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GreenWater Laboratories Potentially Toxigenic (PTOX) Cyanobacteria List

Authors:
  • Greenwater Laboratories
  • Greenwater Laboratories

Abstract

Some Known and Suspected Toxigenic Cyanobacteria from Around the World This list includes taxa that have had toxins identified, have been implicated in toxic events in the field, or have elicited a positive response in laboratory assays. New toxigenic cyanobacteria species are continually being discovered and data concerning known and suspected toxin producers continues to be refined and expanded. As a result, this list is by no means meant to be an exhaustive list of toxin producing cyanobacteria and their toxins.
Page 1 of 13
GreenWater Laboratories
Potentially Toxigenic (PTOX) Cyanobacteria List
Authors: Andrew Chapman & Amanda Foss
Updated: February 27, 2020
Document # 200227_PTOX
Some Known and Suspected Toxigenic Cyanobacteria from Around the World
This list includes taxa that have had toxins identified, have been implicated in toxic events in the
field, or have elicited a positive response in laboratory assays. New toxigenic cyanobacteria
species are continually being discovered and data concerning known and suspected toxin
producers continues to be refined and expanded. As a result, this list is by no means meant to be
an exhaustive list of toxin producing cyanobacteria and their toxins.
Page 2 of 13
Species
Cyanotoxin(s)
Produced
Reference
Anagnostidinema amphibium
(previously Geitlerinema
amphibium)
STXs GTX4
(Borges et al., 2015) - Brazil
Anagnostidinema carotinosum
(previously Geitlerinema
carotinosum)
Microcystins (-LY)
Anatoxin-a
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Anagnostidinema lemmermannii
(previously Geitlerinema
lemmermannii)
STXs GTX1
(Borges et al., 2015) - Brazil
Anabaenopsis arnoldii
Microcystins
(-RR, -YR, unidentified
variants)
(Mohamed and Al Shehri, 2009) Saudi Arabia
LC-UV & ELISA
Anabaenopsis milleri
Microcystin(s)
(Lanaras and Cook, 1994) Extracted from bloom, confirmed
hepatotoxic via mouse bioassay, LC-UV max abs=238-240,
likely microcystin
Anabaena spp. WA102, AL93 &
37
(would be classified as
Dolichospermum due to gas
vesicle presence)
Anatoxin-a
(Brown et al., 2016) strain WA102; confirmed using
molecular techniques & LC-MS/MS.
(Rantala-Ylinen et al., 2011) strains 14, 37, 54, 86, 130
confirmed using molecular primers (anaC) & LC-MS/MS. All
described strains are planktonic.
Anabaena lapponica
Cylindrospermopsin
(Spoof et al., 2006)Finland; CYN confirmed with LC-UV,
LC-MS/MS and TOF
Anabaena cylindrica
(previously A. subcylindrica)
Microcystins (-YR, -LR)
(Mohamed et al., 2006)Saudi Arabia; benthic mats isolates
measured using ELISA and LC-UV after mouse bioassay
confirmed hepatotoxicity
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae &
Aph. flos-aquae/klebahnii
Cylindrospermopsin
Anatoxin-a detected by UV/PDA (Rapala et al. (1993) but not
confirmed
Cylindrospermopsin production reported by Preußel et al.,
(2009, 2006) has been contested by Oregon D. Ag. due to AFA
harvesting. Saxitoxin production was originally thought to be
Aph. flos-aquae, but the organism was reclassified to Aph. gracile
(NH) or C. issatschenkoi (China) by W. Carmichael.
Aphanizomenon gracile
Cylindrospermopsin
STXs GTX1,4,5, STX,
dcSTX, NEO, dcNEO
(Kokociński et al., 2013)—Poland CYN confirmed in isolates
using molecular & toxin analyses (ELISA, LC-UV & MS/MS)
(Pereira et al., 2004)Portugal strain LMECYA40 isolated and
NEO & STX confirmed LC-FL (post);
US-MA lake sample dominated by Aph. gracile contained
GTX1,4, NEO & STX via LC-FL (pre)
Turkey Isolate (Yilmaz et al., 2018) had dcSTX. dcNEO, NEO,
STX, & 3 unknowns (MS/MS)
Aphanocapsa cumulus
Microcystins
(Domingos et al., 1999) Brazil ELISA used to screen, too low
(≤0.3 ng/mg) for LC-UV confirmation; an unidentified
spherical picoplankton was confirmed, possibly A. cumulus
Arthrospira fusiformis
(AB2002/10)
Anatoxin-a
Microcystin-YR
(Ballot et al., 2004)Kenya isolate; MCs screened using ELISA
& confirmed with LC-UV; ANTX only LC-UV
Blennothrix lyngbyacea
(previously
Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum)
Anatoxin-a
Homoanatoxin-a
(Méjean et al., 2010)- benthic marine associated with giant
clam poisoning event (ciguatoxins)
Page 3 of 13
Species
Cyanotoxin(s)
Produced
Reference
Chrysosporum bergii
(previously Anabaena bergii)
Cylindrospermopsin
Microcystins?
(Schembri et al., 2001)Australia CYN production supported
with molecular work & LC-MS/MS
Anecdotal microcystin observation (by Adda ELISA) in bloom
dominated by C. bergii in a Texas Lake Field Collection
Chrysosporum ovalisporum
(previously Aphanizomenon
ovalisporum)
Cylindrospermopsin
(Yilmaz et al., 2008)US-FL isolates confirmed using LC-
MS/MS, ELISA and molecular work
(Akcaalan et al., 2014)Turkey; blooms confirmed LC-MS/MS
(Banker et al., 1997) Lake Kinneret, identified using UV, MS
& NMR
Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi
(previously Aphanizomenon
issatschenkoi)
Anatoxin-a
STXs GTX5&6, STX,
NEO, dcSTX
(Wood et al., 2007) New Zealand ANTX production
confirmed LC-MS/MS (CYN genes present, but no CYN
production)
(Ballot et al., 2010) Germany ANTX by LC-MS/MS
(Li et al., 2003; Pereira et al., 2000) reclassification from Aph.
flos-aquae to Aph. issatschenkoi); Both studies for STXs used LC-
FL & LC-MS
Cylindrospermum sp. (Finland)
Anatoxin-a
(Sivonen et al., 1989)
Cylindrospermum stagnale
STXs NEO, dcSTX, STX,
GTX1
(Borges et al., 2015) - Brazil
Desmonostoc muscorum
(previously Nostoc muscorum)
Aplysiatoxins
Microcystins
(Mynderse et al., 1977)
(Oudra et al., 2009)Morocco
Dolichospermum circinale
(previously Anabaena circinalis)
Anatoxin-a
Microcystins
STXs STX, GTX235, C12,
dcSTX, dcGTX3
Unknown cytotoxin
(Beltran and Neilan, 2000; Froscio et al., 2011; Pereyra et al.,
2017; Vezie et al., 1998)
Dolichospermum crassum
(previously Anabaena crassa)
Anatoxin-a(s)
(Becker et al., 2010)Brazil
Not certain if identification accurate
Dolichospermum flos-aquae
(previously Anabaena flos-
aquae)
Anatoxin-a
Anatoxin-a(s)
Microcystins
(Devlin and Edwards, 1977; Sivonen et al., 1989)
(Matsunaga et al., 1989)
(Harada et al., 1991)
Dolichospermum lemmermannii
(previously Anabaena
lemmermannii)
Anatoxin-a
Anatoxin-a(s)
EPI-CYN/CYN
Microcystins
STXs - STX
(Lepistö et al., 2005)
(Henriksen et al., 1997; Onodera et al., 1997)
(Onodera et al., 1997)Denmark
Oregon Bloom of D. lemmermannii produced Epi-CYN (dom)
& CYN, re-occurs annually
(Rapala et al., 2005) STX; not isolated strain
Dolichospermum macrosporum
(previously Anabaena
macrospora)
Anatoxin-a
(Park et al., 1993) - only LC-PDA used, not confirmed
Dolichospermum mendotae
(previously Anabaena mendotae)
Anatoxin-a
Cylindrospermopsin
(Rapala et al., 1993) - only LC-PDA used, not confirmed
(Akcaalan et al., 2014)- Turkey CYN
Dolichospermum planctonicum
(previously Anabaena
planctonica)
Anatoxin-a
(Bruno et al., 1994; Park et al., 1993)
Park et al. study only used LC-UV
Bruno et al. utilized GC-MS for derivatized ATX
(pentafluorobenzyl-ATX)
Dolichospermum spiroides
(previously Anabaena spiroides)
Anatoxin-a
Anatoxin-a(s)
(Park et al., 1993) (only LC-UV)
(Abreu and Ferrão-Filho, 2013) Thought to be misidentified
in other manuscripts and may be Sphaerospermopsis torques-
reginae
Dolichospermum/
Microcystins
(Fewer et al., 2011) Finland
Page 4 of 13
Species
Cyanotoxin(s)
Produced
Reference
Anabaena sp.
(Namikoshi et al., 1992b)
(Wang et al., 2012) - Anabaena sp. strain 90 genome, likely D.
circinale
Fischerella sp. strain CENA161
Microcystin-LR
(Fiore et al., 2009)Brazil
Geitlerinema splendidum
(previously Phormidium
splendidum)
Microcystins
(-LF, -RR)
Pro-inflammatory & anti-
AChE substances
Anatoxin-a
(Aboal et al., 2005)
(Rangel et al., 2014)
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Gloeotrichia echinulata
Microcystins
(Carey et al., 2007)USA-NH; ELISA only, not confirmed
Gloeotrichia natans
Microcystins
(-RR & -LF)
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Hapalosiphon hibernicus
BZ-3-1
Microcystin-LA
(Prinsep et al., 1992)
Soil sample Hawaii (MS Thesis 2006 Philmus)
Hassallia sp.
antifungal
(Vestola et al., 2014)
Heteroscytonema cf. crispum
(previously Scytonema crispum)
(benthic)
STXs GTX1,2,3,4,5
dcGTX23 dcSTX
(Smith et al., 2012)
Iningainema pulvinus
Nodularin
(McGregor and Sendall, 2017) - freshwater
Kamptonema formosum
(previously Phormidium
formosum)
Anatoxin-a,
Homoanatoxin-a
(Hemscheidt et al., 1995)
Leibleinia gracilis (previously
Phormidium gracile)
Hoiamide A,
Debromoaplysiatoxin?
(Pereira et al., 2009) marine; associated with Moorena
producens
Leptolyngbya sp. CENA103 &
CENA112
Microcystin
(Furtado et al., 2009) Brazil wastewater isolates, only
measured using ELISA (Beacon) at 0.14-0.31 ppb (ng/mL), no
confirmatory analysis
Leptolyngbya boryana
(previously Plectonema
boryanum)
Microcystins
(Mohamed et al., 2006) ELISA, Bioassay & HPLC (-LR, -YR)
Limnothrix redekei
Microcystins
(Pineda-Mendoza et al., 2012)Mexico - (low levels by ELISA
and not confirmed by other techniques
Limnothrix sp. CENA109 &
CENA110 (likely L. redekei
based on genetics)
Microcystin
(Furtado et al., 2009) Brazil wastewater isolates, only
measured using ELISA (Beacon) at 0.19-0.42 ppb (ng/mL), no
confirmatory analysis
Lyngbya confervoides
Cytotoxins
Lyngbyapeptins
(Williams et al., 2002)US
Merismopedia sp. CENA106 (M.
cf. tenuissima)
Microcystin
(Furtado et al., 2009) Brazil wastewater isolate, only
measured using ELISA (Beacon) at 2.17 ppb (ng/mL), no
confirmatory analysis
Microcoleus autumnalis
(previously Phormidium
autumnale)
Anatoxin-a
Homoanatoxin-a
(Heath et al., 2010)
Microcystis aeruginosa
Microcystins
(Le Ai Nguyen et al., 2012)
Microcystis botrys
Microcystins
(Stefanelli et al., 2017)
Microcystis ichthyoblabe
Microcystins
(Sabour et al., 2002)
Microcystis panniformis
Microcystins
(Bittencourt-Oliveira et al., 2005)
Microcystis smithii
Microcystins
(Liu et al., 2011)- China
Microcystis viridis
Microcystins
(Kameyama et al., 2004; Song et al., 1998)
Page 5 of 13
Species
Cyanotoxin(s)
Produced
Reference
Microcystis wesenbergii
Microcystins
(Namikoshi et al., 1992a)
Microcystis sp. (Japan)
Anatoxin-a
(Park et al., 1993)-Only LC-UV used, highly suspect
Microcoleus autumnalis
(previously Phormidium
autumnale)
Anatoxin-a
Homoanatoxin-a
DhATX, DhHTX
Microcystin-LR
(Heath et al., 2014)
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei
CYN
DeoxyCYN
STXs - dcSTX, dcGTX23,
LWT1-6
(Seifert et al., 2007)Australia
(Onodera et al., 1997)USA-AL
(Foss et al., 2012)USA-FL
Moorena bouillonii (previously
Lyngbya)
Lyngbyapeptins
(Klein et al., 1999)New Guinea
Moorena producens (previously
Lyngbya majuscula)
Aplysiatoxins
Lyngbyatoxins
Antillatoxin
Kalkitoxin
Jamaicamide
(Capper et al., 2005; Edwards et al., 2004; Liu and Rein, 2010;
Osborne et al., 2008, 2001; Taylor et al., 2014) - marine
Nodularia sphaerocarpa
Nodularin
(Beattie et al., 2000) - freshwater
Nodularia spumigena
Nodularins
(Mazur-Marzec et al., 2013) - marine
Nostoc sp. 5/96
Scytophycin
(Tomsickova et al., 2014)
Nostoc sp. 152
[DMAdda5] &
[ADMAdda5] MCs
(Sivonen et al., 1992)
Nostoc spp.
Microcystins
(Sivonen et al., 1990)
Nostoc cf. commune
Microcystins
(-LF, -LY)
STXs
(Teneva et al., 2012) - ?
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Nostoc linckia
Microcystins
STXs
(Teneva et al., 2012) ?
Nostoc paludosum
Microcystins
(La Claire and Manning, 2015)
Nostoc carneum (previously
Nostoc spongiaeforme)
Microcystins (-YR, -LR)
(Mohamed et al., 2006)Saudi Arabia; benthic isolate
confirmed using mouse bioassay, ELISA & LC-UV
Oscillatoria limosa
Microcystins
(Mohamed, 2008)Saudi Arabia
Oscillatoria margaritifera
Microcystins
(-RR, -LF, -LY)
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Oscillatoria spp.
Anatoxin-a
(Cadel-Six et al., 2009)
Oscillatoria PCC 6506
Homoanatoxin-a,
Anatoxin-a (99:1)
7-epi-CYN & CYN
(Méjean et al., 2010)FR: New Caledonia, (Mazmouz et al.,
2010)
Oscillatoria tenuis
Microcystins
(Brittain et al., 2000)Egypt
oscillatorialean strains PCC
10601, PCC 10702, PCC 10608
(A, B, C in micrograph)
Homoanatoxin-a
Anatoxin-a
(Cadel-Six et al., 2007)
Phormidium spp.
Microcystin
(Izaguirre et al., 2007) Analyzed by PP1A and HPLC-PDA
and/or MS indicated MC-LR was present
Potamolinea aerugineocaerulea
(previously Phormidium
aerugineo-caeruleum)
Cytotoxic
(Teneva et al., 2003) freshwater Europe
Phormidium corium
Microcystin
(Mohamed et al., 2006)Saudi Arabia
Page 6 of 13
Species
Cyanotoxin(s)
Produced
Reference
Phormidium favosum
Anatoxin-a
Homoanatoxin-a
(Gugger et al., 2005)France (river)
Phormidium nigroviride
(previously Oscillatoria
nigroviridis)
Aplysiatoxins
(Mynderse et al., 1977) - Tropic/subtropic sea water
Phormidium willei
Microcystins
(Krienitz et al., 2003)
Phormidium uncinatum
STXs GTX1
Microcystins
(-LF, -LY)
Anatoxin-a
(Borges et al., 2015)
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Planktothrix agardhii
Anatoxin-a Microcystins
(Osswald et al., 2007)
(Luukkainen et al., 1993)
Planktothrix isothrix
Microcystins
(Bittencourt-Oliveira et al., 2014)
Planktothrix rubescens
Anatoxin-a
Microcystins (Hty
variants)
(Viaggiu et al., 2004)
(Ernst et al., 2006; Niedermeyer et al., 2014)
Planktothrix sp. FP1
STXs
(Pomati et al., 2000)Italy- identification based on genetics
which may support novo status; pre- & post-column oxidation
LC-FL & LC-MS, no MSMS
Pseudanabaena galeata
Microcystins
(Oudra et al., 2002) benthic LC-UV/PDA & ELISA
Pseudanabaena mucicola
Microcystins
(Oudra et al., 2002) planktonic - LC-UV/PDA &ELISA
Pseudanabaena limnetica
Microcystins
(Marsalek et al., 2003)Czech Repub. not unialgal LC-
UV/PDA
Pseudocapsa dubia
Microcystins
(-RR, -YR)
(Cantoral Uriza et al., 2017) - Benthic
Radiocystis fernandoi
Microcystins
(Vieira et al., 2003)
Raphidiopsis curvata
Cylindrospermopsin/Deo
xyCYN
(Eaglesham et al., 2003)
Raphidiopsis brookii
STXs GTX23 & STX
(Yunes et al., 2009) Sub tropical
Raphidiopsis mediterranea
Anatoxin-a
Homoanatoxin-a
Cylindrospermopsin/Deo
xyCYN
(Hodoki et al., 2013)
(Watanabe et al., 2003)
(McGregor et al., 2011)
Raphidiopsis raciborskii
(previously Cylindrospermopsis
raciborskii)
Anatoxin-a
Homoanatoxin
Cylindrospermopsin
STXs - STX, NEO, GTX
2,3,56, dcNEO
(Vehovszky et al., 2009) Hungary; only single quad MS used
after + neuronal effect (snail neurons) for ATX/HTX
(Schembri et al., 2001)Australia confirmed CYN in isolates
molecular & LC-MS/MS
(Lagos et al., 1999; Miotto et al., 2017)Brazil mouse
bioassay, LC-FL & MS on isolates
Rivularia biasolettiana
Microcystins
(-RR, -LR, -LY)
(Aboal et al., 2005)
(Cantoral Uriza et al., 2017)
Rivularia haematites
Microcystin
(Aboal et al., 2005)
Romeria caruaru
Microcystin
(Komárek et al., 2001)
Schizothrix calcicola
Aplysiatoxins
(Mynderse et al., 1977)
Scytonematopsis crustacea
(previously Calothrix crustacea)
Aplysiatoxin
(Mynderse et al., 1977)
Scytonema drilosiphon
Microcystins
(-LY)
(Cantoral Uriza et al., 2017) - Benthic
Page 7 of 13
Species
Cyanotoxin(s)
Produced
Reference
Scytonema ocellatum
Scytophycin
(antineoplastic &
antifungal)
(Ishibashi et al., 1986)
Scytonema pseudohofmannii
Scytophycin
(antineoplastic &
antifungal)
(Ishibashi et al., 1986)
Snowella lacustris
Microcystin
(Sant’Anna and Azevedo, 2000)—Brazil
Sphaerospermopsis
aphanizomenoides (previously
Anabaena and Aphanizomenon)
Anatoxin-a?
Cylindrospermopsin
STXs
Microcystins?
(Bittencourt-Oliveira et al., 2011) potential CYN & STX
producer Brazil
(Sabour et al., 2005) MC production questioned by (Cirés
and Ballot, 2016)
Sphaerospermopsis torques-
reginae (previously Anabaena)
Anatoxin-a(s)
(Dörr et al., 2010) Originally published as T? Anabaena
spiroides, Anabaena oumiana, changed to Sphaerospermopsis
oumiana and is now Sphaerospermopsis torques-reginae
Stenomitos frigidus (previously
Pseudanabaena frigida)
Microcystin-RR
(Aboal, 2017) - Benthic
Symploca muscorum
Aplysiatoxin
(Mynderse et al., 1977)
Synechococcus sp.
Microcystins
(Carmichael and Li, 2006) - marine
Synechococcus sp. CENA108
Microcystin
(Furtado et al., 2009) Brazil wastewater isolate, only
measured using ELISA (Beacon) at 0.22 ppb (ng/mL), no
confirmatory analysis
Synechocystis sp.
Microcystins
(Oudra et al., 2002) UV PDA only
Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
Hemolysins
(Bi et al., 2011)
Synechocystis aquatilis
Microcystin
(Domingos et al., 1999) Brazil, brackish lagoon isolate
Tolypothrix conglutinata
Scytophycin
(antineoplastic &
antifungal)
(Ishibashi et al., 1986)
Tolypothrix distorta
Microcystins
(Aboal et al., 2005)
Trichodesmium erythraeum
Microcystins
Aplysiatoxins (5 variants)
(Gupta et al., 2014; Ramos et al., 2005) brackish, marine
Trichodesmium thiebautii
Trichotoxin 2 - neurotoxin
(Schock et al., 2011) brackish, marine
Trichormus variabilis
(previously Anabaena)
Microcystin (-YR, -LR)
(Mohamed et al., 2006)Saudi Arabia, benthic mat isolate
toxic via mouse bioassay, MCs by ELISA and LC-UV
Tychonema bourrellyi
Anatoxin-a
(Shams et al., 2015)
Umezakia natans
Cylindrospermopsin
(Harada et al., 1994)
Woronichinia naegeliana
Microcystin
(Bober et al., 2011) trace MC-LR
Page 8 of 13
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... produces microcystin in all 3 reservoirs, and Sphaerospermum in Little Dixie (Table 4). The diazotroph Aphanizomenon was dominant in DiSalvo, and while not known to produce microcystin, it does produce the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin and the T&O compound geosmin (Chapman and Foss 2019). The increase in cyanobacterial biovolume (with the exception of DiSalvo), presence of PTOX, and increase in microcystin (Table 3). ...
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