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Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again

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... Gedragsmeetmethoden en expressief-motorisch gedrag Volgens de appraisal theorie van emoties worden verschillende emoties gekenmerkt door verschillende actietendensen, als gerichte uitingen van actiebereidheid, die gerelateerd zijn aan verschillende inschattingen. Waarneming en de inschatting van de omgeving is in feite al het onderkennen van mogelijkheden om tot handelen over te gaan (zie ook Clark, 1997), oftewel "inschatting is belichaamd" (Frijda, 2008, p. 128). Zo ontstaan patronen van inschattingen en actietendensen die specifiek zijn voor bepaalde emoties (zie 5.2.3). ...
... De aanzet van Kotler in 1973 heeft niet meteen geleid tot een hausse aan empirisch onderzoek en verdere theoretische uitwerking. Bitner concludeert in 1992: "in marketing there is a surprising lack of empirical research or theoretically ³ Zie onder andere Gibson (1979) voor een extreem standpunt hierin en Clark (1997) voor een meer constructivistisch standpunt. based frameworks addressing the role of physical surroundings in consumption settings" (Bitner, 1992, p. 57). ...
... Het S-O-R model wordt getypeerd als een paradigma (onder andere Douce, Poels, Janssens, Backer, 2013; Elbachir, 2014), maar ook als een framework (Grohmann, Spangenberg & Sportt, 2007) en theorie (Turley & Milliman, 2000), hoewel bij die laatste typering door Eroglu & Machleit (2008) vraagtekens worden gezet. Terecht, want een theorie zou verklaren hoe en waarom een organisme stimuli uit zijn Umwelt 'selecteert' en er zijn voordeel mee doet (zie bijvoorbeeld Dennett (2017) en Hurley (1998)); een theorie zou verklaren wat 'verwerken' van stimuli inhoudt en wat dit betekent voor het organisme in relatie tot zijn omgeving (zie bijvoorbeeld Neisser (1976) en Clark (1997) hiervoor); een theorie zou verklaren welk gedragsrepertoire een organisme kan hebben en aanwendt in reactie op en als consequentie van de omgeving waarin hij zich bevindt, bijvoorbeeld door coping strategieën (zie bijvoorbeeld het werk van Richard Lazarus rond stress en coping: 5.2.3). Dit ontbreekt, hooguit kan het in de empirische onderzoeken vaak aangehaalde PAD-model om de emotionele verwerking van stimuli door het organisme te typeren, gezien worden als een (deel)theorie. ...
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Glastonbury, het theaterfestival in Avignon, North Sea Jazz, Sensation White, de Duitse oktoberfeesten, het carnaval in Rio en Venetië of de Mardi Gras in New Orleans, de lancering van de nieuwste smartphone of gameconsole, de Fiesta in Pamplona, plaatselijke talentenjachten, de May Day Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake, waarbij het de bedoeling is om van een steile heuvel achter een rollende Gloucester kaas aan te rennen... Het kost tegenwoordig aanzienlijke moeite om op een vrije dag niet ondergedompeld te worden in allerlei festiviteiten en evenementen. Festivals zijn hierin prominent aanwezig. Maar wat is een festival eigenlijk? Deze studie formuleert hier een antwoord op door het rijke landschap van festivals te schetsen en hoe dit te ontleden is in motivaties voor bezoek, de specifieke bouwstenen van een festival, het festivalDNA, en de plek waar het allemaal gebeurt: de festivalscape. Ondanks dat de laatste decennia het onderzoek naar festivals aanzienlijk is toegenomen is de bezoekersbeleving van festivals een onderwerp waar relatief weinig onderzoekers zich diepgaand mee bezig hebben gehouden. In het tweede gedeelte van dit boek staat beleving centraal, waarbij emotietheorieën worden besproken en allerhande belevingsmodellen en meet- methoden de revue zullen passeren om de weg vrij te maken voor een gerichte en onderbouwde analyse van de bezoekersbeleving, zoals de beleving van sfeer.
... In focusing attention on embodied individuals in natural environments, cognitive ethologists align themselves with another approach to cognition, embodied cognition (Calvo & Gomila, 2008;Chemero, 2009;Clark, 1997Clark, , 2003Clark, , 2008Clark, , 2016Dawson et al., 2010;Newen et al., 2018;Rowlands, 2010;Shapiro, 2014Shapiro, , 2019Varela et al., 1991), which falls within a broader conception-namely, 4E cognition (for embodied, embedded, extended, and enactive cognition, see Newen et al., 2018). Indeed, Kingstone et al. (2008) make the similarity between cognitive ethology and embodied cognition clear when making the case for cognitive ethology by citing core works (Gibson, 1966(Gibson, , 1979Neisser, 1976) which others cite (Dawson, 2013;Shapiro, 2014;Wilson, 2002) as prototypical examples of embodied cognition. ...
... In focusing attention on embodied individuals in natural environments, cognitive ethologists align themselves with another approach to cognition, embodied cognition (Calvo & Gomila, 2008;Chemero, 2009;Clark, 1997Clark, , 2003Clark, , 2008Clark, , 2016Dawson et al., 2010;Newen et al., 2018;Rowlands, 2010;Shapiro, 2014Shapiro, , 2019Varela et al., 1991), which falls within a broader conception-namely, 4E cognition (for embodied, embedded, extended, and enactive cognition, see Newen et al., 2018). Indeed, Kingstone et al. (2008) make the similarity between cognitive ethology and embodied cognition clear when making the case for cognitive ethology by citing core works (Gibson, 1966(Gibson, , 1979Neisser, 1976) which others cite (Dawson, 2013;Shapiro, 2014;Wilson, 2002) as prototypical examples of embodied cognition. ...
... It rejects the sense-think-act (A) cycle and instead assumes either pure sense-act (C) processing (M. L. Anderson et al., 2012;Barrett, 2011;Chemero, 2000Chemero, , 2009de Oliveira et al., 2019) or some hybrid (B) which includes both sense-think-act (A) and sense-act (C) processes (Clark, 1997(Clark, , 2008Dawson et al., 2010;Risko & Gilbert, 2016;). An embodied theory which adopts stronger and stronger versions of Shapiro's themes becomes an extreme antirepresentational theory (like C). ...
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Cognitive psychology considers the environment as providing information, not affecting fundamental information processes. Thus, cognitive psychology’s traditional paradigms study responses to precisely timed stimuli in controlled environments. However, new research demonstrates the environment does influence cognitive processes and offers cognitive psychology new methods. The authors examine one such proposal: cognitive ethology. Cognitive ethology improves cognitive psychology’s ecological validity through first drawing inspiration from robust phenomena in the real world, then moving into the lab to test those phenomena. To support such methods, cognitive ethologists appeal to embodied cognition, or 4E cognition, for its rich relationships between agents and environments. However, the authors note while cognitive ethology focuses on new methods (epistemology) inspired by embodied cognition, it preserves most traditional assumptions about cognitive processes (ontology). But embodied cognition—particularly its radical variants—also provides strong ontological challenges to cognitive psychology, which work against cognitive ethology. The authors argue cognitive ethology should align with the ontology of less radical embodied cognition, which produces epistemological implications, offering alternative methodologies. For example, cognitive ethology can explore differences between real-world and lab studies to fully understand how cognition depends on environments.
... Frameworks for situated design agents, which have been proposed by various researches [1]- [3], can be seen as a bold attempt to implement humanlevel intelligence in computational design systems. As these draw on the situated approach to cognition [4], such frameworks emphasize agent-environment interaction as key for intelligent action. ...
... Situated Cognition emphasizes that thinking and action can only be understood by looking beyond agents as world-independent entities, and examining coupled agent-environment systems [4]. Such systems can be described as dynamical systems, in which each side perturbs the other, as they interact [17]. ...
... Based on her understanding of these, she drew the sketch in (3), as a simplified representation of their strategy. Taking into consideration two additional things -that in TDT her group did not use a round part in the northeastern side (4), and that the southeastern side is "the face of the building" (5), she decided to use the limited number of round parts available to form two slabs: one on the southeastern side, and another the opposite corner. As explained by P4, this also enabled the round elements to be seen from any angle, as an added value (6). ...
Preprint
Existing frameworks for situated design enable to model design activity while considering how agents internally see and understand the external world. Therefore, they are important for developing human-level intelligence in computational design systems. One major aspect in developing situated design agents is that of agent-environment interaction. While the contribution of such interaction to structuring design processes is acknowledged by practitioners and researchers alike, we lack evidence concerning the manners in which it unfolds in practice. Addressing this issue, we gather empirical data regarding agent-environment interaction in design, with emphasis on knowledge transfer (KT)-a cognitive process by which an individual applies knowledge from one situation in another. Six participants collaborated and competed in modeling a real-world building using Lego blocks. Examining KT during the activity sheds some light on the role of concrete circumstances in shaping design processes, thus offering insights towards developing situated design agents
... O autor, ao discorrer sobre as formas como os organismos se comportam, propõe um modelo voltado às relações que o mundo possui com o organismo: uma representação dêitica, voltada para a ação, não para a construção de um modelo interno (Brooks, 1991). Para tanto, utiliza-se de experimentos no qual esses dois recursos são fundamentais para sua sobrevivência (Clark, 1995(Clark, , 1997(Clark, , 1998). A cognição, portanto, não é uma tradução da atividade cerebral; ela envolve mais entidades que fogem aos limites do SNC. ...
... Um dos primeiros obstáculos apontados por Clark, nessa perspectiva, trata-se do modo pelo qual a resolução de problemas é pensada. Operando com o modo pelo qual componentes físicos fazem emergir, em semelhança aos neurônios, através de "caminhos" da informação que são diferentes entre si e que, portanto, são usados de maneira e frequência diferentes, o conexionismo não se prende ao corpo enquanto parte da relação existente entre o input e o output da informação; ele se baseia em inputs-outputs abstratos, que tomam em conta uma capacidade de operar com os problemas oferecidos pelo ambiente de forma descorporeada (Clark, 1997). Essa preferência por um constructo que coloque a cognição como um tipo de computação passiva, que opera com abstrações, no lugar da realidade, poderia impedir que certas oportunidades inerentes à natureza dessa computação (oportunidades, por exemplo, vinculadas às propriedades da relação do corpo enquanto tal em seu ambiente) emergissem durante seu estudo (Clark, 1997). ...
... Operando com o modo pelo qual componentes físicos fazem emergir, em semelhança aos neurônios, através de "caminhos" da informação que são diferentes entre si e que, portanto, são usados de maneira e frequência diferentes, o conexionismo não se prende ao corpo enquanto parte da relação existente entre o input e o output da informação; ele se baseia em inputs-outputs abstratos, que tomam em conta uma capacidade de operar com os problemas oferecidos pelo ambiente de forma descorporeada (Clark, 1997). Essa preferência por um constructo que coloque a cognição como um tipo de computação passiva, que opera com abstrações, no lugar da realidade, poderia impedir que certas oportunidades inerentes à natureza dessa computação (oportunidades, por exemplo, vinculadas às propriedades da relação do corpo enquanto tal em seu ambiente) emergissem durante seu estudo (Clark, 1997). A proposta do 1982-1247.2022.v16.31536 ...
Article
O ensaio discute o conceito de cognição corporeada, de Andy Clark, e sua relação com a questão mente-corpo. Objetiva-se definir o conceito, temáticas com que conversa e como propõe novas alternativas teóricas para a questão, trazendo suas influências teóricas e, então, discutir como o cérebro, a cognição, o corpo e suas relações são localizadas nessa perspectiva. Compara-se o conceito com outras teorias cognitivas; terminando a exposição, discorrendo-se acerca da possibilidade de se incorporar esse enquadre teórico às Ciências Cognitivas, psicologia e psicanálise, discutindo-se, também, os limites e as potencialidades desse conceito para uma concepção renovada de desenvolvimento cognitivo
... water is in the fridge usually implies that water is in a bottle, which is in the fridge [39]. Given the dynamic and flexible character of natural language, automatically understanding those implications for concrete, physical situations is very challenging [6,13,44]. However, automated understanding is further aggravated when the situation is in abstract language, typically through metaphors. ...
... The evaluation dataset is available in Appendix D, while the OpenSesame parsing file, FRED knowledge graphs generated from text, and manual IS and SP detection files can be found at the ImageSchemaNet GitHub. 13 We have manually inspected the returned image schemas with respect to whether (a) the returned image schema that does not correspond to the original gold standard label could be correct, and (b) whether several returned image schemas actually apply to the sentence at hand. For instance for (a), the expression We are approaching the end of the year is labeled with CENTER_PERIPHERY, however, clearly shows a collocation with SOURCE_PATH_GOAL. ...
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Commonsense knowledge is a broad and challenging area of research which investigates our understanding of the world as well as human assumptions about reality. Deriving directly from the subjective perception of the external world, it is intrinsically intertwined with embodied cognition. Commonsense reasoning is linked to human sense-making, pattern recognition and knowledge framing abilities. This work presents a new resource that formalizes the cognitive theory of image schemas. Image schemas are dynamic conceptual building blocks originating from our sensorimotor interactions with the physical world, and enable our sense-making cognitive activity to assign coherence and structure to entities, events and situations we experience everyday. ImageSchemaNet is an ontology that aligns pre-existing resources, such as FrameNet, VerbNet, WordNet and MetaNet from the Framester hub, to image schema theory. This article describes an empirical application of ImageSchemaNet, combined with semantic parsers, on the task of annotating natural language sentences with image schemas.
... This discussion of market design has much to do with the extended mind foundations of institutions and the idea of trust they support. Not only does Clark (1997Clark ( , 1998 present markets as pivotal examples of scaffolding institutions, but his way to institutional scaffolding seems to require markets to be the kind of entities given from above as objects of market design. He mentions in this regard the work of Gode and Sunder (1993) showing that certain market rules can lead to efficiency even in the case of unsophisticated cognitive agents called "zero-intelligence" traders. ...
... Clark shifts the focus of market scaffolding from individuals to market mechanisms in a way that, as it is usually said in the economic literature, "[s]tructural constraints, not individuals, do much of the explanatory work" (Hodgson, 2004, p. 438). When discussing markets, Clark (1998) vividly conveys the idea that the intelligence of individuals is traded for the intelligence of the designed system: we [humans] excel in one crucial respect: we are masters at structuring our physical and social worlds so as to press complex coherent behaviors from these unruly resources. We use intelligence to structure our environment so that we can succeed with less intelligence. ...
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In this paper we consider the importance of trust, in the context of economic institutions, and specifically with respect to questions about market mechanisms and the role of social interactions. We review recent advances in institutional economics closely tied to developments in philosophy of mind and cognitive science, involving extended and enactive cognition. We argue that the analysis of different conceptions of institutional mind extension, in Denzau and North’s shared mental models, Clark’s extended mind, and a more enactive approach that emphasizes the importance of social interaction and personal relationships, can benefit from Kathrine Hawley’s distinction between reliability and trust. Institutional arrangements based solely on the reliability of impersonal mechanisms can lead to a variety of social pathologies and, at the extreme, a form of cognitive atrophy, all of which can undermine the sustainability of institutions. Even if trust comes with risks and some degree of unpredictability, it turns out to be a necessary glue-like ingredient in the constitution of social institutions.
... It may be unsurprising that neurons involved in action selection (or spatial attention) would represent the outcome of a decision communicated by the act, but it was not a foregone conclusion that those neurons would also represent the evolving decision as it is formed. Some interpret this observation as consistent with action-based theories of perception and cognition (Thompson and Varela, 2001;Clark, 1997;Merleau-Ponty, 1945;Shadlen and Kandel, 2021) and the idea that the purpose of vision is to identify affordances (Gibson, 1986). To others, the observation seems limiting because decisions feel disembodied, that is, independent of the way they are reported-if they are reported at all. ...
... This intention-based framing is germane to the study of neurons in the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices, which serve as nodes in systems for the control of reaching, gazing, and directing attention (Snyder et al., 1997;Colby et al., 1996;Bisley and Goldberg, 2003). It has been argued that the neural mechanisms elucidated through the study of such neurons are likely to be relevant to the broader class of deliberative processes, which may be viewed as bearing on a provisional intention to act in some way (Clark, 1997;Shadlen et al., 2008;Shadlen and Kandel, 2021;Cisek, 2007). ...
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Neurons in the lateral intraparietal cortex represent the formation of a decision when it is linked to a specific action, such as an eye movement to a choice target. However, these neurons should be unable to represent a decision that transpires across actions that would disrupt this linkage. We investigated this limitation by simultaneously recording many neurons from two rhesus monkeys. Although intervening actions disrupt the representation by single neurons, the ensemble achieves continuity of the decision process by passing information from currently active neurons to neurons that will become active after the action. In this way, the representation of an evolving decision can be generalized across actions and transcends the frame of reference that specifies the neural response fields. The finding extends previous observations of receptive field remapping, thought to support the stability of perception across eye movements, to the continuity of a thought process, such as a decision.
... Further, it allows the researchers to fully immerse the user in a virtual environment of their choosing, enabling wide-ranging control and flexibility with regards to the experimental setup. Indeed, VR gives the opportunity to obtain "the best of two worlds" (Minderer et al., 2016), mixing experimental control and ecological validity (Coleman et al., 2019;Parsons, 2015), which seems particularly relevant in the developing framework of embodied cognition (Clark, 1998). This ecological dimension is made possible by an inherent property of the tool: a well-designed 3D virtual environment will provoke a sense of presence, that is, the feeling for the participant of being physically present in the world of the experiment (Heeter, 1992;Sheridan, 1992), and therefore of acting and feeling as such. ...
... This sense of presence goes much further on the phenomenological aspect; it is considered a deep psychological construct, resulting from evolutionary neurological cognitive processes in relation with the broad construct of consciousness (Coelho et al., 2009;Riva, 2006;Riva & Waterworth, 2003). Considering this, it is no surprise that these inner presence definitions generally encompass embodied cognition and enactivist views (Clark, 1998;Lobo et al., 2018). For example, Zahorik and Jenison (1998) state that "presence is tantamount to successfully supported action in the environment." ...
Article
The question of the relationship between the sense of presence and performance in virtual reality is fundamental for anyone wishing to use the tool methodologically. Indeed, if the sense of presence can modify performance per se, then individual factors affecting the human-computer interaction might have repercussions on performance, despite being unrelated to it. After a discussion on the sense of presence and the particularities it provokes, this work studies the psychophysiology of virtual reality. This in virtuo experience is understood according to a constitutive and reciprocal relationship with the subject's cognitive profile, made up of all the human, contextual and motivational factors impacting the processing of immersion. The role and importance of performance in virtual reality is described in this framework in such a way as to be studied methodologically. The presence-performance relationship is discussed based on previous works and analyzed in terms of attentional resources. Finally, the degree of ecological validity of the performance is described as the factor modulating the relationship between the sense of presence and performance (the Phi Angle). Limitations, applications and test hypotheses of the model are presented. This work aims to help the conceptualization of virtual reality, but also to improve its methodological framework.
... Thus, the world meaning is constituted by the recursive and dynamic interaction between adaptive systems and environment. From this perspective, cognitive processes emerge from recurrent sensorimotor interactions involving the environment, the body, and the brain (Clark 1998(Clark , 2008Fuchs 2011;Fuchs and De Jaegher 2009); movements and action play a central role in high-function processes of human beings and in development of meaning in experience (Nöe 2004). In general, the enactive approach emphasizes the person's point of view as an autonomous agent who interacts with the world in terms of affordances (Chemero 2009). ...
... On the contrary, words related to other more abstract domains (abstract reflection and abstract labels of emotional sensations) or the stylistic use of words in a reflecting way were not associated to participant's intelligence. We believe that these results support the embodied cognition hypothesis (Barsalou 1999;Clark 1998Clark , 2008Gallese 2008;Lakoff and Johnson 1980;Nöe 2004;Thompson 2007). The sensorimotor sensations we experience during the movement of our body in the space are the basic elements of sense-making processes, including concepts and language. ...
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Cognitive science has gathered robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cognitive processes do not occur in an amodal format but take shape through the activation of the sensorimotor systems of the agent body, which works as simulation system upon which concepts, words, and thought are based. However, studies that have investigated the relationship between language and cognitive processes, as both embedded processes, are very rare. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intelligence is associated with referential competence, conceived as the ability to find words to refer to our subjective and perceptual experience, and to evoke understanding of this experience in the listener. We administered the WAIS-IV test to 32 nonclinical subjects and collected autobiographical narratives from them through the Relationship Anecdotes Paradigm Interview. The narratives were analyzed linguistically by applying computerized measures of referential competence. Intelligence scores were found to correlate with the use in narratives of words related to somatic and sensory sensations, while they were not associated with other measures of referential competence related to more abstract domains of experience or based on vivid or reflective dimensions of language style. The results support the hypothesis that sensorimotor schemas have an intrinsic role in language and cognition.
... These ideas endured through the 20th-century in several flavours; for example, analysis by synthesis [40,41], epistemological automata [42], perception as hypothesis testing [43,44] and, in machine learning, the Helmholtz machine [45]. The inference narrative supervened at the turn of the century, with a resurgence of interest in enactivist approaches [46][47][48][49][50][51] that now predominate in the cognitive and systems neurosciences, in the form of things like predictive processing and active inference [52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]. ...
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This review considers computational psychiatry from a particular viewpoint: namely, a commitment to explaining psychopathology in terms of pathophysiology. It rests on the notion of a generative model as underwriting (i) sentient processing in the brain, and (ii) the scientific process in psychiatry. The story starts with a view of the brain—from cognitive and computational neuroscience—as an organ of inference and prediction. This offers a formal description of neuronal message passing, distributed processing and belief propagation in neuronal networks; and how certain kinds of dysconnection lead to aberrant belief updating and false inference. The dysconnections in question can be read as a pernicious synaptopathy that fits comfortably with formal notions of how we—or our brains—encode uncertainty or its complement, precision. It then considers how the ensuing process theories are tested empirically, with an emphasis on the computational modelling of neuronal circuits and synaptic gain control that mediates attentional set, active inference, learning and planning. The opportunities afforded by this sort of modelling are considered in light of in silico experiments; namely, computational neuropsychology, computational phenotyping and the promises of a computational nosology for psychiatry. The resulting survey of computational approaches is not scholarly or exhaustive. Rather, its aim is to review a theoretical narrative that is emerging across subdisciplines within psychiatry and empirical scales of investigation. These range from epilepsy research to neurodegenerative disorders; from post-traumatic stress disorder to the management of chronic pain, from schizophrenia to functional medical symptoms.
... Psychological theorizing today, in dialogue with the results of researches in phenomenological and pragmatist philosophy and anthropology, points to an important re-envisioning of the role of concepts such as inter-subjectivity, metaphor, the unconscious and emotion in the functioning of a psychological organization. While today's diverse embodied approaches (Clark(1997), , Gallagher(2005), Lakoff & Johnson(1999), , ) have made significant advances over the more traditional perspectives in psychology which they target(1st generation cognitivism, symbolic computationalism), I suggest that these newer perspectives have failed to depart sufficiently from older approaches in one important respect. ...
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My central research focus over the past 30 years has been the articulation of what I call a radically temporal approach to philosophy. In the papers below, written between 2001 and 2022, I treat the varying ways in which radically temporal thinking manifests itself in the phenomenological perspectives of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger and Eugene Gendlin. I also discuss Jacques Derrida's deconstructive project and George Kelly's personal construct theory as examples of radically temporal thinking. With the aim of clarifying and further defining the nature of this family of orientations, I have delineated the important ways in which it differs from a range of interlinked approaches in philosophy and psychology that includes hermeneutic and radical constructivisms, social constructionism, 4EA (Embodied, Embedded, Enactive, Extended, and Affective) cognition, Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of corporeal intersubjectivity, autopoietic self-organizing systems theory and American pragmatism. Among the authors whose work I have submitted to critique from the radically temporal perspective are: Francisco Varela (autopoietic self-organizing systems), Shaun Gallagher, Evan Thompson, Matthew Ratcliffe, Maxine Sheets-Johnstone, Dan Zahavi, Hanne De Jaegher, Michel Bitbol, Thomas Fuchs (enactive, embodied ('4EA') cognition), Gilles Deleuze (Deleuzian biopolitics), Ken Gergen and John Shotter ( social constructionism), Kym Maclaren ( critical phenomenology) and Jan Slaby (critical neuroscience). I argue that these authors' accounts of the relation between affect, motivation and intention, attention , reflective and pre-reflective self-consciousness, the basis of mathematical naturalism and sensori-motor models of behavior, and the relation between the body, language and culture remain burdened by traditional presuppositions that the radically temporal philosophies of Heidegger et al put into question.
... In so doing, it allows for variability, negotiability, emotions and motivations to play a role in the writing process. Indeed, a non-Cartesian scholar's cognition is "social, context-dependent, interactive, collective, dynamic, and embodied" (Kopytko, 2001, p. 796; see also Clark, 1997). ...
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The purpose of this article is to shed light on the alienating power of discourses we participate in, but do not always identify with. It follows that what makes us credible and convincing speakers or writers is not just the content of our stories, but also a skillful use of culturally, socially and instutionally available resources to tell them. In varying degrees, depending on the communicative situation, we assume attitudes, behaviours and rhetorical patterns which resonate with our discourse community’s needs and expectations. Indeed, language is only properly applied when it is deployed from a socio-cultural and institutional perspective shared by interlocuters in a given communicative event which determines how people order their thoughts and ideas to create a coherent and meaningful argument. In this context, discourse can be conceptualised as being shaped by the orientational standpoint we take toward others and ourselves, and disseminated in the rhetorical style typical of our discourse community.
... Modeling mental processes is thus not sufficient to understand human cognition; instead, it should be studied in relation to human activity and praxis (Bødker, 1997;Noë, 2004). Notably, an extended cognitive system containing tools becomes a key unit of analysis in the sociocultural approach and 4E cognition paradigm (Leont' ev, 1975(Leont' ev, , 1978Vygotsky, 1983;Engeström, 1987;Clark, 1998;Glăveanu, 2013;Favela et al., 2021). Tools and manipulable physical devices are seen as an inseparable part of human cognition, extending users' sensorimotor capabilities. ...
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Why does one need creativity? On a personal level, improvisation with available resources is needed for online coping with unforeseen environmental stimuli when existing knowledge and apparent action strategies do not work. On a cultural level, the exploitation of existing cultural means and norms for the deliberate production of novel and valuable artifacts is a basis for cultural and technological development and extension of human action possibilities across various domains. It is less clear, however, how creativity develops and how exactly one arrives at generating new action possibilities and producing multiple alternative action strategies using familiar objects. In this theoretical paper, we first consider existing accounts of the creative process in the Alternative Uses Task and then present an alternative interpretation, drawing on sociocultural views and an embodied cognition approach. We explore similarities between the psychological processes underlying the generation of new uses in the Alternative Uses Task and children’s pretend play. We discuss possible cognitive mechanisms and speculate how the generation of new action possibilities for common objects in pretend play can be related to adults’ ability to generate new action strategies associated with object use. Implications for creativity development in humans and embodied artificial agents are discussed.
... multiple choice questions, fill-in-the-blanks, knowledge is measured by testing memory of isolated chunks of information (Mintzes & Quinn, 2007). However, classic results in cognitive science and education research have documented that mental representations of knowledge are not atomized -rather, they are better described as an interconnected network of concepts (Ausubel, 1968;Rumelhart & Ortony, 1976;Clark, 1997;Barsalou, 1999;Prinz, 2002). Thus, it is a commonly recognized fact that there is a mismatch between the internal cognitive representations that result from students' learning, and the assessment techniques to probe the extent of their learning (Schwartz, Lindgren & Lewis, 2009). ...
... A related criticism to dynamical systems approaches is that the descriptions of the system's behavior in terms of the nonlinear equations are taken as a mathematical description of its overt behavior rather than some underlying process, as Clark (1997: 115) noted (Clark, 1997). However, at the bottom of this problem is a matter of the ontology underlying the explanatory work. ...
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Dynamic systems theoretical approaches conceive of language acquisition as a complex system of interacting components or variables. In such a system, language emerges in a communicative context as a result of a process of self-organization. This theory demands a focus on the system as a whole, a radically different perspective on causality, and a renewed appreciation for intra-individual variability and nonlinear forms of change. It requires the analysis of individual trajectories. Various studies have been published that offer dynamic systems interpretations of first and second language acquisition and that have provided empirical support for the existence of its main constructs.
... These steps toward the consideration of learning as a situated and distributed action have prompted the emergence of two of the trends arising from Vygotsky's thesis, namely, distributed cognition theory (Hutchins, 1995) and extended mind theory (Clark, 1996), which focus on the brain-artifact combination, and enable us to understand how we use artifacts and tools in the learning process. These approaches have been extended over the past decades by Kirsh (2006), Sutton (2006), and Heersmink (2017), Heersmink and Knight (2018); their main contribution focuses on attributing a cognitive status to modern technology, depending on whether this technology manages to integrate deeply or superficially according to the artifacts' level of coupling with mental processes. ...
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The advancement of technology in recent years seems to be prompting a re-ontol-ogising of the world. Digital technology is transforming the educational spaces we inhabit, as well as our way of processing information. Although there are already numerous studies that have addressed this technological reality, only a handful have done so from a theoretical perspective. That is why we present research that seeks to reinforce the latest theoretical contributions for understanding how modern technology may be affecting the way in which knowledge is built. Based on the latest research in social constructivism, this is a qualitative study designed to contribute to the creation of a specific theoretical framework for an onlife world. An ill-struc-tured task and a semi-structured interview were used to observe the use of the thinking skills that enable us to build knowledge and the relationship between them. The results show that the ways of building knowledge are changing, as digital technology fosters the use of higher-order thinking skills that, furthermore, operate in a chaotic, complex, and unpredictable manner. In conclusion, this study upholds the notion that the ways of building knowledge are changing, but we still need more empirical contributions to create a generally accepted theoretical construct for explaining how we build knowledge through digital technology.
... According to Taylor (1995, Chapter 1), Heidegger reinforced that people are agents in the world that are meant to be coped with the physical context surrounding them. Similarly, Hilditch (1997) and Clark (1998) recognize the importance of situatedness as a critical factor by which individuals reflect and interact with the existing world through direct bodily engagement. ...
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In design education, immersive virtual reality (VR) has grown as a visualization and interaction tool. Nonetheless, little research has been done on how individuals self-perception within VR affects their performance. This self-awareness is carried out using avatars that depict the virtual body through multiple points of view. This article assessed three different conditions of virtual body within a design exercise to better understand how these affected idea generations and spatial skills. To do so, an embodiment-cognition framework to evaluate the influence of the virtual body in immersive VR environments was developed. The designed theoretical framework relies on the concept of embodiment and its relevance to situated cognition. Research has supported how cognition connects the mind and body and the relevance of the individual's interaction with its surroundings to make it meaningful. Likewise, more immersive environments can increase the sensation of presence in VR, allowing individuals to behave more naturally. Also, through the connection with the surroundings, individuals liberate cognitive load, allowing them to relocate cognitive efforts in developing knowledge. General findings support how the use of a more embodied virtual body can elicit higher levels of presence but also increase cognitive load which can ultimately hinder cognition. However, VR interactions aided participants to develop spatial skills and allowed idea generation. Furthermore, the framework proposed can be applied to assess students' cognitive processes beyond the discipline’s boundaries.
... Expanding this definition to non-human animals, Andy Clark (1996) provides an example of cognitive offloading using affordances in the environment. Bluefin dolphins utilize vortex rings (hydrodynamic features of the water column) to augment their muscle power during swimming. ...
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Cognitive offloading occurs when environmental affordances expand cognitive capacity as well as facilitate spatial and social behaviors. Yet capacity-related constraints are also important, particularly as an embodied agent comes online during development. Vast differences in brain size and offloading capacity exist across the tree of life. Taking a developmental perspective, we utilize several concepts from cybernetics and the evolution of development to understand how we might determine the proportion of internal model (brain) to externalized processing (offloading) in a developing embodied computational agent. As developing animal nervous systems scale with body size and/or functional importance, offloading capacity is also driven by neural capacity. Thus, cognitive capacity is ultimately determined by various innate and environmental constraints. We propose that a similar model can be used to develop cognitive systems for computational agents. A regulatory model of cognition is proposed as a means to build a cognitive system that interfaces with a biologically-inspired substrate. Multiple tradeoffs resulting from energetic, innate, and informational constraints determine the proportion of internal to external information processing capacity. As growth of the biologically-inspired substrate accelerates or decelerates over developmental time, it changes the acquisition capacity of the cognitive system. Capacity limitations of our agent’s internal model determine the externalization potential, which is characterized by three parameters and two mathematical functions. This approach to simulating developmentally-inspired cognitive regulation can be applied to a broad range of agent-based models and Artificial Intelligence approaches.
... In recent years and decades, an upsurge of embodied theories has been seen in many areas of cognitive science (e.g., Clark, 1998;Gallagher, 2006;Goldman, 2012;Engel et al., 2013). Most of those theories depart from traditional accounts that focus solely on abstract, amodal, symbolic information processing as the basis for cognitive processes (e.g., Fodor, 1975Fodor, , 1981Marr, 1982). ...
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Tendencies of approach and avoidance seem to be a universal characteristic of humans. Specifically, individuals are faster in avoiding than in approaching negative stimuli and they are faster in approaching than in avoiding positive stimuli. The existence of this automatic approach-avoidance bias has been demonstrated in many studies. Furthermore, this bias is thought to play a key role in psychiatric disorders like drug addiction and phobias. However, its mechanisms are far from clear. Theories of embodied cognition postulate that the nature of gestures plays a key role in this process. To shed light on the role of the involved gesture we employed a 2 × 2 factorial design with two types of stimuli. Participants had either to approach positive and avoid negative stimuli (congruent conditions) or to avoid positive stimuli and approach negative stimuli (incongruent conditions). Further, they responded either with a joystick or a button press on a response pad. Participants reacted faster in congruent conditions, i.e., avoiding negative stimuli and approaching positive stimuli, than in incongruent conditions. This replicates the known approach and avoidance bias. However, direct analysis of the button press condition revealed no reaction time advantage for congruent trials compared to incongruent trials. In contrast, in the joystick condition participants were significantly faster performing congruent reactions than incongruent reactions. This interaction, a significant reaction time advantage, when the response is enacted by moving a joystick towards or away from the body provides evidence that approach-avoidance tendencies have a crucial bodily component.
... Together with this awareness of the extended character of cognition has come the recognition that the human mind might be as much the product of human-made environments as it is their cause. The environments we build, it is said, alter our minds, leading to new environmental modifications that spur further mental development, in repeated swells of reciprocal influence (see Dennett, 1991;Clark, 1997;Knappett, 2005;Malafouris, 2013). As we noted in Chapter 1, the Bayesian/PP story we have articulated is very much in line with these acquisitions. ...
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This work investigates one of the most widespread yet elusive ideas about our experience of art: the idea that there is something cognitively valuable in engaging with great artworks, or, in other words, that we learn from them. This claim and the age-old controversy that surrounds it are reconsidered in light of the psychological and neuroscientific literature on learning, in one of the first systematic efforts to bridge the gap between philosophical and scientific inquiries on the topic. The work has five chapters. Chapter 1 lays down its conceptual bases: it explains what learning is taken to be in the current philosophical debate and it points out how Bayesian cognitive science (particularly in its predictive processing formulations) might be well-suited to capture the kind of learning involved in our engagement with the arts. The following chapters test this latter hypothesis with respect to particular art forms, namely literature and literary language (Chapter 2), narrative (Chapter 3), and visual art, music and motor activities (Chapter 4). The fine-grained discussions conducted in each of these areas will enable us to see that the relationship between art and learning is indeed fundamental and pervasive. The final chapter (Chapter 5) examines the consequences of this fact for our understanding of the role of art in our epistemic practices, its ultimate usefulness and value, and its place in the interdisciplinary study of the human mind. The upshot is a novel and wide-ranging picture, both philosophically informed and empirically sound, that bypasses many of the problems and dead ends of the current philosophical debate on the topic and captures the deep sense in which art and learning are interrelated.
... Οι βασικές αρχές που αξιοποιούνται από τα δημοφιλή ψηφιακά παιχνίδια, ώστε να ενισχύσουν τα εσωτερικά κίνητρα του κοινού, υποστηρίζονται θεωρητικά από τις επιστήμες της ψυχολογίας και της παιδαγωγικής (Bruer, 1993, Clark, 1997, Lave, 1996. Οι αρχές αυτές έχουν κατηγοριοποιηθεί από τον Gee (2005), αναφορικά με την αίσθηση του ελέγχου(empowered learners) που δίνουν στον χρήστη, την ανάπτυξη της ικανότητας επίλυσης προβλημάτων (problemsolving) και την ενίσχυση της κατανόησης(understanding). ...
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Τhe article is an integrative literature review in the field of gamification in education, based on Torraco’s (2016) criteria. It aims to deconstruct and recompose the concept of gamification, highlighting its theoretical, psychological and pedagogical principles, that classify gamification as an upcoming educational tool. First of all, the definition of gamification is discussed, as well as its importance as an educational innovation. Furthermore, the role of gamification in reinforcing motivation is emphasized, through an analysis of its elements that seem to affect students’ motivation. Finally, there is a presentation of research conclusions regarding the effectiveness of gamification in educational context, and suggestions for further research are made. Το παρόν άρθρο αποτελεί μια βιβλιογραφική έρευνα του πεδίου της παιχνιδοποίησης στην εκπαίδευση. Γραμμένο με βάση τα κριτήρια του Torraco (2016), επιχειρεί να αποδομήσει την έννοια της παιχνιδοποίησης στις βασικές αρχές που τη διέπουν, και να την επανασυνθέσει αναδεικνύοντας τις θεωρητικές, ψυχολογικές και παιδαγωγικές βάσεις της, που την κατατάσσουν ως ένα ανερχόμενο εκπαιδευτικό εργαλείο. Αρχικά, συζητάται ο ορισμός της παιχνιδοποίησης, και τονίζεται η σημαντικότητά της ως καινοτόμου παιδαγωγικού μέσου. Στη συνέχεια υπογραμμίζεται ο ρόλος της παιχνιδοποίησης στην ενίσχυση του κινήτρου, και καταγράφονται τα στοιχεία της που επηρεάζουν το κίνητρο των μαθητών/τριών, όπως αυτά απορρέουν από την υπάρχουσα βιβλιογραφία. Τέλος, προβάλλονται συνοπτικά τα συμπεράσματα ερευνών ως προς την αποτελεσματικότητα της παιχνιδοποίησης στο εκπαιδευτικό πλαίσιο, και γίνονται προτάσεις για επιπλέον έρευνα.
... Humans have an 'extended mind' beyond the brain and in the 'external scaffolds' of the body and environment [20]. They are not solely independent existences consisting of the self as 'I'. ...
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The novel concept of a Cyber‐Human Social System (CHSS) and a diverse and pluralistic ‘mixed‐life society’ is proposed, wherein cyber and human societies commit to each other. This concept enhances the Cyber‐Physical System (CPS), which is associated with the current Society 5.0, a social vision realised through the fusion of cyber (virtual) and physical (real) spaces following information society (Society 4.0 and Industry 4.0). Moreover, the CHSS enhances the Human‐CPS, the Human‐in‐the‐Loop CPS (HiLCPS), and the Cyber‐Human System by intervening in individual behaviour pro‐socially and supporting consensus building. As a form of architecture that embodies the CHSS concept, the Cyber‐Human Social Co‐Operating System (Social Co‐OS) that combines cyber and human societies is shown. In this architecture, the cyber and human systems cooperate through the fast loop (operation and administration) and slow loop (consensus and politics). Furthermore, the technical content and current implementation of the basic functions of the Social Co‐OS are described. These functions consist of individual behavioural diagnostics, interventions in the fast loop, group decision diagnostics and consensus building in the slow loop. Subsequently, this system will contribute to mutual aid communities and platform cooperatives.
... that the body (including its brain representation) both constrains and facilitates cognition. As a result, higher cognition has begun to be framed as at least partially grounded in sensorimotor activity [30][31][32] . This view is popular in many fields of psychological science, including social cognition 28,29 . ...
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Blocking facial mimicry can disrupt recognition of emotion stimuli. Many previous studies have focused on facial expressions, and it remains unclear whether this generalises to other types of emotional expressions. Furthermore, by emphasizing categorical recognition judgments, previous studies neglected the role of mimicry in other processing stages, including dimensional (valence and arousal) evaluations. In the study presented herein, we addressed both issues by asking participants to listen to brief non-verbal vocalizations of four emotion categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness) and neutral sounds under two conditions. One of the conditions included blocking facial mimicry by creating constant tension on the lower face muscles, in the other condition facial muscles remained relaxed. After each stimulus presentation, participants evaluated sounds’ category, valence, and arousal. Although the blocking manipulation did not influence emotion recognition, it led to higher valence ratings in a non-category-specific manner, including neutral sounds. Our findings suggest that somatosensory and motor feedback play a role in the evaluation of affect vocalizations, perhaps introducing a directional bias. This distinction between stimulus recognition, stimulus categorization, and stimulus evaluation is important for understanding what cognitive and emotional processing stages involve somatosensory and motor processes.
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No século XX surgiu um novo campo científico com o objetivo de investigar a mente humana e sua realização cerebral. A linguagem lógica matemática e o conceito de computação aproximaram a compreensão da mente humana aos processos computacionais e os avanços tecnológicos acompanharam este início. Na década de 1950 este novo campo recebeu o nome de ciência cognitiva e nos anos 1970 se estruturou com uma abordagem interdisciplinar com ênfase cognitivista. A partir de 1990 as teses cognitivistas foram questionadas pela hipótese da cognição corporificada fundamentada na perspectiva orgânica e neurobiológica da cognição humana. Ao analisar a evolução histórica da investigação científica da mente humana percebemos que é um campo muito amplo e diversificado, pleno de esclarecedores debates e que é justamente isto que o torna importante para o empreendimento de conhecer as capacidades mentais humanas em uma abordagem naturalizada que complementa as abstrações filosóficas. Para nós, compreender este percurso histórico é fundamental para dimensionar o valor deste campo em direção à progressiva compreensão científica do que é a mente humana.
Chapter
A relatively obscure debate in phenomenology turns out to have important implications for thinking about how consciousness relates to the body and the environment. This chapter clarifies Husserl’s notion of hyletic data and the objections to this concept by a number of other phenomenologists. The concept also relates to debates about qualia or the ‘what it is like’ of phenomenal consciousness in analytic philosophy. These debates can be resolved when one considers the role of hyletic experience in embodied cognition—specifically in bodily experience—and the role of the body in our perception of the environment.
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In psychosomatic medicine, a harmonious brain-body interaction is an important cornerstone of physical health. The modern brain-computer interface (BCI), an interaction between the brain and abiotic devices, provides the benefits for people with the help of powerful computers. Our newly proposed term brain-apparatus communication (BAC), acknowledges the unique value of the above two interactions and further describes their interdependence; how this interdependence permits better understanding of physical and psychological health and promotes the harmonious coexistence of people with the environment is worth exploring. This perspective article provides a general review of the three types of interactions and discusses the possible future trends.
Chapter
[ https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-031-09206-0 ] This chapter examines the issue of “how” our predecessors began to tell stories by inventing a new expressive system. A first step in this direction concerns considering, in addition to the role of the functional conditions, the role of the structural conditions underlying communication. To this aim, a cognitive approach to the origin of language is adopted, by investigating the cognitive systems which our ancestors may have employed to process the narrative plan, i.e., the cognitive systems comprising a narrative brain. The specific focus of this chapter is on the social brain which, in a pragmatic perspective, is often considered as the unique prerequisite for language functioning and evolution. Although of great relevance, it is claimed that referring solely to the social brain does not allow to account for narrative skills in a comprehensive way.KeywordsMindreadingSocial brainLanguage-first hypothesisNarrative-first hypothesisGlobal coherence
Book
What is a self? What does it mean to have selfhood? What is the relationship between selfhood and identity? These are puzzling questions that philosophers, psychologists, social scientists, and many other researchers often grapple with. Self and Identity is a book that explores and brings together relevant ideas on selfhood and identity, while also helping to clarify some important and long standing scientific and philosophical debates. It will enable readers to understand the difference between selves in humans and other animals, and the different selves that we come to possess from when we are born to when we become old. It also explains how and why the self might break down due to mental illness, thereby providing insight into how we might treat illnesses such as dementia and depression, both of which are conditions that fundamentally affect our selfhood. Taking an important step towards clarifying our understanding of human selfhood and applying it to mental illness, this book will be of great interest to researchers and postgraduate students exploring philosophical questions of selfhood, as well as those examining the connection to clinical disorders.
Chapter
This chapter examines the phenomenon of pandemics, particularly COVID-19, and attempts to conceptualize the excesses, surprises, and ruptures which epidemics introduce into the human lifeworld. The notion of a pandemic as an event on the personal and social levels requires a twofold investigation, and this chapter uses Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy to look at the event structure of the body, and Deleuze’s philosophy to think about the event structure of the socio-political world. The event as it unfolds in the body attunes us to the anonymity and generality of the body, its contingency, and the excess of its biological processes beyond human control—an awareness that induces vertigo, nausea, and a pervasive anxiety. The chapter ends with a reflection on what kind of ethics is implied in the COVID-19 pandemic and how we can be changed when we take the moral step and decide “not to be unworthy of what happens to us” (Deleuze G, Logic of sense. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2004, 174).KeywordsGilles DeleuzeMaurice Merleau-PontyBodyCOVID-19EthicsEventPandemicPhenomenology
Article
The way the brain, body, and mind interact with social structure to shape communication has so far not received the attention it deserves. This book addresses this gap by providing a novel account of communication as a social, biological and neurological force. Combining theories from communication studies and psycholinguistics, and drawing on biological and evolutionary perspectives, it shows how communication is inherently both biological and social, and that language and the neural systems that support it have evolved in response to a complex social environment. It introduces a clear set of terms based on current research, and illustrates key concepts using real-life examples from everyday conversation - speaking to a number of current debates around the evolutionary and biological basis of language, and the relationship between language, cognition, and environment. Thought provoking and engaging, it will change the way we think about the relationship between communication and cognition.
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The main goal of this paper is to investigate whether (and how) humans are unique in using tools and artifacts. Non-human animals exhibit some impressive instances of tool and artifact-use. Chimpanzees use sticks to get termites out of a mound, beavers build dams, birds make nests, spiders create webs, bowerbirds make bowers to impress potential mates, etc. There is no doubt that some animals modify and use objects in clever and sophisticated ways. But how does this relate to the way in which humans make and use objects to achieve their goals? To answer this question, this paper first presents a taxonomy of artifacts, identifying four overlapping categories, namely embodied, perceptual, cognitive, and affective artifacts. It then discusses definitions of animal tool-use, arguing that we need a more liberal approach, one that goes beyond the use of tools that are embedded in occurrent perception-action cycles. This paper ends by analysing how instances of animal tool and artifact-use can be classified according to the four identified categories, concluding that some animals use embodied, perceptual, cognitive, and affective artifacts. In this sense, humans are thus not unique in the kinds of tools and artifacts we use. What is unique, however, is our unprecedented flexibility and openness to deeply incorporate a large variety of complex tools and artifacts into our embodied, perceptual, cognitive, and affective systems.
Chapter
Human history has been a series of relentless efforts and actions of accumulating knowledge by finding patterns and insights from data obtained by observing complex and strange phenomena in the real world. Currently, data have become the key to economic growth and have been described as the “new oil.” In this climate, a new form of market for exchanging data with others for gaining new perspectives and interpreting and creating technologies are emerging. The data marketplace is where data and the products from data are treated as economic goods and the stakeholders of data businesses communicate with each other to cultivate a deeper understanding of the data usage. Even before the worldwide movements of big data and AI, authors have been focusing on information technology that contributes to interdisciplinary collaboration, knowledge sharing, and decision making, and have been conducting research. In this chapter, we show the fundamental concept and the meaning of the data marketplace for innovations with the role of data, the current state of the data businesses in the ecosystem, and their introduction examples from the social backgrounds and requirements.KeywordsMarket of dataData exchangeValue exchangeData platformInformationKnowledge
Chapter
Theorien der Verkörperung behaupten, dass der Körper, die sensomotorischen Kapazitäten eines Organismus und die Umwelt nicht nur eine besondere Rolle für die Kognition spielen, sondern konstitutiv für kognitive Kompetenzen des Menschen sind. Dies bedeutet, dass kognitive Fähigkeiten in der körperlichen Interaktionen mit der Umwelt gebildet werden, bzw. in ihrer Ausprägung und Qualität von diesen Interaktionen abhängen. Mit dieser Position verbunden wird eine Kritik an den repräsentationalistischen und computationalen Positionen der klassischen Kognitionswissenschaften. Der Beitrag versucht nicht nur diese kritischen Argumente aufzugreifen und nachzuvollziehen, sondern ebenso einen systematischen Überblick über die Positionen im Umkreis der Theorie der Verkörperung (verkörpert, eingebettet, enaktiv, erweitert) zu geben. Abschließend wird ein Ausblick auf die sportwissenschaftliche sowie therapeutische Bedeutung dieser situierten Ansätze skizziert.
Chapter
The concept of prejudice has profoundly influenced how we have investigated, explained and tried to change intergroup relations of discrimination and inequality. But what has this concept contributed to our knowledge of relations between groups and what has it obscured or misrepresented? How has it expanded or narrowed the horizons of psychological inquiry? How effective or ineffective has it been in guiding our attempts to transform social relations and institutions? In this book, a team of internationally renowned psychologists re-evaluate the concept of prejudice, in an attempt to move beyond conventional approaches to the subject and to help the reader gain a clearer understanding of relations within and between groups. This fresh look at prejudice will appeal to scholars and students of social psychology, sociology, political science and peace studies.
Chapter
Socially situated thought and behaviour are pervasive and vitally important in human society. The social brain has become a focus of study for researchers in the neurosciences, psychology, biology and other areas of behavioural science, and it is becoming increasingly clear that social behaviour is heavily dependent on shared representations. Any social activity, from a simple conversation to a well-drilled military exercise to an exquisitely perfected dance routine, involves information sharing between the brains of those involved. This volume comprises a collection of cutting-edge essays centred on the idea of shared representations, broadly defined. Featuring contributions from established world leaders in their fields and written in a simultaneously accessible and detailed style, this is an invaluable resource for established researchers and those who are new to the field.
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Este texto foi produzido como parte da primeira aula da disciplina "Materialidade, corpo e tecnologia" ministrada aos estudantes de graduação do curso de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da UFMG. Este ensaio introduz a ideia de cognição corporificada (embodied cognition), a teoria do engajamento material, e alguns aspectos do enativismo para discutir o processo de projeto arquitetônico. Discute-se brevemente como a ideia de cognição corporificada prescinde da ideia de representação mental e quais os impactos disso para pensar a cognição humana. Os softwares de projeto arquitetônico são analisados a partir da ideia de cognição corporificada para tentar compreender se é possível propor um uso 'suplementado' desses softwares a partir do desenvolvimento de conhecimento sobre os materiais e processos representados nesses (por esses) softwares.
Article
The demise of the scholastic worldview and the rise of the mechanistic one may give the impression of a parallel demise of the scholastic explanatory framework. In this paper, I argue that this impression is wrong. To this end, I first outline Descartes’ representative and particularly sharp mechanistic criticism of the scholastic notion of explanation. Deploying conceptual machinery from contemporary philosophy of science, I then suggest a reconstruction of the scholastic notion that is immune to Descartes’ criticism. Based on this reconstruction, I reinterpret the dispute between Descartes and the scholastics as one that concerns the extent of two legitimate conceptions of explanation. Finally, I outline a contemporary dispute within cognitive neuroscience that reflects the Cartesian-scholastic one as thus reinterpreted, thereby showing that aspects of the world may well require a scholastic-like approach for their explanation. The aim of this paper, then, is to shed light on a most important philosophical-cum-scientific historical controversy from a modern perspective, but also to highlight the deep historical roots of a related contemporary dispute. Based on this, the paper also seeks to draw a substantial philosophical conclusion concerning the issue under dispute in both controversies.
Article
Aelius Aristides’ Sacred Tales, composed in the 2nd century CE, is considered a unique literary work, in which the author claimed to have recorded the dreams he had received from Asclepius over a long period of time. Modern historians explore the value of the Sacred Tales both as a literary work and as a personal oneiric record of actual dreaming experiences. In this article, I take into account the modern insights offered by the embodied human cognition paradigm in order explore the possible long-term influence and repercussions of the Sacred Tales on the readers’ imagination and dreaming experiences. In particular, I suggest that Aristides’ oneiric descriptions would have been meta-represented in the readers’ minds upon reading the text, priming specific images, representations, mental, and emotional states as well as expectations about potential divine revelations during the ritual of incubation. Later, those readers who would find themselves in similar bodily, mental, and emotional conditions like the ones experienced and described by Aristides, could have implicitly used the primed representations for meta-representing a personal epiphany of Asclepius. Thereby, the Sacred Tales would have provided the raw material to feed the readers’ imaginative simulations and to elicit a personally meaningful divine revelation.
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Although pragmatism and phenomenology have both contributed significantly to the genealogy of so-called “4E” – embodied, embedded, enactive and extended – cognition, there is benefit to be had from a systematic comparative study of these roots. As existing 4E cognition literature has tended to emphasise one or the other tradition, issues remain to be addressed concerning their commonalities – and possible incompatibilities. We begin by exploring pragmatism and phenomenology’s shared focus on contesting intellectualism, and its key assumption of mindedness as representation. We then outline distinctive insights from both traditions regarding the nature and role of habits, in order to put forward a habit-based epistemology as an alternative to the Cartesian idea-based epistemology that has dominated modern philosophy. We pay particular attention to the work of classical pragmatist C.S. Peirce, arguing that his semiotics, which analyses sign-use as habit, shows how theorists of embodied cognition can break a certain false dichotomy between embodiment and logical or intellectual structure which has prevented them from fully theorising propositional knowledge. In this way, our work both augments and challenges the Dewey/Merleau-Ponty connection that has been much more extensively explored by the field.
Article
The impact our physical presence can be overlooked easily in everyday life. Monitoring a visitor’s motion can help bring attention to some of the unavoidable conditions of being physically present in a space. This paper details the creation of an installation in which a participant could examine the impacts of their physical presence. The participant’s motions within a boundary were amplified sonically. The boundary was broken into quadrants. The participant’s quadrant also helped determine the base pitch of the corresponding sounds. The amount of visual change the motion caused within a quadrant from a bird’s eye view determined how much the base pitch was modified. Participants encountering such a system responded in different ways. A few participants chose to ignore the system. Some avoided the system. Others observed others within the system. Others moved, exploring how their motions changed their sonic experience of existing in the space. The last group moved but with the intention of being able to explicitly understand the inner workings of the space and gain control of the system. Through physical motion, this work provided an alternative understanding of being present and part of the system in the gallery space.
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In this article I argue that the study of contextual issues in economics has been limited in its scope because economists have mostly conceived of the environment as a constraint on individual action. I identify and discuss three conventions that pull economists into such con-ceptualization of the environment. For each of the three I provide ways forward for contextual economics to avoid the pull. I then employ insights from the recent cognitive science on socially extended mind to demonstrate how the project of contextual economics as envisioned in this article can benefit from reconceptualizing the environment not as a constraint on individual action but as a resource for constituting socially extended cognitive processes. Rather than being simply about gathering more and better data, contextual economics can offer a powerful approach for studying social world based on entangled interactions between individual actors and their environments. JEL Codes: B41, B53, B59, D02, D91, Z13
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