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Quercetin-A Mini Review

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Quercetin a flavonoid to be a member of a group of flavonols is universally consumed in the human diet and responsibly to give the color to various fruits and vegetables [1]. Mainly occur in the form of glycosides, but their other derivative have been identified [2-5]. This paper presents some recent advances regarding quercetin structure, derivatives, sources and their medicinal benefits with their effective dosage [6-8].
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1/5
Muhammad FM1, Ahsan M2 and Abdul W3
1South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
2Department of Chemistry, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Government College University Faisalabad-38000, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: Muhammad Faisal Manzoor, School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou,
China, Email:
Submission: August 21, 2017; Published: January 29, 2018
Quercetin- A Mini Review
Mini Review
Mod Concep Dev Agrono
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Muhammad Faisal Manzoor.
CRIMSONpublishers
http://www.crimsonpublishers.com
Abstract



Keywords:
Abbreviations:

Introduction


        
       
       
    
    

          

Table 1: Some important derivatives of quercetin and their food sources.
Derivatives Food Sources Contents (Mg/Kg) References
d.m. f.m.

Mango  
Plums  
  
 
 
 

Mango  
  
Plums  
  


Mango  
Plums  
Cherries  
Tomatoes  
 
  
  
How to cite this article: Muhammad F, Ahsan M, Abdul W. Quercetin- A Mini Review. Mod Concep Dev Agrono. 1(2). MCDA.000507. 2018.
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy
2/5
Mod Concep Dev Agrono
   
 Honey  
 Lettuce  
Chicory  

acetylglucoside   

acetylglucoside   
 Honey  

  
  
  
 
   
   
Figure 1: Chemical structure of quercetin.
        

        
        
        
        
       
    
      
 

Table 2: Various food sources and quercetin contents (mg/100g).
Food Sources Quercetin contents Food Sources Quercetin contents
Vegetables
 
Fruits
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
How to cite this article: Muhammad F, Ahsan M, Abdul W. Quercetin- A Mini Review. Mod Concep Dev Agrono. 1(2). MCDA.000507. 2018. 
Mod Concep Dev Agrono
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
Herbs &
shurbs
 
   
  
currant 
 
Beverages
 
   
   
   
   
 
Others
 
  Marinara sauce 
   
Table 3: Medicinal benets of quercetin with effective dose concentrations.
Medicinal benefits
of quercetin
Disease Effective Dosage References

  

  



 
 
  
Cardiovascular



200 mg

 500mg
   
Cancer 
  

 










 

How to cite this article: Muhammad F, Ahsan M, Abdul W. Quercetin- A Mini Review. Mod Concep Dev Agrono. 1(2). MCDA.000507. 2018.
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy

Mod Concep Dev Agrono
 
  


  

  

  
Arthritis 
 

 
 1000mg
Asthma 
asthma treatments  
Conclusion
  
        
         
     


References
1. 



2.             


3. 
       

4.          
      
       

5. 

6. 
       

7.        


8.          
        

9.         

10.             
         

11.             
  
      

12.             
          

13.           
      


14. 
        

15.         


16.             
   

17.          
      

18.            
   
     

19. 
      
     

20.            
        

21.           
        
       

22.      

23.   


24.              
 

25.      
       
How to cite this article: Muhammad F, Ahsan M, Abdul W. Quercetin- A Mini Review. Mod Concep Dev Agrono. 1(2). MCDA.000507. 2018. 5/5
Mod Concep Dev Agrono
Modern Concepts & Developments in Agronomy



26. 


27.          
       

28.         
       

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With increasing interest among the general public for using natural and herbal remedies, there is a great need to document and list ancient medical texts and practices, as well as to investigate the effi cacy of a number of 'ancient' compounds that are currently reputed to have medicinal benefi ts for such diseases as arthritis, wound healing, cancer, chronic infl ammation and cardiovascular disease. With these goals in mind, we have collected evidence for the use of the natural polyphenolic fl avonoid quercetin in antiquity, as well as identifi ed modern clinical research showing the effi cacy of this compound for human health. Our report not only provides clear evidence for the fl avonoid quercetin as an anti-infl ammatory, which may well have been used in antiquity to treat arthritic swelling and pain, it also serves to re-educate the general public and scientifi c community to the fact that natural and herbal remedies can be very effi cacious forms of medication, deserving respect.
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The main phenolic compound in six studied lettuce cultivars (five green and one red) was identified as dicaffeoyl tartaric acid. Quantitative but not qualitative differences were found in the phenolic profiles among green cultivars. The red oak leaf cultivar contained twofold more dicaffeoyl tartaric acid and 10-fold more chlorogenic acid than the green cultivars. Total phenolics ranged from 8.4 to 12.9 mg g−1 dry weight in green varieties and reached 27.8 mg g−1 dry weight in red oak leaf. Carotenoids and vitamins E and C were also quantified. Lutein was the main carotenoid found in all cultivars, together with another xanthophyll. The period of harvesting had only a marginal influence on total phenolic levels, whereas carotenoid and vitamin E levels were higher at the second period of harvesting. Vitamin C levels ranged between 6.1 and 9.9 mg per 100 g fresh weight. We investigated the total antioxidant power in lettuce. Total phenolics accounted for more than 60% of the total antioxidant capacity. Dicaffeoyl tartaric acid accounted for 55%. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
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Flavonoids, phenolic acids and abscisic acid of Australian and New Zealand Leptospermum honeys were analyzed by HPLC. Fifteen flavonoids were isolated in Australian jelly bush honey (Leptospermum polygalifolium), with an average content of 2.22 mg/100 g honey. Myricetin (3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxyflavone), luteolin (5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone) and tricetin (5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentahydroxyflavone) were the main flavonoids identified. The mean content of total phenolic acids in jelly bush honey was 5.14 mg/100 g honey, with gallic and coumaric acids as the potential phenolic acids. Abscisic acid was quantified as twice the amount (11.6 mg/100 g honey) of the phenolic acids in this honey. The flavonoid profile mainly consisted of quercetin (3,5,7,3′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone), isorhamnetin (3,5,7,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone 3′-methyl ethyl), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), luteolin and an unknown flavanone in New Zealand manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey with an average content of total flavonoids of 3.06 mg/100 g honey. The content of total phenolic acids was up to 14.0 mg/100 g honey, with gallic acid as the main component. A substantial quantity (32.8 mg/100 g honey) of abscisic acid was present in manuka honey. These results showed that flavonoids and phenolic acids could be used for authenticating honey floral origins, and abscisic acid may aid in this authentication.
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Black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott (Rosaceae), was investigated for its flavonoid content. The flavanone eriodictyol 7-O-β-glucuronide (1) together with the quercetin derivatives 3-O-(6″-O-β-arabinosyl-β-glucoside) (2), 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnosyl-β-galactoside) (3), 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnosyl-β-glucoside) (4), 3-O-β-galactoside (5) and 3-O-β-glucoside (6), were detected in the fruits and flower umbels. The rare compounds 1–3 were isolated and structurally elucidated by use of 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments together with electrospray mass spectrometry. Compounds 4–6 were characterized by co-chromatography and by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The black chokeberries contained >71 mg flavonols per 100 g fresh weight.
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the oral antidiabetic activity of six structurally related flavonoids: flavone (1), 3-hydroxyflavone (2), 6-hydroxyflavone (3), 7-hydroxyflavone (4), chrysin (5) and quercetin (6). Normoglycemic and STZ-nicotinamide diabetic rats were treated with these flavonoids (50 mg/kg) and the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects in acute and sub acute (five days of treatment) experiments were determined. Compounds 1, 5 and 6 were found most active in both experiments in comparison with control group (p<0.05). After five days of administration to STZ-nicotinamide diabetic rats, flavonoids induced a significantly diminishing of total cholesterol, TG and LDL and an augment of HDL compared with the control group (p<0.05). The in vitro inhibitory activity of the compounds against 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) was also evaluated. Quercetin, the most active compound, was docked into the crystal structure of 11beta-HSD1. Docking results indicate potential hydrogen bond interactions with hydroxyl groups of catalytic amino acid residues.