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The relationship between CrossFit performance and grip strength


Abstract and Figures

There is a growing interest in maximizing CrossFit (CF) performance as the sport becomes more economically viable at elite levels. The ability to delineate the physiological demands of the sport of CF allows coaches and athletes to develop more efficacious exercise programming in order to maximize the athlete’s potential for success at the most elite and lucrative levels of competition. There is also a growing interest in increasing health and fitness in the general population as obesity and chronic disease rates continue to rise. Hand grip strength (HGS) is an indicator of total body strength, mortality, morbidity and independence among aging adults. Given that CF is the “Sport of Fitness”, it would be of interest to determine the relationship between HGS and CF performance. The current study examined the relationship between CF performance and hand grip strength (HGS). It was hypothesized that CF performance would have a meaningful significant relationship with HGS. Fifteen (n=15) female CF participants (age 30.9±7.1 years, height 160.3±4.8 cm, body mass 64.5±9.6 kg) of varying experience levels (51.9±30.6 months) were assessed for HGS and CF performance measures. The CF performance measures were assessed via a Workout of the Day (WOD) comprised of 3 rounds of 30 seconds at each of the following stations: fan bike (FB) for maximum calories, air squats (AS) for maximum repetitions, sit-ups (SU) for maximum repetitions, and burpees (BP) for maximum repetitions. Each 30 second work interval was followed by 2 minutes and 30 seconds of rest to ensure full recovery of the phosphagen energy system. Scores were reported as the mean number of repetitions completed across the 3 attempts at each movement station. Individual movements as well as total repetitions were then compared to HGS with Pearson correlation coefficients (r). Sit-up performance demonstrated a positive moderately (r=0.44) significant relationship with mean HGS (p<0.05). Neither total WOD performance nor any other individual movement had a significant relationship with HGS (p>0.05). Within the parameters of this study, CF participants exhibited a moderate relationship between HGS and sit-up scores.
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Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21 Original Research
The relationship between CrossFit performance and grip
Emily Haynes ,
Mark DeBeliso
Southern Utah University, Department of Kinesiology and Outdoor Recreation, Cedar City, UT, USA
Abstract. There is a growing interest in maximizing
CrossFit (CF) performance as the sport becomes more
economically viable at elite levels. The ability to delineate
the physiological demands of the sport of CF allows
coaches and athletes to develop more efficacious exercise
programming in order to maximize the athlete’s potential
for success at the most elite and lucrative levels of
competition. There is also a growing interest in increasing
health and fitness in the general population as obesity and
chronic disease rates continue to rise. Hand grip strength
(HGS) is an indicator of total body strength, mortality,
morbidity and independence among aging adults. Given
that CF is the “Sport of Fitness”, it would be of interest to
determine the relationship between HGS and CF
performance. The current study examined the relationship
between CF performance and hand grip strength (HGS). It
was hypothesized that CF performance would have a
meaningful significant relationship with HGS. Fifteen
(n=15) female CF participants (age 30.9±7.1 years, height
160.3±4.8 cm, body mass 64.5±9.6 kg) of varying
experience levels (51.9±30.6 months) were assessed for
HGS and CF performance measures. The CF performance
measures were assessed via a Workout of the Day (WOD)
comprised of 3 rounds of 30 seconds at each of the
following stations: fan bike (FB) for maximum calories, air
squats (AS) for maximum repetitions, sit-ups (SU) for
maximum repetitions, and burpees (BP) for maximum
repetitions. Each 30 second work interval was followed by
2 minutes and 30 seconds of rest to ensure full recovery of
the phosphagen energy system. Scores were reported as
the mean number of repetitions completed across the 3
attempts at each movement station. Individual
movements as well as total repetitions were then
compared to HGS with Pearson correlation coefficients (r).
Sit-up performance demonstrated a positive moderately
(r=0.44) significant relationship with mean HGS (p<0.05).
Neither total WOD performance nor any other individual
movement had a significant relationship with HGS
(p>0.05). Within the parameters of this study, CF
participants exhibited a moderate relationship between
HGS and sit-up scores.
Keywords. CrossFit, dynamometer, grip strength.
CrossFit™ (CF) was founded in 2000 by Greg
Glassman in Santa Cruz, California and its
popularity has been increasing exponentially since.
There are now over 13,000 affiliate gyms located
across 142 different countries (Beers, 2014). CF
defines itself as constantly varied functional
movements performed with high intensity over
broad time and modal domains (CrossFit Inc.,
2017a). Some practitioners use CF in order to increase
general physical preparedness and overall health
and fitness. Others practice CF as a performance
sport and attend a growing number of CF
competitions (CrossFit Inc., 2017b). As the
competition side of CF grows, more lucrative
endorsement deals and prize purses are becoming
available, continuing to spur rapid growth and
increased involvement. The male and female
Received: January 21, 2019 - Accepted: February 20, 2019 - Published: March 30, 2019
To cite this article: Haynes E, DeBeliso M. The relationship between CrossFit performance and grip strength. Turk J Kinesiol, 2019; 5(1): 15-21.
M. DeBeliso, e-mail: DOI: 10.31459/turkjkin.515874
CrossFit and grip strength 16
Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
winners of the Reebok CrossFit Games™ each take
home $300,000 (The Reebok CrossFit Games
Competition Rulebook, 2018), and Reebok offers a
minimum of another $400,000 in endorsements
amongst Games athletes of their choosing
(Pyfferoen, 2018). Likewise, Nike and other brands
have also started to endorse CF athletes (Guelde,
2014), as such, becoming an elite CF athlete has
become a viable full time job.
Despite the burgeoning business of competitive
CF, research is still scarce regarding the
physiological demands of the sport. Crossfit aims to
improve fitness across 10 domains: cardiovascular
and respiratory endurance, stamina, strength,
flexibility, power, speed, coordination, agility,
balance, and accuracy (Glassman, 2002).
Comparisons between traditional resistance training
(RT) methods and CF were initially favorable, with
CF ranking equally or more efficacious for
developing strength and power (Barfield, Channell,
Pugh, Tuck, Pendel, 2012; Barfield & Anderson, 2014;
De Sousa et al, 2016; Fernández-Fernández et al.,
2015). However, a recent meta-analysis (Claudino et
al., 2018) determined that of the 10 fitness domains
that CF claims to address, only 5 have been
researched: cardiovascular and respiratory
endurance, stamina, strength, flexibility, and power
(Eather et al., 2016; Murawska-Cialowicz et al., 2015).
The remaining 5 domains (speed, coordination,
agility, balance, and accuracy) have yet to be
Several studies have examined body composition
(BC) changes due to CF, presumably as a measure of
health, with mixed results. Healthy but sedentary
participants showed no significant changes in BC
after 8 weeks of CF (Heinrich, 2014), but sedentary
cancer survivors showed significant decreases in fat
mass and relative body fat as well as significant
increases in lean body mass after only 5 weeks of CF
training (Heinrich, 2015). Participants who were
already physically active had significant changes in
lean body mass after 12 weeks of CF training, but
only females showed a significant decrease in body
mass index (BMI) and relative body fat (Murawska,
2014). Female teenagers also showed significant
decreases in BMI with 8 weeks of CF Teens training,
but their male counterparts did not (Eather, 2015).
Finally, a recent meta-analysis of CF literature to has
found no significant relationship between CF
training and any assessment of BC. The meta-
analysis also determined that only 6% of included CF
studies had a high level of evidence at a low risk of
bias (Claudino, 2018).
In the sport of CrossFit, it follows that
competitions are a test of the 10 CF domains
(cardiovascular and respiratory endurance, stamina,
strength, flexibility, power, speed, coordination,
agility, balance, and accuracy) (CrossFit Inc., 2017).
Researchers have determined relationships between
exogenous characteristics and performance in many
other sports, but the CF field is relatively unexplored.
Crossfit is, however, unique in that it is comprised of
several other sports - an elite CF athlete must be a
proficient weightlifter, powerlifter, and gymnast, as
well as a sprinter and an endurance athlete. Notably,
researchers have found significant relationships
between hand grip strength (HGS) and performance
amongst weightlifters, raw powerlifters, and
gymnasts. Fry et al. (2006) determined that 84% of
American junior male weightlifters could be
successfully predicted to be elite or non-elite based
on body mass index (BMI), vertical jump, relative fat,
HGS, and torso angle during an overhead squat
(2006). Schoffstall et al. (2010) found that HGS of raw
powerlifters correlated significantly with their squat
(r=0.95), bench press (r=0.98), deadlift (r=0.97), and
total (r=0.97). Powerlifters were also found to have
significantly greater HGS than gymnasts, who, in
turn, had significantly greater HGS than non-
exercisers (Ruprai et al., 2016). Regarding sport
performance, HGS has been documented to be a
covariant of lean muscle mass, sprinting and
jumping ability, and training experience (Cronin,
2017), all of which are likely related to CF
performance. As such, it would seem reasonable to
17 Haynes & DeBeliso, 2019
Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
suspect that there is a meaningful relationship
between CF performance and HGS.
Hand grip strength may also be of particular
interest to CF practitioners with goals of basic health
and fitness, rather than performance. Though HGS
was used in only one of the existing CrossFit studies
(Meier et al., 2015), HGS is widely used as a
predictive measure of several health markers. The
Honolulu Heart Program (Rantanen et al., 1999)
began in 1965 with 6089 Japanese-American healthy
men, then aged 45 to 68 years. At the initiation of the
program maximal HGS was assessed. By the 1991-
1993 follow period, 2259 men had died. Of the
remaining survivors, 3218 men participated in the re-
assessment of HGS. Greater decrements in HGS were
associated with greater functional limitations over
the interceding 25 years. Men who tested in the
lowest third of HGS upon re-testing were at more
than 2 times the risk of self-care disability than those
in the highest third of HGS. In other words, HGS in
men aged 45 to 68 years is highly predictive of their
ability to independently care for themselves 25 years
Other studies have indicated that HGS is a good
predictor of total body strength and functional
ability (DeBeliso et al., 2015a; DeBeliso et al., 2015b),
total muscle strength (Wind et al., 2010), mortality
(Granic et al., 2017), morbidity (Norman et al., 2011),
and cognition (Praetorious et al., 2016) in aging
adults. Among participants at least 85 years old, a
decline in HGS over the subsequent 10 years was
indicative of a 16% greater risk of mortality in men
and a 33% greater risk in women. Those that
improved their HGS decreased their risk of mortality
by 31% (Granic et al., 2017). In elderly pneumonia
patients admitted to a hospital, HGS was highly
predictive of death and/or readmission within 1 year
of discharge (Bohannon et al., 2004). In participants
who completed baseline testing at 80 years of age and
re-testing at 2 year intervals thereafter, decrements in
HGS occurred conjointly with decrements in
cognition. The closer to death the participants
became, the closer the association between the two
measures (Praetorious et al., 2016). Among male and
female participants over the age of 50, those with one
chronic disease had significantly lower HGS values
than those without a chronic condition, and those
suffering from multi-morbidity had significantly
lower values than those with only one disease (Yorke
et al., 2015).
As elderly populations struggle with frailty, loss
of independence, morbidity, and decreased quality
of life, the likelihood of decline in these areas is
accurately associated with diminished HGS. It
would be worthwhile to investigate which particular
exercise protocols are most efficacious in improving
HGS as a marker of overall health and fitness.
Certain programs have already demonstrated the
ability to improve HGS. A 30 day yoga camp
significantly improved HGS in both male and female
adults. Ten days of yoga was enough to significantly
improve the HGS of children, and 15 days
significantly improved HGS in patients with
rheumatoid arthritis (Dash, 2001). In college-aged
adults, right hand HGS improved significantly after
5 weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)
with kettlebells and battle ropes. Notably, left hand
HGS showed no significant changes (Meier, 2015).
However, a study that compared light physical
exercise with a health education program for 72- to
84-year-olds found no improvement in HGS related
to either treatment (Santanasto, 2017), indicating that
perhaps a certain level of intensity or frequency of
exercise is required in order to improve HGS and,
accordingly, the associated health benefits.
Further research to determine the parameters of
exercise type, intensity, frequency, and volume
necessary to elicit measurable improvements in HGS
aging and general populations would appear
warranted. Given the growing popularity of CF, its
geographical availability, and its demonstrated high
levels of community, satisfaction, and motivation
(Claudino et al., 2018), CF has the potential to be an
excellent program choice for those seeking to
improve overall health and fitness. It would be of
interest to examine the relationship between CF and
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Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
HGS, as an association between the two would
indicate that CF may lead to measurable
improvements in health that would support the
preservation of independence and full faculties into
senior years. As such, the purpose of the current
study is to examine the relationship between HGS
and CF performance.
A convenience sample of 15 female CrossFit athletes
over the age of 18 were recruited from CrossFit 215,
which is housed within Requisite Fitness in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. All participants were
healthy, non-pregnant women with 3 to 96 months of
CrossFit experience. Participants were free of any
neuromuscular, orthopedic, or neurological
conditions that might interfere with physical activity.
They were recruited via an email sent out to the
entire membership body, calling for volunteers.
Prior to any testing or assessment, permission
from the Institutional Review Board was obtained.
Each participant was provided with a written
informed consent form to read and sign before they
were included in the study. It was made abundantly
clear to all participants that participation was strictly
voluntary and could be withdrawn at any time for
any reason.
Instruments and apparatus
Hand grip strength was measured using a Camry
hydraulic hand grip dynamometer (EH101; Camry,
Guangdong Province, China) (range 0-90 kg;
accuracy 0.1 kg) (Latorre Román, 2017), loaned from
Subversus Fitness in Philadelphia, PA. Participants
took part in a specially programmed CF
Workout of the Day (WOD) using Assault AirBike
fan bikes, a Rogue AB-2 ab-mat, and bodyweight
Five separate workout stations were set up with
screens between each so that participants could not
see each other. Each station measured a minimum of
1.8 meters by 1.8 meters and consisted of one fan
bike, one ab-mat, and ample space to complete the
required bodyweight movements. Due to the
potential confusion around actual time at which to
work or rest, each station was equipped with its own
timing sheet, instructing the participant which
movement to execute at which time on the clock. The
workout was timed using a Muscle Driver USA
programmable gym timer (No Limits; MDUSA,
South Carolina, USA).
Figure 1. Assault AirBike and Rogue ab-mat for sit-ups at the Requisite Fitness in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US.
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Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
The study was administered in three (3) separate one
(1) hour increments, and participants chose which
hour to attend based on preference and availability.
There were 2 sessions on November 3 at 9 a.m. and
10 a.m., and one session on November 6 at 4:30 p.m.
It has been demonstrated that HGS does not vary
throughout the day (Patel, 2004, Young et. al, 1989).
Upon arrival, participants were individually taken to
a private room where their height, weight, dominant
hand, age, and number of months of CF experience
were recorded. Participants were measured without
shoes or excessive clothing.
The Camry dynamometer was then used to assess
HGS using the guidelines set forth by the American
Society of Hand Therapists: the shoulder was
adducted and neutrally rotated, with the elbow at 90°
flexion and a neutral forearm. Participants were
allowed to self-select wrist position to allow for
maximal gripping (Fess, 1981). The standard
instructions given were as follows: “squeeze the
gauge as hard as you possibly can while maintaining
this standard position.” Subjects completed their
trials on their dominant hand, then rested for 1
minute before repeating for a total of 3 trials. Each
HGS trail lasted 3 seconds. A running stopwatch was
visible to both the administrator and participant at
all times. Dynamometer readings were recorded by
hand and later transferred to an electronic database.
The intraclass reliability coefficient (ICC) for the
three trials of HGS scores was calculated as ICC=0.89.
Upon completion of HGS testing, all participants
were brought to the main part of the facility as a
group for a dynamic warm-up. The dynamic warm-
up consisted of two rounds of one minute on the fan
bike, ten Spiderman steps, ten scapula push-ups, and
ten air squats. In each hour increment, there were
five (5) participants. The WOD was then explained to
the group as follows:
You will complete three (3) rounds of thirty (30)
seconds of work at each of four stations, with two and a
half (2.5) minutes of rest between each station. The four
stations will be fan bike, air squats, sit-ups, and burpees.
Complete as many repetitions at each station as you can.
The fan bike will be measured in calories. Do not concern
yourself with counting your repetitions - I will be
counting for you. I will not count out loud.
Each movement was demonstrated for the
participants before they were given time to ask
clarifying questions. Air squat standards required
participants to break parallel at the bottom and fully
extend their hips at the top. Sit-up standards
required participants to lower their upper bodies to
the floor, touching the floor with their hands above
their heads, then sit-up to a point at which the
shoulders crossed the vertical line of the hips. Burpee
standards required participants to touch their chest
to the floor then jump and clap with arms fully
extended overhead. No standards were given
regarding the fan bike. Due to previous CF
experience, all participants were familiar with the
movements and standards.
Each participant was led to their randomly
assigned workout station. Participants were not told
their scores at any point during the workout. The
working period at each station began with the
administrator instructing “begin.” At thirty (30)
seconds in, the administrator instructed the
participant to rest. The two minute and thirty second
rest periods were included to ensure full recovery of
the ATP-CP pathway after its dominant role in the
work period (Baechle & Earle, 2008; Martinopoulou
et al., 2011). Each station completed the workout in a
staggered fashion, so that participants were working
while the others were resting at their respective
stations. This was done solely in the name of
expediency. Participants were allowed to bring
water to their station and hydrate at their discretion.
Upon completion of the WOD, participants were
informed that they had permission to use any space
or equipment in the gym in order to cool down for
the subsequent fifteen minutes. Participants were
reminded not to speak with each other or any
incoming new participants about any part of the
17 Haynes & DeBeliso, 2019
Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
testing. All WOD data was recorded by hand and
later transferred to an electronic database.
The WOD was designed in a manner to assess
movements that did not involve the manipulation of
implements in attempt to separate CF performance
in general from barbell or gymnastics-specific
Design and analysis
The variables assessed in this study included: HGS
(kgs), fan bike (calories), air squats (repetitions), sit-
ups (repetitions), and burpees (repetitions). The
association between HGS and the four exercise
making up the WOD (fan bike, air squats, sit-ups,
and burpees) were conducted with Pearson
correlation coefficients (r). Individual HGS scores
were also compared to normative values as set forth
by Wang et al. (2018). Significance for the study was
set a priori α≤0.05. All statistical analyses were
completed in MS Excel 2013. The data analysis
spread sheet was peer reviewed for accuracy as
described by Al Tarawneh & Thorne (2017).
Fifteen female participants (right-handed=14, left-
handed=1) completed the study without incident
and the demographics are presented in Table 1. The
average age, height, body mass, and CF experience
were: 30.9±7.1 years, 160.3±4.8 cm, 64.5±9.6 kg, and
51.9±30.6 months respectively. The results of the
Pearson correlation coefficients (r) suggested a
moderately significant relationship between HGS
and sit-up performance (p<0.05) (see Table 5). No
significant relationships were found between HGS
and total performance, fan bike performance, air
squat performance, or burpee performance (p>0.05).
The average fan bike performance was 9.9±2.3
calories in 30 seconds. The average air squat
performance was 27.3±3.4 repetitions. The average
sit-up performance was 16.5±2.5 repetitions. The
average burpee performance was 11.5±1.8
repetitions. Ten (10) participants scored at or above
their normative reference value for HGS, presented
in Table 4. The remaining 5 scored below.
Table 1
Participant descriptive information (Mean ± SD).
Height (cm)
Mass (kg)
Experience (months)
Female (n=15)
Table 2
Workout of the day (WOD) scores.
Fan Bike
Air Squats
Total Score
Female (n=15)
Average across three trials; Mean ± SD
Table 3
HGS trial data (kg).
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trials Total
Trials Mean
Female (n=15)
Average across three trials; Mean ± SD
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Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
Table 4
Measured HGS compared to reference values and experience.
Mean HGS (kg)
Normative Percentile
Range (Actual)
CF Experience
Table 5
Summary of comparison of total performance and mean HGS.
Performance Measure
at P<0.05
Total fan bike calories
Total air squats
Total sit-ups
Total burpees
Total all
Normative reference percentiles were obtained
from Table 1 (Wang et al., 2018) and are based on sex
and age. For example, Participant 1’s HGS measures
between the 25th and 50th percentile of all 30-34 year
old women in the United States. Highlighted rows
indicate HGS below the 50th percentile of normative
reference values.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a
meaningful relationship existed between CF
performance and HGS. It was hypothesized that CF
performance would have a significant meaningful
relationship with HGS. The study results
demonstrated that sit-up performance had a
moderately significant relationship with HGS.
However, neither total performance nor the
performance scores of any other movements had a
significant relationship with HGS. The significant
correlation between HGS and sit-ups indicated that
there may be a relationship between HGS and core
strength, though further research is needed to
CrossFit and grip strength 16
Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
determine if the correlation is movement-specific or
if it can be extrapolated more generally to abdominal
strength or endurance. Overall, the data refute the
existence of a meaningful relationship between CF
performance and HGS.
The majority of participants in the current study
(60%) demonstrated HGS above normative reference
50th percentiles (Wang et al., 2018). Two of the
participants had approximately 3 months of CF
experience. If these two participants were removed
from the data set, 77% of the CF participants in the
current study would have demonstrated HGS above
normative reference 50th percentiles (Wang et al.,
2018). Several studies have established correlations
between HGS and barbell athletes as well as
gymnastics athletes (Ruprai et al., 2016; Schoffstall et
al., 2010; Fry et al., 2006). High HGS values could be
expected from this population because of the
significant amount of time spent manipulating
barbells and other weighted implements in their
regular CF training, as well as time spent
manipulating their own bodyweight around bars
and rings.
The current study specifically chose to assess
movements that did not involve the manipulation of
objects in order to separate CF performance in
general from barbell- or gymnastics-specific
performance. Participants with higher HGS scores
could already be presumed to perform better on a
test like 30 seconds of max effort pull-ups or deadlifts
as repeated coupling with a pull-up or Olympic bar
should contribute to the development of HGS.
Bodyweight movements and the minimal amount of
hand-gripping required for the fan bike were
deliberately chosen for the current investigation to
determine if HGS meaningfully correlated with the
general physical fitness required for CF
performance. Another factor in our decision was the
varied experience level of participants - we did not
want to risk injury by asking participants to perform
30 seconds of moderate-weight deadlifts, for
example. Though this may be done in a CF class, it
would be under a coach’s direct supervision and
guidance. We were of the opinion that researchers
should not attempt to wear multiple hats at once - we
chose movements that would release us from the
need for movement correction and allow us to
simply observe the study without undue concern for
safety. A more challenging study that employed a
WOD where participants were performing more
complex exercises would certainly be feasible with
either more experienced athletes or more research
staff. Because the movements that we chose to
measure did not involve gripping objects, the
performance variables became more of a measure of
anaerobic fitness, aerobic fitness, and bodyweight
exercise proficiency.
Previous research has demonstrated that elite and
sub-elite performers can be accurately stratified
using multiple variables to include HGS and
anaerobic capacity in a variety of field sports (James
et al., 2016) and combat sports (Franchini et al., 2005;
Guidetti et al., 2002; Nikooie et al., 2017). However,
to our knowledge no direct relationship between
HGS and anaerobic fitness has yet been established.
It is therefore not surprising that no significant
relationships were determined between HGS and fan
bike, air squat, burpee, or total performance. Though
there is little research regarding HGS and aerobic
endurance, it is generally theorized that endurance
athletes would not exhibit high HGS because of that
population’s generally low body mass. Larger body
mass often correlates with higher HGS (Cronin,
HGS may be generally related to performance of
core-to-extremity movements that utilize the kinetic
chain, building momentum from the core out toward
the hand(s) (Cronin, 2017). Examples of this type of
movement include throwing an object or swinging a
bat or racket. Because momentum begins at the core
for those movements, it therefore follows that high
performance requires core strength. The significant
relationship between sit-ups and HGS may confirm
this correlation between core strength and HGS. This
theory has yet to be fully explored or developed, but
17 Haynes & DeBeliso, 2019
Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
this study indicates that perhaps future research on
the topic is warranted.
Within the parameters of this study, HGS proved
unrelated to anaerobic fitness or non-gripping
bodyweight movements, with the exception of sit-
ups. We found it surprising that no relationships
(other than sit-ups) were found between HGS and CF
performance. Upon further consideration, it is
possible that relationships remained insignificant
due to lack of diversity in performance measures
and/or inclusion of covariates that could not be
controlled for, such as height, weight, age, and
training experience (Wang, 2018; Cronin, 2017;
Rantanen, 1999; Wadsworth, 1992). A larger, more
varied sample size might allow researchers to control
those variables. It is possible that a correlation
between HGS and performance of the CF variables
assessed in the current study might emerge if these
aforementioned variables could be controlled for.
The comparatively high HGS scores of the current
study participants were likely predictable as they are
consistent with previous research regarding
gymnasts and barbell athletes (Fry et al., 2006;
Schoffstall et al., 2010; Ruprai). This may suggest that
CF is likely a good system for improving HGS, and
therefore useful for general health and fitness. It
supports the claim by CrossFit that CF participation
benefits aging populations and helps them to stay
healthy and independent. Regarding the sport of CF,
it is difficult to compare this study with previous
studies of other sports. CF is, on the whole,
somewhat difficult to study simply because it is an
amalgamation of so many other sports and activities.
In order to determine the importance of HGS to CF
elite performance, it would be necessary to measure
HGS in a sample of CF elite-level athletes, as well as
the CF sub-elite. It is worth noting that the one
participant that could potentially be classified as an
elite-level competitor (5 Regionals appearances,
including 3 top-10 finishes) included in this study
presented HGS above her normative value, but only
in the 70th percentile of normative values and 73rd
percentile of the current study participants.
Obviously more research would be necessary to
determine if HGS is correlated with success in CF as
it is in certain other sports.
Overall, the above 50 percentile norm HGS scores
of 60% of the participants supports the theory that
occupations and hobbies involving manual
manipulation of implements correlates with higher
HGS. Further, as mentioned above, if the participants
with only 3 months of CF experience were removed
from the data set, a total of 77% of the participants
would exhibit above 50 percentile norm HGS. The
sit-up data also supports the less-developed theory
that HGS is related to core-to-extremity proficiency.
This is particularly interesting because CrossFit Inc.
claims core-to-extremity movement as a defining
characteristic of their program. It is the foundational
core-to-extremity principle upon which the use of
compound movements and the gymnastics kip is
based. The significant correlation between sit-up
performance and HGS revealed in the current study
indicates that this principle may be sound.
The most obvious limitation of the current study
is the small sample size. Due to the limited number
of participants, there was a tremendous variety of
height, weight, and experience level. Other sport-
specific studies have determined that these
characteristics are covariates of HGS (Wang, 2018;
Cronin, 2017; Rantanen, 1999; Wadsworth, 1992). If a
sample size could be obtained with more
homogenous height, weight, and experience levels,
correlations between performance and HGS might
prove meaningful and significant. Additionally, the
workout might not have been challenging enough.
Only 3 of 15 participants had less than 6 months of
CF experience. Since the majority of participants
were fairly experienced CF athletes, most were
capable of completing a similar number of
repetitions in each 30 second interval. Because the
WOD was designed to provide adequate rest, those
repetitions were also repeatable over all 3 rounds. A
more challenging workout might have provided a
greater strata of scores, which in turn might identify
CrossFit and grip strength 18
Turk J Kinesiol 2019; 5(1): 15-21
stronger correlations between total WOD
performance and HGS.
Ideally, future research would rectify these issues
in order to provide a broader understanding of the
physiological needs for success in the sport of fitness
known as CrossFit. Future research might also help
to determine which implements most improve HGS
as CF includes a multitude of implements beyond
barbells and rings to include kettlebells, dumbbells,
ropes, and odd objects. For those pursuing CF as
means for general health and fitness, a longitudinal
study in which CF practitioners could be tracked into
their senior years in order to determine their rates of
independence and mortality would be very useful.
If CF is to be used for general fitness as the hedge
against senescence that it claims to be (Glassman,
2017), then it seems likely that it must include
implement work - i.e. barbells, pull-up bars, or
gymnastics rings. Current literature does indicate
that consistently gripping and manipulating
implements likely correlates to improved HGS, and
that improved HGS correlates, whole body strength,
functional ability, longevity, independence, and
decreases in morbidity (Cronin, 2017; Rantanen et al.,
1999; DeBeliso et al., 2015a; DeBeliso et al, 2015b;
Granic et al., 2017; Norman et al., 2011). With regard
to elite CF performance, it appears that additional
HGS training may not be necessary. In order to
qualify for the CF Games, potential competitors
require a requisite amount of physical strength,
aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Further, a potential
competitor should be proficiently skilled with:
manipulating odd objects, the gymnastics rings, and
performing the Olympic lifts. As such, it would be
likely that the nature of CF training would indirectly
lead to the requisite HGS levels required to compete
at an elite CF level.
Within the parameters of this study, HGS is not
correlated with overall CF performance, though
there is a moderately significant correlation between
HGS and sit-up performance. Participants with
greater than 3 months CF experience tended to
exhibit HGS above 50th percentile normative levels,
which indicates that CF may be a useful fitness
regimen for aging populations. Future research
should pursue the identification of better
physiological predictors of CF performance.
Conflict of Interest Declaration
No funding was received for this research. The
authors have no conflict of interest related to this
research. This research has not been previously
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... To our knowledge, the normalized relative HGS values (in height in m 2 ) are the first to be reported on any female athlete population and therefore there are no studies to compare to. However, there are numerous studies to compare the current investigations female collegiate gymnasts absolute HGS values to (Cronin et al., 2017;Haynes & DeBeliso, 2019;Ruggieri & Costa, 2019;Suazo & DeBeliso, 2021 51±3.68 kg). Similarly, the current investigations dominant absolute HGS was comparable to strength athletes with strong (relative to their body mass) upper-body strength (0.9 bench press 1RM/BM, 1RM to body mass ratio) and lowerbody strength (1.5 RM/BM squat, 1.8 RM/BM deadlift) measures (Suazo & DeBeliso, 2021). ...
... In addition, 15 female CrossFit athletes (30.9±7.1 yrs) had a dominant HGS of 29.7±4.9 kg (Haynes & DeBeliso, 2019). In comparison, the current female gymnasts had an ~17% higher dominant absolute HGS compared to 13 recreational female aerialists (32.8±6.3 yrs) in the United States (Ruggieri & Costa, 2019). ...
Maximal isometric handgrip strength (HGS) is used as an indicator of overall muscular strength and has also been found to be predictive of certain athletic events sporting prowess. Women’s artistic gymnastics requires athletes have high levels of relative muscular strength and power to be successful. This study examined the relationship between HGS and gymnastics performance scores for the 4 events of vault, uneven bars, beam, and floor in female collegiate artistic gymnasts. Twenty-five (n=25) female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I North American collegiate women’s artistic gymnasts (age: 20.1±1.3 yrs; height: 158.9±5.6 cm; mass: 58.2±5.3 kg) were assessed for a one-time measurement of absolute HGS in kg and relative HGS (HGS/height in m2), as well as their average vault, uneven bars, beam, and floor performance scores across a competitive season. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were determined between HGS and all performance scores. No significant (p > 0.05) correlations were found between absolute HGS (30.8±4.4 kg) or relative HGS (12.0±1.6 kg/m2) and any 4 gymnastics event’s performance scores (r range: -0.07 – 0.50 or r range: -0.06 – 0.31, respectively). In this female collegiate gymnastics’ population, 56% had an absolute HGS and 80% had a relative HGS, respectively, above the 50th percentile of all similarly aged adult females in the United States. In the current population of female collegiate gymnasts, absolute and relative HGS were not related to any gymnastics events performance scores and adds to the existing literature, supporting no relationships between HGS and sports performances where sports movements require a high degree of technical precision and accuracy. Findings from this investigation can be used by athletes, coaches, and practitioners in the collegiate women’s gymnastics realm to assess if athletes have attained sufficient absolute HGS, and especially relative HGS values, to be successful.
... The reported HGS and PS norms are varied significantly in different populations, proposing that universal norms do not exist [9][10][11]. Several studies have established normative values of hand strength using different measurement methods in Indian [12], German [5], Greek [1], Turkish [13,14], South Korean [15], and Nigerian [16] populations. ...
... The mean of HGS was observed to be 28.82 kg and 25.21 kg for dominant and nondominant hands, respectively. This finding agrees with the results of the studies conducted in the same age groups in other countries such as Germany [5], Turkey [13], Brazil [31], and Iran [9]. However, other studies showed lower values of HGS such as South Korea [15], Sri Lanka [32], India [11], and Nigeria [16]. ...
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Background Handgrip strength (HGS) and pinch strengths (PS) are the common measures to evaluate hand function and predict general health. Normative values of HGS, PS, and prediction equations of HGS for healthy young adult women have not been reported yet in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to determine the HGS and PS normative values and develop the prediction equations for the established HGS in a sample of healthy female college students, aged 19–25 years. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 139 healthy female college students were recruited randomly from King Saud University (KSU). Both HGS and PS in kilograms were measured using a Jamar hand dynamometer and pinch gauge respectively with standard testing protocol and instructions. Results HGS significantly increased with progress in age, while there was no significant effect of age on PS. HGS and PS of the dominant hand were statistically greater than those of the nondominant hand ( P < 0.05) in most ages. There were significant correlations between dominant HGS, age ( r = 0.7, P < 0.001), palmar width ( r = 0.74, P < 0.001), and level of physical activity ( r = 0.60, P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that palmar width and age were the predictors of dominant HGS and accounted for 55% and 14% of the variation, respectively. Conclusions Normative values can be used as a clinical reference in the evaluation of hand function in the rehabilitation process with consideration of age and palmar width for a particular population.
... W. L. Keogh et al., 2018;Leong et al., 2016;Ruprai et al., 2016). However, HGS is not often considered in research focused on powerlifting (Haynes and DeBeliso, 2019;J. W. L. Keogh et al., 2018;Marković and Sekulić, 2006;Ruprai et al., 2016). ...
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The bench press (BP) is a complex, multiarticular exercise known as one of the three powerlifting specialties. Although several variables contribute to the maximum load lifted, upper limb variables may also play an important role in BP performance. In this study, a cohort of 47 male Italian classic powerlifters underwent a direct anthropometric evaluation during two official competitions. The recorded parameters included body mass index, body composition, and variables of the upper limb (indirectly evaluated cross-sectional areas and lengths). IPF-GL points and maximal strength (1RM) adjusted for weight were used as proxies for performance. Statistical comparisons between weaker and stronger powerlifters, Pearson correlation and partial correlation analyses, and multiple linear regression models were performed. The upper arm cross muscular area (r = 0.56) and fat-free mass (r = 0.31) were positively correlated with Wilks points, whereas the arm fat index was negatively correlated with 1RM BP (r =-0.37). Moreover, we proposed two new indices (UALR and UAMR) that represent the ratio between upper arm areas and length. Both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed the strong association between these two variables and BP performance. Further improvement of this study may confirm the important role of body proportion and body composition as predictors of performance in strength sports.
... It is widely used as a predictive measure of several health markers [23,24]. Handgrip strength has been used as an indicator of basic health and fitness [25,26] and it has also been investigated as a predictor of performance [27,28]. In addition, the relationship between handgrip strength and the muscular strength of the lower limbs has been recently investigated. ...
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Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 6-week low intensity plyometric training (PT) + whole-body electrostimulation (WBES) combined program, compared with traditional PT, on vertical jump performance, 20 m sprint-time and handgrip strength. Material and methods. 10 male and 10 female Physical Education students were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or an experimental (EXP) group. Both groups performed a 6-week low intensity PT 3 days per week, and during the third day, PT was simultaneously combined with WBES in the EXP group. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, CMJ peak power, 20 m sprint-time and handgrip strength were measured before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the training period. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to identify differences after the training program. Effect sizes (ES) were assessed using Hedge’s g. Results. No significant differences between groups were observed at post-test. CMJ height and CMJ peak power significantly increased in both groups, with greater ES in the EXP group (p < 0.001, g = 0.68; p < 0.001, g = 0.70, respectively). 20 m sprint-time significantly improved in both groups, with greater ES in the CON group (p < 0.001, g = -1.68). Handgrip strength also increased in both groups, but ES were minimal. Conclusions. Both training methods demonstrated to be a good strategy to improve CMJ performance and 20 m sprint-time. The most effective training method for improving CMJ performance was PT + WBES combined program, and traditional PT obtained better results in 20 m sprint-time.
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Sprint ability and vertical jump are essential motor skills in many sports. Handgrip strength has been recently investigated as a predictor of muscular strength of the lower limbs, but its relationships with vertical jump and sprint has not been fully studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was: 1) to assess vertical jump performance, 20 m sprint time and handgrip strength in a group of males and females, students of Physical Education aged 19 – 25 years; 2) to analyse the possible relationships between those three different tests. 15 male and 15 female students of Physical Education were recruited to the study, and they were required to perform 3 maximal countermovement jumps (CMJ) without arm swing on a Chronojump contact mat, 3 maximum effort 20 m sprints measured with a Witty Timing System and three handgrip strength tests for each hand measured with a Jamar dynamometer. The results revealed strong/very strong correlations between CMJ height and handgrip strength (r = 0.588, p = 0.001), CMJ height and 20 m sprint time (r = -0.602, p = 0.000), CMJ peak power and 20 m sprint time (r = 0.699, p = 0.000), 20 m sprint time and handgrip strength (r = -0.536, p = 0.002), and CMJ peak power and handgrip strength (r = 0.733, p = 0.000). This study confirms that handgrip strength could be a predictor of physical fitness and an effective tool to monitor sprint performance in-season, without requiring maximal sprint testing.
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El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar el nivel de asociación entre el salto de sentadilla profunda (DSJ) y la repetición máxima en sentadilla posterior (RM), con el fin de introducir el DSJ como una herramienta de prueba de fuerza en el monitoreo y control del entrenamiento de fuerza en el Crossfit®. La muestra fue de 9 deportistas varones (edad 31.5±4.64 años; talla 171.4±3.283 cm; masa corporal 79.29±7.14 kg; IMC 26.96±2.03 kg/m2) quienes realizaron ambas pruebas. Se realizó un análisis no paramétrico para determinar la correlación entre DSJ y RM sentadilla trasera. La correlación de DSJ y RM sentadilla se calculó usando la ecuación de Spearman R (r=0.417) determinó una asociación moderada entre DSJ y el RM sentadilla trasera, con una relación no significativa (p=0.2696). Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the deep squat jump (DSJ) and the maximum repetition in the back squat (MR), to introduce DSJ as a tool for strength testing, training monitoring and control of strength in Crossfit®. The sample was of 9 male athletes (age 31.5±4.64 y/o; high 171,4±3,283 cm; body mass 79,29±7.14 kg; BMI 26,96±2.03 kg/m2) who performed both tests (DSJ and MR back squat test). A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation and, subsequently, the relationship between DSJ and RM. The correlation of DSJ and RM squat was calculated using the Spearman R equation r=0,4167 showed a moderate relationship. The results showed a non-significant relationship with values for a p=0,2696.
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ABSTRACT Based on previous research, the aim of this systematic review research was to determine which barriers to physical activity occur in the elderly. For collecting literature, the following data bases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science and Research Gate, using all available papers in the period from 2002 to 2017. A descriptive method was used to analyse the obtained data, and all the titles and abstracts were reviewed for potential papers that were included in this systematic review research. A total of 20 studies met the predefined criteria and were included in the quantitative analysis. The results were obtained after analysing the questionnaires that the responders filled in to evaluate the barriers. This systematic review research shows that there are still a large number of barriers that occur in the elderly. The health condition, lack of time and fear of injury are not the only barriers, but there are also a large number of barriers that prevent the practice of PA. Some of these barriers can be affected and the attitude towards them can be changed, improving the conditions in which elderly people can practice PA, such as transport, the environment, the lack of training facilities, and the lack of professional assistance. Keywords: physical activity, barriers, seniors, elderly people
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Over the last few years, childhood obesity has increased significantly. One of the proven reasons is reduced physical activity from an early age. Low levels of physical activity in students negatively affect the development of their motor skills, as well as their overall health. The aim of this study was to identify the differences in the level of motor skills in relation to the level of nutrition in students of the third and fourth grade of primary school. The sample included 212 students, 105 of which were boys and 107 girls aged 9.77 ± 0.69 years. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, triceps skin fold, back skinfold, abdominal circumference, body mass index and body fat percentage were used to assess body composition. Height was measured with the anthropometer, and weight with a body composition measurement device - Omron BF500 Body Composition Monitor. Skin folds were measured using the Lange Skinfold calliper. Motor skills were tested with standardized and validated tests that are being used in primary education in the Republic of Croatia and Europe (Findak, Metikoš, Mraković and Neljak, 1996; Eurofit, 1988). Based on the calculated body mass index, and by using tables recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (Cole et al., 2000), subjects were classified into three groups based on their nutritional status: normal weight, overweight, and obese. The results of the study show significant differences between subsamples in motor skills in relation to their level of nutrition. Two discriminant functions were obtained, the first of which was significant at the significance level of p = 0.0000. Variables that significantly differentiate subsamples based on their level of nutrition are standing long jump (p = 0.0049) and torso lift (p = 0.0000). Based on the obtained and analysed results, it can be concluded that students with normal weight have significantly better motor skills results. Well-developed motor skills are one of the prerequisites for the normal physical development of children. Encouraging children to engage in continuous physical exercise is one of the prerequisites for the proper development of motor skills.
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This research analyses the techniques involved in basic carving in relation to anthropometric characteristics of subjects. The first aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the subjects in the technique of performing basic carving in relation to their anthropometric characteristics. The second aim of this study was to determine the difference in the technique of basic carving in relation to anthropometric characteristics of subjects. A sample of 30 students, average age 22 years, male, was measured by 12 anthropometric measures and a situational-motor test. Alpine skiing technique was assessed through basic carving, the technical element of skiing which is present in the main form of skiing. Based on the performance of the basic carving and the obtained results, three subsamples of respondents were defined as “weak”, “moderate” and “good”. Between the treated subsamples, differences in anthropometric characteristics were established, and the limits in the degree of adoption of the basic carving technique were clearly defined. The subsample defined as “weak” has less pronounced measures of longitudinal and transversal dimensionality, volume and body weight, and has moderately pronounced skinfolds of the upper arm and back with a more pronounced length of the lower leg. The subsample defined as “moderate” has less pronounced skinfolds and moderately expressed length of the lower leg, the circumference of the upper leg, and the diameter of the knee. Body height, shoulder width, abdominal skinfold, body weight, arm length, medium chest circumference, and pelvic width are more pronounced. The subsample defined as “good” has a less pronounced knee length and medium chest circumference, and has a moderately pronounced body height, shoulder width, abdominal skinfold, body weight, arm length, and pelvic width. It has more pronounced skinfolds of the upper arm and back, as well as the circumference of the upper leg and the diameter of the knee. Based on these results, we can conclude that the differences are established and boundaries are clearly defined in the level of adoption of the basic carving techniques between subsamples in relation to anthropometric characteristics. Keywords: alpine skiing, basic carving, anthropometric characteristics
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A supervised 12 week intervention of time‐matched aerobic versus resistance versus concurrent exercise training was employed to investigate mode‐ and time course‐specific effects of exercise training in older adults. Community‐dwelling men and women (n=84; M/F, 45/39; 69.3±3.5 y; 26.4±3.8 kg m⁻²) were randomly assigned (n=21 each) to either non‐exercise control (CON), aerobic exercise only (AER), resistance exercise only (RES), or concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise (CEX). Training groups trained three times per week, each performing 72 min of active exercise time per week. Body composition, physical and cognitive function, and markers of metabolic health were assessed before (PRE), and after 6 (MID) and 12 (POST) weeks of exercise training. Handgrip strength, 1RM chest press and arm LBM were improved by both RES and CEX, but not AER. Aerobic fitness increased in AER and RES, but not CEX. Cognitive function improved in all groups, but occurred earlier (i.e. at MID) in AER. CEX improved gait speed and lower limb strength, and reduced trunk fat compared to either AER or RES. Leg LBM was unchanged in any group. Temporal patterns were observed as early as 6 weeks of training (gait speed, upper and lower limb strength, aerobic fitness), whereas others were unchanged until 12 weeks (handgrip strength, timed up‐and‐go, sit‐to‐stand). Compared to either aerobic or resistance exercise training alone, concurrent exercise training is as efficacious for improving a range of health‐related parameters, and is more efficacious for increasing gait speed and lower limb strength, and decreasing trunk fat in older adults. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Tests of handgrip strength (HGS) and handgrip force (HGF) are commonly used across a number of sporting populations. Measures of HGS and HGF have also been utilized by practitioners and researchers to evaluate links with sports performance. This article, firstly evaluates the validity and reliability of various handgrip dynamometers (HGD) and HGF sensors, providing recommendations for procedures to ensure precise and reliable data are collected as part of an athlete testing battery. Secondly, the differences in HGS between elite and sub-elite athletes and the relationships between HGS, HGF, and sports performance are discussed.
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This paper discusses the risks and potential impacts of spreadsheet errors in scientific research data in a Neuroscience research centre in the UK. Spreadsheets usage in neuroscience, or indeed any medical discipline, is a largely unreported area of spreadsheet research. This paper presents a case study exploring the possible risks and impacts of spreadsheet errors in the neuroscience research centre at the University of Newcastle. Data was collected using an online questionnaire with 17 participants and two detailed semi-structured interviews. The analysis highlights that errors in research data may lead to severe impacts such as misleading science and damaged personal and organisational reputations. In addition, many risks factors arise from using spreadsheets such as inadequate design and a lack of training. Spreadsheets are used widely in business and the impacts and risks in these fields have been studied and highlighted in detail. However, scientific research and spreadsheets have also a significant relationship that has not been clarified. The paper also draws out the similarities in spreadsheet practice between the scientific and business communities.
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The aim of this study was to compare physical capacities between recreational Crossfit® and resistance trained practitioners. Twenty-six young men participated in this study. They were divided into recreational Crossfit® practitioners of resistance training (CF, N = 13) and resistance trained (RT, N = 13) practitioners. Body mass, height, and percent of body fat were recorded. After familiarization with procedures, components of physical fitness were randomly evaluated on separate days with the following exercises: (a) fixed bar pull-ups for relative strength of upper limbs; (b) shuttle run test over 20 m for endurance assessment; and (c) countermovement jump (CMJ) of lower limbs explosiveness. There were no differences between groups for body composition and performance in pull-ups and CMJ. However, effect size (ES) analyses revealed a greater CMJ performance in CF practitioners (P=0.86, ES=0.73) while the RT subjects exhibited a greater relative strength of the upper limbs (P=0.31, ES=0.67). Meanwhile, the CF group exhibited a better performance in the shuttle run test (P=0.008, ES=1.16). It could be concluded that the CF practitioners exhibit a greater endurance and jump capacities, while the RT practitioners exhibited a greater relative strength in the upper limbs. Further longitudinal studies are warranted for a better understanding of physical training adaptations following these fitness modalities.
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The value of handgrip strength as an indicator of overall strength and as a predictor of important outcomes notwithstanding, up-to-date and population-specific reference values are needed if measurements of grip strength are to be properly interpreted. Objectives To provide US population-based grip strength reference values and equations for 18- to 85-year-olds. Methods Handgrip data from 1,232 18- to 85-year old participants were extracted from the database of the 2011 normative phase of the NIH Toolbox project. Descriptive reference values and equations were derived from the data. Results We present grip strength reference values using summary statistics (mean, standard deviation, and percentile). The mean grip strength ranged from 49.7kg for the dominant hand of 25 to 29 year-old men to 18.7kg for the nondominant hand of 75 to 79 year-old women. We also present reference regression equations for the dominant and nondominant sides of males and females. The explanatory variables in the equations are age, height, and weight. Conclusion The normative reference values and equations provided herein can serve as a guide for interpreting grip strength measurements obtained from tested individuals. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 23 May 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7851.
Objective: to investigate the associations between initial level and rate of change in grip strength (GS) and all-cause mortality in very old adults (≥85 years) over a 9.6-year follow-up. Methods: prospective mortality data from 845 participants in the Newcastle 85+ Study were analysed for survival in relation to GS (kg, baseline and 5-year mean change) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: during the follow-up, 636 (75.3%) participants died. Higher baseline GS was associated with a decreased risk of mortality in all participants [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.98, P < 0.001], men (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, P = 0.009) and women (HR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, P = 0.007) after adjustment for health, lifestyle and anthropometric factors. Overall GS slope had a downward trajectory and was determined in 602 participants: 451 experienced constant decline (negative slope) and 151 had increasing GS (positive slope) over time. Men and women with a negative slope had a 16 and 33% increased risk of mortality, respectively, with every kg/year decline in GS (P ≤ 0.005), and participants with a positive slope had a 31% decreased risk of mortality (P = 0.03) irrespective of baseline GS and key covariates. Conclusion: higher baseline GS and 5-year increase in GS were protective of mortality, whilst GS decline was associated with an increased risk of mortality in the very old over 9.6 years, especially in women. These results add to the biological and clinical importance of GS as a powerful predictor of long-term survival in late life.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age, sex and anthropometric variables in handgrip strength and to determine norm-referenced values for preschool children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Schools. Participants: A total of 1215 children, aged 3-6 years (590 girls and 625 boys). Intervention: Not applicable. Main outcome measures: Handgrip strength (HS), measured by the CAMRY hydraulic hand dynamometer (EH101; Camry, Guangdong Province, China). Results: Boys exhibited a greater performance than girls in the 4 and 5 years age groups, but no significant differences were found at 3 and 6 years. In relation to growth, HS performance was greater with increased age. The Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between HS and body mass (r = 0.354, p < 0.001), body height (r = 0.352, p < 0.001), body mass index (r = 0.164, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.118, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study provides references values for muscular strength assessment by an HS test carried out on a large sample of preschoolers in relation to age and sex. Additionally, some differences in HS performance were found according to sex.
Background: Physical activity (PA) reduces the rate of mobility disability, compared with health education (HE), in at risk older adults. It is important to understand aspects of performance contributing to this benefit. Objective: To evaluate intervention effects on tertiary physical performance outcomes. Design: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) was a multi-centered, single-blind randomized trial of older adults. Setting: Eight field centers throughout the United States. Participants: 1635 adults aged 78.9 ± 5.2 years, 67.2% women at risk for mobility disability (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] <10). Interventions: Moderate PA including walking, resistance and balance training compared with HE consisting of topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes: Grip strength, SPPB score and its components (balance, 4 m gait speed, and chair-stands), as well as 400 m walking speed. Results: Total SPPB score was higher in PA versus HE across all follow-up times (overall P = .04) as was the chair-stand component (overall P < .001). No intervention effects were observed for balance (overall P = .12), 4 m gait speed (overall P = .78), or grip strength (overall P = .62). However, 400 m walking speed was faster in PA versus HE group (overall P =<.001). In separate models, 29% of the rate reduction of major mobility disability in the PA versus HE group was explained by change in SPPB score, while 39% was explained by change in the chair stand component. Conclusion: Lower extremity performance (SPPB) was significantly higher in the PA compared with HE group. Changes in chair-stand score explained a considerable portion of the effect of PA on the reduction of major mobility disability-consistent with the idea that preserving muscle strength/power may be important for the prevention of major mobility disability.