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ORI* On the Aesthetics of Folding and Technology

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  • Ars Electronica Futurelab
Thesis

ORI* On the Aesthetics of Folding and Technology

Abstract and Figures

The art of oribotics involves a process of imagining and creating geometry for static and kinetic origami structures to fit a desired form. It is a two-fold difficult task. Firstly, tools for calculating the geometry are few, and those existing lack key aesthetic and functional criteria specific to my artistic practice. Secondly, material issues, such as durability and complex foldability, compound the issues for fabrication. Existing methods, even those applying digital fabrication, pose complex folding problems that confound origami experts. Case studies are provided of leading origamists working with software, fabrication and materials to analyse and summarise processes. Analysis of these led to the synthesis and identification of differentiating criteria that inspired the invention of two key methods: Fold-Mapping and Fold-Printing. Fold-Mapping abstracts naturally occurring origami patterns into fold-molecules for tessellation across target geometric surfaces. It allows an artist to prioritise the sculptural shape of the result while seeking a kinetic solution through experimentation with different fold-molecules. A developability algorithm then flattens the crease pattern into geometry for fabrication. Fold-Printing allows the fabrication of Fold-Mapping results. It includes results of high-order complex-foldability by 3D printing whereby polymers are deposited onto textiles forming a durable polymer plate-structure separated by perfect textile hinges. Evaluation of the methods is two-fold. Firstly, the methods were continuously evaluated and refined through invention based trial-and-error. Secondly, the artefacts were evaluated according to a set of aesthetic criteria which in this thesis are collectively called ORI* theory. ORI* theory includes origami and oribotic criteria, and a metric for complex-foldability. For proof of concept, the methods are presented as an evaluated set of successful traits and developed solutions. These produce developable crease patterns from target geometries and afford the fabrication and foldability of complex ORI* objects. Fold-Printing allows near impossible-to-fold patterns to become foldable objects. The methods do not succeed in all circumstances, and that success is additionally dependent on the author’s experience of origami structures. The aesthetic qualities and material properties of the artistic results have distinct qualities that qualify them to meet the particular criteria required for ORI* objects. The thesis concludes with the proposing of future work: 1) in the direction of soft-robotic applications using both Fold-Mapping and Fold-Printing methods, and 2) the creation of enhanced aesthetic and technical ORI* objects across many disciplinary domains.
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Conference Paper
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This paper covers the brief 4 year history of Oribotics as a tangible field of study; as a hybrid field of study, with art exhibits as the end goals. I will cover my definition of Oribotics, the origin and evolution of oribotics, design problems and solutions. While thinking generally about origami and technology I realised the two fields are very similar. Origami often borrows from nature, and often highly regarded origami works are the most 'natural. The same aspirations exist in robotic behaviour and movement. Robots are programmed machines, and origami is programmed paper, that is paper coded with creases.
Code
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OMTO solves displacement objective problems where boundary conditions, force input nodes, and displacement output nodes are specified on a user-defined grid. Given this user-defined problem statement, it determines the fold lines that produce the greatest displacement, in the specified direction or directions, at the specified output nodes. The default setting requires MATLAB's optimization toolbox. Tutorial video is available at: https://youtu.be/U68LqwRGrI4 This research is supported under the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) funding, LRIR13RQ02COR. Contributions by Philip Buskohl, Michael Kuhn, Giorgio Bazzan, Michael Durstock, Richard Vaia, Gregory Reich, James Joo Air Force Research Labs, Wright-Patterson AFB, 45433
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a design method that prioritises in-context design for origami surfaces with periodic tessellations in a parametric CAD workflow using Grasshopper 3D. The key design criteria are: target geometry surface, user-defined folding patterns as periodic tessellations, and fold resolution. Using an error minimisation solver, we generate developable crease patterns from non-developable meshes. We evaluate our method through a study of a target geometry , Fold Mapped with various fold molecules at variable resolutions, and present a visual analysis as proof of form-fit to the target. This method affords rapid development of origami surfaces, bypassing significant trial and error in by-hand design processes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Computational Origami invents a new kind of complexity: the highly irregular crease pattern, posing a significant challenge to foldability. We design a method for digital fabrication of multi-material composites to overcome issues of foldability and durability faced when producing functional prototypes with paper. Our fabrication method, called Fold Printing, uses off-the-shelf and customised 3D printing technology, heat pressing, and elastomers to control fold memory in Folded Polymer Textile Elastomer Composites (FPTEC). Our results show that Fold-Printing affords foldability of high-irregularity crease patterns, and can produce durable advanced origami prototypes.
Chapter
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Oribotics is a field of research concerned with the aesthetic, biomechanic, and morphological connections among nature, origami, and robotics. In my current research, the focus is on the actuation of fold-programmed materials such as paper and synthetic fabrics. The design of the crease pattern, the precise arrangement of mountain and valley folds, and the way they fold and unfold directly inform mechanical design. Therefore, a key area of current research is focused on the discovery of patterns that have complex expressions that can be actuated repeatedly. This research has resulted in some artistic exhibitions; the largest to date was at the 2010 Ars Electronica Festival in Linz, Austria
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