either permanent dyeing or permanent
waving. [20]When the critical assessment of validated data on the
frequency of contact allergies to shampoo was done, it showed
their low risk. [21] Given that shampoos are diluted by water, have a
short contact time, and are rinsed off, the risk of sensitization is
highly unlikely. [22]Active ingredients in hair bleaching product
such as Hydrogen peroxide solutions, and Ammonium persulfate,
may cause Types I and IV allergic contact reactions.
Health hazards associated with chemicals used in formulation
of Cosmetics
BHA and BHT
BHA (butylated hydroxyl anisole) and BHT (butylated hydroxyl
toluene) are closely related synthetic chemicals used as
preservatives in moisturizers and lipsticks, among other
cosmetics.BHA and BHT can cause allergic reactions in the skin.
BHA has been classified as a possible human carcinogen by the
Khan et al, Cosmetics and Adverse Effects
JAPSR, 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1-6 3
International Agency for Research on Cancer. The European
Commission on Endocrine Disruption has also mentioned BHA as
a Category I priority substance, based on evidence that it interferes
with hormone function. [23] BHT may act as a tumor promoter in
certain situations. Little evidence suggests that high doses of BHT
may mimic estrogen, the primary female sex hormone, and prevent
expression of male sex hormones, resulting in adverse reproductive
affects.
Coal Tar Dyes
Coal tar is a made up of many chemicals obtained from petroleum.
Colors derived from coal tar are used mostly in cosmetics,
generally identified by a five digit Color Index (CI) number. The
p-phenylenediamine is a common coal tar dye used in many hair
dyes. Phenylenediamine is found more in darker hair dyes than
lighter colours. Adverse reactions caused by p-phenylenediamine
are stinging sensations, with an erythromatous rash, swelling,
blisters, and surface oozing. Various reports have been found in the
literature of immediate allergic (and also anaphylactic) reactions
on using henna dyes. [24] Most cases have sneezing, runny nose,
cough, and shortness of breath instead of skin reactions. Coal tar
may also be associated with cancer and the main concern with
individual coal tar colors (whether produced from coal tar or
synthetically) is the possibility of them to cause cancer. These
colors may be found contaminated with low levels of heavy metals
and some are combined with Aluminum substrate. Aluminum
compounds and many heavy metals may cause adverse effects to
the brain. Some of these colors used to produce these dyes are not
approved as food additives, yet they are used in cosmetics that may
be ingested, like lipstick. P-phenylenediamine has been found to be
carcinogenic. [25] It has been established that women who use hair
dyes especially over a long period have increased risk of
developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (cancer of the lymph
system). The European Union has classified p-phenylenediamine
as toxic (whether by contact, inhalation, or by ingestion) and as
very toxic to aquatic organisms, as it may cause long-term adverse
(chronic) effects in the aquatic environment. [26]
DEA (Cocamide DEA and Lauramide DEA)
DEA (diethanolamine) related ingredients are used to make
cosmetics creamy or sudsy, or as a pH adjuster to reduce the
acidity of other ingredients. They are found in shampoos, soaps
and cleansers.DEA reacts with nitrites in cosmetics to form
nitrosamines. Nitrites are occasionally added to products as anti-
corrosive agents or can be present as contaminants. [27] The
degradation of some chemicals used as preservatives in cosmetics
can release nitrites when the product is exposed to air. During
experiments conducted in laboratory, exposure to high doses of
DEA-related ingredients has been shown to cause liver cancers and
precancerous changes in skin and thyroid. These chemicals may
also cause mild to moderate skin and eye irritation. Cocamide
DEA is found to be hazardous to the environment because of its
acute toxicity to aquatic organisms and can cause bioaccumulation.
[27] Cocamide-DEA was listed under carcinogenic toxicant in June
2012. The substance is generally used as a foaming agent in soaps,
shampoos, hair dye, cosmetics and household cleaning formulas.
Cocamide DEA works as a surfactant, which means it helps soaps
and shampoos to lather and foam. If a surfactant is too strong it can
strip away your bodys natural oils, leaving your skin dried out. If
this natural protection against microbes and other environmental
factors is not there your skin might get flaky and itchy. Your skin
also becomes more prone to infection. Other examples of strong
surfactants that can cause dry skin include sulfates, commonly
sodium laureth sulfate and sodium lauryl sulfate, and betaines
(usually cocamidopropyl betaine). Apart from drying your skin out
(which we all know is bad enough), Cocamide DEA has been
implicated in much more serious and long-term health risks.
Cocamide DEA can complex with preservatives to form very
dangerous chemicals called nitrosamines. One such example is
called NDELA, a compound that has been shown to cause cancer
in rats. NDELA is readily absorbed through the skin, especially
when its applied to large areas of your body. Theyre usually
found in less expensive skin care products, but nothing is more
valuable than your health.
Di butyl Phthalate (DBP)
DBP is mainly used in cosmetics for nails as a solvent for dyes and
as a plasticizer that prevents nail polishes from becoming hard and
brittle. It has been shown to cause developmental defects, changes
in the prostate and testes and reduces sperm counts. [28] It has also
been found that it act as a suspected endocrine disruptor on the fact
that it interferes with hormone function, and may cause harm to the
unborn child and worsen infertility. Various researches reveal that
exposure to phthalates may cause serious health effects such as
liver and kidney failure in young children when products
containing phthalates are ingested for extended periods. [29] [30] It
has been found that phthalates reduce sperm count in men and
reproductive defects in the developing male foetus (when the
mother is exposed during pregnancy), among other health effects.
Parabens
For protecting cosmetics from microbial contamination,
preservatives are used. The most commonly used preservative in
cosmetics are parabens. Around 75 to 90 per cent of cosmetics
contain parabens (typically at very low levels). Parabens easily
permeate the skin and are suspected of interfering with hormone
function (endocrine disruption). They mimic oestrogens, the
primary female sex hormone. They may also interfere with male
reproductive functions. Various studies indicate that
methylparaben applied on the skin reacts with other chemicals,
leading to increased skin aging and DNA damage. [31] Certain
foods, such as barley, strawberries, carrots, onions currents, and
vanilla, also contain Parabens. [32] Parabens in foods are
metabolized when eaten, making them less strongly estrogenic. On
the other side when applied to the skin and absorbed into the body,
parabens in cosmetics bypass the metabolic process and enter the
blood stream and body organs intact. It has been determined that
women are exposed to 50 mg per day of parabens from cosmetics.
[32] They are associated with cancer and neurotoxicity among other
adverse health effects. [33]
Perfume (Fragrance)
Perfume is a mixture of essential oils or aromatic
compounds and solvents, used to give the human body, animals,
Khan et al, Cosmetics and Adverse Effects
JAPSR, 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1-6 4
food, objects, and living-spaces an pleasant scent. It is found
usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to an
individuals body. Perfumes are also used in cosmetics. Around
3,000 chemicals are used as fragrances. Fragrance is a main
ingredient in perfumes, deodorants and colognes. Almost all the
cosmetic products contain perfumes. Even if these products are
marketed as fragrance-free or unscented may contain
fragrance ingredients in the form of masking agents that prevent
the brain from perceiving their odor. [34] Many of fragrance
ingredients which are unlisted are irritants and can cause allergies,
severe headache and asthma symptoms. Perfume can worsen
asthma and perhaps even contribute to its development in children.
It is ranked the second most common cause of allergy in patients.
[35]
Polyethylene Glycols (PEGs)
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are compounds based on petroleum
that are widely used in creams as thickeners, solvents, softeners
and moisture-carriers. During the production processes, PEGs may
get contaminated with detectable amounts of 1, 4-dioxane. This 1,
4- dioxane is found to be causing cancer. It does not easily degrade
and can remain in the environment long after it is rinsed down the
shower drain. [18] PEGs also show some evidence of genotoxicity
and can cause irritation and systemic toxicity if used on broken
skin.
Petrolatum
Petrolatum acts as a barrier to entrap moisture in the skin in a
variety of moisturizers. It is used in hair care products to make
them shine. It is also known as mineral oil jelly. Polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be found as a contaminant in
Petrolatum. It is found in various studies that after a long term
exposure to PAHs it may be associated with cancer. On this basis,
the European Union categorize petrolatum as a carcinogen and
restricts its use in cosmetics. PAHs in petrolatum may also cause
allergies and skin irritation. [36]
Siloxane
Siloxanes are silicone-based compounds used in various cosmetic
products to make them soft and smooth. They make hair products
dry faster and enhance the spreadability of deodorant creams. They
are most often used in moisturizers and facial treatments. The
commonly used Siloxane which are toxic are cyclotetrasiloxane
and cyclopentasiloxane . They have the potential of bio-
accumulating in aquatic organisms. Cyclotetrasiloxane is a type of
endocrine disruptor, as it interferes with human hormone function,
and as possible reproductive toxicant, may also impair human
fertility. [37]
Health risks Associated with Heavy Metals in Cosmetics
Heavy metals have been involved in cosmetics commonly used
among women. [38] Harmful effects of heavy metals in various
cosmetics products like facial make-up have been reviewed in
literatures. [39] Heavy metals which can get accumulated in the
body over a period of time are known to cause various health
problems. Some of the health risks associated with heavy metals in
cosmetics are cancer, reproductive and developmental disorders,
neurological problems, cardiovascular, skeletal, blood, immune
system, kidney and renal problems, headaches, vomiting, nausea
and diarrhea, lung damage. They may also cause contact
dermatitis; and brittle hair and hair loss. Some heavy metals are
hormone disruptors while others are respiratory toxins. They can
enter the body through ingestion or absorbed through the broken
skin. [40]
Cadmium
Cadmium is found naturally in the environment. Cadmium present
in body and hair creams are absorbed into the body through dermal
contact stored in the kidney and the liver, although it can be found
in almost all adult tissues. According to IARC, it is considered to
be carcinogenic to humans and its compounds, categorized as
known human carcinogens by the United States Department of
Health and Human Services. [41] If ingested in high levels, it may
lead to severe stomach irritation, vomiting and diarrhea, while
exposure to lower levels for a long time can lead to kidney
damage, deformity of bones, and weakens the bones so that they
break easily.
Lead
Lead can be found as impurity in Lipsticks via the use of
contaminated raw materials or through the use of pigments that
may contain lead. [42]. Skin contact with Lead occurs daily, and
some amount has been found to be absorbed through the skin. The
use of leaded eye powders (e.g., Surma, Kohl) has been associated
with increased blood-lead levels in children and women. [43]
Pregnant women and young children are at higher risk because it
can cross the placenta with ease and enter the brain of the fetus. It
can also be transferred to infants through milk of lactating mothers
and stored in bones. [44] [45] Lead exposure has been found to cause
miscarriage, hormonal changes, reduced fertility in men and
women, menstrual irregularities, delays in puberty onset in girls.
[42] Lead and inorganic Lead compounds have been classified as a
suspected carcinogenic to humans. [40]
Nickel
Nickel is found in abundance in nature, everyone is exposed to
small amounts, mostly through food, air, portable water, soil,
household dust, and skin contact with products containing it,
including cosmetics. [43] High levels of exposure can lead to serious
health effects depending on route and the kind of nickel exposed
to. [43] While certain types of Nickel are considered to be toxic
because of their carcinogenic effect, metallic Nickel and alloys
have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans.[40] Nickel
can also be found allergic is also and it can cause severe contact
dermatitis. [43] The first case of Nickel allergy caused by eye
shadow has been reported; even as 1 ppm of it may trigger a pre-
existing allergy. [46]
Mercury
Khan et al, Cosmetics and Adverse Effects
JAPSR, 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1-6 5
Mercury is a common ingredient present in skin-lightening soaps
and creams. It is also found in various other cosmetics, such as eye
make-up, cleansing products and mascara. Skin-lightening soaps
and creams are widely used in certain African and Asian countries.
[47] Mercury salts works by inhibiting the formation of melanin,
thus making the skin lighter in tone. Mercury is found in cosmetics
two forms viz. inorganic and organic. Inorganic mercury (e.g.
ammoniated mercury) is used as skin-lightening agents in soaps
and creams. Organic mercury compounds (ethyl mercury and
phenyl mercuric salts) are used as preservatives in cosmetics like
eye make-ups, cleansing products and mascara. The main adverse
effect associated with inorganic mercury contained in skin
lightening soaps and creams is kidney damage. [48]
Mercury when present in skin-lightening products may also cause
skin rashes, skin discoloration and scarring, as well as a reduction
in the skins resistance to bacterial and fungal infections. Other
side effects include anxiety, depression or psychosis and peripheral
neuropathy. Mercury from soaps, creams and other cosmetic
products is eventually discharged into wastewater. The mercury
then enters the environment, where it becomes methylated and
enters the food-chain as the highly toxic methyl mercury in fish.
Pregnant women when eat fish containing methyl mercury, it is
transferred to their foetus, which can lead to neuro-developmental
deficits in the children. [49]
CONCLUSION
The cosmetic products may present health risks and recurrent
adverse effects are attributed to the toxic substances commonly
found in their formulations. Although the various structures for the
regulation and quality control of cosmetics around the world are
quite complex and comprehensive, they should be more rigorous in
the inclusion of new substances with toxic potential in the
formulation of cosmetics to avoid damages to human health. To
encourage improvements in the manufacture, marketing and use of
cosmetic products by the population, it is necessary to apply a
unified cosmeto-vigilance around the world. This public health
strategy are a genuine means of obtaining information on the safety
of cosmetic products and their ingredients, preventing the risks
associated with the use of cosmetics become a serious public
health problem.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors are extremely thankful to the referred authors for their
incredible findings that helped us in compiling this exhausted
review article.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The author declares that they have no competing interests.
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... Cosmetic preparations that most commonly cause allergic contact dermatitis are hair dyes, moisturizers, deodorants, perfumes, facial cleansers, and nail polishes. Most common cosmetic allergens which are the causative agents of allergic contact dermatitis can be listed as perfume ingredients, hydrogen peroxide, ammonium persulfate, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluol (BHT), Peru balm, henna, benzophenones, nickel, formaldehyde, paraben, lanolin derivatives, propylene glycol, p-phenylenediamine, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, glyceryl thioglycolate, cetyl alcohol, cocoamidopropyl stearate, 2-bromo-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol, imidazolidinyl urea, phenoxyethanol, 4-amino benzoic acid, methylisothiazolidone [24] [25] [26]. In particular, sodium lauryl sulfate that is one of the most commonly used excipients in cosmetic products has been found to cause allergic contact dermatitis and has strong irritant properties by causing a high rate of transepidermal water loss [27].Paraphenylenediamine used in hair dyes and benzophenone-3 which is frequently used in sunscreens, are also a high contact dermatitis allergen [28] [29] [30]. ...
... Although a direct relationship between cosmetic use and endocrine-disrupting components is not yet clear, it is known that molecules known to have endocrine-disrupting activity are also used in cosmetics by experimental studies [43]. The most common endocrine-disrupting components in cosmetics are parabens, bisphenol A and phthalates [41] [24]. In addition to these, aluminum salts and triclosan are also cosmetic ingredients responsible for breast cancer by showing estrogenic activity [44]. ...
... It has been reported that the use of zirconium complex, which is used in antiperspirant products, in the form of aerosol causes the formation of granulomas in the lung, and the use of this substance in aerosol is prohibited [58]. Some of the cosmetic ingredients found to be carcinogenic can be listed as p-phenylenediamine, aluminum, cocamide diethanolamine, butylated hydroxytoluene, coumarins, petrolatum, nickel, and mercury [24]. In a study conducted on 169 oxidative hair dyes, 150 of them were found to be mutagenic. ...
... Lanolin, a naturally occurring keratin conditioner, is made up mostly of sterol esters, but also acids and sterols [37][38][39][40]. It can compensate for several of the shortcomings of petrolatum with comparable efficacy that can be detected 14 days after the substance has been discontinued [37]. ...
... The amounts of occlusives, humectants and emollients in a moisturizer determine its effectiveness [16,54]. A decent moisturizer should provide a good balance of all three [16,38,55]. To replenish and preserve moisture, a combination of these ingredients in sufficient quantities is required in order to provide an atmosphere that allows for skin barrier repair [16,56]. ...
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Moisturizers are one of the most widely used preparations in cosmetics and have been extensively used to soften the skin for consumers. Moisturizers work effectively in combating dry skin which may cause pain, tightness, itch, stinging, and/or tingling. The aim of this review is to evaluate published studies on the history, ingredients, preparation processes, characteristics, uses, and applications of moisturizers. Moisturizers bridge the gap between medicine and consumer goods by being used to make the skin more beautiful and healthy. In the future, in moisturizer therapy, the capacity to adapt specific agents to specific dermatological demands will be crucial. Cosmetically, moisturizers make the skin smooth by the mechanism of increasing the water content in the stratum corneum, hence exerting its most vital action, which is moisturizing action and maintaining a normal skin pH.
... Lifespan changes in roles, whether societal or personal, may also generate changes in the importance of cosmetic usage, none more so, perhaps than the "rites of passage" from adolescence and into adulthood discussed by so many of our respondents when considering the initiation of cosmetic usage, and as recognized in prior research (Fabricant & Gould, 1993;Gentina et al., 2012;Ragas & Kozlowski, 1998). And lastly, cosmetics are seen to be used as signification of the observance of the rituals and expectations associated with religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). ...
... The last sub-theme to emerge, as an extension of the "public and private self" is that of the ritualistic or ceremonial use of cosmetics. In other words, alongside clothing, cosmetics may be used to signify observance of rituals and recognition of the societal norms around religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). This goes beyond, then, the need to "dress" for going "out out" (17-Q3), Cosmetics is essential for weddings and religious events because nearly every female wears makeup in these events. . ...
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Article provides a contemporary synopsis of the various and diverse motivations for cosmetic usage using thematic analysis of written scripts.
... Lifespan changes in roles, whether societal or personal, may also generate changes in the importance of cosmetic usage, none more so, perhaps than the "rites of passage" from adolescence and into adulthood discussed by so many of our respondents when considering the initiation of cosmetic usage, and as recognized in prior research (Fabricant & Gould, 1993;Gentina et al., 2012;Ragas & Kozlowski, 1998). And lastly, cosmetics are seen to be used as signification of the observance of the rituals and expectations associated with religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). ...
... The last sub-theme to emerge, as an extension of the "public and private self" is that of the ritualistic or ceremonial use of cosmetics. In other words, alongside clothing, cosmetics may be used to signify observance of rituals and recognition of the societal norms around religious or public ceremonies (Chaudhri & Jain, 2009;Khan & Alam, 2019;Power, 2010). This goes beyond, then, the need to "dress" for going "out out" (17-Q3), Cosmetics is essential for weddings and religious events because nearly every female wears makeup in these events. . ...
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Given the wealth of literature on appearance manipulation generally, it is, perhaps, surprising that cosmetic usage receives so little empirical attention, and perhaps reflects a patriarchal approach to “appropriate” research areas. Incorporating a postfeminist approach, the current study aims to address, in part, this lacuna by providing a contemporary synopsis of the various and diverse motivations for cosmetic usage. Online, written responses to a semi-structured questionnaire were collected. In response to six broad questions, for example, “Why do you currently use cosmetics?”, respondents were encouraged to write, in as much detail as they liked, on their motivations for using cosmetics. Thematic analysis, using deductive and inductive approaches, revealed four main themes: “Multiple selves”—Conformity, Impression Management, and Judgment; Enhancement and Confidence; Fun, Creativity and Well-being; and Signification and Identity. Whilst some of these themes had been anticipated and, indeed, sign-posted in prior literature, the weight of interest in particular areas was unexpected (e.g., in terms of Fun, Creativity, and Well-being), whilst other areas did not receive the expected attention (e.g., in mate attraction). Additionally, and worthy of future research, entirely new areas also emerged (e.g., cosmetics for fun and creativity).
... The most commonly observed are redness, irritation, rashes, and itching. In addition, such products cannot be often used in the area of injured skin, on mucosa, or in high amounts, due to the toxic systemic effects [2]. Exposure to biotic and abiotic stress generates oxidative stress among skin macromolecules and, in consequence, their dysfunction or degradation [3][4][5]. ...
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