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Water is an important factor of life for all living organisms and it is now deteriorated very rapidly due to industrial effluents, municipal and agriculture waste leaching down the groundwater. The percolation of water through the deposits of limestone and chalk which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates increases the mineral contents. So, the presence of high mineral contents creates water hardness. Water hardness is mainly occurring by the existence of calcium and magnesium, their high concentration in water makes water hard which cause several hazardous impacts on human life. Therefore, certain concentration standard limits have been fixed by different organizations. According to WHO 500 mg/l is allowable limit for water hardness. So regular use of high concentration of Calcium and magnesium ions above standard limits is causing real problems for human beings and environment. In daily routine life different harmful incidence occurs due to hard water. To overcome this problem water softening is a technique that serves the removal of cations which are most likely the hardness factors are calcium and magnesium. Water softening is the most useful technique to remove hardness. Therefore, a water softener is developed for domestic purpose. As the development of an optimum water softener was very essential for domestic use. The water softener can have performed efficiently with a hardness range of 1000-1200 mg/l and TDS may be up to 1500mg/l. The water softener plant is also cost efficient that have almost one-time production cost and very low maintenance and running cost. After the manufacturing of water softening plant hardness, pH, DO, TDS and EC is calculated to check its efficiency. The hardness, TDS and conductivity reduces after passing the sample water through the sample, DO was increased to little extent and pH was remained in a specific range
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Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP) 3(1) (2019) 23-28
Cite The Ar ticle:
Ahmed Sharjeel, Sha fiq Anwar , Abdul Nasir, H aroon Rash id (201 9).
Design , Develop ment And Perform ance Of Op timum Wa ter Soften er.
Eart h Scienc es Pakist an
, 3(1): 23-28 .
ARTICLE DETAILS
Article History:
Received 24 November 2018
Accepted 25 December 2018
Available online 7 February 2019
ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT
Water is an important factor of life for all living organisms and it is now deteriorated very rapidly due to industrial
effluents, municipal and agriculture waste leaching down the groundwater. The percolation of water through the
deposits of limestone and chalk which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates increases the
mineral contents. So, the presence of high mineral contents creates water hardness. Water hardness is mainly
occurring by the existence of calcium and magnesium, their high concentration in water makes water hard which
cause several hazardous impacts on human life. Therefore, certain concentration standard limits have been fixed
by different organizations. According to WHO 500 mg/l is allowable limit for water hardness. So regular use of high
concentration of Calcium and magnesium ions above standard limits is causing real problems for human beings and
environment. In daily routine life different harmful incidence occurs due to hard water. To overcome this problem
water softening is a technique that serves the removal of cations which are most likely the hardness factors are
calcium and magnesium. Water softening is the most useful technique to remove hardness. Therefore, a water
softener is developed for domestic purpose. As the development of an optimum water softener was very essential
for domestic use. The water softener can have performed efficiently with a hardness range of 1000-1200 mg/l and
TDS may be up to 1500mg/l. The water softener plant is also cost efficient that have almost one-time production
cost and very low maintenance and running cost. After the manufacturing of water softening plant hardness, pH,
DO, TDS and EC is calculated to check its efficiency. The hardness, TDS and conductivity reduces after passing the
sample water through the sample, DO was increased to little extent and pH was remained in a specific range.
KEYWORDS
Water Softening, Total hardness, Calcium and magnesium, Carbonates and bicarbonates, Ion exchange resin and
Regeneration
1. INTRODUCTION
Water is an extremely important element of our environment. It is mainly
considered as the main source that keeps creatures alive in the earth. It is
very essential for living things [1]. If we define it generally; water is a
transparent fluid which makes the world’s streams, lakes, oceans and rain
and is the major constituent of the fluids of living things. Water is also
widely used as major resource in manufacturing plants and different
industries. This water contains many undesirable things which is termed
as impurities. As water contains many impurities amongst them most
attentive are hardness, bacteria, microorganisms, virus, sediments,
dissolved salts, dissolved gases, suspended solids, odor, arsenic, iron,
copper, turbidity etc. Among this hardness is our main concern as it effects
in many ways in our life. The metal ions present in water causes water
hardness. High mineral contents in water can create lots of health issues
to humans [2]. Calcium and magnesium are considered as two main
components of hard water which cause the hardness in water. Water can
be considered hard when the concentration of calcium and magnesium is
found to be above a permissible limit (120 mg/l) [3].
According to Pakistan Standards Quality and Control Authority; Water
Quality Standards, the maximum acceptable value for hard water is 500
mg/l [4]. It contains minerals Ca2+ and Mg2+ which can be easily
deposited on the surfaces of equipment such as kettles, coffee makers, and
heaters in the form of scale. The formation of scale causes clogging of a
piping system thus lowering the water flow [5]. While causing pipe
clogging, however, it tends to protect their surfaces by coating to prevent
corrosion [6]. Besides this, it also decreases the foamy nature of soap and
detergent soapy, leading to the use of additional soap to wash utensils and
clothes, as well as in bathing [7,8].
Calcium occurrence in water is due to its passage over limestone, dolomite,
gypsum and gypsiferous shale. The range of calcium content is from zero
to hundreds of milligrams per litre. The concentration is depending upon
the source and treatment of water. The presence of calcium in water
results the corrosion of metal pipes. On other hand, considerable calcium
salts, precipitate on heating to form a harmful scale in boilers, pipes and
cooking utensils.
Magnesium is the common constituent of natural water and it ranks eighth
most abundant among the elements. The association of water with granite
or siliceous sand may contain less than 5 mg of magnesium per liter. Water
having dolomite or magnesium-rich limestone may contain 10-50 mg/l,
and concentration in hundreds of mg/l of magnesium may be present in
water that has been in contact with deposits containing sulfates and
chlorides of magnesium.
Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP)
DOI : http://doi.org/10.26480/esp.01.2019.23.28
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF OPTIMUM WATER SOFTENER
Ahmed Sharjeel*, Shafiq Anwar, Abdul Nasir, Haroon Rashid
Department of Structures and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author Email: ahmed.sharjeel@hotmail.com
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN: 2521-2893 (Print)
ISSN: 2521-2907 (online)
CODEN: ESPADC
RESEARCH ARTICLE
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Cite The Ar ticle: Ah med Sharje el, Shafi q Anwar, Abdul Nasir, H aroon Ras hid (2019 ). Design, Develop ment And P erforma nce Of Opt imum Wate r Softene r.
Earth Sciences Pakistan
, 3(1 ): 23-28.
Magnesium with similar action of calcium creates the property of hardness
to water. Basically, the water hardness was considered as the measure of
capacity of water to precipitate soap. But after recent practices the sum of
calcium and magnesium concentration is now considered as the total
hardness.
Water is considered as hard when the presence of calcium and magnesium
concentration is above permissible limit. According to the United States
Geological Survey the classification of hard water is given as the
concentration between 0-60 mg/l is considered as soft water, moderately
hard range is 61-120 mg/l, hard water range is 121-180 mg/l and
concentration above 180 mg/l is considered as very hard water. The
hardest water which occurs naturally is considered as seawater because it
contains different salts. The seawater hardness concentration is
considered as 6630 mg/l while of fresh water is ranging from 15-375 mg/l
[9].
Variety of problems caused by the presence of certain metal ions like
calcium and magnesium primarily as bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates
in water [10]. Promotion of galvanic corrosion and foul of plumbing is
occur due to buildup of lime scale which is due to hard water. From
regeneration process in industrial scale water softening plants, the
discharge flow can precipitate scale that can interfere with sewage
systems [11]. While using soap a slippery feeling is experienced with soft
water that happens because soaps incline to bind to fats in the surface
layers of skin, creating soap molecules difficult to remove by simple
dilution. On the other hand, in hard-water areas insoluble salts formed due
to presence of calcium or magnesium ions, which commendably removing
the residual soap from the skin but possibly leaving a coating of insoluble
stearates on tub and shower surfaces, which is called soap scum [12].
From person to person these effects is identified more or less necessary,
addition of chemicals like baking soda, calcium chloride or magnesium
sulphate taken place for those who dislike the sliminess and difficulty of
washing off soap caused by soft water may harden the water [13].
Hard water also causes formation of scale inside boiler and its pipeline.
Boilers generate steam in industries which tend to be very expensive. Hard
water reduces heat efficiency and lifetime if used in boilers. Sometimes it
causes serious accident like explosion of boilers. It changes the shade of
fabrics in dyeing. Hard water make soap insoluble and re decompose dust
of clothes during washing and make them yellowish. Hard water found
sometime incompatible with finishing chemicals. Hard water also
decomposes bleaching agents.
Therefore, water treatment plant is very necessary to soft hard water, to
make water suitable for different necessities. The treatment of water to
make it soft is known as water softening. Water softening also improves
the quality of water to use it for different specific purposes. There are
many processes to make water soft, such as ion-exchange method, soda
lime process, demineralization but ion-exchange method is most widely
used process for water softening. Water softening method is based on the
removal of metal ions present in water. Therefore, we have to make best
treatment plant depending on cost, duration of operation, durability,
capacity and overall efficiency.
The basic procedure for the ion exchange method is the use of resin in
which the hardness ions most probably Ca2+ and Mg2+ are exchanged
with sodium ions [14]. The hardness is reduced by ion exchange devices
by replacing calcium and magnesium with sodium and potassium ions
[15]. The divalent cation (Ca++) bind more intensely than monovalent
cation (Na+) with ion exchange resin which are organic polymer
containing anionic functional group. Zeolites are inorganic materials
which can be used to exhibit ion exchange properties. In laundry
detergents these minerals are used widely. Resins are also used to remove
carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate ions which are captivated, and hydroxide
ion released from the resin.
A solution of sodium chloride or sodium hydroxide depending upon the
type of resin is used to recharge by eluting the calcium Ca2+ and
magnesium Mg2+ ion when all the available Na+ ion have been replaced
by calcium and magnesium ions [16].
2. MATERIAL AND METHOD
This study was conducted to develop and fabricate an optimum water
softener plant. It was an effort to manufacture an appropriate water
softener which can be used easily, effectively and properly to eradicate the
hard water impacts on human health and environment at domestic and
other relevant places. Hard water has become a critical issue in our daily
water use. As we discussed hard water causing lot of problems at home
with our utensils, cloths, plumbing with our skin, hairs and effects our
body internally as well. Hard water also has various hazardous impacts on
industry as well.
2.1 Design and development of water softener
For the development of water softener, it was firstly designed on AutoCAD
with consideration of all-important designing factors. It was considered to
make such a design which is compatible and occupy less space in domestic
use and utilize already exist important components at home. A brief
description of the major parts comprising the softener is given below:
The main component of the softener is a skid which is made up of mild
steel square pipe of 1.905 cm (0.75 inch) size. The length of skid is 135 cm
and its height are 112 cm. The skid is used for the occupation of all main
components of the softener. A media vessel of 10"×54" size which is a poly
glass vessel, inner shell is made up of polyethylene with threaded inlet the
height of vessel is 139.2 cm and its capacity is 62 liters. Two polypropylene
filters of 5 microns are used with housings which are installed before and
after the ion exchange process. A tank of 500 liters capacity is placed
before the plant to feed raw water to the softener. A feed pump of 0.5 HP
is installed to pump the raw water from 500 liters tank. There is also a
recharge tank of 80 liters capacity which is used for the solution of
regeneration of ion exchange resins.
Figure 1: An isometric view of water softener
1. Media vessel with multiport valve
2. Recharge tank
3. Raw water tank
4. Pump
5. PPF filter
6. Electric panel
7. Flow meter & pressure gauge
2.2 Determination of Physio-chemical parameters
Water samples were analyzed for various physio-chemical parameters. pH
was determined by using pH meter while EC and TDS by HANNA HI 99300
meter directly [17]. Hardness was determined by titration method while
DO was determined by using OHAUS starter 300d DO meter.
Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP) 3 (1) (2019) 23-28
Cite The Ar ticle: Ah med Sharje el, Shafi q Anwar, Abdul Nasir, H aroon Ras hid (2019 ). Design, Develop ment And P erforma nce Of Opt imum Wate r Softene r.
Earth Sciences Pakistan
, 3(1 ): 23-28.
In a 50 ml water sample added 1 ml ammonia buffer solution then added
5 drops of Erichrome Black T as an indicator, wine red color appeared by
adding indicator. Then titrated it against 0.01M EDTA solution until the
color changed into purple. The used volume of EDTA from the burette was
multiplied by 20 which gave the amount of total hardness in milligram per
liter.
2.3 Water Softening
Water softening is done by the process of ion exchange method; in which
ion exchange resins are used. These resins are small plastic beads which
are composed of organic polymer chains that have positive or negative
charged functional group. Cation exchange and anion exchange are two
types of resin beads which have negative and positive functional group
respectively. We have used cation exchange resins for water softening.
During this operation the raw water is passed through the resin media in
the vessel. The calcium (Ca++) and magnesium (Mg++) ions in water
exchanged with sodium (Na+) ions which are provisionally stored in resin
beads.
2.3 Regenerating ion exchange resin beads
Ultimately the removal capacity of ion exchange resin becomes exhausted
therefore resins need to be regenerated. This all operation of regeneration
and softening is controlled by multi-functional flow control valve. The
process of regeneration has several steps and it is beginning with
backwashing of the resins. This rapid backwash does not regenerate ion
exchange resins and it only gives a physical cleaning of the outside of the
media, this can be done in 5-10 minutes. The next step is called
regeneration in which a brine solution of sodium chloride is formed in 80-
liter recharge tank and then it is passed through the vessel of resin beads.
The sodium from the brine solution invades the resin pores and displaces
with Calcium and magnesium ion contaminants and recharge the resin
beads after 30 minutes. In the next 5-10 minutes the brine solution refills
the recharge tank from the vessel. In next step the influent water is
allowed rinse fast through the vessel that settles the medium and refresh
the ion exchange resin beads. After that the filtration starts normally and
hard water passed through the media vessel and filtered out as soft water.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
An optimum water softening plant is developed for domestic purpose to
overcome the different effect of hard water on human being and
environment. The performance of water softener is tested by considering
different water quality parameters, such as hardness, total dissolved
solids, pH, electric conductivity and dissolved oxygen. According to our
research study the main parameter of the research is water hardness.
Therefore, the plant is developed on considering mainly the factor of
hardness. The parameters were tested by different giving conditions first
of all the efficiency of the system were tested using 15 liter resins then it
was recharged for two times and then resins were replaced and used 25
liters, the analysis of each parameter has been discussed below:
3.1 Total Hardness
The hardness of feed water sample was 422 mg/l; in first situation the feed
water was passed through 15 liters of ion exchange resin. It shows that
10000 liters of water passed through that resin media to reach its highest
value of hardness i.e. 422 mg/l. In start the result shown that the hardness
was reduced to 0 mg/l (Fig. 2). Then it was recharged for the first time and
8500 liters of water passed through the media to reach its highest value of
hardness. The second recharging of resin was taking place after that it also
passed 8500 liters of water to get to its highest value. After two
recharging’s the resin was changed and its quantity also increased to 25
liters, then hardness gets to its highest value of 422 mg/l after passing
19500 liters of water as shown in following figure.
Figure 2: Results of Total Hardness
3.2 Total Dissolved Solids
In water softening plants TDS of feed water was 870 mg/l after passing
through the system it was increased firstly due to backwash and gravels
bed because it could have some contaminations. After passing sample
water regularly, the TDS was decreased gradually.
In first trial the TDS was increased up to 1010 mg/l then it decreases to
885 mg/l with passage of sample water gradually. In second trial TDS was
increased up to 1260 mg/l then it decreases to 890 mg/l after passage of
8500 liters water. Then in third and fourth trial the trend was the same
and it reaches to 1470 mg/l to 916 mg/l and 970 mg/l to 892 mg/l
respectively. The pattern has been shown in Figure 3 as given below.
Figure 3: Results of Total Dissolved Solids
Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP) 3(1) (2019) 23-28
Cite The Ar ticle:
Ahmed Sharjee l, Shafiq Anwar, Ab dul Nasi r, Haroon Rashid (2019).
Design , Develop ment And Perform ance Of Op timum Wa ter Soften er.
Eart h Scienc es Pakist an
, 3(1): 23-28 .
3.3 Electrical Conductivity
EC of the water in first trial was ranging from 1830 to 1620 μs/cm. While
the feed water EC was 1645 μs/cm. In the beginning the value of EC was
increased up to 1830 μs/cm due to fresh gravels in the vessel which may
have some mineral particles that can increase the conductivity. Then after
passing more water and flushing off that minerals reduces the
conductivity of water. In second trial the range of EC was 2301 to 1610
μs/cm. In this trial the value of EC increased even more as compared to
first trial. This was happened due to solution of sodium chloride which was
added during the process of regeneration. That increases the conductivity
so much. Then after passing the water sample from poly propylene filters
and ion exchange resin the value of electrical conductivity reduces to 1610
μs/cm.
In third trial EC of water was ranging from 2672 to 1578 μs/cm. Similarly,
the reason was same as the process of regeneration of media resins was
done again in this test. When the value of hardness reached again to
original value of sample water at 420 mg/l after passing 8500 liters of
sample water and after two times regeneration of resin beads it was then
decided to change resin and also increased the quantity upto 25 liters to
test the efficiency of ion exchange resins. In this trial the tendency of the
system increased, and 19500 liters sample water passes through to reach
through the original value of hardness. Therefore, the conductivity of
water in this trial ranges from 1746 to 1642 μs/cm. As the new bed of resin
was installed in this trial and no regeneration was took placed so
conductivity was not increased as much relative to initial trials. So, the
trend of electrical conductivity was decreasing in this water softener.
Summary of electrical conductivity is shown in figure 4.
Figure 4: Results of Electrical Conductivity
3.4 pH
In this study as we have four different trials in first trial when 15 liters
resins were used the pH of the water was ranging from 6.6 to 6.9. The pH
of sample water was 6.9. In second trial it was recharged for the first time
and pH was increased up to 7.2 but the range was between 6.6 and 7.2.
Then it was recharged again for the second time in third trial. The pH of
the water was ranged from 6.6 to 6.9. In fourth trial it was decided to
change and increase the quantity of resin up to 25 liters the value of pH
from that test was ranging from 6.5 to 6.8 and by this test it was observed
that more sample water was passed through the plant to reach through its
original value of hardness. In this trial 19500 liters of water was passed to
get to the value of 420mg/l of hardness and pH was between 6.5 and 6.8.
The pH was in low range as the more quantity of resins were used in this
test and they were also fresh. But in whole experiment it was observed
that the pH of water sample through plant was fluctuating randomly but it
was remaining in a specific range. The pH of feed water was 6.9 and by
passing through plant it was observed between 6.6 and 7.2. Following
graph shows the pattern of pH (Figure 5).
Figure 5: Results of pH
3.5 Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolved Oxygen of feed water was 1.74 and in water softening plant it
was increased gradually. In first trial 10000 liters of water passed through
and DO was ranging from 1.62 to 2.05 mg/l. In the beginning of the
experiment DO was decreased but after passing more water it increased
gradually. In second trial when first recharge of resins was taking place
8500 liters water was passed through it and DO observed was increased
upto 1.92 mg/l but it was ranging from 0.81 to 1.92 mg/l. After second
recharge in third trial DO range were observed from 1.06 to 1.69 mg/l.
Then after that resins were changed and increased the quantity from 15 to
25 liters which gives the value of DO from 0.88 to 2.09 mg/l. In this test it
was observed that DO was increased bit more than initial trials as there
were more quantity of water passed through due to increase in efficiency
of the system. There were 19500 liters of water passed to reach the
original value of hardness. So, the trend observed of DO in this experiment
was increasing with increasing discharge of water sample from the water
softener (Fig. 6).
Figure 6: Results of Dissolved Oxygen
3.6 Automation of Water Softener
In this study the main objective was to make an optimum model of water
softener. Therefore, it was designed accordingly, and different test and
experiments were taken place to make different analysis. After completing
all the experiments and observing all the results of the plant it was decided
to make this system automatic which can give required results and run
automatically.
Therefore, it was decided to change the manual valve of softening plant
and installed an automatic valve for smooth running and to acquire
necessary results. After installing new valve more experiments were
performed for the adjustment of the valve.
It was decided to set a constant value of hardness taken from the system.
According to given standard limits and specific requirement of the soft
water it was decided to set the value of hardness around 100 mg/l. Then
experiment was performed again, and results are given below:
Earth Sciences Pakistan (ESP) 3 (1) (2019) 23-28
Cite The Ar ticle: Ah med Sharje el, Shafi q Anwar, Abdul Nasir, H aroon Ras hid (2019 ). Design, Develop ment And P erforma nce Of Opt imum Wate r Softene r.
Earth Sciences Pakistan
, 3(1 ): 23-28.
Table 1: Hardness value for Automatic Valve settings
According to the given results it has been observed that there were three
times recharging of ion exchange resins were occurred. In first recharge it
has been seen that the volume of 7000 liters of water passed through the
plant to get to the value of 104 mg/l which was around 100 mg/l as we set
that earlier. Then it was recharged again, this time 6000 liters of sample
water passed through the plant and we get 120 mg/l, final value of
hardness. In third regeneration or recharging of the ion exchange resins
6500 liters of water passed through and the last value of hardness was 106
mg/l. So as an average 6500 liters of water passed through plant to get to
the value of 100 mg/l hardness.
In automatic valve there was setting of recharging with respect to time.
Therefore, it was estimated that for domestic purpose the average daily
consumption of water stands around 1000 liters for six persons so timing
of recharging of the water softener is set after 5 days. The timing of
regeneration set for 30 minutes, for backwashing, brine refill and fast rinse
5 minutes time set for each process. These all processes of recharging will
be done automatically according to the given schedule.
Figure 7: Multi-Functional Flow Control Valve for Water Treatment
Example of Cost Analysis of Water Softener:
Average consumption of water per capita per day = 80 gallons [18,19].
Average consumption for 6 persons per day = 480 gallons
Average consumption for 6 persons per month = 480×30 = 14400 gallons
Rate of WASA water supply per thousand gallons per month = 40 PKR
(WASA, 2006)
So,
Rate of 1 gallon per month = 0.04 PKR
Bill for 6 persons per month = 14400×0.04 = 576 PKR
Now, operational cost of water softener; it required PPF filters to be
changed after every four months. So,
Cost of one PPF filter = 250 PKR
Cost of two PPF filter = 250×2 = 500 PKR
Cost of PPF filters per month = 500/4 = 125 PKR
Graphical representation of cost analysis of water softener is given as
under:
Figure 8: Cost Analysis (Break Even Point)
The above graph shows break-even point of the water softener plant. In
this graph time with monthly duration is on x-axis and cost in PKR is on y-
axis. This graph represent fixed cost of the plant is 40000 PKR. The break-
even point of the plant is at 89’s month and at the cost of 51000 PKR. So,
after 89 months or 7.41 years the plant working will be on profit on the
basis of cost.
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Cite The Ar ticle: Ah med Sharje el, Shafi q Anwar, Abdul Nasir, H aroon Ras hid (2019 ). Design, Develop ment And P erforma nce Of Opt imum Wate r Softene r.
Earth Sciences Pakistan
, 3(1 ): 23-28.
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0for%20Water%20&%20Sanitation%20Agency.pdf
... Water is universally used as a major resource in production in a wide range of industries. However, it sometimes contains impurities, such as microorganisms, sediments, dissolved salts, dissolved gases, suspended solids, odor, metal ions, etc. that can be dangerous or reduce its capacity to perform a certain function [1]. Among these impurities, the amount of magnesium and calcium contained in the water is our main concern as it affects water's performance and functions in many ways. ...
... It was then titrated with EDTA until the burgundy solution turned light blue. The volume (V) of EDTA used was noted, and the concentration (M) of the ion was determined using equation (1). ...
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A high concentration of calcium ions in water is a problem as it can cause blockages in engine pipes. Adsorption is a relatively cheap and straightforward method that can be used to reduce the calcium ion content in water. Kaolin is a mineral that has a potential as an adsorbent and whose adsorption capacity can be increased by activation. This research studied the adsorption capacity of activated kaolin by hydrochloric acid against Ca ²⁺ ions. Kaolin was chemically activated using 6 M HCl solution for 24 hours. The adsorption contact time in batches was varied with time variations of 30, 90, 150, and 180 minutes. The maximum adsorption capacity of activated kaolin to the Ca ²⁺ was determined by varying the initial concentrations of water samples, namely 4, 7, 10, and 13 mg/L. The concentration of Ca ²⁺ was determined by a titration method using ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA). The results showed that the activation of kaolin with 6 M HCl at the optimum contact time of adsorption, namely 150 minutes, increased the percentage of adsorbed Ca ions to 2 times of that of natural kaolin, from 33.3% to 68.3%. Based on the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity of calcium ions by activated kaolin HCl 6 M increased 1.7 times from natural kaolin to 0.346 mg/g.
... Such that, higher flow rates are needed to perfectly soften the overly hard water. Moreover, once the saturation level is attained in the softener, three staged regeneration is performed using brine solution that is backwash-recharge-rinse [28]. ...
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The pharmaceutical industry is a highly water-reliant sector that consumes a high amount of raw water and energy in its production processes to meet rising healthcare demands and achieve environmental standards. This paper presents an empirical investigation through a linear process analysis of a pilot water treatment plant employed in the manufacturing of medicines. In the paper, key ICTs involving sensor applications at subsequent treatment stages have been discussed. In particular, volumetric flowrate across successive filtration methods, and a semipermeable RO membrane operation have been mathematically modeled for process analysis and optimization. The results of the study reveal that the performance and durability of the RO treatment section are chiefly determined by the robust pretreatment organic filtration methods, where the main operational parameters such as volumetric flow rate, solute concentrations, and change in pressures across RO unit have been instrumental in the optimization of plant performance and act as a driving force in enhancing system efficiency.KeywordsPilot studyWater treatment plantProcess analysisSensor applicationsControlled operationMathematical modeling
... Water hardness then is referring to the presence of calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ) and its companion anion, such as sulphate ions (SO4 2-) in water stream [15,16]. Water softening is a recognized technology in separation of multivalent ion from various water streams. ...
Chapter
Various organic and synthetic polymers are important materials for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater and the separation of gases. The book discusses various types of membranes for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, forward osmosis etc. A number of nanomaterials are available for the modification of polymeric membranes.
... In fact, the wavelet analysis hyper-parameter adjustment process is also a parameter optimization process. The combustion optimization based on wavelet and optimization technology is an effective way to reduce NOx emissions of boilers (Liu and Niu, 2015;Sharjeel et al., 2019). ...
Article
In order to reduce the emission of ecological environment and the pollution of ecological environments and improve the sustainable development of ecological economy, so an improved model of the wavelet (War) based on the improved gravity optimization algorithm (IGSA) is proposed (IGSA-War). The method uses an improved gravitational algorithm to optimize the wavelet, establish an optimization model, and predict the different NOx emissions of coal-fired boilers. Firstly, the grid algorithm is used to initialize the population, and the particle is updated based on the fitness value adaptive decrements inertia weight. Numerical simulation results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm (López-Hernández, 2018). Then the IGSA is used to optimize the selected hyper-parameters to improve the prediction accuracy and generalization ability of the model; the wavelet model optimizes the noisy emission data to reduce the impact of noise on the system. Finally, taking the discharge of 330 MW coal-fired boiler in a thermal power plant as the research object, the NOx soft measurement model of IGSA-War is established. The simulation results show that the optimization model has high prediction accuracy and generalization ability, and can effectively measure NOx emissions.
... Soil water repellency is mainly caused by organic hydrophobic matter which originated from plants, external disturbance, and microbial activities, resulting soil hard to be wetted or wet soil difficult to be wetted again after drying. It is pervasive and prevalent to evaluate SWR by Bisdom classification (1993) (Bisdom et al., 1993;Sunny et al., 2018), using water drop penetration time (WDPT): wettable soil (<5 s), good for wettability; slightly water repellent (5-60 s), decreasing water holding capacity (Doerr et al., 2000;Hossain et al., 2019); strongly water repellent (60-600 s), resulting uneven water infiltration and potential risk to groundwater polluted (Bogner et al., 2008;Ali et al., 2018); severely water repellent (600-3600 s), and extremely water repellent (>3600 s), causing severe soil erosion, environmental damage, and economic loss (Craswell and Lefroy, 2001;Sharjeel et al., 2019). ...
... An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which is connected to the open sea, extending to a river to the limit of tidal influence, and within which sea water is diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage (Cameron et al., 1963;Van Maren et al., 2016Dalrymple et al., 1992;Dai et al., 2013Dai et al., , 20122011a;Rahim et al., 2018). The estuary acts as a filter between the land and the ocean (Dai et al., 2011b), and sediment traps, retaining a proportion of their river and marine borne sediment load in the intertidal zone ( Dellwig et al., 2000;Sharjeel et al., 2019). ...
Article
Lingdingyang (LDY) is an important navigation waterway for the Pearl River delta (PRD), and an important passage for fresh water and sediments entering the sea. The data and hydrological information, including SSC, current, water level, and bed sediment was collected on July 6-7, 2005 to analyze its characteristics, and sediment transport. The data was entered into a hydrodynamic simulation model used to characterize the processes of sedimentation and morphological evolution of the Pearl River estuary (PRE). LDY was divided into three sub-areas dominated by (1) west shoal area, (2) jet flow area, and (3) saline water area. Navigation engineering and other human activities result in an increase of deposition rate. These characteristics can be greatly accelerated by human activities. Field data and model results indicate that the front system, composed of the shear front and tide incursion front, has an important impact on sedimentation.
Chapter
The paper presents the fabrication and characterization of thin-film sensors for gas-sensing applications. The use of nanomaterials to detect gases at low concentrations have been very effective due to their low cost, easy customization, high stability and repeatability of the responses. Carbon nanotubes, due to their exceptional electromechanical characteristics, were used as a dopant to mix with tin-oxide to form the resultant nanocomposites. Tin-oxide was synthesized using stannous chloride as the precursor material via hydrothermal method. An optimization process in terms of electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility dictated the quantity of nano-fillers in the composites. The resultant thin-films were used to detect low-concentrations (1–10 ppm) of methane gas. The characterization of these sensors were studied using COMSOL simulations and other techniques like X-Ray Diffraction. The results displayed here validates the potentiality of the CNTs/SnO2-based sensors for real-time gas-sensing applications.
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Laundering is a complex process, and detergents have changed considerably over the last 20 years. The research reported will be of benefit to both Extension educators and teachers in advising people with whom they work on choices between different types of laundry detergents when it comes to laundering. Liquid detergents washed equally well in both soft and hard water. Powdered detergents were better than liquids in soft water. Water hardness affected powdered detergents, and, depending on the detergent type, 10-15% to > 30% extra detergent was needed to obtain a result similar to that of soft water.
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Analysis of water, plankton, fish and sediment reveals that the Cauvery River water in the downstream is contaminated by certain heavy metals. Water samples have high carbonate hardness. Concentrations of all elements and ions increase in the downstream. Main ions are in the following order: Na > HCO3 >Mg > K > Ca> Cl > SO4. Heavy metal concentration in water was Cr >Cu ≈ Mn > Co > Ni > Pb > Zn, in fish muscles Cr > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb ≈ Zn, in phytoplanktens Co > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr and in the sediments the heavy metal concentration was Co > Cr > Ni ≈ Cu > Mn > Zn > Pb. Although, the quality of Cauvery River may be classified as very good based on the salt and sodium for irrigation, Zn, Pb and Cr concentration exceeded the upper limit of standards. Metal concentrations in the downstream indicate an increase in the pollution load due to movement of fertilizers, agricultural ashes, industrial effluents and anthropogenic wastes. An immediate attention from the concerned authorities is required in order to protect the river from further pollution.
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A novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite cation-exchanger has been synthesized via sol-gel method. It was characterized on the basis of FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM and Raman studies. The structural studies reveal semi-crystalline nature of the material with the particle size ranging from 1-5 nm. Physiochemical properties such as ion-exchange capacity, chemical and thermal stability of composite material have also been determined. Bifunctional behavior of the material has been indicated by its pH titrations curves. The nanocomposite material exhibits improved thermal stability, higher ion-exchange capacity and better selectivity for toxic heavy metals. The ion-exchange material shows an ion-exchange capacity of 1.8 meq g(-1) for Na(+) ions. Sorption behavior of metal ions on the material was studied in different solvents. The cation exchanger was found to be selective for Pb(II), Hg(II) and Zr(IV) ions. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for Pb(II) ion was found to be 0.85 and 2.85 μg L(-1). Analytically important separations of heavy metal ions in synthetic mixtures as well as industrial effluents and natural water were achieved with the exchanger. The practical utility of polyanilineZr(IV)sulphosalicylate cation exchanger has been established for the analysis and recovery of heavy metal ions in environmental samples.
Article
As an adsorbent coating of surfactants, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) modified bentonite (SMB) has been developed for the removal of Ca2 + and Mg2 + ions from hard water. The adsorbent was characterized using SEM-EDX, Zeta-meter and FTIR analyses. It has the potential to replace expensive conventional softening treatment techniques as well as reduce the usage of excess chemicals (chemical precipitation). Hard water can be easily treated using SMB by applying the adsorbent coating to the treatment area. Testing of adsorbent was carried out in terms of effect of surfactant ratio, effect of different types of binder as well as binder ratio. The best formulation of SMB was achieved by using polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and bentonite in the ratio of 0.75:1.0 (w/w). Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were tested to describe the optimum adsorption of Ca2 + and Mg2 + ions on SMB adsorbent coating. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also examined for the adsorption of metal ions at different temperatures. SMB demonstrated the highest metal (Ca2 + and Mg2 +) removal efficiency (29.27 mg g− 1) in 90 min from 120 mg L− 1 hardness. On the basis of good removal capacity for Ca2 + and Mg2 + ions, SMB can be effectively used for treatment of metal ions in industrial wastewater, as well as softening of hard water.
Article
Because of its extremely low concentrations and strong resistance to most treatment technologies, perchlorate has become one of the biggest challenges currently being faced by the drinking water industry. Although significant research has been performed to evaluate different treatment technologies for perchlorate removal from drinking water, there has not been a holistic review performed recently. A complete and critical review on the intriguing contaminant ‘perchlorate’ is presented. The sources of perchlorate along with the degree of contamination are discussed. The policy aspects including the regulation and toxicity in addition to the most recent developments in perchlorate analysis are also considered. The applicable treatment technologies including their feasibility are discussed in detail. Although some technologies such as microbial reduction and ion-exchange have become more established than the others, there is still not a single technology that can be directly applied to a drinking water treatment system for compete removal of perchlorate. Although significant research is still being conducted to come up with a novel technology for perchlorate remediation, it is highly likely that it would not be a single novice or conventional technology but a combination of these technologies that would have to be employed to overcome this challenge.
Problems and Solutions for Hard Water Buildup
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