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Humans modulate their self-evaluations and behaviour as a function of conspecific presence and performance. In this study, we tested for the presence of human-like social comparison effects in long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis). The monkeys' task was to extract food from an apparatus by pulling drawers within reach and we measured latency between drawer pulls. Subjects either worked on the task with a partner who could access the apparatus from an adjacent cage, worked in the absence of a conspecific but with food moving towards the partner's side or worked next to a partner who was denied apparatus access. We further manipulated partner performance and competitiveness of the set-up. We found no indication that long-tailed macaques compare their performance to the performance of conspecifics. They were not affected by the mere presence of the partner but they paid close attention to the partner's actions when they were consequential for food availability. If social comparison processes are present in long-tailed macaques, the present study suggests they may only manifest in situations involving direct competition and would thus be different from social comparisons in humans, which manifest also in the absence of direct competition, for example in evaluative contexts.

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... Grooming (Self-care) is one of the typical Long-tailed macaque activities with a percentage of 14.9% of the total activities. This record is in accordance with [16,19], where the grooming activity is 11,55% of the total activities. The grooming activities are mostly carried out by the female Long-tailed macaque. ...
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The research was conducted in Mount Rinjani National Park, Lombok Timur, to observe the daily activities of Long-tailed macaque in utilizing their habitat and vocalization analysis as a hallmark of species. The Long-tailed macaque’ activities were analyzed using the scan sampling method. Ten (10) individuals of Long-tailed macaque were observed. The results showed that the observed activities of Long-tailed macaque were feeding, sleeping, inactive, grooming, mating, moving, excretion, playing, making sound, and agonistic (fighting). The average percentage of Long-tailed macaque observed was feeding (10.1%), sleeping (9%), inactive (9.4%), grooming (14.9%), mating (8.5%), moving (11.1%), excretion (7.9%), playing (9.7%), making sound (9.5%), and agonistic (9.9%). The daily activities can be as a reference in detecting the ‘species’ of the Long-tailed macaque . To support the population of this species, especially for long-term survival, the manager of the Rinjani Nasional Park should preserve the forest with conservation of natural forests and wildlife or biodiversity conservation and ecotourism, also prevent littering and illegal activities.
... Socially despotic monkeys, such as long-tailed macaques, also did not share preferred rewards to benefit other subjects [9] though they may compare their portion to what others receive [10]. Food competition was a part of social comparison processes in long-tailed macaques [11].Undeniable, some studies have found that monkeys may prefer to equal option 1:1, meaning they could accept equity rather than the inequitable condition [12][13][14][15]. Amici et al. (2012) even demonstrated that 76% of dominant long-tailed macaques would accept an equitable distribution (only 24% refusal) when pairs were positioned face to face. ...
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Chapter
Researchers have studied non-human primate cognition along different paths, including social cognition, planning and causal knowledge, spatial cognition and memory, and gestural communication, as well as comparative studies with humans. This volume describes how primate cognition is studied in labs, zoos, sanctuaries, and in the field, bringing together researchers examining similar issues in all of these settings and showing how each benefits from the others. Readers will discover how lab-based concepts play out in the real world of free primates. This book tackles pressing issues such as replicability, research ethics, and open science. With contributors from a broad range of comparative, cognitive, neuroscience, developmental, ecological, and ethological perspectives, the volume provides a state-of-the-art review pointing to new avenues for integrative research.
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This chapter discusses social behavior through self-evaluation maintenance (SEM) model. It describes several studies to provide a feel for the kind of research that has been completed in an attempt to explore the predictions of the model. The SEM model is composed of two dynamic processes. Both the reflection process and the comparison process have as component variables the closeness of another and the quality of that other's performance. These two variables interact in affecting self-evaluation but do so in quite opposite ways in each of the processes Model establishes the comprehensiveness of the research and the interactive quality of its predictions. Next, the SEM model is fit into the perspective of related work, including self-theories, social comparison theory, and Cialdini's BIRGing research. The chapter reviews the epistemological status of the model. It discusses some of the implications of the research for a variety of areas in psychology.
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Statistical analysis is a useful skill for linguists and psycholinguists, allowing them to understand the quantitative structure of their data. This textbook provides a straightforward introduction to the statistical analysis of language. Designed for linguists with a non-mathematical background, it clearly introduces the basic principles and methods of statistical analysis, using ’R’, the leading computational statistics programme. The reader is guided step-by-step through a range of real data sets, allowing them to analyse acoustic data, construct grammatical trees for a variety of languages, quantify register variation in corpus linguistics, and measure experimental data using state-of-the-art models. The visualization of data plays a key role, both in the initial stages of data exploration and later on when the reader is encouraged to criticize various models. Containing over 40 exercises with model answers, this book will be welcomed by all linguists wishing to learn more about working with and presenting quantitative data.
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