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Abstract

Relatively few studies have investigated the nature and incidence of paranormal experience. Extending the work of Castro et al. (2014), this study investigated the prevalence of subjective paranormal experiences (SPEs) and examined relationships between SPEs and anomalous beliefs (paranormal, urban legends and conspiracism). The sample comprised 1215 adults, aged 16-70 years drawn predominantly from a UK University. Data analysis revealed important findings. Forty-two percent of respondents reported an SPE and incidence of multiple experiences was common within experiencers. Despite minor gender differences, across experience types, SPE incidence was largely unaffected by gender. Finally, SPEs correlated positively with belief in the paranormal and anomalous beliefs
4
PARANTHROPOLOGY
Vol. 7 No. 1
Paranormal Experience, Belief in the
Paranormal and Anomalous Beliefs
By Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker & Peter Clough
Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University
Abstract
Relatively few studies have investigated the nature and incidence of paranormal experience. Extending the work of Castro et al.
(2014), this study investigated the prevalence of subjective paranormal experiences (SPEs) and examined relationships between
SPEs and anomalous beliefs (paranormal, urban legends and conspiracism). The sample comprised 1215 adults, aged 16-70 years
drawn predominantly from a UK University. Data analysis revealed important findings. Forty-two percent of respondents reported
an SPE and incidence of multiple experiences was common within experiencers. Despite minor gender differences, across
experience types, SPE incidence was largely unaffected by gender. Finally, SPEs correlated positively with belief in the paranormal
and anomalous beliefs.
Keywords: Sociology of the Paranormal, Subjective Paranormal
Experienc es,
Anomalous
Experienc es,
Multiple
Experienc es,
Anomalous beliefs, Parapsychology.
Introduction
This
paper
r
e
por
t
s
the
r
e
s
ul
t
s
of a 2015
s
ur
v
e
y
(
UK
Un
iv
e
r
s
it
y
ba
s
e
d
s
a
mpl
e
)
,
which in
v
e
s
t
ig
a
t
e
d
prevalence
of
su
b
j
e
ct
i
v
e
p
a
r
a
no
r
mal
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
nce
s
(
S
P
E
s)
.
Noti ng
inextricable
l
in
k
s
between perceived paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
and belief in
the paranormal
(see
D
r
in
k
w
a
t
e
r
,
Dagnall
&
Bate, 2013) the
s
ur
v
e
y
a
l
s
o
examined
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
h
ips
be
t
w
ee
n
SPEs,
belief in
the
paranormal and
potentially
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
anomalous
be
l
ie
fs
(
ur
ba
n
l
e
g
e
n
ds
and
c
on
s
pir
ac
is
m
)
.
From a
s
oc
iol
og
ic
a
l
pe
r
s
pec
t
iv
e
,
it
is
important to
n
ot
e
that
s
e
l
f-
r
e
por
t
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
of paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
index
only
pe
r
cipie
nt
s
willin gne
ss
to
a
tt
rib
ut
e
paranormal
ca usation,
rather than the
manifestatio n
of actual
s
upe
r
n
a
t
ur
a
l
phenomena
(
Gl
ic
k
s
oh
n
,
1990).
Typically,
w
h
e
n
in
div
idua
l
s
r
e
por
t
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
acc
oun
t
s
c
on
fl
a
t
e
two
oc
c
ur
r
e
n
c
e
s
,
the observation
of an
inexplicable
incident
and
t
h
e
ir
in
t
e
r
pr
e
t
a
t
ion
of
the event
as
paranormal
(
Ir
w
in
,
Dagnall,
&
D
r
in
k
w
a
t
e
r
,
2013). This dichotomy builds
on
the
work
of
Cardeña,
Lynn
and
K
r
ippn
e
r
(2000), who de
l
in
e
a
t
e
d
unusual
e
xpe
rie
nce
s
as
e
ncount
e
r
s
,
experienced
by a
s
ubs
t
a
n
t
ia
l
proportion of
the
population that
deviate
from
accepted
e
xpl
a
n
a
t
ion
s
of
r
e
a
lit
y
.
In
this context, phenomenological in
t
e
r
pr
e
t
a
t
ion
,
v
ia
r
e
fl
e
c
t
ion
/in
t
r
os
pec
t
ion
,
pl
a
y
s
a central role
in
the labelling
of
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
(
s
)
(
S
m
it
h
ie
s
&
Stoljar, 2012). Sociological fa
c
t
or
s
,
s
uc
h
as
s
oc
ia
l
acceptability, gender and age
a
r
e
pivotal
to
t
h
is
p
r
o
c
e
ss
b
e
ca
u
s
e
the accepta bility
and
frequency
of
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
generally,
a
r
e
likely
to infl
ue
n
c
e
elucidation
and
the in
div
idua
l
s
w
il
l
in
g
n
e
ss
to label and
r
e
por
t
pe
r
s
on
a
l
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
(
M
a
r
k
o
v
s
ky
,
2008;
Northcote, 2013;
Truzzi,
1971; Woods
& Woffitt, 2014).
Within
the
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
s
t
ud
y
,
the
t
e
r
m
SPE
d
e
n
o
t
e
s
s
pec
ifi
ca
ll
y
an in
div
idua
l
s
conviction
that
they have
had a
‘paranormal’
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
(
Ne
ppe,
1983). SPE
w
a
s
pr
e
fe
rr
e
d
over other
de
m
a
r
ca
t
ion
s
because
it
e
n
ca
ps
ul
a
t
e
s
the
pe
r
s
on
a
l
,
interpretative nature
of paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
In
t
h
is
context, SPEs
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
exceptional
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
beyond the
c
o
m
p
r
e
h
e
n
s
i
o
n
of
conventional
s
c
i
e
n
c
e
,
a
tt
r
i
bu
t
e
d
to
paranormal
phenomena
(
Ne
ppe,
1990).
Pertinently,
Ir
w
in
demarcated the
paranormal
as,
a
ppa
r
e
n
t
a
n
om
a
l
ie
s
of
behavior and
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
that
exist
apart from
c
ur
r
e
n
t
l
y
known explanatory
m
e
c
h
a
n
is
m
s
that
account
for
or
ga
n
is
m
environment
and
o
r
ga
n
i
s
m
o
r
ga
n
i
s
m
information and
influence
fl
o
w
(
Ir
w
in
,
1999: 1). Particularly,
an
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
is
paranormal if
i
t
s
ca
u
s
a
t
i
o
n
r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
a
n
o
n
-
s
c
i
e
n
t
i
fi
c
,
c
om
m
on-
s
e
n
s
e
explanation:
a clarification not
e
m
pir
ic
a
ll
y
a
tt
e
s
t
e
d
to
the
s
a
t
is
fa
c
t
ion
of
the
s
c
ie
n
tifi
c
e
s
t
a
b
l
is
hm
e
n
t
(
Ir
w
in
,
2009).
S
ur
v
e
y
s
r
e
por
t
that
SPEs
a
r
e
relatively common,
a fact
that,
de
fi
n
e
s
them
as
an
e
ss
e
n
t
ia
l
part of
human
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
(
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al., 2014;
S
c
hm
ie
d-
K
n
it
t
e
l
&
S
c
h
e
t
s
c
h
e
,
2005).
Because
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
a
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
minority of
the
population,
it
is
fair to
s
a
y
,
from a
s
oc
ia
l
pe
r
s
pec
t
iv
e
,
that
SPEs
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
relatively
common atypical
oc
c
ur
r
e
n
c
e
s
.
Expe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
viewed as
exceptional
by
s
c
ie
n
c
e
a
r
e
for many
people
an
integral
part of
the everyday
world
(
S
c
hm
ie
d-
K
n
it
t
e
l
&
S
c
h
e
t
s
c
h
e
,
2005).
This
view
c
on
c
ur
s
with
the
s
e
m
in
a
l
work of
Greeley
(1975),
which
evinced
that
the
majority
of
the population claim
to
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
a
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
occurrence and
a
s
ubs
t
a
n
t
ia
l
minority of
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
r
e
por
t
more
than an
oc
ca
s
ion
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
.
Hence,
s
ocie
t
a
ll
y
,
S
P
Es
a
r
e
important
because
of
t
h
e
ir
prevalence,
pe
r
s
is
t
e
n
c
e
and
affect upon
the
individual. Within
the literature,
a
uthor
s
often
misleadingly
refer
to paranormal
e
xpe
rie
nce
s
as
anomalous.
T
h
e
t
e
r
m
is inappropriate because
it
t
r
iv
ia
l
is
e
s
pe
r
s
on
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
SPEs
a
r
e
more
than
unusual,
irr
e
g
ul
a
r
and
atypical; they reflect the relatively common
pe
r
c
e
ption
than an individual
h
a
s
had
a
genuine paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
.
D
e
s
pit
e
t
h
e
ir
s
oc
ia
l
importance,
s
e
v
e
r
a
l
fa
c
t
or
s
have
l
im
it
e
d
s
oc
iol
og
ic
a
l
in
t
e
r
e
s
t
in
SPEs (see
C
a
s
t
r
o,
B
ur
r
o
w
s
,
& Wooffitt,
2014). Principally,
a
m
on
g
s
t
t
h
e
s
e
,
lack
of
a
w
a
r
e
n
e
ss
about the
s
oc
ia
l
r
e
l
e
v
a
n
c
e
of
SPEs.
Additionally,
the
paranormal
is
located typically
within
the psychological literature
(cf.
Ir
w
in
,
2009). Particularly work
a
ss
oc
ia
t
e
d
with
individual
dif
fe
r
e
n
c
e
s
and negative psychopathology. Furthermore,
a
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
and
powerful
s
ce
pt
ical
movement tends
to
discredit
work
corroborating the
existence
of
paranormal ph
e
n
om
e
n
a
.
Noting
t
h
e
s
e
fa
c
t
or
s
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(2014)
performed the
fi
r
s
t
s
y
s
t
e
m
a
t
ic
s
oc
iol
og
ic
a
l
c
on
s
ide
r
a
t
ion
of
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
in
contemporary
Britain.
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(
2014)
5
PARANTHROPOLOGY
Vol. 7 No. 1
a
n
a
l
y
s
e
d
data collected
by
Ipso
MORI,
who conducted
fa
c
e
-
to-face in
t
e
r
v
ie
w
s
with
4096
a
dul
t
s
,
aged
16
y
e
a
r
s
and
o
v
e
r
.
Weighting matched the
s
a
mpl
e
to
the profile
of
the
B
r
it
is
h
adult
(
16+
)
population.
Within
the
s
a
mpl
e
,
37%
claimed
at
l
e
a
s
t
one paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
.
In
t
e
r
v
ie
w
s
a
s
k
e
d
about
fi
v
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
t
y
pe
s
and incidence varied: precognition
(
24.1%)
,
ESP
(
12.8%)
,
m
y
s
t
ic
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
(
12.4%)
,
telepathy
and
ADC
(
10.4
%).
Expe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
reported
mul
t
ipl
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
:
17.5% reported one type, 10% two, 5.1% three,
3% four and
1.3%
five
(
a
ll
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(2014).
T
h
e
finding
that
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
often
r
e
por
t
mul
t
ipl
e
SPEs concurred
with
s
e
v
e
r
a
l
previous
s
t
udie
s
(
H
a
r
a
l
ds
s
on
&
Houtkooper, 1991).
A
s
e
m
in
a
l
example is the
C
h
a
r
l
ot
t
e
s
v
il
l
e
(
Vir
g
in
ia
)
postal
s
ur
v
e
y
(
Pa
l
m
e
r
,
1979). R
e
s
pon
s
e
a
n
a
l
y
s
is
identified
two
g
r
oups
,
re
s
p
o
n
d
e
n
t
s
noting
n
o
/
f
e
w
p
s
i
ex
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
s
,
and
t
h
o
s
e
indicating
mul
t
ipl
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
B
a
s
e
d
on
t
h
e
s
e
fi
ndin
g
s
,
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(2014)
concluded
that
reporting
of
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
is
common within
Great
Britain; a
s
iz
e
a
b
l
e
minority of
British
a
dul
t
s
claim to
have
had at
l
e
a
s
t
on
e
paranormal
experience
and many
e
xpe
rie
nce
r
s
r
e
port
mul
t
ipl
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Additionally,
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(2014) de
s
c
r
ibe
d
fi
ndin
g
s
related
to
key
s
oc
iol
og
ic
a
l
v
a
r
iab
l
e
s
(
g
e
n
de
r
,
age
and
r
e
g
ion
)
.
Women
in
comparison
to
men
w
e
r
e
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
l
y
more
l
ik
e
l
y
to
r
e
por
t
a paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
.
This difference w
a
s
consistent across experience
t
ype
s
and
concurred
with
previous
work
(
Ric
e
,
2003). Regarding age,
s
im
il
a
r
pa
tt
e
r
n
s
e
m
e
r
g
e
d
ac
r
os
s
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
t
y
pe
s
.
T
h
e
r
e
w
a
s
an in
c
r
e
a
s
e
d
likelihood
of
reporting
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
in
the middle age
g
r
oups
(
35-
64
y
e
a
r
s
)
,
with
the exception
of
telepathy,
which
s
h
o
w
e
d
a
s
t
a
t
is
t
ic
a
ll
y
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
in
c
r
e
a
s
e
between 45-74
y
e
a
r
s
.
T
h
e
r
e
w
a
s
a
dec
r
e
a
s
e
d
reporting likelihood
in
older
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
(
75
y
e
a
r
s
and
o
v
e
r
)
and
a
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
dip in
likelihood
in
younger age
groups
(
16-
34
y
e
a
r
s
)
.
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(2014)
found that
c
e
r
t
a
in
age groups
w
e
r
e
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
l
y
more likely
to
r
e
por
t
particular
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
For
example, compared
to
the entire
s
a
mpl
e
(
12.8%)
,
16.1%
of
35-44yr olds
and
16.7%
of
45-54yr
ol
ds
reported
ESP.
In
t
e
r
m
s
of
age groups
l
e
a
s
t
likely
to
r
e
por
t
particular
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
there
w
e
r
e
s
im
il
a
r
pa
tt
e
r
n
s
ac
r
os
s
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Lo
w
e
s
t
l
e
v
e
l
s
of
reporting w
e
r
e
obs
e
r
v
e
d
generally
within
younger
(
16-
24
and
25-34)
and
the
ol
de
s
t
group
(
75y
r
s
and
o
v
e
r
)
.
Pa
r
t
icipa
n
t
s
with
the
g
r
e
a
t
e
s
t
likelihood
of
r
e
por
t
in
g
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
w
e
r
e
those
in
the mid-aged
g
r
oups
.
This
s
uppor
t
e
d
Gr
ee
l
e
y
s
(1975) previous
finding that
pe
opl
e
in
t
h
e
ir
50s reported most
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Region
pr
oduc
e
d
c
on
s
is
t
e
n
t
e
f
fec
t
s
.
Generally, reporting
of
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
w
a
s
h
ig
h
e
s
t
in
the South W
e
s
t
followed
by
the South
Ea
s
t
.
T
h
e
North W
e
s
t
typically produced the
l
o
w
e
s
t
l
e
v
e
l
s
of
r
e
por
t
e
d
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Collectively
c
on
s
ide
r
a
t
ion
of
regional
fi
ndin
g
s
r
e
v
e
a
l
e
d
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
v
a
r
ia
t
ion
s
.
T
h
e
s
e
r
e
s
ul
t
s
a
r
e
difficult to
contextualise because
s
oc
ia
l
phenomena
a
r
e
difficult to quantify. Principally
beca
us
e
occurrence
v
a
r
ie
s
as
a function of
time
and
s
ur
v
e
y
(
c
f
.
Gergen
1973).
Hence, reported incidence
of
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
fl
uc
t
ua
t
e
s
ac
r
os
s
s
t
udie
s
.
In
this context,
C
a
s
t
r
o
e
t
a
l
.
s
(2014)
fi
ndin
g
s
w
e
r
e
c
on
s
is
t
e
n
t
with
academic work
citing
high
l
e
v
e
l
s
of
SPE.
For
example,
Hay and
M
or
is
y
'
s
(
1978)
s
ur
v
e
y
of
exceptional
and
t
r
a
n
s
c
e
n
de
n
t
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
found
that 36 % of
the
UK population
reported
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
phenomena.
S
c
hm
ie
d-
K
n
it
t
e
l
and
S
c
h
e
t
s
c
h
e
(2005)
out
l
in
e
d
s
im
il
a
r
r
e
s
ul
t
s
in a
l
a
r
g
e
-
s
ca
l
e
s
t
ud
y
conducted
in
Ge
r
m
a
n
y
.
This
s
t
ud
y
is pertinent because
of
it
s
r
e
c
e
n
t
n
e
ss
,
s
ca
l
e
and
s
oc
ia
l
orientation.
Schmied-Knittel
and
Schetsche (2005)
s
u
rv
e
y
ed
a
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
a
t
iv
e
s
a
mpl
e
of
1510 people
and
then in
t
e
r
v
ie
w
e
d
220
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
reporting exceptional
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
S
e
v
e
n
t
y
three percent
of
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
experienced
at
l
e
a
s
t
one
of
the
s
e
t
phenomena
(
ES
P
-
dr
e
a
m
s
,
s
t
r
a
n
g
e
coincidence,
c
r
isis
-
ES
P
,
Animal
psi,
apparition, déjà vu, haunting and
Ot
h
e
r
/
Mi sce ll ane ous
e
xt
r
a
or
di na
r
y
e
xpe
r
ie
nce
s)
.
Mu lt
ip l
e
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
s
we re
co mm on .
T
he me an nu mbe r
of
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
w
a
s
2.8, and 25.7% of
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
pe
r
s
on
a
ll
y
experienced
four or
more
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Whilst
the
high
experience figures were
partially
attributable
to
the breadth
of
que
s
t
ion
s
a
s
k
e
d,
c
on
s
ide
r
a
t
ion
of
it
e
m
s
related
to traditional
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
(
ES
P
dream,
apparition,
c
r
isis
-
ES
P
and
h
a
un
t
in
g
)
r
e
v
e
a
l
e
d
that
52% of
the in
t
e
r
v
ie
w
ee
s
experienced
at
l
e
a
s
t
one
of
t
h
e
s
e
extraordinary phenomena.
O
v
e
r
a
ll
,
women reported
mor
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
than
men
did. A
s
age in
c
r
e
a
s
e
d,
the
pe
r
c
e
n
t
ag
e
reporting exceptional
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
dec
r
e
a
s
e
d;
life
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
offered increasing
ordinary
pos
s
ibilit
ie
s
for
e
xplaining
phenomena
(Schmied-Knittel
&
S
c
he
t
s
c
he,
2005). The
S
c
hm
ie
d-
K
n
it
t
e
l
and
S
c
h
e
t
s
c
h
e
(2005)
r
e
por
t
is illustrative
of
the
fact that
s
t
udie
s
,
ac
r
os
s
a
range
of
popul
a
t
ion
s
,
h
a
v
e
d
e
m
o
n
s
t
r
a
t
e
d
the prevalence
of
S
P
E
s
(e.g.
A
m
e
r
i
ca
,
M
c
C
r
e
a
d
y
&
Greeley, 1976;
Latin
American,
M
on
t
a
n
e
ll
i
&
Parra, 2002-2 005; and multicultural,
H
a
r
a
l
d
ss
o
n
&
Houtkooper,
1991).
T
h
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
paper
extended the
work of
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(2014)
by
a
s
k
in
g
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
to
r
e
por
t
on a broad
range
of
paranor mal phenomena.
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.
(2014) focused
on
c
or
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
related
to traditional paranormal
be
l
ie
fs
(
ES
P
and life
after
dea
t
h
)
.
Indeed,
of
the five featured
ca
t
e
g
or
ie
s
,
three related
s
p
e
c
i
fi
ca
ll
y
to
a
s
p
e
c
t
s
of
ESP
(
t
e
l
e
p
a
t
h
y
,
precognition, ESP).
Although
t
he
s
e
are
fundame
nt
al
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
they
fail to
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
the
full
r
a
n
g
e
of
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
(
ps
y
c
h
ok
in
e
s
is
,
witchcraft,
out-of-
body
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
,
haunting,
e
xt
r
a
-
t
e
rr
e
s
t
r
ia
l
s
,
a
s
t
r
ol
og
y
,
e
t
c
.)
delimited
by
Ir
w
in
s
de
fi
n
it
ion
s
(
Ir
w
in
,
1999; 2009).
T
h
e
i
n
c
l
u
s
i
o
n
of additional
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
t
y
p
e
s
f
u
r
t
h
e
r
e
d
s
o
c
i
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l
u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
of
the nature, breadth
and
prevalence
of
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
D
e
l
in
e
a
t
ion
s
used
within
the
pr
e
s
e
n
t
s
t
ud
y
w
e
r
e
precise
and
more
fully
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
e
d
the
range
of
potential paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Additionally,
the current
s
t
ud
y
examined
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
h
ips
between SPEs,
belief in
the
paranormal and
a
n
om
a
l
ous
be
l
ie
fs
(
ur
ba
n
l
e
g
e
n
ds
and
c
on
s
pir
ac
is
m
)
.
To
date
few
academic
s
t
udie
s
have c
on
s
ide
r
e
d
the
deg
r
ee
to which
t
h
e
s
e
v
a
r
iab
l
e
s
a
r
e
related.
C
on
s
ide
r
a
t
ion
of
anomalous
be
l
ie
fs
a
l
on
g
s
ide
belief
in
the paranormal is important
because
t
h
e
s
e
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
different non-conventional
belief
s
e
t
s
,
which
s
h
a
r
e
important common
fea
t
ur
e
s
(
B
r
ot
h
e
r
t
on
&
French,
2014).
Particularly, they
defy
conventional
un
de
r
s
t
a
ndin
g
of
r
e
a
lit
y
(
F
r
e
n
c
h
&
Stone,
2014) and draw upon
e
xpl
a
n
a
t
ion
s
not
empirically
a
tt
e
s
t
e
d
to
the
s
a
t
is
fa
c
t
ion
of
the
s
c
ie
n
tifi
c
e
s
t
a
b
l
is
hm
e
n
t
(
Ir
w
in
,
2009).
Indeed, recent
work
r
e
v
e
a
l
e
d
6
PARANTHROPOLOGY
Vol. 7 No. 1
a
ss
oc
ia
t
ion
s
between
paranormal belief and
a
n
om
a
l
is
t
ic
be
l
ie
fs
(
c
on
s
pir
ac
is
t
ideation and urban
l
e
g
e
n
ds
)
(
D
r
in
k
w
a
t
e
r
,
Dagnall,
&
Parker, 2012).
In
this context, the
pr
e
s
e
n
t
paper
determined whether SPEs
w
e
r
e
a
ss
oc
ia
t
e
d
with
ope
nn
e
ss
to
anomalous
be
l
ie
fs
g
e
n
e
r
a
ll
y
.
Paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
play
a
potentially important
r
ol
e
in
the development
and
maintenance
of
paranormal
be
l
ie
fs
.
Particularly,
Gl
ic
k
s
oh
n
(1990) advanced the notion
that belief
in
the
paranormal
a
r
is
e
s
,
in part, from
direct
pe
r
s
on
a
l
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Indeed,
In
div
idua
l
s
frequently
r
e
fe
r
to
pe
r
s
on
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
as
the
r
e
a
s
on
for
belief, and
a
pos
it
iv
e
correlation between
number of
subjective pa
r
a
nor
ma
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
and
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
of paranormal belief
h
a
s
be
e
n
reported
(
Gl
ic
k
s
oh
n
,
1990;
Musch
&
Ehrenberg,
2002).
Collectively,
s
t
udie
s
imply an
experiential
ba
s
is
for belief in
the paranormal.
For
example, Rattet and
B
ur
s
ik
(2001)
found
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
,
who reported precognitive
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
,
possessed
higher paranormal
belief
s
c
or
e
s
.
Additionally,
as
H
e
r
g
o
v
ic
h
and A
r
e
n
da
s
y
(2005)
point out,
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
de
m
on
s
t
r
a
t
e
s
that
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
a
r
e
a
justification
for belief in
ps
i
(
Ir
w
in
,
1991). W
h
il
s
t
a body of
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
s
uppor
t
s
the
experiential
ba
s
is
of belief
h
y
pot
h
e
s
is
,
there have been
l
e
ss
positive
fi
ndin
g
s
(
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.,
2014).
T
h
e
s
e
in
c
on
s
is
t
e
n
c
ie
s
may
a
r
is
e
from
methodological
issues
s
uc
h
as,
the
c
on
fl
a
t
in
g
of
belief
with
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
and the use
of
different
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
of
paranor mal belief
(
C
a
s
t
r
o
et al.,
2014).
Alternatively,
belief may produce or influence the
perception
of paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
In
this
c
on
t
e
xt
,
folklore
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
de
l
in
e
a
t
e
s
two important
e
xpl
a
n
a
t
ion
s
of
s
upe
r
n
a
t
ur
a
l
belief,
the
cultural
s
our
c
e
(
H
uf
for
d,
1982;
McC
l
e
non,
1994) and
experiential source
h
ypot
he
se
s
(
H
uf
for
d,
1982).
T
h
e
cultural
s
our
c
e
h
y
pot
h
e
s
is
pr
opos
e
s
that
paranormal
e
xpe
rie
nce
s
are
pr
oduct
s
of tradition, or
imaginary
s
ubje
c
t
iv
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
caused/shaped
by tradition.
Thus, paranormal
belief
c
r
e
a
t
e
s
or
s
h
ape
s
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
and
cultural traditions influence int
e
r
pr
e
t
a
t
ion
of
biza
rr
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Contrastingly,
the experie ntial
s
our
c
e
h
y
poth
es
is
(Hufford, 1982)
proposes
that certain phenomena
ar
e
un
iv
e
r
s
a
l
,
occur
ac
r
os
s
different
c
ul
t
ur
e
s
and
r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
real
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
Such
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
a
r
e
in
s
t
r
um
e
n
t
a
l
in
c
h
a
n
g
in
g
be
l
ie
fs
(
M
c
C
l
e
n
on
,
1994). For
example,
T
h
e
Old Hag
tradition
c
o
ntain
s
elements
of
experience
that
ar
e
independent of
culture
(
H
uf
for
d,
1982).
T
h
e
Old Hag
s
y
n
dr
om
e
r
e
fe
r
s
to a
perception
of
waking
from
s
l
ee
p
fe
e
l
in
g
im
mobil
iz
e
d
by a
malevolent
pr
e
s
e
n
c
e
.
T
h
e
inclusion
of
belief
me
as
ur
e
s
alongside
SPEs extended
s
ociological
under
s
tanding
of how paranormal
experience
affect
in
div
idua
l
s
be
l
ie
fs
.
In
s
u
mm
a
r
y
,
the
s
t
ud
y
of
s
ub
j
e
c
t
i
ve
p
a
r
a
n
o
r
m
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
is
important for
s
e
v
e
r
a
l
r
e
a
s
on
s
.
Pa
r
t
ic
ul
a
r
l
y
,
because
a
s
ubs
t
a
n
t
ia
l
minority of
the population
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
SPEs, in
div
idua
l
s
often define SPEs
as
important
h
is
t
or
ic
a
l
autobiographical
e
v
e
n
t
s
,
and
SPEs possess
the potential
to
affect profoundly
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
.
T
h
e
s
e
c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
r
is
t
ic
s
h
a
v
e
pe
r
s
is
t
e
d
throughout
history
and
ac
r
os
s
c
ul
t
ur
e
s
(
D
a
n
ie
l
s
,
1998).
C
on
s
ide
r
in
g
the prevalence
of
SPEs, R
os
s
and
J
os
h
i
(1992) note
that paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
a
r
e
difficult to
ignore.
For
t
h
e
s
e
r
e
a
s
on
s
,
it
is
e
ss
e
n
t
ia
l
that
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
e
r
s
i
n
v
e
s
t
i
ga
t
e
the nature,
origin and
s
o
c
i
a
l
context
of
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
In
this context, this paper
m
a
k
e
s
a
valuable contribution
to
the extant
lit
e
r
a
t
ur
e
.
Methods
Respondents
T
h
e
s
t
ud
y
s
a
mpl
e
comprised 1215
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
.
A
g
e
s
r
a
n
g
e
d
from 16 to 70
y
e
a
r
s
,
with a
mean
(
M
)
of 25.13 and a
s
t
a
n
da
r
d
deviation
(
S
D
)
of 9.41; 75.7%
(920)
w
e
r
e
fe
m
a
l
e
and
24.3% (295)
w
e
r
e
male. Female
ages
ranged
from 16
67
y
e
a
r
s
,
M =
24.43, SD
=
8.87;
m
a
l
e
s
ages
ranged
from 17
70
y
e
a
r
s
,
M = 27.33
y
e
a
r
s
,
SD
= 10.64. R
e
s
pon
de
n
t
recruitment occurred
via
e
m
a
il
s
to:
s
t
a
ff
,
s
t
ude
n
t
s
,
alumni,
local
c
ol
l
e
g
e
s
,
and
the
wider population
(
b
us
in
e
ss
e
s
and
leisure c
l
ubs
)
.
Participation w
a
s
voluntary and
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
could
terminate
t
h
e
ir
participation at any
time
during
the
s
t
ud
y
.
Materials and Procedur
e
R
e
s
p
o
n
d
e
n
t
s
completed the
following
c
o
u
n
t
e
r
-b
a
l
a
n
c
e
d
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
:
Subjective Paranormal Experience (SPEs)
An
18-item measure
assessed
incidence of
subje
ct
iv
e
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
(SPEs). R
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
(using
yes
or
no) indicated whether they believed they had had
a
‘g
e
nuin
e
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
.
If
they
r
e
s
pon
de
d
yes,
they in
dic
a
t
e
d
the
type of
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
and
it
s
frequency
of
oc
c
ur
r
e
n
c
e
.
Listed
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
w
e
r
e
ESP
(
e
xt
r
a
s
e
n
s
or
y
pe
r
c
e
ption
)
,
P
K
(
ps
y
c
h
ok
in
e
s
is
)
,
witchcraft, OBE/NDE, haunting,
c
on
t
ac
t
/
communication
with dead, UFO
visitation,
UFO
s
ig
h
t
in
g
,
astrological
prediction, or other (indicate). For
eac
h
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
category,
r
e
s
p
o
n
d
e
n
t
s
indicated
yes
or no.
R
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
reporting
a particular
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
w
e
r
e
a
s
k
e
d
to
s
pec
ify
frequency
of
occurrence
(1
=
s
in
g
l
e
incident,
2 =
occurred between
2 & 5
t
im
e
s
and
3 =
oc
c
ur
r
e
d
more
than 5
t
im
e
s
)
.
T
h
e
final
que
s
t
ion
a
s
k
e
d
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
to
rate the
deg
r
ee
to which
they believed
in
the
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
because
of
paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
(
s
)
(1
=
definitely
not, 2
=
probably not,
3 =
un
s
ur
e
,
4 =
probably, and
5 =
de
fi
n
it
e
l
y
)
.
R
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
reporting
no
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
moved
to
the
n
e
xt
s
e
c
t
ion
of
the
s
e
l
f-
r
e
por
t
m
e
a
s
ur
e
.
Belief in the Paranormal
Two
e
s
t
a
b
l
is
h
e
d
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
assessed
belief in
the
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
,
the Revised Paranormal Belief
S
ca
l
e
(RPBS)
(
Lan
g
e
,
Irwin,
&
Houran, 2000);
Tobacyk
& Milford,
1983) and the
A
us
t
r
a
l
ia
n
Sheep-Goat
S
ca
l
e
(
A
S
GS
)
(
T
h
a
l
bourn
e
&
D
e
l
in
,
1993).
T
h
e
RPBS
h
a
s
c
on
s
t
r
uc
t
breadth,
but
is
ba
s
e
d
on an
impr
e
c
is
e
definition of
paranor mality
(
La
w
r
e
n
c
e
,
1995),
w
h
e
r
e
a
s
the
ASGS
assesses
only a
r
e
s
t
r
ic
t
iv
e
,
core range
of
be
l
ie
fs
(
ES
P
,
PK & life
after
dea
t
h
)
.
Using both
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
in
t
a
n
de
m
e
n
s
ur
e
d
that
r
e
s
ul
t
s
w
e
r
e
robust
and
immune
to
c
r
it
ic
is
m
s
arising
from
conceptual
de
ba
t
e
s
about
the
definition and
nature
of
paranormal
belief.
T
h
e
RPBS is
a
s
e
l
f-
r
e
por
t
m
e
a
s
ur
e
,
containing 26
que
s
t
ion
s
a
ss
e
ss
in
g
s
e
v
e
n
fa
c
e
t
s
of
belief: traditional
r
e
l
ig
ious
7
PARANTHROPOLOGY
Vol. 7 No. 1
belief, psi, witchcraft,
s
pir
it
ua
l
is
m
,
s
upe
r
s
t
it
ion
,
e
xt
r
a
ordin
a
r
y
life
form
s
,
and
precognition.
RPBS
item
s
appear
as
s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t
s
(e.g.
“I
believe
in God” and
b
l
ac
k
magic
r
e
a
ll
y
e
xis
t
s
)
,
which
a
r
e
s
c
or
e
d
on a
s
e
v
e
n
point Lik
e
r
t
s
ca
l
e
ranging
(1
=
s
t
r
on
g
l
y
disag
r
ee
to 7 =
s
t
r
on
g
l
y
ag
r
ee
)
.
Preceding
a
n
a
l
y
s
is
item
s
c
or
e
s
w
e
r
e
recoded
(0-6)
in
line
with
Irwin
(2009).
Hence,
final
s
c
or
e
s
ranged
from 0 to
156,
with
higher
s
c
or
e
s
reflecting greater
belief in
the
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
.
Within
the
pr
e
s
e
n
t
s
t
ud
y
,
two-factor
s
olution
,
c
om
pr
is
in
g
New
Age Philosophy
(
N
A
P
)
and Traditional
Pa
r
a
norm
a
l
Belief
(
T
P
B
)
,
w
a
s
a
l
s
o
calculated
(
Lan
g
e
et
al.,
2000).
NAP
c
on
t
a
in
s
11
it
e
m
s
m
e
a
s
ur
in
g
belief in
psi,
r
e
in
ca
r
n
a
t
ion
,
altered
s
t
a
t
e
s
,
and
a
s
t
r
ol
og
y
,
w
h
e
r
e
a
s
TPB
assesses
belief in
c
on
c
e
pt
s
,
s
uc
h
as
the devil and witchcraft
(
Ir
w
in
,
2004).
T
h
is
factorial
s
olution
a
r
ose
from a purification of
the
s
ca
l
e
to
correct
for
differential item functioning
(age
and gender
bia
s
)
.
T
h
e
Ra
s
c
h
s
ca
l
in
g
procedure
(
A
n
dr
ic
h
,
1988)
pr
oduc
e
s
s
c
or
e
s
ranging from 6.85 to 47.72 on NAP and 11.16 to
4
3
.
2
4
o
n T
P
B
. T
h
e R
P
B
S
i
s
c
o
n
c
e
p
t
u
a
l
l
y
a
n
d
psychometrically
s
a
t
is
fa
c
t
or
y
;
it
possesses
adequate
validity
and good
t
e
s
t
-
r
e
t
e
s
t
r
e
l
ia
bil
it
y
(
T
oba
c
yk
,
2004).
T
h
e
ASGS
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
belief
in,
and alleged
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
of,
the paranormal
by
focusing
on
the
s
ubs
e
t
of
core
be
l
ie
fs
s
t
ud
i
e
d
by
p
a
r
a
p
s
y
c
h
o
l
o
g
y
:
e
x
t
r
a
s
e
n
s
o
r
y
p
e
r
c
e
p
t
i
o
n
,
ps
y
c
h
ok
in
e
s
is
,
and life
after death
(
W
is
e
m
a
n
& Watt,
2006).
T
h
e
ASGS
c
on
t
a
in
s
18
it
e
m
s
and
pa
r
t
icipa
n
t
s
a
r
e
a
s
k
e
d
to
r
e
s
pond
in
one
of
three
w
a
y
s
:
F
a
l
s
e
(
s
c
or
e
d
as
z
e
r
o)
,
?“
(
D
on
t
know:
s
c
or
e
d
as 1), and
T
r
ue
(
s
c
or
e
d
as 2).
T
h
e
ASGS
h
a
s
been
Ra
s
c
h
s
ca
l
e
d
(
Lan
g
e
&
T
h
a
l
bourn
e
,
2002)
and possesses e
s
t
a
b
l
is
h
e
d
r
e
l
ia
bil
it
y
and validity
(
T
h
a
l
bourn
e
,
1995).
Anomalous Beliefs (Urban Legends and
Conspiracist Beliefs)
F
i
v
e
i
t
e
m
s
,
derived
from
p
r
e
v
i
o
u
s
r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
(
D
ag
n
a
ll
,
D
r
in
k
w
a
t
e
r
,
Parker,
&
M
un
l
e
y
,
2010; Fox
Tree
& W
e
l
don
,
2007), assessed
belief in urban
l
e
g
e
n
ds
.
Q
ue
s
t
ion
s
e
mpl
o
y
e
d
the
s
a
m
e
7-point Lik
e
r
t
s
ca
l
e
as
the RPBS.
To
pr
e
v
e
n
t
r
e
s
pon
s
e
bia
s
,
two
it
e
m
s
w
e
r
e
r
e
v
e
r
s
e
s
c
or
e
d
(e.g.
w
h
e
n
I
hear
urban
l
e
g
e
n
ds
I
fe
e
l
that
they
a
r
e
un
t
r
ue
)
.
Urban
legend
it
e
m
s
previously have
de
m
on
s
t
r
a
t
e
d
good in
t
e
r
n
a
l
r
e
l
ia
bil
it
y
(
D
ag
n
a
ll
et al.,
2010).
Conspiracist Beliefs (Drinkwater et al., 2012)
F
i
v
e
i
t
e
m
s
assessed
general
b
e
l
i
e
f
in
the veracity
of
c
on
s
pir
ac
y
t
h
e
or
ie
s
.
It
e
m
s
m
e
a
s
ur
e
d
the
deg
r
ee
to which
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
believe
that
c
on
s
pir
ac
y
t
h
e
or
ie
s
accurately
depict
real-life
e
v
e
n
t
s
and contain truthful information. R
e
s
pon
s
e
s
w
e
r
e
m
e
a
s
ur
e
d
on a 7- point Lik
e
r
t
s
ca
l
e
(1 in
dic
a
t
e
d
s
t
r
on
g
l
y
disag
r
ee
and 7
s
t
r
on
g
l
y
ag
r
ee
)
.
Two
r
e
v
e
r
s
e
d
it
e
m
s
control for
r
e
s
pon
s
e
bia
s
.
T
h
e
m
e
a
s
ur
e
h
a
s
pr
e
v
ious
l
y
s
h
o
w
n
acceptable in
t
e
r
n
a
l
reality
(
D
r
in
k
w
a
t
e
r
et al.,
2012).
S
c
or
e
s
on both
anomalous
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
range
from 5 to 35
and high
s
c
or
e
s
w
e
r
e
indicative
of
c
on
s
pir
ac
is
t
ide
a
t
ion
.
Procedur
e
In
s
t
r
uc
t
ion
s
at
the
beginning of
the
s
e
l
f-
r
e
por
t
book
l
e
t
in
form
e
d
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
that
the
s
t
ud
y
w
a
s
concerned
with
anomalous
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
and
be
l
ie
fs
,
and that
there
w
a
s
no
time
limit for
completing the
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
.
Once
pa
r
t
icipa
n
t
s
ag
r
ee
d
to
participate, in
s
t
r
uc
t
ion
s
a
s
k
e
d
them
to provide
demographic
de
t
a
il
s
(age and g
e
n
de
r
)
.
On
completion
of
the
que
s
t
ionn
a
ir
e
,
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
w
e
r
e
debriefed.
All
a
s
pec
t
s
of
the
s
t
ud
y
adhered
to Un
iv
e
r
s
it
y
ethical
g
uide
l
in
e
s
.
Results
P
a
r
a
n
o
r
m
a
l
E
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
(
S
P
E
s
)
In
cide
n
ce
Within
the
s
t
ud
y
s
a
mpl
e
,
42%
(
n
= 506) of
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
reported
a paranormal
ex
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
(SPE).
T
h
e
m
o
s
t
frequently reported
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
w
a
s
ESP
23%, and
the
l
e
a
s
t
frequently reported
w
a
s
UFO
visitation
1%
(see
table
1)
.
T
h
e
majority of
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
reporting
ESP
(
73%)
,
Haunting
(
69%)
and Witchcraft
(
67%)
related
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
recalled more
than
one
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
.
W
h
il
s
t
incidence
of
P
K
(
46%
v
s
.
54%), Contact
with
the Dead
(
46%
v
s
.
54%),
and
A
s
t
r
ol
og
y
(
44%
v
s
.
56%),
w
e
r
e
more balanced
with roughly
equal
pr
opor
t
ion
s
reporting
s
in
g
l
e
v
s
.
mul
t
ipl
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
.
T
h
e
majority of
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
reporting
NDE/OBE
(
63%)
,
UFO
visitation
(
62%)
and UFO
s
ig
h
t
in
g
s
(
75%)
r
e
por
t
e
d
only a
s
in
g
l
e
in
c
ide
n
c
e
.
Of
the
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
claiming
to
have
had an
SPE,
43%
reported one
of
the
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
t
y
pe
s
(
n
=
218),
w
h
il
s
t
57%
(
n
=
288) reported experiencing different
t
y
pe
s
of
SPEs. W
it
h
in
the
mul
t
ipl
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
group, 94%
(
n
= 270)
ide
n
tifi
e
d
between
2-5
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
t
y
pe
s
.
Only 6%
(
n
= 18)
r
e
por
t
e
d
more
than 5
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
t
y
pe
s
.
This indicated
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
typically
believed they
had
encountered different
t
y
pe
s
of
paranormal ph
e
n
om
e
n
a
.
Gend
er
A
s
im
il
a
r
proportion
of
m
a
l
e
s
and
fe
m
a
l
e
s
believed they
had
a paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
(
41%
v
s
.
42%);
c
h
i-
s
qua
r
e
t
e
s
t
r
e
v
e
a
l
e
d
no
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
a
ss
oc
ia
t
ion
between the reporting
of
SPE
s
and
gender,
χ² = 0.150, df = 1, p = .698.
C
or
r
e
s
pon
din
g
l
y
,
m
a
l
e
s
(
M
=
0.92, SD
=
1.48)
and
fe
m
a
l
e
s
(
M
=
0.93, SD
=
1.44) reported
s
im
il
a
r
num
be
r
s
of
SPEs,
t
(1213)
=
-0.112,
p =
.911,
d = .01.
F
ur
t
h
e
r
a
n
a
l
y
s
is
within
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
only,
r
e
v
e
a
l
e
d
a
l
s
o
no
gender difference
(
m
a
l
e
M
=
2.25, SD
=
1.54
v
s
.
female
(
M
=
2.21, SD
=
1.46),
t
(
504)
=
0.277,
p =
.782,
d = .03.
A
c
r
os
s
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
t
y
pe
s
,
gender
dif
fe
r
e
n
c
e
s
m
a
n
ife
s
t
e
d
for PK,
contact
with
the dead,
UFO
s
ig
h
t
in
g
s
and
a
s
t
r
ol
og
y
.
A
higher
proportion of
m
a
l
e
s
reported
PK
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
(
6%
v
s
.
3%) and UFO
s
ig
h
t
in
g
(
9%
v
s
.
4%),
w
h
il
s
t
fe
m
a
l
e
s
reported
a
higher
proportion of
contact
with
dead
(
14%
v
s
.
10
%
)
.
and
a
s
t
r
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
s
(
17
%
v
s
.
10
%
)
.
C
om
pa
r
is
on
s
for ESP, Witchcraft, NDE/OBE, Haunting,
Contact
with
Dead,
UFO
visitation
and
Ot
h
e
r
r
e
v
e
a
l
e
d
no
gender
dif
fe
r
e
n
c
e
s
(see
table
2)
.
8
PARANTHROPOLOGY
Vol. 7 No. 1
Table 1. Number and per cent reporting different
experience types
and
SPE
incidence.
Type
to
enter
t
e
xt
Table 2. Number and per cent reporting paranormal
experience(s) b
y
Sig
=
Significant; NS
= Not
S
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
No major
a
ss
oc
ia
t
ion
s
w
e
r
e
evident between gender
and
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
frequency
(
s
in
g
l
e
v
s
.
mul
t
ipl
e
)
(see
t
a
b
l
e
s
3
and
4)
.
T
h
e
only
gender difference
w
a
s
a marginally
s
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
tendency
within
m
a
l
e
s
to
r
e
por
t
mul
t
ipl
e
UFO
s
ig
h
t
in
g
s
.
O
v
e
r
a
ll
,
the
proportion of
s
in
g
l
e
v
s
.
mul
t
ipl
e
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
r
s
wa
s
similar for
male
(
42.5%
vs.
57.5%) and
fe
ma
l
e
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
(
43%
v
s
.
57%),
χ² =
0.22,
df =
1,
p = .966.
SPEs and Belief in the Paranormal
S
c
a
l
e
Re
li
ab
ili
t
y
T
h
e
paranormal
(
A
S
GS
,
RPBS
and
RPBS
s
ubsca
l
e
s
;
NAP
and
T
P
B
)
and
anomalous
belief
(
c
on
s
pir
ac
y
and urban
l
e
g
e
n
ds
)
m
e
a
s
ur
e
s
de
m
on
s
t
r
a
t
e
d
good to
excellent in
t
e
r
n
a
l
r
e
l
ia
bil
it
y
(
Ge
or
g
e
&
M
a
ll
e
y
,
2003). Belief
in
the
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
me
a
sur
e
s
correlated moderately
with anomalous
be
l
ie
fs
(
c
on
s
pir
ac
is
m
and urban
l
e
g
e
n
ds
)
(see
table 5)
9
PARANTHROPOLOGY
Vol. 7 No. 1
Table 3. Number and per cent reporting paranormal multiple
ex
p
eri
ence
.
Table 4. Multiple
experience(s)
by Gender cross-tabulation
v
a
l
ues
.
Sig
=
Significant; NS
= Not
S
ig
n
ifi
ca
n
t
C
or
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
examined
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
h
ips
between SPEs,
belief in
the
paranormal and
anomalous
be
l
ie
fs
(
c
on
s
pir
ac
is
m
and
urban
l
e
g
e
n
ds
)
(see
table
6)
.
SPE occurrence
(
r
e
por
t
in
g
a paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
)
correlated positively
with belief in
the paranormal
(
A
S
GS
and
RPB
S
)
.
C
or
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
w
e
r
e
within
the moderate
r
a
n
g
e
(
C
oh
e
n
,
1988). Anomalous
be
l
ie
fs
a
l
s
o
correlated
pos
it
iv
e
l
y
with
SPE occurrence; however, correlation
sizes
w
e
r
e
w
e
a
k
e
r
.
A
s
im
il
a
r
pattern
e
m
e
r
g
e
d
for
SPE
total
(
t
h
e
overall
number
of paranormal
experience
t
y
pe
s
reported).
Finally, for
be
l
ie
v
e
r
s
level
of
paranormal
belief and
SPE influence
(
t
h
e
perception
that
e
xpe
rie
nce
(s
)
informed belief in the
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
)
correlated
m
ode
r
a
t
e
l
y
.
Discussion
Within
the
pr
e
s
e
n
t
s
t
ud
y
,
42% of
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
reported
an
SPE. This figure w
a
s
c
om
m
e
n
s
ur
a
t
e
with
other
e
quiv
a
l
e
n
t
10
PARANTHROPOLOGY
Vol. 7 No. 1
Table 5. Belief
scale descriptives
and inter-scale
c
o
rr
el
a
t
i
ons
.
Table 6. Correlations
between SPE measures
and beliefs (paranormal and anomalous).
s
ur
v
e
y
s
and
illustrated
r
e
s
pon
de
n
t
s
w
il
l
in
g
n
e
ss
to
r
e
por
t
SPEs
(
C
a
s
t
r
o
et
al.,
2014; Greeley, 1975;
S
c
hm
ie
d-
K
n
it
t
e
l
&
S
c
h
e
t
s
c
h
e
,
2005). However,
t
h
e
s
e
data
require
c
on
s
ide
r
a
t
ion
and
careful in
t
e
r
pr
e
t
a
t
ion
.
C
om
pa
r
is
on
s
between
s
pec
ifi
c
fi
g
ur
e
s
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d
within
this
and
other
s
im
il
a
r
s
t
udie
s
a
r
e
of
l
im
it
e
d
value
because
s
ur
v
e
y
s
s
a
mpl
e
div
e
r
s
e
popul
a
t
ion
s
,
define
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
differently, and
pe
r
c
e
ption
s
of
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
vary
ac
r
os
s
time
and
between
c
ul
t
ur
e
s
.
For
t
h
e
s
e
r
e
a
s
on
s
,
prevalence pa
tt
e
r
n
s
a
r
e
more revealing
than
SPE
e
ndor
s
e
m
e
n
t
fi
g
ur
e
s
.
In
this context,
c
on
c
l
us
ion
s
drawn at
the macro-level provide useful in
s
ig
h
t
s
into
the broad
n
a
t
ur
e
and
s
oc
ia
l
importance
of paranormal
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
w
h
il
s
t
tacitly
acknowledging the
pe
r
s
on
a
l
and profound
nature
of
S
P
Es
.
A
n
a
l
y
s
is
of
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
t
y
pe
s
r
e
v
e
a
l
e
d
that
the
m
os
t
frequently reported SPEs
w
e
r
e
ESP
(
23%)
,
a
s
t
r
ol
og
y
(
15%)
,
haunting
(
14%)
,
and contact with dead
(
13%)
.
T
h
e
high
incidence
of
ESP-related
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
s
uc
h
as
telepathy
and
precognitive
dr
e
a
m
s
,
accords
with
comparable
pa
r
a
norm
a
l
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
ur
v
e
y
s
(
B
l
ac
k
mor
e
&
T
r
os
c
ia
n
k
o,
1985;
C
a
s
t
r
o
e
t
al.,
2014; Zusne
&
J
on
e
s
,
1982).
C
on
s
ide
r
in
g
the
r
e
l
a
t
iv
e
l
y
high
incidence
of
ESP-related
e
xpe
r
ie
n
c
e
s
,
a number of
t
h
e
o
r
i
e
s
attempt
to
explain the
origin of
E