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Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) - 1.Healthy Vegetables. –Mother Nature Healing.

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Abstract

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine that bears cucumiform fruits that are used as vegetables. The cucumber is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, along with squash and different kinds of melon. Cucumbers are high in water and low in calories, fat, cholesterol, and sodium. There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and seedless. Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created. In North America, the term "wild cucumber" refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but these are not closely related. The cucumber is originally from South Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) - 1.Healthy Vegetables. –Mother Nature
Healing.
Author.
Prof. Hayk S. Arakelyan. Full Professor in Medicine,
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Ph.D , Grand Ph.D .
Senior Expert of Interactive Clinical Pharmacology , Drug Safety,
Treatment Tactics, General Medicine and Clinical Research.
“Let food be thy medicine, thy medicine shall be thy food.”
“Hippocrates”
Introduction.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in
the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine that
bears cucumiform fruits that are used as vegetables. The cucumber is a member of
the Cucurbitaceae family, along with squash and different kinds of melon.
Cucumbers are high in water and low in calories, fat, cholesterol, and sodium.
There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and seedless.
Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created. In North America, the
term "wild cucumber" refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but
these are not closely related. The cucumber is originally from South Asia, but
now grows on most continents. Many different types of cucumber are traded on
the global market.
Helth Benefits of Cucumber.
The cucumber is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, along with squash and
different kinds of melon. Cucumbers are high in water and low in calories,
fat, cholesterol, and sodium. They have a mild, refreshing taste and a high
water content. They can be refreshing and pleasant to eat in hot weather and
help prevent dehydration. It is eaten savory, but it is strictly a fruit. Cucumbers
have been grown in India for food and medicinal purposes since ancient
times, and they have long been part of the Mediterranean diet.
Cucumbers consist mainly of water.
Some people use cucumber to soothe sunburn.
Early research shows that a compound found in cucumbers might help
fight cancer.
Cucumbers contain lignan, which may help fight cardiovascular disease.
Cucumber is a versatile food that can be added to a variety of dishes.
Fruits and vegetables of all kinds offer a range of health benefits. Plant foods, such
as cucumber, have been linked to a lower risk of obesity, diabetes, heart
disease, among others, while promoting a healthy complexion, increased
energy, and a healthy body weight. The chemical profile of cucumbers is thought
to give them a number of possible health benefits.
1) Hydration.
Consisting mostly of water, and containing important electrolytes, cucumbers can
help prevent dehydration during the hot summer months or during and after a
workout.
Adding cucumber and mint to water can increase water consumption by making it
more attractive to drink.
Dehydration is important for many things including maintaining a healthy
intestine, preventing constipation, and avoiding kidney stones.
2) Bone health.
A sufficient intake of vitamin K has been associated with healthy bones that are
less likely to fracture. One cup of cucumber provides 8.5 micrograms (mcg) of
vitamin K. The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) recommends that
women aged 19 years and over consume 90 mcg of vitamin K each day, and
men 120 mcg. It also contains calcium. Vitamin K helps improve calcium
absorption. Together, these nutrients contribute to good bone health.
3) Cancer
As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family of plants, cucumbers contain high levels
of nutrients known as cucurbitacins, which may help prevent cancer by
stopping cancer cells from proliferating and surviving.
Cucumbers contain cucurbitacins A, B, C, D, and E.
There are currently no current anti-cancer therapies that utilize
cucurbitacins. Laboratory research has produced promising results, but more
work is needed to confirm their antitumor effects.
4) Cardiovascular health
The American Heart Association (AHA) encourage people to eat more fiber, as
this can help prevent a buildup of cholesterol and the cardiovascular problems
that can result from this. Cucumbers are a good sources of fiber, particularly
in the skin. They also provide potassium and magnesium. The AHA also
recommend reducing sodium and increasing potassium intake to help
prevent high blood pressure.The cucurbitacins in cucumber may also help
prevent atheroslcerosis.
5) Diabetes
Researchers have concluded that cucumbers may help control and prevent
diabetes.Cucumbers, like squash, gourd, melon, and other related foods,
contain Cucurbita ficifolia, which may help reduce spikes in blood sugar. One
theory is that the cucurbitans in cucumber stimluate insuline releaseand regulate
the metabolism of a key hormone in the processing of blood sugar, hepatic
glycogen.They also have a low score on the glycemic index (GI), which means
they provide important nutrients without adding carbohydrates that can
increase blood glucose.
6) Skin
Cucumbers are believed to have anti-inflammatory benefits.Used directly on the
skin, sliced cucumber has a cooling and soothing effect that decreases
swelling, irritation, and inflammation. It can alleviate sunburn. Placed on the
eyes, they can help decrease morning puffiness.
Nutrition.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National
Nutrient Database, 1 cup of raw sliced cucumber with peel, weighing around
52 grams (g) contains:
49.52 of water, 8 calories, 0.34 g of protein, 0.06 g of fat,1.89 g of
carbohydrate, including 0.9 g of fiber and 0.87 g of sugar,8 milligrams
(mg) of calcium, 0.15 mg of iron, 7 mg of magnesium, 12 mg of
phosphorus, 76 mg of potassium,1 mg of sodium,1.5 mg of vitamin C,4
micrograms (mcg) of folate.
It also contains thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin A.
One cup of cucumber provides around 11 percent of the daily allowance for
vitamin K.
Cucumbers also contain lignans. Research suggests that these may
decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and several types of cancer.
If you have any questions concerning “Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) -
1.Healthy Vegetables. –Mother Nature Healing.”, interactive clinical
pharmacology , or any other questions, please inform me via Linkedin.
Prof. Hayk S. Arakelyan
Chapter
Full-text available
Rapid progress has been made in classical genetics and traditional breeding in cucumber for various quantitative and qualitative traits which greatly benefited the development of superior varieties suitable for open field and protected cultivation. The different breeding methods like plant introductions, hybridizations, pedigree selection, recombination breeding and marker assisted selection have been employed successfully in developing superior varieties and F 1 hybrids. The development of new varieties with earliness, high-yield and resistance to diseases (powdery mildew, downy mildew and tolerant to virus) through selection of superior parental lines followed by hybridization and marker assisted introgression of desired genes was a game changer in cucumber breeding. The exploitation of gynoecious sex along with parthenocarpic traits in traditional breeding has made revolution in cucumber cultivation throughout the world which enabled the adoption of cucumber crop by farming community on large scale. Molecular markers technology could be exploited to overcome the obstacle of traditional breeding by accelerating the breeding cycle and selection of desirable traits. The high density genetic maps for various traits have been constructed in cucumber to detected quantitative traits loci (QTLs) for genetic enhancement in different market classes of cucumber. Therefore, this chapter highlighted the concepts of genetic foundations for advancement made in cucumber breeding.
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