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Eğitim Yönetimi Alanında “Liderlik” Üzerine Yazılan Tezlerin İncelenmesi

Authors:
European Journal of Education Studies
ISSN: 2501 - 1111
ISSN-L: 2501 - 1111
Available on-line at: www.oapub.org/edu
Copyright © The Author(s). All Rights Reserved.
© 2015 2017 Open Access Publishing Group 293
doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1009723
Volume 3 Issue 10 2017
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF
ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
i
Bertan Akyol1
ii
,
C. Bilge Kapçak2
1Adnan Menderes University,
Faculty of Education, Turkey
2Adnan Menderes University,
Graduate School of Social Sciences, Turkey
Abstract:
This study aims to present pre-service teachers’ perceptions of “administration” and
“school principal” reflected through metaphors; a purpose based on the fact that
although they are trained in educational administration with only one course at
university, pre-service teachers who are trained in the faculties of education constitute
the group with the highest potential for becoming educational administrators in
Turkish education system. The study group is the 4th grade (senior) university students
who were chosen by means of criterion sampling method and who study at Preschool
Teaching, Primary School Teaching, Social Sciences Teaching, Science Teaching, Music
Teaching, Art Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance programs at Adnan
Menderes University. The criteria were the students’ year of education and the course
of Turkish Education System and School Management they take during their higher
education. In this study which is based on phenomenology research design, a written
form was used as the data collection tool aiming the perception of pre-service students
for administration and school principal through metaphors. After the content analysis
of the data gathered through written forms, it has been found out that pre-service
students have mostly positive perceptions of administration and school principal
concepts and administration is perceived to a more authoritarian structure while school
principal and administration are considered equal in terms of responsibility.
i
This study was presented at the 12th International Congress of Educational Administration.
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 294
Keywords: pre-service teachers, educational administration, school principal
1. Introduction
Educational management as a field of expertise differs from business management and
public administration in terms of purpose and function. What creates such a difference
is the distinctive nature of education. And what makes educational administration a
unique field is the distinctiveness of education as a social institution (Aydın, 2015: 155).
The quality of educational purpose requires an internal and constant co-operation and
collaboration between education and other social institutions. This is an operational
necessity and gives educational administration a unique quality (Aydın, 2015:156).
When educational administration is viewed within Turkish education system, it
is seen that training activities and several educational institutions were united under
the Law of the Unity of Education No. 430 (passed on March 3rd, 1924) after the
proclamation Turkish Republic. The then governments tried to reform the structure of
central and provincial organizations in order to realize the unity of education in
accordance with the law (Başaran, 1993:16). Although in 1924 John Dewey proposed in
his report on Turkish education system that courses and programs were opened to train
school administrators, there was hardly a considerable development (Cemaloğlu, 2005).
In 1928, the Department of Pedagogy was founded under Gazi Institute of Education in
order to provide administrators, inspectors, and teachers for the new educational
organizations (Örücü ve Şimşek, 2011). Primary school teachers who were experienced,
accomplished and willing to be administrators and inspectors were admitted to the
department of pedagogy after written exams and interviews. During their time in the
department, these teachers were trained in teaching profession, administration, and
inspection. Until 1970, 90% of those who worked as administrators in central and
provincial organizations had graduated from the Department of Pedagogy (Balcı, 2008;
Balcı ve Apaydın, 2009)
The founding of TODAIE (Public Administration Institute for Turkey and
Middle East) in 1956 indicates that administration in education is considered a whole
different area. The MEHTAP (Central Government Organization Research Project)
report, prepared in 1962, underlines the necessity of treating educational management
as a special field of expertise and training administrators, and proposes opening new
departments at universities. In the academic year of 1979-1980 programs of
specialization were opened. The first faculty of education in Turkey is Ankara
University Faculty of Education which opened in the academic year of 1965-1966. In
1982, the faculty was renamed as Faculty of Educational Sciences and under the
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 295
Department of Educational Administration, Inspection, Economy, and Planning, sub-
departments of Educational Administration and Inspection, Educational Economy and
Planning were opened. The opening of the Faculty of Education in Ankara University
was followed by Gazi University, Hacettepe University, İstanbul University, 9 Eylül
University, Yüzüncü Yıl University, and Abant Izzet Baysal University. The faculties of
education at these universities provided administrators, inspectors, and specialists for
Turkish education system. However, the Council of Higher Education closed the
abovementioned departments in 1997 and the education continues exclusively at
postgraduate level (Cemaloğlu, 2005).
Until 1998, the main criteria for assigning administrators to schools would be the
principle of merit. A by-law in 1998 established that the school administrators could be
commissioned after attending a 120-hour preparatory program and scoring minimum
70 points in a follow-up exam. The by-laws regulating the rules for assigning
administrators have changed several times since 2003. Sometimes a single by-law
changed more than once in one year. The June 2014 by-law, while maintaining the
previous general conditions, stipulated that school administrators could continue their
duty, after four years of service, in an institution on the basis of points obtained from
internal and external stakeholders (Official Gazette, 2014). According to the most recent
by-law (“Regulation on Commissioning Administrators to Educational Institutions of
Ministry of National Education” dated October 6, 2015 and numbered 29494), head
assistants and deputy principals are commissioned on the basis of written exam, while
principals are commissioned on the basis of managerial appraisal and interview scores
(Official Gazette, 2015).
In Turkey, bachelor programs for training school administrators are unavailable.
Pre-service teachers take the course titled “Turkish Education System and School
Administration” during their third or fourth year at university. There is no additional
training in this area at bachelor level. Master and doctorate training which is carried out
in the institutes of education and social sciences train specialists in the programs of
Educational Administration, Educational Administration and Inspection, Educational
Management and Inspection Planning and Economy.
In this study, it is aimed to investigate how pre-service teachers perceive the
concepts of “school principal” and “administration” by means of the concept of
metaphor. Metaphors can be used to re-define realities and stimulate re-
conceptualization of problems as metaphors affect the ways we perceive conditions and
incidents (Cerit, 2008; Goldstein, 2005). People transfer images, concepts, and
terminology to an unknown or lesser known area by means of metaphors. Metaphors
are useful for understanding and explaining a new phenomenon because they transfer
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 296
the meaning of a well-known situation to an unknown situation. Therefore, learning
becomes easier with metaphors. Also, metaphors are way thinking and seeing (Cerit
2008; Morgan, 1998: 14).
2. The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to present pre-service teachers’ perceptions of
“administration” and “school principal” reflected through metaphors; a purpose based
on the fact that although they are trained in educational administration with only one
course at university, pre-service teachers who are trained in the faculties of education
constitute the group with the highest potential for becoming educational administrators
in Turkish education system. The study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. Which metaphors do pre-service teachers use to define the concept of
“administration”?
2. Which metaphors do pre-service teachers use to define the concept of “school
principal”?
3. Under what conceptual categories can pre-service teachers’ metaphors of
“administration” and “school principal” be put?
3. Method
3.1 Research Model
This qualitative study, which aims to present pre-service teachers’ perceptions of
“administration” and “school principal” reflected through metaphors, was carried out
by means of metaphoric data analysis. The study is based on phenomenology research
design. Phenomenological research design focuses on familiar but partly-understood,
hence lesser known, phenomena. Phenomena might appear in the form of incidents,
experience, perceptions, inclinations, concepts, and conditions (Yıldırım and Şimşek,
2008). Therefore, phenomenological design was used in this study because it examines
thoroughly the meanings attributed to the concepts of “administration” and “school
principal” by pre-service teachers.
3.2 Target Population
The target population of the research is made up of 4th grade (senior) university
students who were chosen by means of criterion sampling method and who study at
Preschool Teaching, Primary School Teaching, Social Sciences Teaching, Science
Teaching, Music Teaching, Art Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 297
programs at Adnan Menderes University. The criteria were the students’ year of
education and the course of Turkish Education System and School Management they
take during their higher education.
All the participants who were chosen by means of criterion sampling method
and indicated in Table 1 are 4th grade (senior) students. The percentages of participation
by bachelor programs is as follows: 12,7% Preschool Teaching, 27,4% Psychological
Counseling and Guidance, 10,2% Computer Education and Instructional Technology,
15,2% Preschool Teaching, 8,5% Science Teaching, 16,2% Social Sciences Teaching, and
9,6% Art Teaching.
Table 1: Characteristics of Participants
Department
%
Primary School Teaching
12,7
Psychological Counseling and Guidance
27,4
Computer Education and Instructional Technology
10,2
Preschool Teaching
15,2
Science Teaching
8,6
Social Sciences Teaching
16,2
Art Teaching
9,6
Total
100,0
As it can be seen in Table 1, 197 participants took part in the research, but 23
questionnaire forms for “administration” metaphor and 16 questionnaire forms for
“school principal” metaphor were excluded as they contained missing information.
Ultimately, answers about administration metaphor from 174 pre-service teachers and
school principal metaphor from 181 were evaluated and analyzed.
3.3 Data Collection Tool
In order to determine the cognitive images of “administration” and “school principal”
created by pre-service teachers, the participants were asked to fill in the forms with the
questions “Administration is like <.. because<<<” and “School Principal is like
<<<< because<<<” The participants were informed about the study and were
asked to fill in the forms in 20 minutes.
3.4 Data Analysis
The data was analyzed through content analysis and then the metaphors were put
under conceptual categories. For the analysis of the metaphors mentioned by pre-
service teachers, a five-stage process which contained the following stages was used: 1)
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 298
identification 2) classification 3) generating categories 4) validity and reliability check 5)
frequency and interpretation (Saban, Koçbeker ve Saban, 2006).
1. Identification: In this first stage, metaphors and sentences mentioned by pre-
service teachers were checked. Then a list of metaphors was created. The
metaphors written on the questionnaire forms by each participant were encoded.
Forms with missing information were detected.
2. Classification: Questionnaire forms filled in by the participants were examined
and the metaphors, along with the explanations, were reviewed. The reasons for
creating particular metaphors were examined and the subject, source, and
metaphor-source relation of each metaphor was taken into consideration for the
analysis.
3. Generating categories: During this stage the reasons for “school principal” and
“administration” metaphors were examined. And then conceptual categories
were generated by means of content analysis. The results of the analysis
indicated that 197 pre-service teachers came up with 174 metaphors for the
concept of “administration” and these metaphors could be classified under 11
categories; 133 metaphors for the concept of “school principal” and these
metaphors could be classified under 15 categories.
4. Validity and reliability: The researcher paid attention to not providing examples
and guidance in order to preserve the originality of participants’ views. Since
credibility and transmissibility is significant for validity, the metaphors created
by the participants were listed directly in the study and the interpretation of the
findings was based on this list. Additionally, data analysis process was explained
in detail for validity. For reliability, each researcher created an individual
classification system and the systems were tested for reliability by using Miles
and Huberman (1994) formula (Reliability=consensus/consensus + divergence).
The calculations showed that the percentage of consensus among the researchers
was 90%.
5. Frequency and interpretation: The researcher calculated the number and
percentage of pre-service teachers that corresponded to each metaphor and
category. The findings were presented in tables and interpreted.
3.5 Results
The results of the study, which investigated how pre-service teachers studying at
Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Education perceive the concepts of “school
principal” and “administration” through metaphors, were classified under two titles
“Administration” and “School Principal.”
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 299
3.6 “Administration” Metaphors Created by Pre-service Teachers
The metaphors created by Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Education senior
students as a response to the question Administration is like…….because<..” and the
categories of metaphors are presented below in Table 2.
Table 2: Administration Metaphors and Categories
Category
Metaphor
f
Administration as a
significant structure
Brain (4), Tree (2), Human (2), Roots of a tree (1), Mother (1), Rail system
under a building (1), Wheel (1), Roof (1), Doctor (1), Closet (1), Plum pit
(1), Power (1), Foundation of everything (1), Our muscles (1), King (1),
Maestro(1), Pyramid (1), Water (1)
23
Administration as
hierarchical unity and
integrity
Domino (2), Machine (2), Octopus (1), Computer (1), Fridge (1), Wheel (1),
Natural cycle (1), Football match (1), Cell (1), Interlocking circles (1), Human
body (1), Building (1), Choir (1), User’s manual (1), Musical tune (1), Puzzle
(1), Clock (1), Clock gears (1), Sudoku (1), Theatre play (1), Pieces of puzzle
(1), Rubik’s cube (1)
24
Administration as a
structure that requires
skills and training
Driving (1), Brain (1), A work of literature (1), Building skyscrapers (1),
Power (1), Amusement park (1), Stairs (1), Marketing (1), Art (1), Magic hand
(1)
10
Administration as a
structure that solves
problems
Family (1), Householder (1), Public order (1), Horse riding (1), Garden (1),
Step (1), Crossword puzzle (1), China (1), Spinning wheel (1), Factory (1),
Protection (1), Box (1), Labyrinth (1), Puzzle (1), Umbrella (1), Treatment (1),
Traffic (1), Rubik’s cube (1)
18
Administration as an
authoritarian structure
Power (2), Ankara (1), Imposition (1), Dictator (1), Steering wheel (1),
Conventional teacher (1), Door (1), Belt (1), Air conditioner (1), Pillars that
support institutions (1), Window (1), Glue (1)
13
Administration as a
guiding structure
Mother (2), Core (2), Brain (1), The smallest gear in a clock (1), State and
government (1), Steering wheel (1), Machine (1), Ship (1), Ship rudder (1),
Rope (1), Hospital (1), Cell nucleus (1), Conduct (1) Channel (1), Turtle (1),
North star (1), Labyrinth (1), River (1), Maestro (1), Brain in a system (1),
Coach (1), Life (1), Sail (1)
25
Administration as a
structure that bears
responsibility
Puzzle (2), Bee hive (1), Lion (1), Gardener (1), Brain (1), Having children (1),
Football team captain (1), Driver (1), Scales (1), Jigsaw puzzle (1)
11
Administration as a
strategic structure
Chess (3), Octopus (1), Wave (1), Formula 1 race (1), Architect (1), Mourinho
(1), Army (1), Game (1), Plan (1), Singing (1), Lathe machine (1), Arrow that
has left the bow (1)
14
Administration as a
perpetual structure
Tree (1), Brain (1), Iron (1), Nature (1), Domino (1), Factory (1), Seedling (1),
Life-giving process (1), Lego (1), Oxygen (1), Chess (1), Hairclip (1)
12
Administration as a set of
rules
Constitution (3), Wheel (2), Family (1), Religion (1), World order (1), Book
(1), Queen bee (1), Machine (1), Noah’s Ark (1), Baking (1), Puzzle (1),
Robot (1), Ivy (1), Traffic rules (1), Cooking (1)
18
Administration as a
prestigious structure
Brain (1), Mountain (1), Football team owners (1), Pencil (1), Crystal vase (1),
House of Lords (1)
6
Total
174
The participants came up with 130 administration metaphors. The most remarkable
ones are brain (9), wheel (6), puzzle (5), power (4), chess (4), tree (3), constitution (3),
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 300
mother (3), and domino (3). The concept of “Administration” is also associated with
octopus, family, lion, nucleus, factory, cell, mountain, queen bee, crystal vase, robot,
maestro, clock, driver, coach, and pyramid.
In Table 2, the metaphors are classified under 11 categories. These categories
were created by the researcher. The percentages conveyed by the categories are as
follows: Administration as a guiding structure (14,4%), Administration as hierarchical
unity and integrity (13,8%), Administration as a significant structure (13,2%),
Administration as a structure that solves problems (10,3%), Administration as a set of
rules (10,3%), Administration as a strategic structure (8,0%), Administration as an
authoritarian structure (7,5%), Administration as a perpetual structure (6,9%),
Administration as a structure that bears responsibility (6,3%), Administration as a
structure that requires skills and training (5,7%), Administration as a prestigious
structure (3,4%).
It can be said that the metaphors that were created by the participants
correspond to some basic qualities of administration, such as significance, hierarchy,
guidance, and leadership. Some of the opinions expressed by the participants are
presented below:
“Administration is like the brain because it is the focal point.”
“Administration is like a wheel because it makes other wheels run smoothly when it
operates properly.”
“Administration is like a plum pit because fruit cannot ripen without its pit.”
“Administration is like a cell because a cell contains various parts with various
functions.”
“Administration is like a machine because a machine makes the whole mechanism run
smoothly.”
“Administration is like driving because it requires skills and training.”
“Administration is like Ankara because it is where authority resides.”
“Administration is like a belt because you cannot establish authority unless you tighten
the belt.”
“Administration is like a channel because it establishes routes and boundaries for a
proper education process.”
“Administration is like Mourinho because it encourages team play by setting a
systematic and well-planned play.”
“Administration is like the constitution because it states the rules to follow.”
When the perceptions of senior students at Adnan Menderes University, Faculty
of Education are examined through metaphors, it is seen that pre-service teachers
perceive administration as a rule-based, hierarchical, strategy-based, responsible,
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 301
guiding, skill-and-training-based, problem solving, prestigious, and authoritarian
structure.
3.7 “School Principal” Metaphors Created by Pre-service Teachers
The metaphors created by Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Education senior
students as a response to the question School principal is like…….because<..” and the
categories of metaphors are presented below in Table 3.
Table 3: School Principal Metaphors and Categories
Category
Metaphor
f
Responsible person
Tree branches (1), Mother (1), Soldier (1), Roof of a house (1), Walls of a house
(1), King / Authority (1), Leader (1), Ink (1) , Brain of a school (1) , Pilot (1),
Police (1), Clock (1)
12
Shaper
Gardener (2), Tree trunk (1), Fire (1), Mirror (1), Imperative expression of brain
(1), Discipline (1), Builder (1), Coffee machine (1), Lamp (1), Mechanical
engineer (1), Room (1), Role-Model (1), Water (1), Driver (1) ,Earth (1), Oil-
paint brush (1)
17
Protector
Tree (1), Guard (1), Roof of a house (1), The strongest pillar of a building (1),
Seedling (1), Fig tree (1), Ant (1), Shelter (1)
8
Organizer
Commander (2), Tree trunk (1), Octopus (1), Mother (1), Gardener (1), Someone
who winds a wheel (1), Landlord (1), Ship rudder (1), Human brain (1), Civil
engineer (1), Leader (1), Maestro (1), Marketing manager (1), Puzzle (1), Head
waiter (1), Scales (1), Traffic lamp (1), Traffic police (1)
19
Guide
Captain (8), Shepherd (3), Steering wheel (2), Pilot (2), Light bulb (1), İmam (1),
DNA (1), Householder (1), Map and compass (1), A worker who canalizes (1),
Leader in a flock of birds (1), North star (1), Leader (1), Head waiter (1), Maestro
(1), Candle (1), Sultan (1), Headman (1), Clock gears (1), Commissioned officer
(1), Driver (1), Team captain (1)
33
Figure of authority
Father (3), Dictator (3), Lion (1), Garbage truck crusher (1), Authority (1), Boss
(1)
10
Decision-maker
Father (1), President (1), Alarm clock (1), Grandfather (1), Football referee (1),
On/Off switch on a remote control (1), Bus driver (1), Fortress gate (1), Kite (1)
9
Irreplaceable
person
Brain (2), Shepherd (2), Core (2), Car engine (1), Flag (1), Backbone (1),
Computer motherboard (1), Foundation of a building (1), Roof of a building (1),
President (1), Wheel shaft (1), Club Chairman (1), Iron support in a pillar (1),
Machine engine (1), Pyramid (1), Thin hair (1), Motherboard (1), Prayer beads
head knot (1)
22
Problem solver
Octopus (1), Householder (1), Pointer (1), Parent (1), Lantern (1), Human eye (1),
A high-quality eraser (1), Ointment (1), Rubik’s cube(1), Traffic police (1)
10
The mediator
within the system
Brain (2), Root of a tree (1), Family (1), Tranier (1), Hind wheels (1), Lion (1),
Prime Minister (1), Shepherd (1), Aide (1), Climate (1), Captain (1), Classic
Approach (1), Queen bee (1), Projector (1), Coach (1)
16
Supervisor
Alarm clock (1), Staff (1), Factory manager (1), Headworker in a factory (1),
Pencil (1), Lawperson (1), Coach (1)
7
Strategically-acting
person
Enemy (1), Fountain (1), Water (1), Theater actor (1)
4
Laborer
Gardener (4), Messi (1), Earth (1)
6
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 302
Unaffectionate
person
Wall (2), Deep freezer (1), Counter-action (1), Bad character (1)
5
Figure of justice
Mother (1), Scales (1), Queen bee (1)
3
Total
181
The participants came up with 133 school principal metaphors. The most remarkable
ones are gardener (7), shepherd (6), father (5), brain (4), captain (4), mother (3), pilot (3),
leader (3), and dictator (3). The concept of “School principal” is also associated with
prime minister, North star, water, climate, alarm clock, commander, queen bee, lamp,
Messi, fountain, and ink.
In Table 2, the metaphors are classified under 15 categories. These categories
were created by the researcher. The percentages conveyed by the categories are as
follows: Guide (18,2%), Irreplaceable person (12,2%), Organizer 10,5%), Shaper (9,4%),
The mediator within the system (8,8%), Problem solver (%5,5), Figure of authority
(%,5%), Decision-maker (5,0%), Protector (4,4%), Supervisor (3,9%), Laborer (3,3%),
Unaffectionate person (2,8%), Strategically-acting person (2,2%), Figure of justice (1,7%).
It can be said that the metaphors that were created by the participants
correspond to some basic qualities of school principal, such as decision-maker, problem
solver, figure of justice, and supervisor. Some of the opinions expressed by the
participants are presented below:
“School principal is like the branches of a tree because they bear the responsibility of
fruits and leaves.”
“School principal is like a pilot because even a minor distraction can cost them the lives of
people.”
“School principal is like a builder because they shape the design.”
“School principal is like a tree because a strong tree provides shade and happiness.”
“School principal is like a leader because they coordinate everything.”
“School principal is like the steering wheel because the principal steers the work at school
just as the wheel steers the car.”
“School principal is like a dictator because they want to control and rule everything.”
“School principal is like a grandfather because they make all the decisions.”
“School principal is like the head knot of prayer beads because they hold the beads
together.”
“School principal is like ointment because they detect and heal any deficiency in the
system.”
“School principal is like climate because they play a crucial role in providing an
affirmative atmosphere at schools. They should be neither too tough nor too lenient.”
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 303
As the perceptions of senior students at Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of
Education are examined through metaphors, it is seen that pre-service teachers perceive
school principal as a responsible, shape-giving, protective, organizing, guiding,
authoritarian, decision-making, problem solving, irreplaceable, supervising, just, and
mediating figure.
4. Conclusion, Discussion and Suggestions
The purpose of this study is to present pre-service teachers’ perceptions of
“administration” and “school principal” reflected through metaphors. The research
results demonstrate that pre-service teachers have mostly positive perceptions of
administration and school principal concepts this is an encouraging finding when it is
considered that the participants are the potential school administrators of the future. It
is also seen that the first three categories with the highest percentages in both
“administration” and “school principal” metaphors lists are similar. When pre-service
teachers’ perception of administration is categorized, the highest frequency (25) is seen
in “Administration as a guiding structure” category. In a similar fashion, the highest
frequency (33) in “School principal” categorization is seen in “Guide” category. The
data show that pre-service teachers’ views on administration and school principal
concepts are consistent and the participants’ perceptions of these two concepts as
guiding entities are statistically remarkable. The second category of “Administration”
(f=24) is “Administration as hierarchical unity and integrity.” The third category of
“School principal” (f=19) is “Organizer.” This shows that school principals and
administration at schools are essential for unity and integrity according to the
participants’ perceptions.
The third category of “Administration” is “Administration as a significant
structure.” The second category of “School principal” is “Irreplaceable person.”
According to the participants’ views, both the administration and the school principal
represent indispensable elements in an organization. When Adnan Menderes
University Faculty of Education senior students’ metaphors about school principal and
administration are compared, it can be said that the participants’ perceptions of
administration and school principal comply with one another. Still, pre-service teachers
think that administration has more capability to solve problems than school principal.
The participants’ perceptions of administration manifest a more strategic structure.
According to the research results, administration is perceived to a more
authoritarian structure while school principal and administration are considered equal
in terms of responsibility. Additionally, administration is perceived to be a structure
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 304
that requires skills while there are no school principal metaphors that contain the issue
of skills. Therefore, it is safe to state that pre-service teachers perceive administration as
a structure that requires skills.
As the studies that focus on different dimension of education are analyzed it can
be possible to see many studies that aim to reveal the perceptions through metaphors
(Kalyoncu, 2012; Koç, 2014; Koşar, 2016; Sezgin, Koşar, Koşar ve Er, 2017 vb.). There are
a number of studies in literature that convey similar results. In a study titled “A Study
of Metaphor Based on Pre-service Pre-school Teachers’ Perceptions of School
Administrator” and conducted by Zembat, Tunçeli, and Akşin (2015), the categories of
metaphors show that the first three categories with highest percentages are “guiding”
(23,076%), “organizing” (16,153%), and “focus of administration” (11,538%). Similarly,
in this study the first three categories are “Guide” (18,2%), “Irreplaceable” (12,2%), and
“Organizer” (10,5%). Although the categories in similar metaphor studies on the
concepts of school administrator and school principal are named differently, the
metaphors within the three abovementioned categories are similar (Yalçın and Erginer,
2012; Dönmez 2008; Cerit, 2008).
In Çobanoğlu’s and Gökalp’s study titled “Pre-service Teachers’ Perceptions of
School Principal” (2015), it is seen that the most recurring metaphors of school principal
are father, lion, shepherd, dictator, and mother. These findings show complete
parallelism with the ones in our study because the metaphors with the highest
frequency levels in our study are gardener, shepherd, father, captain, dictator, mother,
lion, and leader. Therefore, the perceptions of the school principal by the students at
Rize Recep Tayyip Edoğan University Faculty of Education, Department of Religious
Culture and Ethics in the academic year 2013-2014 are parallel to the perceptions of pre-
service teachers at Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Education.
It is observed by this study that the rate of negative metaphors about school
principals is very low (8,9%). In a comprehensive study titled “Perceptions of the School
Principal Reflected through Metaphors at Primary Schools” by Yalçın and Enginer
(2012), the rate of negative metaphors is high (22%). The reason for such a high rate is
thought to be the choice of sampling. Yalçın and Enginer (2012) included the students,
teachers, and parents in their study and this might have affected the results. Also, the
reason for the highest percentage of “Protection” metaphors might be the fact that the
study was conducted at primary schools. This study does not agree with Yalçın and
Enginer’s research results and maintain low rates for the “Protection” category. This
disagreement may be indicating that school principals are perceived to be more
protective at primary schools.
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 305
In a study by Pesen, İdris and Gedik (2015) titled “The Perceptions of Principal
by Sophomore Students at Child Development Department”, 80 students were asked to
answer questions about the school principals at the schools where these students
interned. The results of this study agree with the ones in Yalçın and Enginer’s (2012)
study, but differ from the ones in our study. When one considers that the
abovementioned 80 child development students interned at kindergartens, pre-school
classes, and primary schools, it is understood that the school principal metaphors they
created tended to be negative. Therefore, it is deduced that the teachers who work at
kindergartens, pre-school classes, and primary schools are more likely to develop a
negative perception of school principals as opposed to the ones who work at higher
education institutions.
In a study by Gelmez and Çetin (2012) titled “The Perceptions of School
Administration Reflected through the Metaphors by Teachers and Administrators
(District of Beyoğlu, İstanbul Case)” the researchers investigated how teachers and
administrators at primary schools in Beyoğlu perceived school administration. The
study found that these teachers and administrators perceived school administration as a
unifying element. Therefore, the results of Gelmez and Çetin’s study agree with those of
our study.
Günbayı (2011) examines the metaphors used by school principals when defining
school administration and comes up with 6 categories. These metaphors are octopus,
horse, bee, book, seesaw, boxer, football team, steam machine, wrist watch, rocket,
robot, computer, sun, tree, and garden. By these metaphors, the participants
emphasized some certain characteristics such as coherence, team-work, hierarchy and
its consequences, the difficulty of using power and authority due to the central
structure of Turkish education system (Örücü, 2014). The results of the study by
Günbayı (2012) are largely parallel to the results in our study.
In a study titled “Pre-service Teachers’ Perceptions of School Administrator
Reflected through Metaphors” by Kösterelioğlu (2014) shows that 232 junior and senior
students at Amasya University Faculty of Education in the academic year 2012-2013
spring term have created 60 metaphors about the concept of school administrator. These
metaphors were classified under 21 categories. The highest rates of frequency (guide
and facilitator, center of administration, and irreplaceable) in three categories indicate a
parallelism to our study.
The research by Çakıcı and İslamoğlu (2012), titled “An Analysis of Academics’
Perceptions of Faculty and College Administrators Reflected through Metaphors”, lists
a number of metaphors, both positive and negative, about the administrative methods
and approaches. It has been observed that the participants tend to create affirmative
Bertan Akyol, C. Bilge Kapçak
PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF “ADMINISTRATION” AND “SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
REFLECTED THROUGH METAPHORS
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 3 Issue 10 2017 306
metaphors about administrators. The results also indicate a participative and
democratic administration system. Çakıcı and İslamoğlu’s study is significant in terms
of developing a comparison between the perceptions of administration in primary and
secondary schools and administration at universities. In a similar fashion, Tüzel and
Şahin (2014) investigate primary school 1st grade students’ perceptions of school
administrators through the pictures they draw and the metaphors they create. In order
to avoid misinterpretation, the students were asked to provide short explanations for
their pictures. It is seen that most students came up with affirmative metaphors such as
flower, sun, and tree. School principals and deputies are perceived to be secluded
figures spending most of their time in their offices, staying away from the school
corridors, and appearing only in the special ceremonies. When our study, which
investigates school principal perceptions of pre-service teachers at Adnan Menderes
University Faculty of Education, is compared to Tüzel and Şahin’s study, it is seen that
the results of two studies differ drastically. It is safe to say that the age of participants is
a significant determinant in a research.
In line with results of the study, certain suggestions can be offered. In order to
maintain pre-service teachers’ affirmative perception, to reduce negative perception to a
minimum, and to create awareness, the number of school administration and leadership
courses can be increased in bachelor programs. It is suggested that school
administration practices are added to the content of school experience courses. Also, a
long-term study can be conducted to investigate how and in what aspects pre-service
teachers’ perceptions of “school principal” and “administration” change after
graduation for a significant contribution to the literature. Because school principals are
able to shape teachers’ perceptions by means of their attitudes, they should remember
that the more attention they pay to the impression created on new teachers, the better
impacts they can have on institutions and education.
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