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History and Realistic of the 2nd Law

of Thermodynamics

Miao.Bo

(Shenzhen BYD)

email:zbl1905@126.com

Abstract:

1. The second law of thermodynamics was established from 1824 to 1851, when the

theoretical and experimental level was limited. The three masters proposed that

the second law of thermodynamics would inevitably have certain subjectivity.

2. Carnot's shortcomings: Regarding the important factor (temperature) which

affects the efficiency of heat engine as the decisive factor,

3. The logical errors in deducing Carnot efficiency from irreversibility:

interdisciplinary demonstration, logical jump,

4. the deviation of the second law of thermodynamics (Maxwell formula, etc.) is

large, and the deviation rate is 14.6%.

5. Data processing of the second law of thermodynamics conceals the deviation rate

of quantitative calculation of the second law of thermodynamics.

Key words: Carnot's theorem ,the second law of thermodynamics

0. History of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics was established by three people: Cano, Clausius

and Kelvin. The time was 1824-1851, when the level of theory and experiment was limited.

It was good to know that the first law of thermodynamics (proposed around 1840) was put

forward. Three masters put forward the second law of thermodynamics, which is bound to

have certain subjectivity.

Carnot's contribution: 1) to study thermodynamic efficiency by means of

thermodynamic cycle; 2) to find an important factor affecting thermodynamic efficiency:

temperature.

Carnot's shortcomings: 1) Regarding the important factor (temperature) which affects

the efficiency of heat engine as the decisive factor, temperature is in a special position in

the Carnot cycle defined by him. Molecular interaction is also a factor affecting the

efficiency of heat engines, which Cano did not consider is the result of the times.

Clausius and Kelvin's research is based on two points: 1) opposing perpetual motion. 2)

The irreversibility of dynamics. Starting from these two points and combining with the first

law of thermodynamics, the Kano conclusion is doubled and the Kano efficiency is

obtained. Next, I will discuss the shortcomings of Clausius and Kelvin.

1. Logical error of the second law of thermodynamics:

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interdisciplinary demonstration, logical jump.

The starting point of thermodynamic logic is: 1) opposing perpetual motion. 2) The

irreversibility of dynamics. Let's look at how to get Carnot efficiency = 1-T1/T2.

1.1 There are many kinds of type 2 perpetual motors, each of which is a natural

phenomenon.

A) Machine A: against the irreversibility of thermodynamics (diffusion, heat

conduction, friction, etc) - dynamics;

B) Machine B: Utilizing the Difference of Carnot Efficiency (Reversible

Thermodynamics) - Thermodynamics

1.2 A and B belong to different disciplines. There is a parallel relationship between

them and there is no logical mutual inevitability.

1.3. Logic of the Second Law of Thermodynamics:

Experience induction, deny that A machine==> B machine can not be

manufactured==> All material Kano efficiency: 1-T1/T2.

1.4 The logic of the second law of thermodynamics violates the physical logic that A

and B cannot be inferred from each other.

1.5 The second law of thermodynamics elevates the "irreversibility", which is in fact

only a kinetic experience.

Detailed discussion can be found in the following figure.

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2. A specific case: the deviation rate of quantitative

calculation of the second law of thermodynamics is 14.6%.

The second law of thermodynamics: Maxwell's Equation, Clapellon's Equation and so

on establish the relationship between the equation of state and internal energy. There is

only one narrow purpose, Kano efficiency = 1-T1/T2. These calculations are generally

inaccurate. Here is a case from the famous scientific book Properties of Gases and

Liquids.

2.1: The following figure is from the authoritative book Properties of Gases and Liquids,

which calculates enthalpy change H1 from the equation of state. From Fig. 1A, the

accuracy of the equation of state is very high, but the enthalpy deviation rate derived is

very large. The theoretical basis of the derivation is the thermal 2 differential equation.

2.2 The deviation rate of state equation (< 1%) and enthalpy variation deviation rate

are used to plot (Fig. 2). Without considering two abnormal points, the deviation rate is

regularly arranged. The intersection point of fitting line and Y axis C (0,0.146) and the

deviation rate of the second law differential equation is 14.6%.

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Such examples are common. Such a large deviation rate is beyond the limits that

scientists can tolerate, but how do scientists "solve" the problem?

2. Modify the experimental data to satisfy the second law of

thermodynamics

The deviation rate between the second law of thermodynamics and the experiment

is 14.6%. No silly editor would accept such a result. All scientists can do is cover up the

problem. There are about the following ways:

1. The dilution of the second law of thermodynamics.

Equation of state for gases: P=P=P+P 1

Internal Energy of Gas: E=E0+E1

P 0, E0 ---- Pressure and internal energy of ideal gas.

P1, E1 ---The deviation of pressure and internal energy of real gas from ideal gas.

The second law of thermodynamics is only related to P1 and E1, and its deviation rate

is equal to dE1/E1.Scientists treated the deviation rate as: dE1/E= dE1/(E0+E1)

The deviation rate of 14.6% becomes 1-2%.

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2. Modify the experimental data to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics

2.1, Law 2: The change of internal energy derived from the equation of state does not

agree with the experiment. So scientists invented the second law of thermodynamics, the

essence of which is to modify experimental data and attach heat II.

2.2. The second law of thermodynamics: Helmholtz equation of state of energy, as its

name implies, contains the equation of state of energy. Helmholtz is the relationship

between the second law of thermodynamics. It is very impressive to use the second law of

thermodynamics to make up the equation of state and internal energy.

2.3. The original equation of state: P = P (V, T).

2.4.Thermal difining: Fitting the equation of state, considering the relationship between

internal energy and the second law of thermodynamics, P1 = P1 (V, T, E). And direct fitting

P=P (V, T), there will be differences with P and P1. The difference is that the experimental

data are modified to fit the second law of thermodynamics.

参考文献

[1] Poling, B. E. . (1977).

The Properties of Gases and Liquids

. McGraw-Hill.