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This study investigates participation problems in teams with mixed language proficiencies. Utilising an in-depth single case study approach and drawing on interactional data and interviews, it explores participation in team meetings. It takes a positioning theory approach, and analyses how the least proficient speaker is subtly positioned in various ways: as silent, different, difficult and incompetent. It argues that these positionings contribute to the marginalisation of his contributions in team meetings and in effectively silencing him and that this occurred through interactional patterns in which his contributions were a) ignored, b) dismissed outright and c) treated with only token interest. The paper ends by considering the range of factors, both interactional and attitudinal, that seem to have contributed to this silencing, including cultural stereotypes that seem to influence the dynamics of the interactions.
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... Stahl et al., 2010) and much has been written about the different communicative and relational challenges that intercultural teams face (e.g. Behfar et al., 2006;Debray and Spencer-Oatey, 2019;Tenzer and Pudelko, 2017). Fletcher (1999) pays special attention to the question of relating in teams and suggests that team members need to engage in relational behaviours that create team by "creating the background conditions in which group life can flourish and the feeling of team can be experienced" (p.85). ...
This article investigates the in-situ relations that interlocutors co-construct during troubles talk in a working team, with a focus on talk centred around negative issues or experiences that speakers do not blame or attribute to others present. Research in various fields has pointed to the important role that troubles talk plays in the construction of positive social relations, but more detailed pragmatic insights are still needed to understand exactly how these positive social relations are brought about in interaction. To address this, we draw on 25 h of recorded and transcribed team meeting data from an MBA team, collected over a 9-month period. Troubles talk stands out throughout from other types of talk in this dataset, as relations were continuously constructed as equal, close, safe, and featuring positive affect. We examine the interactional strategies that team members used to construct these positive relations in troubles talk and highlight a number of these strategies, including joint story-telling, participatory floor-management, humour, and shared transgressions. Reciprocal self-disclosures were found to be central to constructing positive relations and were used by team members even when troubles were not shared. With this we add further empirical insights to the area of interpersonal pragmatics concerned with fostering good relationships and establish descriptors on how such relations can be characterised and investigated.
... International students are often portrayed in the literature as vulnerable and facing great challenges (see summary in Dippold, 2015), such as acculturating to new ways of learning and building relationships with tutors and fellow students (Debray & Spencer-Oatey, 2019;Sovic, 2013;Tian & Lowe, 2009). In particular, the literature on international students' experiences of studying in an Anglophone context highlights the linguistic demands they face, reporting for example that international students' difficulties with speaking are more severe than problems with writing (Berman & Cheng, 2010;Sherry et al., 2010) and that speaking in class discussions and giving presentations are particularly challenging (Berman & Cheng, 2010;Kettle & Luke, 2013;Schweisfurth & Gu, 2009). ...
This paper offers a reconceptualisation of international students’ transitions into and through UK higher education. We present two case studies of students which explore their transitions in terms of their academic speaking skills from pre-sessional courses into their disciplinary studies. Students describe how the development of their confidence and performance in academic speaking was contingent on a number of factors and micro-moments, and how this progress into and within disciplinary studies often involved regression and discomfort. Nevertheless, they also talked of developing strategies to overcome challenges and the resultant learning. We argue that transitions to disciplinary studies in terms of academic speaking can be more helpfully understood as non-linear, fluid and rhizomatic. This study offers valuable insights for individuals and institutions to move away from a fixed student lifecycle perspective to consider instead how reciprocal, embedded and on-going support for international students may better reflect students’ experiences.
Sociopragmatics encompasses the study of social, interactional, and normative dimensions of language use, while intercultural pragmatics examines how language is used in social interactions between people who have different first languages and are usually considered to represent different cultures. While there are some points of overlap between them, the main aim of intercultural pragmatics is to analyze and theorize how language is used when participants have limited common ground and do not necessarily adhere to L1 preferred ways of speaking. It is thus argued in intercultural pragmatics not only that intercultural encounters are deserving of theorization in their own right, but that theorization in intercultural pragmatics can usefully inform pragmatics more broadly. The aim of this chapter is to consider how research in intercultural pragmatics can inform work in sociopragmatics, and vice versa. Following discussion of the main theoretical foundations of sociopragmatics, a case study examining the openings of first conversations in intercultural settings is used as a springboard to consider the place of sociopragmatics vis-à-vis intercultural pragmatics, and what insights each can bring to the other. The conclusion is that sociopragmatics would benefit from building more explicitly on the important empirical and theoretical insights offered by intercultural pragmatics.
Workplace politeness concerns the structural, interactional and individual level. Using the example of mobbing, it is illustrated how small acts of impoliteness can lead to the destruction a person psychologically and physically. Particularly, so-called downward mobbing is an increasing problem worldwide; most of the cases are orchestrated by superiors, the people subordinates depend on the most. Data clearly illustrate the social toxin created by up to 45 seemingly small actions in five areas of work life. These actions result in health hazards and ultimately loss of jobs. By example of workplace harassment, it is illustrated how systematic acts of impoliteness are used to manipulate a person's emotion and identity, to ensure anxiety-born solidarity in others while abusing power, with high costs for the target, the organisation, and society. The discussion gives way to considerations about intercultural cooperation at the workplace, showing similarities between subtle devaluations in intercultural communication called microaggression and what has been discussed as mobbing. Overall, impoliteness is deconstructed as a sign of degrading social bonds, security and health, thereby raising awareness of the importance of intercultural interaction without microaggression. The practical value of linguistic impoliteness research and its connection to work psychology becomes apparent.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how newly formed culturally diverse project teams develop and implement rules, and how these processes may be affected by language-fluency asymmetries.
Using a case-study research design, the authors investigated three multicultural project teams within a management integration program in a multinational company in France. Their complete data set includes 37.5 hours of observations and 49 hours of semi-structured interviews.
Findings revealed that subgroups formed on the basis of language-fluency and this affected the development and implementation of rules. While rule-setting mechanisms emerged across teams, they varied in form. On the one hand, tightly structured rules emerged and rules were rigidly applied when there were greater language inequalities. In contrast, implicit behavior controls guided interactions when language-fluency subgroupings were less salient. The findings also revealed that the alignment of other individual attributes with language fluency reinforced subgroup divisions, further impacting the rule development and implementation processes.
Understanding rule development and implementation in culturally diverse teams and how these processes are impacted by language disparities enables managers to help members develop more successful behavioral patterns by keeping language-fluency (and other) attributes in mind.
The study extends and complements previous team research by providing in-depth insights into the process of rule development and implementation. It demonstrates the impact of language-fluency asymmetries and subgroup dynamics on these processes. The authors propose a model to capture the processes by which culturally diverse teams create rules, and how the rule-setting mechanisms might be moderated by faultlines such as language-based disparities.
Based on 90 interviews with leaders and members of 15 multinational teams, this study explores the influence of language differences on power dynamics in multinational teams. First, we establish hierarchical position and professional expertise as general sources of power in teamwork. Subsequently, we demonstrate how different language policies, the degree of formality in language structures, and language proficiency disparity moderate team members’ capacity to capitalize on these power sources. Our study elucidates the complexity of linguistic influences on power dynamics in teamwork, reveals previously neglected differences in language structures, emphasizes the importance of relative proficiency and carries significant practical implications.
This study introduces positioning theory in the analysis of small-group dynamics in joint decision-making episodes. Specifically, it seeks to identify the key concepts that come into play when positioning theory is applied to analyze small-group interaction and small-group dynamics. Positioning theory aims to examine the discursive production of interpersonal positions that rely on the local moral orders of the interlocutors. The study presented here draws on transcribed material from four management board meetings of a Finnish public research institute, including a total of 18 decision-making episodes. First, the findings show how decision-making episodes consist of fluctuating storylines, how different positions are created, and how social positioning is connected to task positioning. Second, task positioning and the effects of the positioning negotiations are discussed, particularly, how positioning is connected to the progression of the meeting, to establishing the chair’s position as the facilitator, and to the negotiation of shared themes and concepts is shown. Third, the analysis indicates how the local moral orders of a small group are negotiated and constructed.
This paper sets out to test the possibilities of the Positioning Theory as a means to approach small group phenomena from a micro-cultural perspective. The study draws on a transcription of a videotaped inter-professional team meeting in the field of social services. Analysis of the data was set to examine how the basic concepts of the Positioning Theory suit the analysis of in-group phenomena, what different forms of positioning are present, and how the positioning is connected to the group processes. Studying the group's interaction shows how it is possible to approach the interaction via the basic concepts of the Positioning Theory and how the positioning is intervened with group processes, such as decision-making, arguing, and conflict. The study also offers a new theoretical and empirical perspective to the research on small group dynamics.
This paper analyzes language diversity from a sociolinguistic perspective demonstrating how it operates in interactions between members of international management teams in multinational corporations (MNCs). A major challenge for teams composed of speakers of different languages is the building of trust and relationships that are language dependent. Based on published research and illustrative empirical data, findings indicate that language diversity has a significant impact on socialization processes and team building, influencing both communication acts and mutual perceptions. Results of investigations into multilingual teams using English as their language of communication show that many obstacles are encountered by native as well as nonnative speakers. There is clear evidence that if language diversity is to be a valuable resource for international management teams, the challenges it raises need to be identified.
Research Question/IssueCorporate boards often change their working language when they acquire foreign members who are not proficient in the language of the firm's home country. Consequently, boards “talk” in one language but “think” in another. The purpose of the present study is to explore and explain how language diversity influences the work processes of corporate boards.Research Findings/InsightsOn the basis of a multiple case study of nine multinational corporations (MNCs) from four Nordic countries, we discovered evidence of impoverished and silenced discussions in board meetings in those case companies that were unprepared to switch to English as the new working language of the board. Some board members found it difficult to contribute to board meetings, articulate disagreement, and felt socially excluded from the board, which added to the “costs” of language diversity in these firms. In contrast, such effects on work processes were not revealed in the well-prepared companies. However, the presence of employee representatives on the boards of both the well-prepared and unprepared case companies made it more difficult to conduct work processes in English because these members often lacked sufficient language proficiency. Thus, our findings suggest that the board co-determination act of the Nordic corporate governance model may be associated with the hidden costs of using a non-native language.Theoretical/Academic ImplicationsOur study makes four contributions to research on board diversity. Firstly, it highlights the “silencing effect” of language diversity on board processes. Secondly, it emphasizes the linkage between language diversity and board processes. Thirdly, it provides additional evidence that language is a distinct dimension of diversity. Fourthly, it discovers the issue of languages in board work as a new research topic that is worthy of scholarly attention.Practitioner/Policy ImplicationsFirms need to be aware of and anticipate the potential effects of language diversity on the work processes of their boards in order to ensure that “the voice of diversity” is heard. The board itself as well as the rest of the organization can take preparatory measures such as producing all board material in the new working language, providing translation services, selecting board members with the required language proficiency, and adopting the same working language in the corporate board and the executive management team. Although these measures can be implemented gradually or at a faster pace, they need to be in place before foreign members join the board. We would argue that consistent use of one and the same language in the corporate board and the executive management team supports transparency and good corporate governance practices. In our opinion, reaping the benefits of board diversity is the particular responsibility of the chairperson. Even though English is generally well understood in the Nordic countries, chairpersons should also consider the possible negative effects associated with the use of a board language that is non-native to most of its members.
This study systematically investigates how language barriers influence trust formation in multinational teams (MNTs). On the basis of 90 interviews with team members, team leaders and senior managers in 15 MNTs in 3 German automotive corporations, the authors show how MNT members’ cognitive and emotional reactions to language barriers influence their perceived trustworthiness and intention to trust, which in turn affect trust formation. The authors contribute to diversity research by distinguishing the exclusively negative language effects from the more ambivalent effects of other diversity dimensions. Their findings also illustrate how surface-level language diversity may create perceptions of deep-level diversity. Furthermore, their study advances MNT research by revealing the specific influences of language barriers on team trust, an important mediator between team inputs and performance outcomes. It thereby encourages the examination of other team processes through a language lens. Finally, their study suggests that multilingual settings necessitate a reexamination and modification of the seminal trust theories by Mayer, Davis and Schoorman, and by McAllister. In terms of practical implications, the authors outline how MNT leaders can manage their subordinates’ problematic reactions to language barriers, and how MNT members can enhance their perceived trustworthiness in multilingual settings.
Stories are considered to be an essential part of organisational life and thus of leadership. However, to date research into stories and leadership has concentrated on big stories and life narratives and has tended to overlook the identity work that small stories perform as part of everyday workplace interaction. Working from the premise that leaders are managers of meaning, and using transcripts of naturally-occurring stories that were video-taped during a business meet- ing, this paper uses positioning theory as a research methodology to explain how leadership and leader identities are achieved through narrative both at a discourse (little-d) and Discourse (big-D) levels. Findings indicate that certain participants at the meeting are able to use discursive resources to manage the meaning of the organisation in both the story world and the real world and so do leadership and talk into being a leader identity.
As part of a larger effort to develop an empirically grounded theory Of action, this article describes a previously undescribed action that occurs in talk-in-interaction. The practice of agreeing with another by repeating what they have said is shown to constitute the action of confirming an allusion-that is, confirming both its ''content'' and its prior inexplicit conveyance. The author reviews the past treatment of ''action'' in sociology and the key constraints on undertaking an empirically grounded account. The account of ''confirming allusions'' is offered to exemplify what this undertaking will involve: several instances of an unremarkable usage in conversation are displayed and used to formulate a puzzle, a database is developed for the exploration of the target usage, and a candidate solution to the puzzle is formulated, exemplified, and defended through a range of analytic techniques. The linkage between the practice and the action that it implements is analytically sketched by examining other uses of repetition in talk-in-interaction. Tn conclusion, the significance of both the theme and the analysis for studies of interaction and culture and for sociological theory is discussed.
The present paper explores the role language plays in establishing power relations in multicultural teams, understood as teams comprising members from three or more than three different national, cultural and linguistic backgrounds. To this end, the general relationship between language and power is examined in an initial theoretical section and subsequently probed from a practical viewpoint by reporting on the results yielded in a study recently carried out in Spain within the international research project ICOPROMO (Intercultural Competence for Professional Mobility). After characterising the latter and describing the sample of subjects who have integrated into the Spanish part of the study, this paper goes on to reflect their view of power in multicultural teams, with a clear focus on the relationship between mastery of the official team language and influence in such a team. The data obtained carries relevant implications, such as the need to consider language an integral component in current models of intercultural communicative competence or the significance of incorporating intercultural training in foreign language learning. (Contains 3 tables and 2 notes.)
In response to dramatic changes in the demographics of graduate education, considerable effort is being deveoted to training teaching assistants who are nonnative speakers of English (NNSTAs). Three studies extend earlier research that showed the potency of nonlanguage factors such as ethnicity in affecting undergraduates'' reactions to NNSTAs. Study 1 examined effects of instructor ethnicity, even when the instructor''s language was completely standard. Study 2 identified predictors of teacher ratings and listening comprehension from among several attitudinal and background variables. Study 3 was a pilot intervention effort in which undergraduates served as teaching coaches for NNSTAs. This intervention, however, exerted no detectable effect on undergraduates'' attitudes. Taken together, these findings warrant that intercultural sensitization for undergraduates must complement skills training for NNSTAs, but that this sensitization will not accrue from any superficial intervention program.
The organization of taking turns to talk is fundamental to conversation, as well as to other speech-exchange systems. A model for the turn-taking organization for conversation is proposed, and is examined for its compatibility with a list of grossly observable facts about conversation. The results of the examination suggest that, at least, a model for turn-taking in conversation will be characterized as locally managed, party-administered, interactionally controlled, and sensitive to recipient design. Several general consequences of the model are explicated, and contrasts are sketched with turn-taking organizations for other speech-exchange systems.
Positioning analysis penetrates beneath surface issues to their underlying psychological causes and social effects, with the intention of defusing conflict and preventing existing conflict from escalating. As the growing literature shows, positioning analysis methods are not only effective in interpersonal and intergroup problems, but have considerable potential for resolving disputes on the world stage. Global Conflict Resolution through Positioning Analysis starts with the daily disputes that result from our multiple social identities and evolving self-definitions, offers a new framework for understanding historical conflict, and brings vital new perspectives to current political and ideological battles. Twenty expert contributors examine scenarios as simple as a committee meeting of four people, as complicated as centuries-old social movements and the shifting tensions in the Middle East.
• Who speaks for Terri Schiavo?: a study in mutual hostility.
• Lawrence and Napoleon: military positioning, in victory and defeat.
• For and/or against one’s best interests?: a minority paradox.
• "Not the person I used to know": positioning in a case of dementia.
• Rwanda: the view from both sides of genocide.
• The nuclear edge: positioning by Iran, the European Union, and the U.S.
Its scope of coverage and depth of vision make Global Conflict Resolution through Positioning Analysis a reference as vital to professionals—negotiators and conflict managers, social and peace psychologists—as to students and researchers studying peace and conflict.
In order to internationalize higher education, universities across Asia have engaged in aggressive recruitment of international students and increased provision of English-medium instruction (EMI). While many studies have examined Asian international students’ intercultural interactions during class discussions in Western/English-speaking countries, little is known about how the diverse students interact in EMI classes in the newly internationalized universities in Asia. This study analyzed interviews with 82 graduate students in a Taiwanese university to examine their classroom participation and identity construction in EMI. Findings indicate that Taiwanese and international students diverge in their frequency, manner, and content of speech in whole class discussions. Students explained the contrast in terms of cultural and linguistic identities while they also reported a dynamic two-way adjustment in their classroom behaviors over time. Previous studies emphasized the need for context-oriented analysis of students’ intercultural classroom experiences and tended to focus on the classroom contexts. This study suggests that such contextualized analysis needs to also attend to the local linguistic contexts and power relations between languages and cultures as they are intertwined with the cultural and linguistic identity construction that influence classroom behaviors in the non-Western and non-native-English-speaking settings.
A fundamental way in which cultures differ is in the taken-for-granted systems of rights and duties implicit in the way lived storylines unfold in everyday social episodes. Positioning Theory developed as a method of analysis aimed at revealing the storylines and implicit (sometimes explicit) ascriptions and resistances to ascriptions of rights and duties to perform actions expressing social acts appropriate to the situations recognized by participants in a strip of life. Analysis reveals a mutual determining of the meanings of social actions as acts, lived storylines unfolding and local distributions of rights and duties so to act. The concept of "positioning" has taken on two main senses in these studies-as the attributes of a person or group relevant to positioning and, in the other sense, as an attribution of rights and duties. The extensive literature of positioning theory includes studies ranging over great differences of scale from the intrapositioning in which a person engages in private moral reflections through positioning issues between the members of a small group of people in intimate interaction, up to the positioning discourses of the protagonists of nation-states or religious communities.
Joint planning consists of people making proposals for future actions and events, and others accepting or rejecting these proposals. While proposals convey their speakers’ judgments of some ideas as feasible, however, in anticipation of and in an attempt to pre-empt the recipients’ rejection of their proposals, the speakers may begin to express doubt with the feasibility of their proposals. It is such “post-proposal displays of uncertainty,” and their interactional corollaries, that this paper focuses on. Drawing on video-recorded planning meetings as data, and conversation analysis as a method, I describe three ways for the recipients to respond to post-proposal displays of uncertainty: the recipients may (1) overcome, (2) confirm, or (3) dispel their co-participants’ doubts. Even if the outcome of the proposal, in each case, is its abandonment, the analysis points out to important differences in how these response options treat the first speakers’ “proximal deontic claims” – that is, their implicit assertions of rights to control the participants’ local interactional agenda. The paper concludes by discussing the idea of proximal deontics with reference to other related notions.
Based on an ethnographic study comprising interviews with and observations of 96 globally distributed members of six software development teams, we propose a model that captures how asymmetries in language fluency contribute to an us vs them dynamic common in global teams. Faultlines, formed along the dimensions of asymmetries in lingua franca fluency, location, and nationality of team members, were associated with subgrouping in some but not all of the teams. Our findings suggest that divisive subgroup dynamics occurred only in teams that also suffered from power contests, suggesting that power contests activate otherwise dormant faultlines. Our findings extend theory on subgroup dynamics in global teams by adding language as a potential faultline dimension, showing how power struggles activated faultlines and were, in turn, reinforced by them and documenting the emotion-regulation processes triggered by subgrouping and enacted through language-related choices and behaviors.
In this paper we briefly revisit politeness research influenced by Brown and Levinson's (1987) politeness theory. We argue that this research tradition does not deal with politeness but with the mitigation of face-threatening acts (FTAs) in general. In our understanding, politeness cannot just be equated with FTA-mitigation because politeness is a discursive concept. This means that what is polite (or impolite) should not be predicted by analysts. Instead, researchers should focus on the discursive struggle in which interactants engage. This reduces politeness to a much smaller part of facework than was assumed until the present, and it allows for interpretations that consider behavior to be merely appropriate and neither polite nor impolite. We propose that relational work, the "work" individuals invest in negotiating relationships with others, which includes impolite as well as polite or merely appropriate behavior, is a useful concept to help investigate the discursive struggle over politeness. We demonstrate this in close readings of five examples from naturally occurring interactions.
This article explores discourse and the business relationship at meetings attended by participants who come from a variety of cultures and use English as a common language. It shows how the analysis of selected linguistic features can be related to Goffman's (1974, 1981) notion of frames and participation frameworks, providing a richer analysis. Data for the study are audio recordings of an Italian company's meetings of its international distributors, attended by distributors from 12–15 countries, company members and occasional outside participants. After brießy describing the rationale for investigating selected categories of linguistic features, the article uses data extracts to illustrate the analysis and to show how language use by participants reßects and construes the business relationship. This relates to roles at the meeting as well as outside of the meeting, and it raises issues concerning elements of corporate culture and other levels of culture.
This article explores the evolving relationship between curriculum design, teacher perceptions, and the lived experience of students participating in an international programme of study within a U.K. university business school. The article illustrates the challenges inherent in supporting cross-cultural learning within diverse cohorts and explores the use of reflective learning strategies as a means of promoting cross-cultural understanding. It concludes with a discussion about the positioning of university curricula as international spaces within local contexts and questions the degree to which implicit pedagogical norms support inclusivity.
Measuring culture is a central issue in international management research and has been traditionally accomplished using indices of cultural values. Although a number of researchers have attempted to identify measures to account for the core elements of culture, there is no consensus on those measures. This article uses an alternative method—discourse analysis—to observe what actually occurs in terms of communication practices in intercultural decision-making meetings, specifically those involving U.S.-born native English speakers and participants from East Asian countries. Previous discourse studies in this area suggest that differences in communication practices may be attributed to power differentials or language competence. Our findings suggest that the conversation style differences we observed might be attributed to intergroup identity issues instead.
This paper is based on a year of ethnographic research in an American company in Japan. The company, a high-tech computer firm, has a policy of requiring English to be used in all overseas offices. Like most other foreign companies in Japan, this company has difficulty attracting high quality Japanese employees. They need to hire Japanese managers who have both business experience and English language skills. At the same time the company attempts to compete with the Japanese business community by hiring new college graduates, overlooking the English language requirement. As a result, there is considerable variation in the English language abilities of Japanese employees. This causes problems because the American managers insist on the use of English for meetings, classes, and any interactions involving foreigners. English facility and the ability to deal with Americans socially becomes a source of power for English proficient Japanese employees. The use of English and Japanese in the company becomes an important means of restricting access to information as well as a source of power and advancement to a subset of employees. Ethnographic examples of language use in the company as it relates to the issue of power brokerage and employee advancement in the company are presented in the paper.
High levels of trust and shared vision contribute to collaborative behaviour among units belonging to the same corporation. We examined the relationship of language fluency and socialization mechanisms to inter-unit shared vision and trustworthiness, using a sample of 310 inter-unit relationships involving subsidiaries of multinational corporations located in China and Finland. Results show that language fluency related significantly to shared vision and perceived trustworthiness in both the Chinese and Finnish subsidiaries. We also found socialization mechanisms to have a positive relationship to shared vision in the Chinese but not the Finnish sample, and no significant relationship to perceived trustworthiness in either sample. The interaction effects of language fluency and socialization mechanisms produced different results in the Chinese and Finnish samples. The study confirmed the importance of language fluency for inter-unit relationships and offered several suggestions for future research.
Non-native speech is harder to understand than native speech. We demonstrate that this “processing difficulty” causes non-native speakers to sound less credible. People judged trivia statements such as “Ants don't sleep” as less true when spoken by a non-native than a native speaker. When people were made aware of the source of their difficulty they were able to correct when the accent was mild but not when it was heavy. This effect was not due to stereotypes of prejudice against foreigners because it occurred even though speakers were merely reciting statements provided by a native speaker. Such reduction of credibility may have an insidious impact on millions of people, who routinely communicate in a language which is not their native tongue.
The present review seeks to bridge research on accents, stigma, and communication by examining the empirical literature on nonnative accents, considering the perspectives of both speakers and listeners. The authors suggest that an accent, or one's manner of pronunciation, differs from other types of stigma. They consider the role of communicative processes in the manner in which accents influence people and identify social and contextual factors related to accents that affect the speaker, the listener, and the interaction between them. The authors propose a framework of stigma of accents and possible future avenues of research to examine the social psychological and communicative effects of accents. They also discuss implications for stigma of other types of accents (e.g., other native, regional, and ethnic). Understanding how stigma of accents and communication affect each other provides a new theoretical approach to studying this type of stigma and can eventually lead to interventions.
Effects of second language proficiency on speaker perception
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Listening with an attitude: A model of native-speaker comprehension of non-native speakers in the United States
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Language and Discrimination: A Study of Communication in Multi-Ethnic Workplaces
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