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The aim of this paper was to study a number of 34 athletes practicing different kinds of sports activities, in order to determine whether they have developed a certain spine deficiency and if there is any association between the type of sports they practice and the postural changes they develop. Methods : In this study we have enrolled 12 members of the men’s volleyball team of the “West University of Timisoara”, 9 members of the men’s football team ASU Politehnica Timișoara, and 13 members of the men’s basketball team BC SCM Timișoara. Postural analysis was carried out with the Zebris CMS-10 from the mechatronics department of the Politehinca University Timisoara, a device that determines the spatial coordinates of the spinous processes. From the obtained data we have established the angle of the spinal deviation both sagittal and frontal, in a similar manner as with the Cobb method. Results: We have observed a reduction in the spinal curvature in volleyball players; 8 out of 12 had values under the normal range that can in time lead to a rigid spine. 7 players from the basketball team presented values out of the normal range for kyphosis and 8 of them for lordosis, while all except two of the team players present with a front plane deviation of the spine. From the evaluation of the football players from ASU Politehnica Timișoara we cannot generalize a deviation in the sagittal plane, but all of them present deviations in the frontal plane. Conclusion : Professional athletes can also present postural changes determined by the positions they most frequently adopt depending on the type of sports they practice.
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Timişoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal
Volume 11 Issue 21 2018
22
DOI: 10.2478/tperj-2018-0012
Evaluation of posture in sports performance
Nicolae-Adrian JURJIU
1
, Corina PANTEA
2
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to study a number of 34 athletes practicing different kinds of sports activities, in order to
determine whether they have developed a certain spine deficiency and if there is any association between the type of sports
they practice and the postural changes they develop. Methods: In this study we have enrolled 12 members of the men’s
volleyball team of the “West University of Timisoara”, 9 members of the men’s football team ASU Politehnica Timișoara, and
13 members of the men’s basketball team BC SCM Timișoara. Postural analysis was carried out with the Zebris CMS-10 from
the mechatronics department of the Politehinca University Timisoara, a device that determines the spatial coordinates of the
spinous processes. From the obtained data we have established the angle of the spinal deviation both sagittal and frontal, in a
similar manner as with the Cobb method. Results: We have observed a reduction in the spinal curvature in volleyball players;
8 out of 12 had values under the normal range that can in time lead to a rigid spine. 7 players from the basketball team
presented values out of the normal range for kyphosis and 8 of them for lordosis, while all except two of the team players
present with a front plane deviation of the spine. From the evaluation of the football players from ASU Politehnica Timișoara
we cannot generalize a deviation in the sagittal plane, but all of them present deviations in the frontal plane. Conclusion:
Professional athletes can also present postural changes determined by the positions they most frequently adopt depending
on the type of sports they practice.
Keywords: posture, evaluation, athletes, Zebris
Rezumat
Scopul lucrării este de a studia un număr 34 de sportivi care practică diferite ramuri sportive, de a determina dacă aceștia au
dezvoltat o anumită deficiență la nivelul coloanei vertebrale și dacă există o asociere între sportul practicat și eventualele
modificări posturale apărute. Metode: În acest studiu au participat 12 sportivi din cadrul echipei de volei masculin
“Universitatea de Vest Timișoara”, 9 sportivi din cadrul echipei de fotbal masculin ASU Politehnica Timișoara și 13 sportivi
din cadrul echipei de baschet masculin BC SCM Timișoara. Analiza posturală a fost realizată cu aparatul Zebris CMS-10 din
cadrul departamentului de mecatronică a Universității Politehnica Timișoara, care determina coordonatele spațiale ale
proceselor spinoase vertebrale, iar din datele obținute se stabilește valoarea unghiului deviațiilor coloanei vertebrale atât în
plan sagital cât și frontal, similar metodei Cobb. Rezultate: La jucătorii de volei am observat o reducere a curburii coloanei
lombare, 8 sportivi din cei 12 au avut valori sub normal, ceea ce în timp poate duce la un spate plan. La jucătorii echipei de
baschet masculin 7 sportivi au prezentat valori peste normal în evaluarea cifozei și 8 sportivi prezintă valori sub normal în
evaluarea lordozei, iar în plan frontal, cu excepția a doi sportivi, toți ceilalți au o deviație a coloanei vertebrale. Din rezultatele
evaluărilor efectuate jucătorilor din cadrul clubului de fotbal masculin ASU Politehnica Timișoara nu se poate generaliza
existența unei deformări accentuate în plan sagital, în schimb toți sportivii prezintă deviație în plan frontal. Concluzie: La
sportivii de performanță pot exista modificări posturale determinate de pozițiile specifice adoptate de jucători în funcție de
sportul practicat.
Cuvinte cheie: postură, evaluare, sportivi, Zebris
1
Masterand Student at Physical Education and Sports Faculty, West University of Timisoara, Romania, e-mail: jurjiun@gmail.com
2
Associate Professor, MD, PhD., Physical Education and Sports Faculty, West University of Timișoara, Romania
Timişoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal
Volume 11 Issue 21 2018
23
Introduction
Movement is usually perceived as being fluent and
dynamic, while posture is seen as static and
characterized by the lack of movement. It is
fundamentally wrong to see posture as an
independent factor from the general functioning of
the locomotor system. The word posture refers to a
position in which either the entire body or a certain
part of it is held for a period of time. A dynamic
organism such as the human body cannot be
defined as having only one position or posture; it
adopts different position and it rarely stays in one
of them for a long period of time.
The basic and most important function of the
skeletal and muscular systems is movement. Any
static state that the body has at one point in time is
only an integrative part of this basic activity as the
posture “follows” the movement just like a shadow.
By extending this idea, the posture can be defined as
a temporary position attributed by the organism in
the preparation for the next position. Therefore, the
static state is not a real position because we rarely
actually are in that certain position. The most
frequent postural deficiencies in the case of athletes
are lordosis and scoliosis, deficiencies that are
evident either in the frontal or in the sagittal plane.
If present, they can determine a series of clinical
manifestations that can negatively influence their
performance in various manners [1].
The aim of the study is to analyze the posture of
athletes registered with the West University Sports
Club Timisoara men’s volleyball team, BC SCM
Timisoara men’s basketball team, and ASU
Politehnica Timisoara men’s football team in
order to establish if there is any kind of connection
between the type of sport these athletes practice
and the postural changes they develop.
Materials and methods
Postural analysis has been carried out using the
Zebris CMS-10 from the Mechatronics Department
of the Politehinca University Timisoara between the
5th and 25th December 2018. The subjects enrolled
in the study were as follows: 12 athletes from the
men’s volleyball team (with a mean age of
24,835,09, mean weight of 89 9,98 kg, mean
height 1,91 0,04 m), 9 athletes from the men’s
football team ASU Politehnica Timisoara (mean age
of 26,66 4,41), and 13 athletes from the BC SCM
Timisoara men’s basketball team (mean age of
26,53 5,99 and mean height 1,96 0,11 m). The
Zebris examination system used for the spine
determined the spatial coordinates of the spinous
processes and by using these data we have
established the angle of the spinal deviation both
sagittal and frontal, in a similar manner as with the
Cobb method.
Results
Following data analysis from the Win Spine System
and the Zebris CMS-10 we have observed the
following:
- Normal range for kyphosis are between 33-43
and only two volleyball players presented normal
measurements (40,6 and 39,4), 5 athletes have
values over the normal range (out of these the
highest values were 60,3 and 63,4), and other 5
athletes present values that were lower than the
normal range (23,1 and 29,9) with a clear
tendency towards the reduction of the physiological
curvature of the spine that in time will lead to a
plane and rigid back (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Kyphosis deviation angle values for men’s
team volleyball players
- Normal values for lordosis are between 22-28
and only 2 players presented values within this
normal range (24,7 and 26,3), 2 present values
above normal (28,8 and 31,6), and the other 8
players present with values below the normal limit.
Out of these last 8 mentioned players, in 5 of them
we have observed the tendency towards the
reduction of the physiological curvature of the spine
that could in time lead to a plane back. (Figure 2)
Timişoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal
Volume 11 Issue 21 2018
24
Figure 2. Lordosis deviation angle values for men’s
team volleyball players
In case of scoliosis the normal value is 0, a value
that could be observed in case of 6 out of the 12
analysed atheletes. For 2 of the subjects we
observed a left-side deviation of the spine of 10,1
and 14,5 respectively, which indicate the presence
of a left convex scoliosis, while 4 of the athletes
presented a right side deviation of the spine (11,8;
12,8; 6,7 și 8,1) indicating a right sided scoliosis
due to the fact that they have a right hand
dominance and due to the positions they have in the
team.
Figure 3. Scoliosis deviation angle values for men’s
team volleyball players
In the case of the BC SCM Timisoara basketball team
we observed that 4 players present normal values
in case of kyphosis measurements, 7 have values
above the normal range (the highest being 63,1
and 70), and the other 2 players present with
values below the normal limit (24,6 and 30,2).
Figure 4. Kyphosis deviation angle values for men’s
team basketball players
Normal values for lordosis are between 22-28 and
only 3 of the basketball players presented values
within this normal range (27,6; 24,2 and 25,9), 2
present values above normal (32,8 and 32,2)
which indicated hyperlordosis leading to frequent
back pain episodes; the other 8 players present with
values below the normal limit. Out of these last 8
mentioned players, 2 of them presented values that
indicate a drastic reduction of the physiological
curvature of the spine and present loss of mobility
of the lower spine associated with lower back pain
for which they had been given specific treatment
under the direct supervision of the kinetotherapist.
Figure 5. Lordosis deviation angle values for men’s
team basketball players
In scoliosis the normal value is 0, a value that could
be observed in the case of 3 players from the
basketball team. 10 of the subjects presented values
outside the normal range; 5 of them showed a left-
Timişoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal
Volume 11 Issue 21 2018
25
sided deviation of the spine (15,2; 2,7; 7,8; 14,5
and 11,6), while the other 5 presented a right-
sided deviation of the spine (8,2; 13,2; 14,6; 5,5
and 11,8) indicating that the presence of scoliosis
is tightly related to the dominant hand of the player
and to the technique they use when shooting
baskets.
Figure 6. Scoliosis deviation angle values for men’s
team basketball players
The postural analysis of the football players from
ASU Politehnica Timisoara shows that in the case of
the kyphosis deviation only 2 players had
measurements within the normal range, 4 had
values above the normal range (the highest being
52.1 and 51.5), and the other 3 players present
with values below the normal limit (18,5; 26,7 and
25,3) which indicates a reduction in the curvature
of the spine. (Figure 7)
Figure 7. Kyphosis deviation angle values for
players in the ASU Politehnica Timisoara team
Normal values for lordosis are between 22-28 and
only 3 of the basketball players presented values
within this normal range (27,6; 24,2 and 25,9), 2
present values above normal (30,1 and 29,9)
which indicated hyperlordosis leading to frequent
back pain episodes; the other 4 players present with
values below the normal limit. Out of these last 4
mentioned players, one of them presented values
that indicate a drastic reduction of the physiological
curvature of the spine (4,1), frequently accusing
lower back pain and following a strict and
individualized kinetic program under the direct
supervision of the kinetotherapist. (Figure 8)
Figure 8. Lordosis deviation angle values for men’s
football team ASU Politehnica Timisoara
Follwing the measurements for frontal plane angles
we came to the conclusion that neither of the
atheletes from ASU Politehnica Timisoara were in
the normal range. All 9 atheltes presented values
above normal, out of which 5 presented a left-sided
deviation (14,1; 10,3; 0,3; 13 and 5,9) and 4 of
them a right-sided deviation (10,4; 9,5; 11,4 and
7,8).
Figure 9. Scoliosis deviation angle values for men’s
football team ASU Politehnica Timisoara
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26
Discussions
In a similar manner with our present study
Małgorzata Grabara in “Analysis of body posture
between young football players and their untrained
peers” has also analyzed postural differences
between two groups of subjects - a group of 73
football players and a group of 78 men that practice
no sports, all with an age between 11 and 14. The
measurements have been carried out using the
MORIE technique, an objective and non-invasive
method that records data about the spine as a whole
in three different dimensions, in a very short period
of time (approximately 5 seconds). Following this
analysis they have observed that in the case of
football players there is a tendency towards
asymmetry in the shoulder alignment, whereas the
pelvis was symmetrically aligned in a frontal plane.
It was also proven that people who practice football
are predisposed towards a reduction of the lumbar
curvature. [3]
Another study, “Comparison of posture among
adolescent male volleyball players and non-
athletes”, also carried out by Małgorzata Grabara
has analyzed postural differences between
volleyball players and people who practice no
sports. The study group included 104 volleyball
players, while the control group included 114
persons that do not practice sports; all subjects
were between 14 and 16 years old. The body
position was evaluated through the Moire method.
Posture analysis in regard with the symmetry
between the frontal and transversal planes had not
shown significant differences between the two
groups. The volleyball players though presented
with a reduction of the lumbar curvature and an
accentuation of the thoracic kyphosis in comparison
to non-athletes [4].
In “Evaluation of Postural Asymmetry and Gross
Joint Mobility in Elite Female Volleyball Athletes”,
carried out by Renata Vařeková et al, the authors
evaluated the postural asymmetry and the joint
mobility of female athletes in volleyball. 62 elite
volleyball players from the Czech Republic and
Slovakia were included in this study. The authors
concluded that there is a posture specific for the
elite volleyball players, as they have the acromion,
scapula and iliac crest more elevated on the left side
than on the right side, a fact observed in 50 of the
study subjects (80.6%). Apart from two players, all
had functional scoliosis as stated by the Adams test,
without any serious asymmetries. A high prevalence
for hypermobility was also observed, which was no
surprise as elite athletes in female volleyball
perform constant stretching exercises. [7]
Joana Glista et al. have carried out a study, “Change
in Anthropometric Parameters of the Posture of
Students of Physiotherapy after Three Years of
Professional Training” in which they followed
possible postural changes of physiotherapy
students after 3 years of professional training. The
study group included 30 students selected
randomly. Each subject was examined twice, at the
age of 20 and at the age of 23. Both examinations
were carried out by the same researcher and by
using the same ultrasound ZEBRIS system. The
study has shown that the physical activities that the
subjects carry out with their patients during
university years leads to a worse posture and
deterioration of the parameters included in the
study: body inclination angle, sacral angle, obliquity
between pelvis and shoulder, distance between the
scapulae, different in height for the two shoulders.
[1]
In the study “Measuring procedures to determine
the Cobb angle in idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic
review” carried out by S. Langensiepen, et al., they
investigate different new techniques used to
determine the Cobb angle in idiopathic scoliosis and
evaluate these new procedures to see if they are
viable options in comparison to manual measuring
of the Cobb angle. All these procedures have shown
high fidelity degrees. The measurements carried out
through digital procedures tend to be more accurate
than the manual ones. Therefore, we cannot state
that a certain technique is the best at this point in
time but we have to underline the fact that
formation of observers is very important. The
authors also state that one should also take into
account the cost-benefit ratio of the measuring
procedure. [5]
Mária Takács, et al. in their study “The new
processing of the results of examinations made with
Zebris win-spine spine-measuring method and its
validation”, wanted to research and clarify if the
Cobb angle values determined through X-ray results
of the spine from young people suffering from
scoliosis is different from the values obtained while
calculating the special coordinated of the spinous
Timişoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal
Volume 11 Issue 21 2018
27
processes with the Zebris examination system. In
the case of 25 children with scoliosis, they have
carried out vertical x-rays of the spine. Based on the
pictures they have calculated the values for thoracic
kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and scoliosis using the
Cobb method. The same children were then
examined with the WINSPINE software, especially
developed for the Zebris CMS-HS system, also in a
vertical position. After comparing the results from
the two measuring methods, the correlation was
very strong for the values for dorsal kyphosis and
lumbar lordosis (kyphosis 0.80, lordosis= 0.94);
the correlation between the values for dorsal
scoliosis and lumbar scoliosis was moderate (dorsal
scoliosis = 0,67; lumbar scoliosis = 0,73). The
results from the two methods were almost identical
in the sagittal plane because the correlation was
very strong. The results also showed that scoliosis
leads to deformities of the spine in all three planes,
but the curvature degree was almost the same with
both measuring methods. [6]
Conclusions
In our study we observed that the volleyball players
presented with not specific predisposition for a
deficiency in the dorsal region or in the frontal
plane. On the other hand, most of the athletes
presented a reduction in the lumbar spine
curvature, 8 out of 12 athletes having measurement
values under the normal range, which in time can
lead to a plane back.
In the case of the basketball players from BC SCM
Timisoara we could observe an accentuation of the
dorsal spine curvature and a reduction of the
physiological curvature in the lumbar area, 7
athletes presenting with values out of the normal
range for kyphosis and 8 for lordosis. Regarding
front plane deviations, except from two athletes, all
the other ones presented a deficiency, but we could
not specify which side is predominant. After
analysisng the results obtained for the football
players at ASU Politehnica Timisoara, we cannot
generally state that there is a deformity in the
sagittal plane, but we observed that there is a clear
deviation in the frontal plane.
We can conclude that professional players can also
present postural changes determined in the case of
volleyball, basketball, and football by the specific
positions the player take both during practice and
during official games.
References
1. Glista J., Pop T., Weres A., Czenczek-Lewandowska E.,
Podgórska-Bednarz J., RykaBa J., Leszczak J., Sowa K., Rusek
W. (2014). Change in Anthropometric Parameters of the
Posture of Students of Physiotherapy after Three Years of
Professional Training, BioMed Research International, 9.
2. Avramescu E.T., (2006). Kinetoterapia în activități sportive
investigația medico-sportivă; aplicații ale teoriei în practi,
Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 105-115.
3. Grabara M. (2012). Analysis of body posture between young
football players and their untrained peers, Human movement,
vol. 13 (2), 120126.
4. Grabara M. (2015). Comparison of posture among adolescent
male volleyball players and non-athletes, Biol Sport, 32(1),
7985.
5. Langensiepen S., Semler O., Sobottke R., Fricke O., Franklin J.,
Schonau E., Eysel F. (2013). Measuring procedures to
determine the Cobb angle in idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic
review, Eur. Spine J., 22, 23602371.
6. Takács M., Rudner E., Nagy I., Jurák M., Kiss R. M., Kocsis
L.,(2013). The new processing of the results of examinations
made with zebris win-spine spine-measuring method and its
validation, Biomechanica Hungarica VI, (1), 29-37.
7. Vařeková R., Vařeka I., Janura M., Svoboda Z., Elfmark M.,
(2011). Evaluation of Postural Asymmetry and Gross Joint
Mobility in Elite Female Volleyball Athletes, Journal of Human
Kinetics, voL. 29, 5-13.
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Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the body posture of young football players and their untrained peers. Methods. A group of 73 football players and 78 untrained boys, all aged between 11 and 14 years, were studied by measuring body posture indices with computer posturography (the MORIE technique). Spinal angles and curvatures in the sagittal plane and body posture asymmetry in the frontal and transversal plane were measured. Body height and mass and BMI were also determined. Results. Compared to the untrained boys, the group of football players had lower BMI. The position of pelvis in the frontal plane was more symmetrical (p < 0.001) in football players, but the alignment of the remaining measured parameters was similar between the two groups except for the horizontal symmetry of the waist triangles (a higher incidence of symmetry in some ages groups of football players) and the horizontal symmetry of the shoulder blades (a higher incidence of asymmetry in some ages groups of football players). A postural symmetry index that was created for this study did not find any differentiation among the studied groups. The spinal alignment of the football players featured a more flattened lumbar lordosis. Conclusion. Previously conducted studies on the body posture of young athletes are still not ample and complete, while the results do not clearly indicate the development of posture when subjected to sports training.
Kinetoterapia în activități sportive investigația medico-sportivă; aplicații ale teoriei în practică
  • E T Avramescu
Avramescu E.T., (2006). Kinetoterapia în activități sportive investigația medico-sportivă; aplicații ale teoriei în practică, Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 105-115.