ArticlePDF Available

Characterization of Heat Waves: A Case Study for Peninsular Malaysia

Authors:
  • Institut Teknologi Nasional Yogyakarta (ITNY)
A preview of the PDF is not available
... From 2008 to 2010, the lowest heatwave index was 27.3°C in Kuching and the highest heatwave index was 35.0°C in Sandakan in East Malaysia [10]. From 2001 to 2010, the highest heatwave index experienced in Kuala Lumpur with an increase of 9.1°C, and the lowest heatwave experienced in Alor Setar with an increase of 0.1°C across Peninsular Malaysia [11]. In addition, the moderate heatwave index was found at 4.2°C in Kuantan, and the longest heatwave, spanning 24 days, occurred in Ipoh, Perak, with amplitudes ranging from 29.4°C to 33.0°C [11]. ...
... From 2001 to 2010, the highest heatwave index experienced in Kuala Lumpur with an increase of 9.1°C, and the lowest heatwave experienced in Alor Setar with an increase of 0.1°C across Peninsular Malaysia [11]. In addition, the moderate heatwave index was found at 4.2°C in Kuantan, and the longest heatwave, spanning 24 days, occurred in Ipoh, Perak, with amplitudes ranging from 29.4°C to 33.0°C [11]. The heatwave's characteristics were also compared to spatial distribution maps, which revealed that the southeast, northeast, and west parts of Peninsular Malaysia experience the most heatwaves. ...
... The heatwave's characteristics were also compared to spatial distribution maps, which revealed that the southeast, northeast, and west parts of Peninsular Malaysia experience the most heatwaves. During dry season, the highest heatwave index occurred between March and July [11]. Tang [12] had investigated daily mean temperature in five different locations: Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Malacca, Kuantan, and Subang Jaya. ...
... From 2008 to 2010, the lowest heatwave index was 27.3°C in Kuching and the highest heatwave index was 35.0°C in Sandakan in East Malaysia [10]. From 2001 to 2010, the highest heatwave index experienced in Kuala Lumpur with an increase of 9.1°C, and the lowest heatwave experienced in Alor Setar with an increase of 0.1°C across Peninsular Malaysia [11]. In addition, the moderate heatwave index was found at 4.2°C in Kuantan, and the longest heatwave, spanning 24 days, occurred in Ipoh, Perak, with amplitudes ranging from 29.4°C to 33.0°C [11]. ...
... From 2001 to 2010, the highest heatwave index experienced in Kuala Lumpur with an increase of 9.1°C, and the lowest heatwave experienced in Alor Setar with an increase of 0.1°C across Peninsular Malaysia [11]. In addition, the moderate heatwave index was found at 4.2°C in Kuantan, and the longest heatwave, spanning 24 days, occurred in Ipoh, Perak, with amplitudes ranging from 29.4°C to 33.0°C [11]. The heatwave's characteristics were also compared to spatial distribution maps, which revealed that the southeast, northeast, and west parts of Peninsular Malaysia experience the most heatwaves. ...
... The heatwave's characteristics were also compared to spatial distribution maps, which revealed that the southeast, northeast, and west parts of Peninsular Malaysia experience the most heatwaves. During dry season, the highest heatwave index occurred between March and July [11]. Tang [12] had investigated daily mean temperature in five different locations: Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Malacca, Kuantan, and Subang Jaya. ...
Article
Full-text available
Projecting the mortality of cardiovascular disease in future is crucial in preparing the mitigation strategies. The purpose of this research is to estimate number of deaths of the cardiovascular disease in Peninsular Malaysia based on future temperature projections using the cluster approach. Ward's method is used to identify the number of clusters of 45 meteorological stations by calculating the shortest distance between the two coordinates of the stations. The output of global climate model (GCM) is incredibly useful for the projection of future temperature, but the large bias in the observational datasets may lead to inaccurate projection. To tackle the bias, a good fitted model for temperature series is important in order to ensure that the mean and variability of the observed series are well captured. It is important to estimate the parameters for each cluster precisely. Furthermore, a good fitted model for temperature series is also crucial in order to ensure that the mean and variability of the observations are well captured. Thus, this study proposed the appropriate statistical distribution for the temperature series to be associated in the bias correction method (BCM) using the quantile mapping (QM) technique to reduce the biases between observations and historical GCM temperature data series. Next, Ward's method is applied to determine the optimal number of clusters for Peninsular Malaysia. The results have shown that the proposed model is able to reduce the temperature series biases between the GCM and the observations. Six clusters throughout Peninsular Malaysia have been selected based on Ward's method. The projection number of deaths of cardiovascular disease under is estimated to increase between 2006 and 2100 in all clusters across Peninsular Malaysia, based on the temperature projections.
... Indonesia is predicted as one of the countries that will face water stress in 2040. The phenomenon of heatwaves can disturb the productivity of the agricultural sector as well as the economic and human health sectors (Suparta & Yatim, 2019). Even now, natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and high waves along the coast of the island of Java are increasingly exacerbating the risks to the sustainability of human welfare in the future. ...
Article
Full-text available
Align with the economy developing progress. The study investigates the relationship among some constructs, namely green entrepreneurship education (GEE). Environmental citizenship behaviour (ECB). Green entrepreneurial intention (GEI). And perceived circular economy (PCE). These relationships involve some direct and mediating effects among constructs in understanding the circular economy. It involves 123 students from some business management schools and economic faculty in Jakarta. Smart-PLS is a tool for running data with the following results: GEE influences ECB with a contribution of 26.38 per cent. ECB contributes 40.45 per cent while GEE supports 11.25 per cent toward GEI. In this case. ECB mediates the relation between green entrepreneurship education and green entrepreneurship intention. When associated with the circular economy. The role of GEI mediates ECB to PCE. However. ECB only impacts 6 per cent. Meanwhile, GEI is 32.72 per cent in forming students’ perception of the circular economy. It shows the ECB has not been able to develop an understanding of the circular economy. Hence. It needs a literacy of circular economy as a mechanism to enrich knowledge in entrepreneurship education programs.
... The characteristics of the heatwave were compared to the spatial distribution maps showing that southeast, northeast, and western part of Malaysia experience more heatwave. The maximum heatwave index was more pronounced between March and July during the dry season (Suparta & Yatim 2019), indicating that the extreme heat events in Malaysia are a growing problem. Hence, owing to the significant and direct impact of heat events on various sectors including human health, critical study and exploration are required (Suparta & Yatim 2017, 2019. ...
Article
Full-text available
The bias correction method (BCM) is useful in reducing the statistically downscaled biases of global climate models’ (GCM) outputs and preserving statistical moments of the hydrological series. However, BCM is less efficient under changed future conditions due to the stationary assumption and performs poorly in removing bias at extremes, thereby producing unreliable bias-corrected data. Thus, the existing BCM with normal distribution is improved by incorporating skewed distributions into the model with linear covariate (BCM-QMskewed). In this study, BCM-QMskewed is developed to reduce biases in the extreme temperature data of peninsular Malaysia. The input is the MIROC5 model output gridded data and observations sourced by the Malaysian Department of Irrigation and Drainage (1976–2005). BCM-QMskewed with lognormal (LGNORM) and Gumbel (GUM) has shown considerable skill in correcting biases, capturing extreme and nonstationarity of current and future extreme temperatures data series corresponding to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for 2006–2100 based on model diagnostics and precision analysis. Higher projection of extreme temperatures is more pronounced under RCP8.5 than RCP4.5 with precise estimates ranging from 33 to 42 °C and 30 to 32 °C, respectively. Finally, the projection of extreme temperatures is used to calculate cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rate which coincides with high extreme temperatures ranging between 0.002 and 0.014. HIGHLIGHTS BCM-QMskewed with LGNORM and GUM was considered to capture the extreme values.; The linear covariate model was considered to capture the nonstationary trend in extreme temperatures series.; Results indicate the model's ability to correct the biases of extreme temperatures data for both RCPs in the study area with decent accuracy.; Higher mortality rate of CVD is consistent with higher extreme temperatures.;
... However, these groups were affected by the sea level rise due to climate change. According to previous researches [4][5][6], the surface temperature and sea level in Malaysia were increasing by time to time, as well as the frequency of extreme events such as flooding, high rainfall and heatwaves. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kuala Kedah is a coastal area where the majority of the community are paddy farmers and fishermen. Almost the entire coastal area is used as a paddy cultivation area. However, this area faces the threat of seawater intrusion into land due to climate change driven sea-level rise. The rising seawater has affected the surrounding area, not only in terms of crop yields but also property and livelihood to the locals. Therefore, this study is designed to detect and analyze the progress of seawater on land at the Kuala Kedah coastal area using a hydrodynamic approach. Mike 21 software was used to simulate the hydrodynamic effects on 2 segments (NA and SA) in this study area by considering two conditions namely Condition 1 (K1) and Condition 2 (K2) which are respectively with and without coastal protection structure. However, this structure was only built along the 2.5 km shoreline in the NA segment and not in the SA segment. The findings show that the coastal protection structure in K2 is effective in reducing 50 % of the impact of sea level rise in year 2100 at NA segment, while only 10 % at SA segment. Therefore, the construction of these structures permanently should be given consideration by local authorities in planning future development to ensure lowland areas are protected from coastal floods.
... At the same time, the country faces diseases, and natural disaster such as floods, landslides, forest fires, or drought is an indicator of the environmental damages (Sudyasjayanti, 2018). Moreover, the heatwave phenomenon direct impacts on agriculture, economic, and human health (Suparta and Yatim, 2019). Thus, the maintaining of natural resources and anticipating disasters ought to be a trigger for entrepreneurs. ...
Article
Full-text available
In line with circular economic, the role of green entrepreneurship (GE) should be useful in preserving environmental sustainability. However, so many people are less aware of the importance of sustainability and green behavior in business activities. Therefore, the goal of the study is to explore a linkage of green value, GE, and sustainable development that is perceived by entrepreneurship students in Jakarta, Indonesia. 180 students were involved as respondents resulting in significant impacts. By using Smart-PLS proves significant relationships and finds a mediating effect of GE which links green value to sustainable development at the level of 5 percent. It forms a green triangle approach in promoting sustainability education for university students so that this linkage signs a good perception of students in expressing green value toward GE and sustainability issues. It is an early stage in promoting the triple bottom line so that the learning system could collaborate with stakeholders for enhancing the sustainability system in entrepreneurial education.
Article
Full-text available
Aligning with the achievement of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) agenda in 2030 and the G-20 presidency in Indonesia, a study was conducted on entrepreneurship learning in higher education. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between green economy, green entrepreneurial orientation and green entrepreneurial intention among university students. Educational institutions as stakeholders are responsible for organizing entrepreneurship learning that is in line with global community commitments in dealing with climate change and achieving sustainable prosperity. The study involved 175 business school students in Jakarta using convenience sampling. The results show the direct effect of green economy and green entrepreneurial orientation on green entrepreneurial intention and the formation of a mediating effect through green entrepreneurial orientation. The significance of the three variables forms the green triangle model so that it can be considered as a basis for learning mechanisms for eco-friendly entrepreneurship. Efforts to foster student interest are formed through green entrepreneurial orientation so that this construct is important in building environmentally-oriented entrepreneurship. Stakeholder collaboration is needed in implementing green entrepreneurship as pathway in an achieving SDGs agenda and dealing with climate change.
Article
Full-text available
Effective and efficient service delivery of urban service is paramount, especially in the ever-growing urban population. A high number of populations residing in urban areas has increased waste generation. Around the world, municipalities, especially in developing countries have to increase their waste management budget and various initiatives to deal with the generated waste. One of the preferable initiatives for developing countries in dealing with waste management issues is through the involvement of the public in the process and practices. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the perception of the public involvement in the process and practices of solid waste management in Johor Bharu, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 260 respondents in a mixed density residential housing scheme participated in the questionnaires survey. Therefore, several recommendations are put forward to enhance the cooperation of the public and municipalities in the solid waste management process and practices.
Article
Full-text available
Construction industry is a crucial contributor to the economic growth in Malaysia. Unfortunately, the construction industry has a lot of negative impacts primarily on the environmental aspect as it leads to climate change, pollution, and energy waste. As a response, Malaysia needs to become progressively aware of the need for more sustainable building. In view of this issue, the Energy Management System (EMS) can be adopted to enhance building sustainability in the construction industry. The aim of this paper is to investigate the EMS in enhancing sustainability in building for Malaysia construction industry. In order to achieve the aim, the objective of this paper was to investigate the benefits of EMS implementation in building sustainability components. The result obtained from 64 respondents of Grade 7 Contractors indicates the benefits identified of EMS implementation in sustainability components which are environmental, economic, and social benefits. From the data analysed, this paper has found that there are plenty of sustainability benefits that can be attained by adopting EMS. Thus, the EMS approach is considered as one of the driving factors for sustainable building and can provide a better environment in the building, which is more flexible, convenient, and comfortable while remaining energy efficient for the occupants in this modern lifestyle.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Extreme temperature trends is among one of the current, most-discussed topics in global climatic research. The interest could be the result of extreme climatic events such as droughts and heat waves that are happening worldwide. Accurate prediction of extreme temperature variability is important in the monitoring of extreme temperature pattern so that suitable preventive measures can be planned. Objective: The main objective of this study is to analyze changes in the annual average daily temperature recorded at twenty-three meteorological stations in Malaysia. Results: The trends in the temperature are assessed by the linear least square method. The results showed a significant warming trend at most of the stations. Conclusion: The increase in temperature may be caused by natural or anthropogenic factors. The results obtained from this study provide useful information on observed regional temperature trends and assistance in future planning.
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the main characteristics of a heat wave that occurred over Sistan and Baluchestan. Province located in the south east of Iran. First, we analyzed daily maximum temperature (DMT) recorded at 12 stations during 1961–2015, in southern of Iran. Then geographical patterns of heat waves (HWs), including those persisting for 2–5 days and longer over this province were studied. To indicate heat waves we used the value of the 90th percentile of the annual maximum temperature distribution at a station an then heat wave (HWs) is defined as the maximum number of consecutive days where the daily maximum temperature the long-term daily 90th percentile. Our analysis showed that Two poles of high frequencies (over 2 days per year) of the HWs during April–October were found in the regions of Jazmourian plain and the northern areas of SB. HWs increased significantly during the studied period in most regions of the province, especially over the northwestern areas and the west Sistan and Baluchestan. Increasing trend of HWs occurred after the 2005s in all regions, especially in northern SB and the southeastern coastal.
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the current available scientific knowledge pertaining to climate change and climate variability over Malaysia. Malaysia is situated in the western part of the Maritime Continent of the Southeast Asian region. Hence, regional climate change and climate variability over this region are of central importance to the understanding of climate change in Malaysia. The latest regional climate downscaling study indicates that, depending on the emission scenario, the mean surface temperature over Malaysia would increase by 3-5°C by the end of the 21 st century. The mean precipitation is projected to decrease (increase) during Northern Hemisphere winter (summer). However, future variabilities associated with regional phenomena such as the monsoon, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are largely unknown. Current knowledge on the intensity and frequency of future extreme events (drought and flood) is limited. This is also the case for regional sea level rise and long-term changes in regional seas, especially in the southern region of the South China Sea. We conclude that knowledge gap in the science of climate change over Malaysia and the surrounding region remains wide.
Article
Full-text available
The Caucasus Region has been affected by an increasing number of heat waves during the last decades, which have had serious impacts on human health, agriculture and natural ecosystems. A dataset of 22 homogenized, daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) air temperature series is developed to quantify climatology and summer heat wave changes for Georgia and Tbilisi station between 1961 and 2010 using the extreme heat factor (EHF) as heat wave index. The EHF is studied with respect to eight heat wave aspects: event number, duration, participating heat wave days, peak and mean magnitude, number of heat wave days, severe and extreme heat wave days. A severity threshold for each station was determined by the climatological distribution of heat wave intensity. Moreover, heat wave series of two indices focusing on the 90th percentile of daily minimum temperature (CTN90p) and the 90th percentile of daily maximum temperature (CTX90p) were compared. The spatial distribution of heat wave characteristics over Georgia showed a concentration of high heat wave amplitudes and mean magnitudes in the Southwest. The longest and most frequently occurring heat wave events were observed in the Southeast of Georgia. Most severe heat wave events were found in both regions. Regarding the monthly distribution of heat waves, the largest proportion of severe events and highest intensities are measured during May. Trends for all Georgia-averaged heat wave aspects demonstrate significant increases in the number, intensity and duration of low-and high-intensity heat waves. However, for the heat wave mean magnitude no change was observed. Heat wave trend OPEN ACCESS Climate 2015, 3 309 magnitudes for Tbilisi mainly exceed the Georgia-averages and its surrounding stations, implying urban heat island (UHI) effects and synergistic interactions between heat waves and UHIs. Comparing heat wave aspects for CTN90p and CTX90p, all trend magnitudes for CTN90p were larger, while the correlation between the annual time-series was very high among all heat wave indices analyzed. This finding reflects the importance of integrating the most suitable heat wave index into a sector-specific impact analysis.
Article
Full-text available
Heatwaves represent a significant natural hazard in Australia, arguably more hazardous to human life than bushfires, tropical cyclones and floods. In the 2008/2009 summer, for example, many more lives were lost to heatwaves than to that summer's bushfires which were among the worst in the history of the Australian nation. For many years, these other forms of natural disaster have received much greater public attention than heatwaves, although there are some signs of change. We propose a new index, called the excess heat factor (EHF) for use in Australian heatwave monitoring and forecasting. The index is based on a three-day-averaged daily mean temperature (DMT), and is intended to capture heatwave intensity as it applies to human health outcomes, although its usefulness is likely to be much broader and with potential for international applicability. The index is described and placed in a climatological context in order to derive heatwave severity. Heatwave severity, as characterised by the climatological distribution of heatwave intensity, has been used to normalise the climatological variation in heatwave intensity range across Australia. This methodology was used to introduce a pilot national heatwave forecasting service for Australia during the 2013/2014 summer. Some results on the performance of the service are presented.
Article
Among the weather events generated by extreme temperatures, heat waves are some of the most harmful which in the recent years has obviously increased the nature of climate risk. The main reason why we decided to conduct such a research is due to the profound socioeconomic impact of heat waves in urban areas. The aims of this study were to analyze heat waves at Iasi meteorological station based on the daily maximum temperature during 56-year period (1961-2016). The frequency and duration were analyzed by applying the 95th percentile method and choosing the length of an event of minimum three consecutive days. The results were showing that the most frequent heat waves are those lasting 3 and 4 days, but regarding the duration, the longest heat waves were considered during the summer of 2007, lasting 10 days at Iasi meteorological station. The main result is that the frequency trend is significantly increasing.
Article
This study explores the influence of El-Niño related climate change that impacts the development of agriculture sector in Malaysia. In order to identify the impacts, this study analyzes the information of El-Niño events from 1997-1998. This would offer of having a standpoint to formulate the future strategy with an understanding of the nature of El-Niño and its vulnerability which has been hit by the Pacific Rim region and the Southern oscillation, including in Malaysia. Since, the currently available researches are inadequate to observe the events of El-Niño, formulation of strategic planning is mainly based on assumption and hypothetical projection locally. Under such climate, this study proposes the ‘Action plan’ for furthering the strength by chalking-out the prevailing weakness of adapting capacity of El-Niño and its adverse impact on agriculture. The proposed action plan ultimately offers the socio-economic wellbeing in Malaysia by significantly reducing the vulnerability of El-Niño and enhancing the performance.
Article
Heat waves have significant impacts on both ecosystems and human beings. This is compounded by future climate scenarios which indicate more frequent and severe heat waves in certain locations. There are members of communities that are more vulnerable to the effects of heat waves such as the elderly and infants and this presents particular challenges for the future. Hence it is timely to undertake a critical and systematic review of the effects of heat waves and mechanisms to mitigate their effects. There are significant implications associated with heat waves such as extra power consumption, community health, water consumption and quality, and additional costs within the natural and built environments. One of the critical issues is peak electricity demand which is closely linked with factors such as building occupant health and costs to consumers. Utilization of renewable and sustainable energy helps to mitigate this specific issue. Common policy instruments to deal with risks associated with heat waves include heat impact assessment and heat warning system. Similarly, building design should take impacts of heat waves into consideration such as dwelling adaptation. This review provides useful inputs to both policy making and industry practice on improving the resilience of urban and regional areas in the event of extreme weather conditions such as heat waves in the future.