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Legal status of artificial intelligence across countries: Legislation on the move

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Legal status of artificial intelligence across countries: Legislation on the move

Abstract

The paper explores current legal regulation on Artificial Intelligence (AI) across countries. The research argues that special emphasis should be laid to the prospective of treating AI as an autonomous legal personality, separate subject of law and control. The article identifies major approaches in legislation and practice on state regulation of AI and explores a number of current options: AI as a subject of law introduced into national legislation without prior background, AI as a subject of law equal to a person, and regulated or not regulated by separate rules of law, etc. The research rested on qualitative approach to study. The materials included national and international legislation, academic and media data. The study stood on the comparative legal analysis, integrated legal interpretation and modeling. The research findings laid grounds for preliminary recommendations on legal drafting with regard to AI status as that of autonomous legal personality. They can be used for national legislation development, further research on legal aspects of robotic AI. © 2018 International Strategic Management Association. All Rights Reserved.
European Research Studies Journal
Volume XXI, Issue 4, 2018 pp. 773 - 782
Legal Status of Artificial Intelligence Across Countries:
Legislation on the Move
A. Atabekov
1
, O. Yastrebov
2
Abstract:
The paper explores current legal regulation on Artificial Intelligence (AI) across countries.
The research argues that special emphasis should be laid to the prospective of treating AI as
an autonomous legal personality, separate subject of law and control.
The article identifies major approaches in legislation and practice on state regulation of AI
and explores a number of current options: AI as a subject of law introduced into national
legislation without prior background, AI as a subject of law equal to a person, and regulated
or not regulated by separate rules of law, etc.
The research rested on qualitative approach to study. The materials included national and
international legislation, academic and media data. The study stood on the comparative
legal analysis, integrated legal interpretation and modeling.
The research findings laid grounds for preliminary recommendations on legal drafting with
regard to AI status as that of autonomous legal personality. They can be used for national
legislation development, further research on legal aspects of robotic AI.
Keywords: AI, Chat Bot, Legal Personality, Legal Status.
JEL code: K23, K33.
1
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia – RUDN University, Moscow, Russia,
atabekoff1@mail.ru
2
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia RUDN University, Moscow, Russia,
rudnoleg@gmail.com
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774
1. Introduction
The technological paradigm of the digital economy forms new markets, that give rise
to new regulatory measures and subjects for control, including artificial intelligence
(AI). The above trend primarily concerns the formation of technologies that will
radically change the sustainable market economy, forcing professionals out of
different areas. Regarding lawyer, the situation offers little hope, right now there are
technologies that displace lawyers from the market (Nikolova et al., 2017).
One of the noteworthy projects that affects both the legal services market is the
emergence of the DoNotPay chat in the UK, and currently covers over 1,000 fields
of law (Mannes, 2017). The popularity of the above service is due to the fact that it
successfully challenged over 160,000 parking tickets issued illegally to car owners
(Gibbs, 2016), the processed requests amounted to 64%.
As regards the Russian market, Sberbank launched a robot lawyer to file claims for
individuals, the company GlavstrahControl launched a bot to settle insurance
disputes (Tsvetkova, 2017). At the same time, it is already impossible to stop the
current technological trend, therefore, the existing technological paradigm needs
legislative base to regulate AI. Both lawmakers and researchers focus on the issue
(Yastrebov, 2017).
In this regard, the present research states that significant weight should be attached
to the issue of treating artificial intellect as separate subject of control within civil
and administrative and also in criminal proceedings within the context AI competing
with human. The purpose of the study is to identify key trends in national
legislations on AI. The objectives of the study are the following:
- Research of current models of state regulation of AI across countries.
- Identification of challenges in the current and prospective model of administrative
and legal regulation of AI.
- Development of recommendations to improve the above regulatory apparatus.
2. Materials and Methods
The study was conducted within the qualitative paradigm and integrated data from
social, legislative and academic practice. Research materials integrated a number of
sources:
- legislative base and draft bills concerning AI regulation;
- research papers of Russian and foreign scholars who specialize in the field under
study;
- official media sources.
A. Atabekov, O. Yastrebov
775
The research methodology rested on comparative legal research, techniques of
analysis and synthesis, hypothesis formation, a method of interpretation of norms, a
method of legal modeling, etc. Due to the research period limits it was not possible
to cover the entire list and depth of legal phenomena in the field of AI. Therefore,
the first stage focused on two models of the current mechanism of state regulation of
AI that were selected as subject to study:
- introduction of AI in legal relations, as a subject of law without providing
legislative infrastructure;
- preparation for the introduction of AI in legal relations on the basis of the
comprehensive complex of legislative infrastructure.
At this stage, the analysis of regulatory sources and their interpretation was
implemented.
The second stage focused on some countries that develop the legislative base for
robotics - Estonia, Germany, the USA, Russia and make their policies public. This
stage explored the main features in determining the legal personality of the robot, the
basis for perspective legislation, formed by the state, business and legal experts. A
method of comparative legal research, generalization and a method of interpretation
of standard norms was mostly used at this stage.
The third stage used methods of legal interpreting and modeling to identify key legal
gaps within the framework of the two current paradigms to regulate legal relations
between a human and a robot.
3. Results and Discussion
The study made it possible to identify major basic approaches to AI state regulation
across the countries.
3.1. AI as subject of law introduced into national legislation without prior
background
Currently in general, the approach to AI is implemented either in the form of a
software package (virtual platform, chat bots, programs, etc., which do not have a
material shell), or programmatically (robot, drone, etc.) as an instrument for specific
goals laid down in the framework of legal relations formed by legal entities
(Vovchenko et al., 2017. At the same time, there are cases when actions with regard
to robot status contradict current national legal norms.
A case from Saudi Arabia:
Riyadh announced in 2017 that robot Sofia, that positions itself as a woman, was
granted the citizenship of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia Gives Citizenship, 2017). This
step contradicts to a number of laws that determine the model of behavior of subjects
Legal Status of Artificial Intelligence Across Countries: Legislation on the Move
776
of legal relations in different conditions. First it contradicts the norm of Saudi Arabia
citizenship that can be obtained in the following ways (Saudi Nationality System,
2018):
1. By birth;
• Birth in a traditional family, where the mother and father are Saudi Arabia citizens;
• The birth of a legal entity in Saudi Arabia, a family where the father is a citizen of
Saudi Arabia, and the mother is not a citizen of the country. At the same time, a
notarized acknowledgment of paternity is deemed to be necessary.
• The birth of the subject, by the mother of a Saudi citizen, where the father is not a
citizen of the RAA, provided that coming of age, the subject has a permanent
residence permit and is fluent in Arabic.
2. By marriage;
3. By naturalization under a number of conditions: reaching the legal age; fluent in
Arabic; settlement over 10 years; legitimate way of earning; no criminal record;
compliance with the norms of conduct set out in the country.
Furthermore, the case understudy contradicts the accepted model of female behavior
in Saudi Arabia society that introduces specific requirements to female activities,
including obligation to travel accompanied by a male mahram, hijab wearing, job
placement limits, limits to traveling abroad, restrictive issues in family life and
inheritance rules, and some other restrictions stemming from the Shariah.
Moreover, the robot citizenship contradicts the female rights in Saudi Arabia, where
a woman can perform public functions, through representation in a consultative
assembly (Shura), a number of women hold positions in the public service (Shaheen,
2011).
A case form Japan:
Japan in 2017 provided a residence permit for the chat bot Shibuya Mirai under a
special regulation (Cuthbertson, 2017). However, this action contradicts laws
regarding residence permit procedure in Japan. It is opened for foreign specialists
employed in Japanese companies, participants in the family reunification program,
entrepreneurs and investors doing business in Japan, scientists, artists and athletes of
world level, foreigners who married a Japanese citizen, foreign students when
studying at a Japanese higher educational institution, foreign citizens in special cases
(passing service, etc.). Citizenship granting in Japan is regulated by the Law on
Citizenship of Japan (Nationality Law of Japan, 2018).
The Law states two options, namely by birth or naturalization. In the case of birth,
the child should be born in Japan (without reference to the nationality of the
parents), or by the father, and the mother holding the Japanese citizenship. In the
case of naturalization, the person should live in Japan over 5 years, have legal
A. Atabekov, O. Yastrebov
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capacity and reach the age of twenty, have adequate standard of living, and no
affiliation with organizations associated with activities against Japan.
3.2. AI as subject of law, equal to a person, and not regulated by separate rules
of law
Bearing in mind above mentioned legal precedents of AI status as equal to human
being in Saudi Arabia and Japan, we consider in important to focus on the
procedural aspect of the public legal relations:
- Neither the chat bot, nor the robot Sofia, applied for citizenship (residence permit);
- Neither the chat bot nor the robot meets the criteria of capacity (age qualification);
- They do not meet the criteria of settledness;
- They do not speak the national language to the extent set out by law.
Due to the above formal criteria robot and the chatbot should have faced a refusal
when submitting the documents. Further problems arise for AI to comply with the
legislation specified by the host country. First, the emancipated woman is a robot
that does not comply with the requirements specified for clothing, ethics of behavior
(male escort), and this robot should have been brought to administrative and criminal
responsibility under the current Saudi Arabia legislation. As regards chat bot, there
are fewer problematic issues, as it does not have a material shell and is tied to the
location of the server.
Along with the duties AI also receives rights, as any citizen (or a resident who has
obtained a residence permit). In case of the robot Sophia, one should bear in mind
that now in Saudi Arabia women can act in the executive branches, participate in
labor relations and marry. However, there is no adequate state regulation with regard
to securing and terminating the respective legal relations. As a consequence, when
the robot is equated to a person, there will be a problem both in Sharia courts and in
courts of general jurisdiction, since the model of conduct is not specified by law.
In case of chat, the situation requires detailed consideration through a publicly-legal
prism. This AI performs publicly legal functions, and acts as an operational
intermediary in communication between the residents of Shibuya County and
government officials. Proceeding from the fact that this AI has received a residence
permit as a foreign specialist (created by Microsoft) or a civil servant (serving the
district), the question arises concerning the format of the employment contract, that
is the only formal ground to grant residence permit.
In addition, in case of incorrect or untimely advice given this could lead to legal
consequences since the legislation cannot record the fact of responsibility of AI
without a physical shell, and Microsoft, as a developer is insured by the fact that the
AI is a separate legal entity with all the ensuing consequences.
Legal Status of Artificial Intelligence Across Countries: Legislation on the Move
778
Considering the moral ethical aspect, the subjects under study do not have it.
Furthermore, in case of administrative or criminal claims being filed, corpus delicti
will be incomplete, due to the lack of intent (and its formal awareness).
3.3. AI as subject of law within the current and prospective legislation across
continents
Bearing in mind the above mentioned constrains most countries are quick to form
the necessary legislative framework, or advisory councils designed to resolve the
issue of regulating AI as a newly formed subject of law.
Thus, the UK formed the AI Committee in the House of Lords (Shead, 2017). The
US government does not strive to consider the legal status of AI as an individual
person and focus on the AI legal definition. Section 3 of the bill on AI provides the
AI generalizing definitions:
- Artificial systems capable of performing tasks without human presence
(autonomous systems);
- Systems that think as by analogy with the human brain and are able to pass the
Turing test or another comparable test by processing natural language, representing
knowledge, automated reasoning and learning;
- Systems that act rationally achieve goals through perception, planning, reasoning,
learning, communication, decision making and action (Cantwell, 2017).
As for EU countries, they pay specific attention to legal regulation of unmanned
vehicles. Thus, the German Traffic Act (Czarnecki, 2017) imposes the responsibility
for managing an automated or semi-automated vehicle on the owner and envisages
partial involvement of the Federal Ministry of Transport and the Digital
Infrastructure. A more comprehensive and understandable approach to the definition
of current and prospective legislation regarding robotics is presented in the EU
resolution on robotics (European Parliament Resolution, 2017). It defines types of
AI use, covers issues of liability, ethics, and provides basic rules of conduct for
developers, operators, and manufacturers in the field of robotics, the rules base on
the three laws of robot technology by Azimov (1942).
The first key issue is the autonomy of the robot endowed with AI and the degree of
third-party involvement in robot control. Hence, a legal conflict arises, as within the
framework of the current legislation the robot cannot be held liable for actions and
(or) inaction and as a result responsibility falls on the user, software developer, or
manufacturer.
At the same time, the EU resolution raises the issue of responsibility in the event that
the robot caused damage due to the decisions made by the robot itself (based on the
embedded algorithms) and the definition of the third party responsible for paying
compensation is impossible. At the same time, a special reservation is made about
A. Atabekov, O. Yastrebov
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AI, with the laid down principles of neural networks (self-learning), which actions
cannot be predicted in principle and as a consequence the current legal structure
cannot take into account their actions and as a consequence determine the guilty
party in the process. The above document is of vital importance as it leads to legal
harmonization in the field of robotic AI.
In Russia, there is a similar to the EU legislation bill, called the Grishin Law (2015),
It is under Russian Parliament consideration. The draft law introduces amendments
to the provisions of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, and regardless of the
robot's autonomy, imposes all the responsibility on the robot’s developer, operator,
or manufacturer, and includes issues of the robot’s representation in court,
supervisory agencies, etc. Moreover, there is a Model Convention on Robotics and
AI that introduces rules on creating and using robots and AI (Neznamov and
Naumov, 2017). The document seems to be well timed as it lays ground for specific
branch of legal regulations on AI creation and use in society.
3.4. Challenges to AI as separate subject of law, not equal to man and regulated
by separate rules of law
In case of the ongoing initiatives of the EU countries, the EU Parliament and Russia,
the legislative initiatives in force regarding robotics are presumed to be identical in
character, in which case the robot has limited legal capacity and all responsibility for
their actions rests with the owners. At the same time, there are a number of
challenging factors.
First of all, the EU resolution does not touch upon such issue as the possible scope of
the robot's application. The Russian legislation envisages a restrictive list of the
robot free use that is limited for exclusively peaceful purposes, as for current Civil
Code developments.
Hence, a number of problems arise. In case of drone use under the control of a
serviceman it is simply an instrument to fulfil an order, the responsibility for proper
and improper use falls on the serviceman. In case of a robot use for military
purposes, threat and danger to a person is initially embedded in the use of a tool for
respective tasks. Thus, the use of robot contradicts Azimov’s fundamental principles
that formed grounds of the EU resolution that was used by analogy when drafting
the bill.
On the other hand, military use of robots (drones) take place in Russia and abroad.
This raises the question of the conflict of Asimov's principles and the EU legislation,
etc. due to the current use of a robotic AI for a dual purpose.
The second essential factor is the lack of autonomous functioning of the robot. As a
result, the robot is just another type of vehicle, and the need for additional regulation
of the "modernized machine", in the spirit of this law disappears since responsibility
Legal Status of Artificial Intelligence Across Countries: Legislation on the Move
780
for any action lies solely on the developer, owner and so on. The EU resolution
provides a clear explanation that in case of complete autonomy of a robot there is
impossibility of involving a third person as responsible for the actions of the AI
robot and the situation requires special consideration and specific solutions.
We mention the third factor with regard to the Russian administrative legal
framework. This factor arises from the current situation when the issue regarding AI
status are included and developed within the Russian Civil code. To our mind the
logic of legal science and practices requires that the above-mentioned situations,
their evaluation, the authority of the national executive agencies with regard to
robotics should be specified in a separate legislative act, rather than in the Civil
Code of the Russian Federation.
4. Conclusions
The research findings made it possible to identify two paradigms of shaping legal
relations arising between robotic AI and a person, namely equalization of human
rights and that of the robot, one the one hand and the definition of legal personality
of a fully autonomous robotic AI, on the other.
In case of the equalization of human rights and the robot, we encounter the problem
of the current legislative infrastructure, and the lack of effective regulatory
mechanisms for this subject. Since in the event of an administrative, criminal or any
other incident, the executive bodies will face the challenge to determine the corpus
delicti, to form effective instruments to influence behavior, and to determine the
third party’s participation in the offence committed by robotic AI.
Furthermore, the current legislation admits that public authority functions could be
implemented by robotic AI. Thus, arises the issue of the legal capacity legitimacy
and the assessment of subsequent legal risks due to use of self-learning robotic AI.
Robotic AI does not have a moral and ethical set of qualities that should be inherent
in a civil servant.
The second paradigm of relations arising between robotic AI and man, implies the
formation of some promising legislative base. At the same time, so far, the issue of
the legal personality of a fully autonomous robotic AI, its legal capacity and
responsibility has not been resolved in the current versions of national legislations.
In the current variation of the law, in case of illegal incident the entire lies solely
with the owner, developer, or operator of the AI. This approach significantly limits
the prospect of the robotic AI development. Consequently, its use is possible only in
the context of human complementary functions.
Therefore, we consider it timely to develop legal vision of the specific purpose of
robotic AI, to explore and identify its legal nature in correspondence to the "spirit"
of the law specified as the basic concept of prospective legislation.
A. Atabekov, O. Yastrebov
781
Bearing in mind the research results the authors would recommend to the Russian
lawmakers to consider the following:
- The possibility of introducing a self-regulation institute in the field of robotics,
which will be able to develop standards and codes of conduct that are mandatory for
owners and owners of robot agents to comply with, as well as by the robot agents
themselves.
- The introduction of such an institution as the authorized body at the national
(federal) level in the field of robotics, that will be able to determine the types of
activity acceptable for robots, taking into account the fact that the robot is a source
of great danger.
5. Acknowledgements
The publication has been prepared with the support of the RUDN 5-100 project.
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... This would exempt the human actors from their mistakes, which they can do in the designing, manufacturing, and operating stages [17]. Even though the imposition of legal personhood to robots seems to be a fantasy today, this will surely be true shortly for controlling the large-scale human-robot interactions [18]. ...
... 28 A draft law was introduced in 2017 by a "Global law firm" on robotics in Russia. 29 This draft proposed certain amendments in the "Civil Code of Russian Federation." 30 The Draft 21 GOV.UK, "A Guide to Using Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector," GOV.UK, accessed January 26, 2022, https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/a-guide-to-using-artificial-intelligence-in-the-publicsector; Arzak Khan, "Artificial intelligence and its impact on freedom of opinion and expression in Pakistan," Global Information Society Watch, accessed January 26, 2022, https://giswatch.org/node/6181. ...
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The development of AI has been an explosive process, permeating almost all areas of life. During this rapid evolution, the legal profession has been slow to catch up. This is especially true for international law, which seemingly remains indecisive regarding whether it has a role to play at all. This article aims at mapping out converging points between AI and international law. Through separating key elements of the definition and nature of AI, the possibility of its legal personality and the means by which AI may become a subject of international law are analysed. Utilizing various modalities regarding legal personality, such as that of inanimate objects, corporations and natural persons, the paper presents avenues for if and when decision-makers want to regulate the field. Last, the advantages and problems with bestowing legal personality and the potential future directions of international regulation are observed.
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Artificial intelligence (AI) characterizes a new generation of technologies capable of interacting with the environment and aiming to simulate human intelligence. The success of integrating AI into organizations critically depends on workers' trust in AI technology. Trust is a central component of the interaction between people and AI, as incorrect levels of trust may cause misuse, abuse or disuse of the technology. The European Commission's High-level Expert Group on AI (HLEG) have adopted the position that we should establish a relationship of trust with AI and should cultivate trustworthy AI. This article investigates the links between trust in AI, concerns related to AI use, and the ethics related to such use. We used data collected in 2019 from more than 30,000 individuals across the EU28. The data focuses on living conditions, trust, and AI uses and concerns. An econometric model is used. The endogenous variable is an ordered measure of trust in AI. We use an ordered logit model to highlight the factors associated with an increased level of trust in AI in Europe. The results show that many concerns related to AI use are linked to AI trust, and the ability to try out AI applications will also have an impact on initial trust. To enhance trust, practitioners can try to maximize the technological features in AI systems. The representation of the AI as a humanoid or a loyal pet (e.g., a dog) will facilitate initial trust formation. Moreover, findings reveal an unequal degree of trust in AI across countries.
Article
Our intelligence is what make us humans unique and Artificial Intelligence is an extension of that quality which makes them as humanoids. By 2029, an estimation of 95% of human interactions will be supported by Artificial Intelligence technologies. Humans have dynamic existence in the world, an existence which excesses in knowledge, analysis, expression, ideas and many more. With the rapid development of computer science and data technological dependence, it has been observed that Robots and Artificial Intelligence are making their way to get fit into the human world as a Humanoid Versions. Subsequently, they are even trying to support the present Health Care structure across the world and wanted to be present among the Doctors, Nurses, Hospitals and many other to solve and assist in the medical errands. Currently, both patient and health professionals are based on human interactions which forms the natural foundation of health care. Field of Health-care is data-intensive which leads it to perform complex tasks and compare and analyse huge volume of data and try to classify it. This paper gives an immense dimension to the Collaborative Intelligence that means involvement of both Human and Artificial mankind in the Health sector. So, when new inventions and discoveries are coming up, we know that Intellectual Property comes into the picturesque as it protects and give some bundle of monopolistic rights to the true owner or inventor. This paper gives comprehensive analysis to the Human Intelligence vs. Artificial Intelligence in the context of legality and acceptance from the lens of the society. This paper also highlights about mapping the Artificial Intelligence in the health care sector in regards with an outlook of Intellectual Property subject-matter. This paper also reflects an idea about Technology transfer and Know-How move towards AI-based medical machines and technologies from the Indian health care perspective. This paper concludes with the necessary improvements in AI or Human Assisting Machines as well.
Article
The impact of globalization on macro-economic processes is undisputable. However, it has an indirect impact on macro-economic processes, too. The current stage of the globalization development differs from the previous ones by the increased role and independence in managing innovative processes. It requires changes in approaches and methods of estimating the innovation project risks. The existing methods and ways to estimate risks of an innovation project do not allow defining the impact of globalization on its efficiency. That is why there is a need to develop new approaches and methods that take into account the state of the market, and to apply new financial instruments and strategies. The work researches the impact of globalization on estimating risks of the innovation project. For this purpose the selection of a regulation type -An integrated corporate structure (ICS) to solve international problems, terms and conditions of forming it and stable functioning model were stipulated. The research novelty is related to the stipulation of the hypothetic model of ICS and innovation project in the form of the system formed by using three interdependent systems: ICS system, risks system, and system of conditionally defined stages of implementation. It allowed revealing the impact of globalization on the estimation of the innovation project risks. The aggregate of these systems is a model of globalization (ICS) and the real innovation project. In order to solve this task, we used the system approach to analyzing and estimating processes, the factorial analysis of many-stage processes, decision-making techniques, and the S. Pontriagin's analytical method. The research resulted in forming the model to estimate the ICS impact on risks of the innovation project.
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