ArticlePDF Available

Ultra high dilutions: A review on in vitro studies against pathogens

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Multiple in vitro studies using homeopathic medicines are conducted for their effectiveness against various microbes. The reporting of results and the methodology in many studies are a query. The present review reveals the evidence based medicinal effects of homeopathic medicines on various plant and human pathogens in vitro with the help of quality studies. The studies showed positive outcome for homeopathic medicines. Thus homeopathy, as an effective agent, in in vitro studies. However, substantial evidence on these serially diluted medicines must be replicated with the help of a standardized methodology for more precise evidences and conclusion. Keywords: Homeopathy, in vitro, manuscript information score, review.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Vol. 18(13), pp. 275-279, 27 March, 2019
DOI: 10.5897/AJB2018.16712
Article Number: 190043D60561
ISSN: 1684-5315
Copyright ©2019
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB
African Journal of Biotechnology
Review
Ultra high dilutions: A review on in vitro studies
against pathogens
Aditya Dilipkumar Patil, Anuj Deepakrao Chinche, Atul Kumar Singh, Sana Parvej Peerzada,
Snehal Ashok Barkund, Jay Nilesh Shah and Arun Bhargav Jadhav*
Department of Homoeopathic Pharmacy, Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to
be University), Katraj, Pune 411043, Maharashtra, India.
Received 20 November 2018; Accepted 13 March, 2019
Multiple in vitro studies using homeopathic medicines are conducted for their effectiveness against
various microbes. The reporting of results and the methodology in many studies are a query. The
present review reveals the evidence based medicinal effects of homeopathic medicines on various
plant and human pathogens in vitro with the help of quality studies. The studies showed positive
outcome for homeopathic medicines. Thus, homeopathy is an effective agent in in vitro studies.
However, substantial evidence on these serially diluted medicines must be replicated with the help of a
standardized methodology for more precise evidences and conclusion.
Key words: Homeopathy, in vitro, manuscript information score, review.
INTRODUCTION
Homeopathy is a bicentennial system of medicine
founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on
principle of “Similia Similibus Curentur”, which was
revealed after repeated human experimentation and is
currently used by approximately 500 million consumers
(Manchanda, 2018). Hahnemann put forth the theory of
vital force which believed that the succussed medicine
shows medicinal effects, even beyond the Avogadro’s
constant unit, which turns homeopathy as a science of
quantum mechanics following the principle of quantum
field theory (Khuda-Bukhsh, 2003). Homeopathy has
been always challenged for its high dilution properties,
clinical methodologies and its mechanism of action
(Manchanda, 2018). The similia principle and the
dynamization phenomena of the homeopathic medicines,
in these recent years, are implemented in preclinical
studies (in vitro and in vivo), in testing the mechanism of
these highly diluted medicines in various models of
biological system (Bellavite et al., 2006; Clausen et al.,
2011). The concentrations of these serial diluted
medicines are found to be less than 1 g molecule
surpassing the Avogadro’s Constant (6.024 × 1023) which
is implausible in interpreting the concept with dose-
dependent model of modern pharmacology (Teixeira and
Carneiro, 2017).
In vitro studies are aimed to create evidence,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: arun_jadhav1234@rediffmail.com. Tel: (+91) 7387191547.
Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 International License
276 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
understand the mechanism and validate the role of
certain medicine against a particular condition. Of late,
there have been various in vitro experiments performed
on plant, animal and human cellular models in plausibly
explaining the action of these ultra-high diluted medicines
(Manchanda, 2018). Despite the multiple studies, the
reporting of results and the methodology are a query.
Homeopathic Materia Medica lacks in understanding
the principle of “Similia Similibus Curentur” in specific
species of pathogens in their preclinical experiments
(Teixeira and Carneiro, 2017). The present review reveals
the evidence based medicinal effects of homeopathic
medicines on various pathogens in vitro with the help of
quality studies (Table no.1 and Table no. 2). This can
lead to a mean development in the field of homeopathy in
form of a new preclinical Homeopathic Materia Medica on
pathogens.
IN VITRO EXPERIMENTS AND HOMEOPATHY
According to Asha et al. (2014), Thuja occidentalis (Q, 30
C, 1 M, 10 M and 50 M) had a significant inhibition
among all the 5 fungal genera species of Fusarium,
Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris, Exserohilum and Curvularia;
however, exact mechanism of action of Thuja is unknown
and can be future perspective of research in this fungal
cultures (Asha et al., 2014).
In the study of Chakraborty et al. (2015), Aconite
napellus (6C, 30C, 200C) showed bactericidal activity
against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and
also identifed the nano-sized particle through Field
Emission Scanning Electron Microscope of Aconite
(Chakraborty et al., 2015).
Damin et al., (2015) studied homeopathic medicines
like Arsenicum album, Calcarea carbonica, Kali iodatum,
Phosphorus, Silicea, Staphysagria, Spodoptera
frugiperda, Sulphur, and Th. occidentalis against
Metarhizium anisopliae (strain UNIOESTE 22) which
showed all the treatments as compatible in their dilutions
(24CH, 30CH, 100CH; 3CH, 30CH; 6CH, 30CH, 100CH;
30CH, 100CH, 200CH; 200CH, respectively)( Damin et
al., 2015).
In Gupta et al. (2015) study, homeopathic medicine
Acid benzoicum, Apis mellifica, K. iodatum, Mezereum,
Petroleum, Sulphur, Tellurium, Sulphur iodatum,
Graphites, Sepia, Silicea and T. occidentalis in 30C and
200C acted as an evidenced based medicine that
conformed both in vitro and in vivo on oral candidiasis.
The Toledo et al. (2016) study revealed the fungi
toxicity action of homeopathic medicine against black rot
disease of tomato crops. Sulphur and Staphysagria
100CH showed suppressive activity as compared to both
controls in mycelium growth, even when successed
distilled water at 60CH and 100CH inhibited mycelium
growth. Propolis 6CH, 30CH and 60CH and Ferrum
sulphuricum 6CH and 30CH caused inhibition and
differed from both controls in sporulations. Also, spores
germination of the pathogen was found to be reduced by
Isotherapic of A. solani in 6CH, Isotherapic of ash in 6CH
and Ferrum sulphuricumin 30CH medicines (Marcia et
al., 2016).
According to the study of Hanif and Dawar (2016), both
in vitro and in vivo experiment showed fungicidal
potentials of homeopathic medicines of T. occidentalis
and Arnica montana in globules 30CH against root rot
disease in non-leguminous plants (Hanif and Dawar,
2016).
In the study of Prajapati et al. (2017), homeopathic
mother tincture S. jambolanum, F. religiosa, O. sanctum,
A. cepa, T. occidentalis and H. antidysenterica showed
inhibitory action against human pathogenic fungi Candida
albicans (Prajapati et al., 2017).
Passeti et al., (2017) experiment proved that
Belladonna and bacterial nosode in 6CH and 30CH,
Silicea and Hepar sulphur in 6CH, 12CH and 30CH, and
oxacillin showed a significant reduction (p< 0.001) on
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (Passeti et al., 2017).
Shinde et al. (2018) had conducted two in vitro studies
on both Pityrosporum ovale and C. albicans (NCIM-
3557), regarding fungal culture homeopathic medicine
Selenium, Cinchona officinalis, Azadiracta indica,
Phosphorus, Acidum benzoicum, Zingiber, Sulphur,
Acidum sulphuricum, Iodium, and Zincum metallicum in
6CH, 12CH, 30CH, 200CH, 1M respectively that showed
inhibitory effects in both fungal culture (Shinde et al.,
2018).
EXPERIMENTATION PERSPECTIVE
The above mentioned studies elaborate on scope of
homeopathic medicine in the era of drug resistance to
various fungal and bacterial cultures. Homoeopathic
treatment can be used as an alternative therapy, as cost
effective, with no adverse event observed. The
experimental methodologies used by the included
studies were quite different from each other; needs to be
standardized and must be modified by the European
Committee on Anti-microbial Susceptibility Testing
(EUCAST) and Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLS)
guidelines (Hombach et al., 2011) in performing
experiments, specially designed with ultra-high dilution, in
order to get more precise and accurate results. Also, it
must be replicated in in vivo studies. In recent times,
these serial diluted medicines have been proved to show
the presence of nanoparticles in size of quantum dots
and should be seriously taken into consideration about
their nano-pharmacological aspects (Chikramane et al.,
2010). Various hypothetical models have been put forth
in understanding the mechanism of action of these nano
medicines and attempts have been made with various
molecular studies in identifying the mechanism of action
of these medicines (Khuda-Bukhsh , 2003); however, a
standard protocol still remains, which is a question of
development for the methodologies performed in in vitro
Patil et al. 277
Table 1. Summary of in vitro studies evaluated with Manuscript Information Score (MIS) ≥ 5.
Author
Organism
Methods and assay
Homeopathic medicine
Potency
MIS
Remark
Asha et al.
(2014)
Fusarium, Aspergillus flavus,
Bipolaris, Exserohilum,
Curvularia.
Cello tape flag method,
MFC
Thuja occidentalis
Q, 30 C, 200 C, 1 M,
10 M and 50 M
7
Inhibitory activity
against the fungi
causing keratitis
Monalisa
Chakraborty et al.
(2015)
Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli.
Antibacterial activity
spread plate technique,
FESEM.
Aconitum napellus
6C, 30C, 200C
9
Activity in bacteria in
high dilution
Silvana Damin et.al.
(2015)
Metarhizium anisopliae
(strain UNIOESTE 22)
Insecticidal activity, CFU,
Germination.
Arsenicum album,
Calcarea carbonica, Kali
iodatum,
Phosphorus,Silicea;
Staphysagria
,Spodopterafrugiperda
Sulphur,Thuja occidentalis
24C; 30C; 100CH
3CH; 30CH; 6CH,
30CH, 100CH;
30CH; 100CH
200CH;
200CH resptectively.
10
All treatments
Compatible in fungus
M. anisopliae
Girish Gupta et al.
(2015)
Oral candidiasis
Disc diffusion method.
Acid benzoicum, Apismellifica,
Kali iodatum, Mezereum,
Petroleum, Sulphur, Tellurium,
Sulphur iodatum,
Graphites, Sepia, Silicea and
Thuja Occidentalis
30C, 200C
7
Inhibitory activity
against Candida
albicans
Márcia Vargas
Toledo et al.
(2016)
Alternaria solani
Mycelial growth,
sporulation and conidial
Germination.
Sulphur, Silicea terra,
Staphysagria,
Phosphorus, Ferrum
sulphuricumand Kali iodatum
6CH and handled to
12, 30 and
100CH (CH:
7
Activity in control of
black spot disease in
tomato crops
AsmaHanif et al.
(2016)
Rhizoctoniasolani, Fusarium
spp. and Macrophomina
phaseolina
Growth inhibition percent
Paper Disc Diffusion
Method
Thuja occidentalis and
Arnica montana
30C
7
Activity against non-
leguminous crops
Suneel Prajapati et
al.
(2017)
C.albicans (MTCC No. 3017)
Agar disc diffusion
method
Syzygiumjambolanum,
Ficusreligiosa,Oscimum
sanctum, Alliumcepa, Thuja
occidentalis,
Holarrhenaantidysenterica.
Mother tincture (Q)
10
Antifungal activity
present
TâniaAguiarPasseti
et al.
(2017)
Multi-Resistant
Staphylococcus aures
(MRSA)
MIC
Silicea, Hepar sulph,
Belladonna and bacterial
nosode
6 CH, 12 CH and 30
CH in sterile 30%
alcohol
9
Activity different in
different potency of live
cells
Chetan H.shinde et
al.
(2018)
Pityrosporum ovale
Anti-dandruff assay, MIC,
Lysis studies
Selenium, Cinchona officinalis,
Azadiractaindica,
Phosphorus,
Acidumbenzoicum, Zingiber,
Sulphur,
Acidumsulphuricum, Iodium,
Zincum metallicum,
6C,12C,30C,200C,1M
9
Inhibitory activity
against the fungus
278 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Table 1 Contd.
Chetan H.Shinde et al.
(2018)
Candida albicans (NCIM-
3557)
Agar diffusion assay,
MIC,
Germ Tube Inhibition
Clotrimazole
Vehicle Control (Dispensing
alcohol)
Acidum Sulphuricum, Acidum
Benzoicum, Azadirachta
indica, Cinchona officinalis,
Iodium, Phosphorus,
Selenium, Sulphur, Zincum
Metallicum, Zingiber officinale
6C, 12C, 30 C, 200 C,
1M
8
Inhibitory effect against
Candida albican
MIC= Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; C or CH= Centesimal Scale (1:99); M=1000CH; NCIM= National collection of Industrial Micro-organism; CFU= Colony Forming Unit; FESEM= Field Emission
Scanning Electron Microscopic; MFC= Minimum Fungicidal Concentration; MTCC= Microbial Type Culture Collection; UNIOESTE= Universidade do Oeste do Parana; MIS= Manuscript Information
Score.
Table 2. Manuscript Information Score of the included studies.
Author
Year
Type
Description in the study
Total
score
Experimental
procedure
Materials
Measuring
instruments
Potentization
Controls
Asha et al.
2014
Fusarium, Aspergillus flavus,Bipolaris, Exserohilum, Curvularia
2
2
1
2
1
8
Monalisa Chakraborty et al.
2015
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
2
2
2
2
1
9
Silvana Damin et al.
2015
Metarhiziumanisopliae(strain UNIOESTE 22)
2
2
2
2
2
10
Girish Gupta et al.
2015
Oral candidiasis
2
2
1
1
1
7
Márcia Vargas Toledo et al.
2016
Alternaria solani
2
2
1
1
1
7
AsmaHanif et al.
2016
Rhizoctoniasolani, Fusarium spp. And Macrophominaphaseolina.
2
1
1
2
1
7
Suneel Prajapati et al.
2017
C.albicans(MTCC No. 3017)
2
2
2
2
2
10
TâniaAguiarPasseti et al.
2017
Multi-Resistant Staphylococcus Aures (MRSA)
2
2
2
2
1
9
Chetan H. Shinde et al.
2018
Pityrosporumovale
2
2
2
1
2
9
Chetan H. Shinde et al.
2018
Candida albicans (NCIM- 3557)
2
1
2
1
2
8
and in vivo studies in homeopathy.
CONCLUSION
This systematic review demonstrates homeopathy
as an effective agent, in in vitro studies and can
lead to a new development with the help of a
new preclinical Homeopathic Materia Medica on
pathogens. However, substantial evidence on
these serial diluted medicines results must be
replicated with a standardized methodology to
provide conclusive evidence.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
The authors have not declared any conflict of
interests.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors appreciate Dr. Manikrao Salunkhe,
Vice Chancellor, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to
be University), Pune, India; staff of Bharati
Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune,
India; staff of Homoeopathic Medical College and
Hospital, Department of Post Graduate and Research
Centre, Pune, India: Dr. Anita S. Patil (P.G. Coordinator),
Dr. Manisha P. Gajendragadkar and Dr. Chetan H.
Shinde, for the support, assistance, guidance and
relentless supervision throughout the course of the
research.
REFERENCES
Asha R, Nisha P, Suneer Khan K, Nisha P, Mythili A (2014). In vitro
activity of various potencies of homeopathic drug Thuja against
molds involved in mycotic keratitis. International Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 6(10):555-559.
Bellavite P, Ortolani R, Conforti A (2006). Immunology and
homeopathy. 3. Experimental studies on animal models. Evidence-
Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3(2):171-186.
Chakraborty M, Ghosh S, Das S, Basu R, Nandy P (2015). Effect of
Different Potencies of Nanomedicine Aconitum Napellus on Its
Spectral and Antibacterial Properties. International Journal of
Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
4(8):6861-6867.
Chikramane PS, Suresh AK, Bellare JR, Kane SG (2010). Extreme
homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate
perspective. Homeopathy 99(4):231-242.
doi:10.1016/j.homp.2010.05.006
Clausen J, Van Wijk R, Albrecht H (2011). Review of the use of high
potencies in basic research on homeopathy. Homeopathy
100(4):288-292.
Damin S, Alves LFA, Bonini AK, Alexandre TM (2015). In vitro assay on
homeopathic solutions on Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorok
(Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae). Arquivos do Instituto Biológico pp. 1-
8. doi:10.1590/1808-1657001142013
Gupta G, Srivastava A, Gupta N, Gupta G, Mishra S (2015). Anti-
candidal activity of homoeopathic drugs: An in-vitro evaluation. Indian
Journal of Research in Homeopathy 9(2):79.
Hanif A, Dawar S (2016). Comparative Studies Using Homeopathic
Globules for Leguminous and Non-Leguminous Crop Management
against Root Rot Fungi. Journal of Agricultural Science 8(9):205-216.
Hombach M, Bloemberg GV, Bottger EC (2012). Effects of clinical
breakpoint changes in CLSI guidelines 2010/2011 and EUCAST
guidelines 2011 on antibiotic susceptibility test reporting of Gram-
negative bacilli. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67(3):622-
632.
Patil et al. 279
Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2003). Towards understanding molecular
mechanisms of action of homeopathic drugs: An overview. Molecular
and Cellular Biochemistry 253(1-2):339-345.
Manchanda R (2018). Experimentation in homoeopathy: History and
prospects. Indian Journal of Research in Homeopathy 12(2):61-63
Marcia VT, Jose RS, Carlos MB, Thaisa MM, Monica AM, Bruna BR,
Eloisa L, Sidiane CR,Carla RK,Lindomar A (2016). Fungitoxicity
activity of homeopathic medicines on Alternaria solani. African
Journal of Agricultural Research 11(39):3824-3838.
Passeti TA, Ruggero ADA, Bissoli R, Navickas R, Luiz F, Fonseca A
(2017). Action of Some Homeopathic Medicine on the Growth of
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) In vitro. Annals
of Clinical Cytology and Pathology 3(6):1074.
Prajapati S, Sharma M, Gupta P, Kumar M, Dwivedi B, Arya B (2017).
Evaluation of antifungal activity of different homoeopathic mother
tinctures against Candida albicans. Indian Journal of Research in
Homeopathy 11(4):237-243
Shinde CH, Pashmin KA, Bipinraj NK, Arun BJ (2018). In vitro study for
the anti - cancdida activity of Homoeopathic medicines against
Candida Albicans. International Journal of Health Sciences and
Research 8(9):57-61.
http://www.ijhsr.org/IJHSR_Vol.8_Issue.9_Sep2018/9.pdf
Shinde CH, Sarin V, Kaur Anand P, Kunchiraman BN, Jadhav AB
(2018). In vitro evaluation for antidandruff activity of selected
homoeopathic medicines against Pityrosporum ovale. International
Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews 5(3):680-683.
http://ijrar.com/.
Teixeira MZ, Carneiro SMTPG (2017). Effects of homeopathic high
dilutions on plants: literature review. Revista de Homeopatia
80(3):104-120.
... [12] Ringworm can be treated homoeopathically when prescribed constitutionally based on totality of symptoms by highly diluted homoeopathic medicines which are prepared by potentization. [12,13] Studies on Dermatophytes collected from Animals: ...
Full-text available
Article
Dermatofitosis y terapias antifúngicas en varios sistemas con énfasis especial en la homeopatía: una revisión narrativa ABSTRACT Superficial skin diseases are mainly caused by dermatophytes. Skin affections caused by these dermatophytes are commonly known as ringworm or Tinea or dermatophytosis. Generally, these infections are not that much of serious, but if the infection becomes chronic and resistant to commonly used topical antifungal drugs, it would be very difficult to treat Dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum is the main causative agent of dermatophyte fungal infections followed by T. mentagrophyte. Treatment for these acute and chronic conditions in the conventional system is ineffective. Many studies revealed that Homoeopathic Medicines, Herbals, Siddha Medicines, Ayurvedic Medicines work effectively for these conditions. The present review reveals the effectiveness of Homoeopathic Medicines, Herbals, Siddha Medicines and Ayurvedic Medicines for superficial fungal infections in clinical and in-vitro studies against dermatophytes. Articles published in relevant studies are summarized by different computerized database literature searches (searches were made in PubMed, Google Scholar, Research Gate and Cochrane). RESUMEN Las enfermedades superficiales de la piel son causadas principalmente por dermatofitos. Las afecciones de la piel causadas por estos dermatofitos se conocen comúnmente como tiña o tiña o dermatofitosis. En general, estas infecciones no son tan graves, pero si la infección se vuelve crónica y resistente a los medicamentos antimicóticos tópicos de uso común, sería muy difícil tratar los dermatofitos. Trichophyton rubrum es el principal agente causal de las infecciones fúngicas por dermatofitos seguido por T. mentagrophyte. El tratamiento de estas condiciones agudas y crónicas en el sistema convencional es ineficaz. Muchos estudios revelaron que los medicamentos homeopáticos, las hierbas, los medicamentos Siddha y los medicamentos ayurvédicos funcionan de manera efectiva para estas afecciones. La presente revisión revela la eficacia de los medicamentos homeopáticos, las hierbas, los medicamentos Siddha y los medicamentos ayurvédicos para las infecciones fúngicas superficiales en estudios clínicos e in vitro contra dermatofitos. Los artículos publicados en estudios relevantes se resumen mediante
... ~ 160 ~ Colchicum autmnale (Colch.at) is added by Dr. Frederick Schroyens in generalities chapter of synthesis repertory under the rubric hyperlipidemia with author reference Dr Othon Andre Julian from materia medica of new homoeopathic medicine [9] . The previous studies reveals the evidence basis medicinal effects of homeopathic medicines in various plant and human pathogens with positive outcome [10] . This case series explains five cases of hyperlipidemia and the effectiveness of Colch.at in hyperlipidemia cases. ...
... [10] There have been various in vitro experiments performed on the plant, animal and human cellular models to plausibly explaining the action of these ultra-high diluted medicines. [11] There are only a few in vitro and clinical verification studies conducted in homoeopathy on hyperlipidaemia. [12] Therefore, this study is an attempt to evaluate the action of Colch.at. in different potencies in hyperlipidaemic samples through an in vitro assay. ...
... Lots of experiments are needed to find out the most suitable preparations. There is plenty of work left [21,22]! ...
Full-text available
Article
IN VITRO EFFECTS OF HOMEOPATHIC DRUGS Christer Sundqvist Petrafoundation, Helsinki, Finland https://petrafoundation.com/en/blog/scientific-evidence-for-homeopathy-part-4 Published: 05.30.2020 The well-known and respected Finnish homeopath Jouni Jämsä (http://www.jounijamsa.fi/ ) continues his homeopathy research with us. In the first part, we talked to him about homeopathy in general and diluted homeopathic preparations in particular [1]. In the next section we investigated how plants respond to homeopathic preparations [2]. In the third part, we went through studies where homeopathy has been used for cancer patients [3]. In this fourth section, we investigate the effect of homeopathic preparations at the cellular level. Highly diluted homeopathic preparations are showing measurable effects in cell cultures [4]. Several studies have found that homeopathic agents give rise to apoptosis (programmed cell death). This phenomenon is a normal part of individual tissue development and regeneration. It is controlled by genes that regulate cell division [5, 6]. Apoptosis plays an important role in fetal development, regulation of the immune response, elimination of infected and transformed cells, and regulation of tissue size. Excessive apoptosis can lead to developmental disorders and degenerative diseases, while its absence can lead to autoimmune diseases, long-term viral infections and cancer. Utilization of drug apoptosis is already routine in the treatment of cancer. Drugs for the treatment of degenerative diseases that prevent apoptosis are likely to emerge in the market in the near future [7]. Apoptosis is something you want to achieve when treating cancer. Because cancer is a disease that affects many people and is very serious, researchers have been interested in different types of treatment options. The effect of homeopathy in cancer can also be studied with cell models. The potent homeopathic drug Lycopodium clavatum (5C and 15C) has anti-cancer activity on HeLa cells in vitro. This has been studied in the Laboratory of Cell Genetics and Molecular Biology at the University of Kalyan, India. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathic highly diluted and potent preparations of Lycopodium Clavatum (LC-5C and LC-15C) have anti-cancer effects on HeLa cells. Cells were exposed to either LC-5C (diluted below Avogadro's number) or diluted above Avogadro's number (LC-15C). The results revealed that administration of Lycopodium had little or no toxic effects on the cells in the bloodstream, but caused marked apoptosis in cancer cells (HeLa), which appeared in the form of initial degradation of DNA. Highly diluted, dynamic homeopathic drugs, both below and above the Avogadro's number, caused cell death in cancer cells, suggesting that these drugs could potentially be used as supportive cancer care [8]. Frenkel's team at the University of Texas (M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas, USA) performed cell experiments with highly diluted Indian homeopathic preparations (Carcinos, Phytolacca, Conium and Thuja). The preparations were tested with different breast cancer cell lines. The preparations were toxic to the cells, leading to cell cycle breakdown and cell death. Thus, these natural, diluted preparations had biological effects that should be further investigated [9]. The same was also supported by Psorinum 6 ×, which triggers apoptosis signals in human lung cancer cells. Studies of the effects of homeopathic Psorinum 6x on cell survival were initially performed in several cancer cell lines, including A549 (lung cancer cell line), HepG2 (liver cancer cell line) and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line). The experiment investigated the therapeutic effects on cell cycle breakdown, cell death, reactive oxygen radical formation (ROS), and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. It was found that treatment of cancer cell lines with Psorinum resulted in increased anti-cancer effects in A549 cells (lung cancer cell line) to a greater extent than in others. Psorinum prevented cell division after 24 hours of treatment and retained the cells in the G1 phase. It also caused e.g. ROS formation, MMP depolarization, morphological changes and DNA damage. The researchers concluded that Psorinum 6 × triggered apoptosis in A549 cells (lung cancer cells) via signaling proteins [10]. Condurango 6C and 30C also trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The more diluted preparation was more effective [11]. The effects of homeopathy on programmed cell death have been extensively studied. Further support for this effect on apoptosis, which is advantageous in the treatment of cancer, has been obtained in e.g. Shagun Arora laboratory at Jaypee University of India. It was found that undiluted and diluted homeopathic preparations were toxic to cultured cancer cells. Homeopathic Sarsaparilla preparations were tested in isolated renal adenocarcinoma cell cultures, the Ruta graveolens preparation in cultured colon cancer cells and the Phytolacca decandra preparation in breast cancer cells. The results showed that all of the homeopathic preparations showed toxic effects in said cell cultures. The undiluted preparations had the best effect, but diluted preparations also served as a starting point of apoptosis. Homeopathic preparations have been shown to be anti-cancer drugs and further research can be encouraged [12]. The homeopathic preparation Calcarea carbonica caused apoptosis in cell cultures from cancerous mice. The study showed evidence of the so-called immunomodulatory mechanism of cell death [13]. In leukemia, homeopathic dilutions of Amanita phalloides have been successfully tested in cell cultures [14]. There is no placebo effect in cultured cancer cells, so here we have evidence that homeopathy is not just a placebo. Should homeopathic significance be increased in established medicine, more evidence from well-controlled and high-quality studies is needed [15].
Full-text available
Article
Recently there is an increase in the number of patients affected by recurring dandruff due to the development of antifungal resistance in pathogenic dandruff species. Current study has aimed to screen various homoeopathic medicines and their potencies for
Full-text available
Article
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antifungal activity of different homoeopathic mother tinctures against the growth of andida albicans. Materials and Methods: Homoeopathic mother tinctures (ф) Syzygium jambolanum, Ficus religiosa, Ocimum sanctum, Allium cepa, Thuja occidentalis, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Eucalyptus globulus were evaluated for their antifungal activity against the growth of human pathogenic fungi C. albicans using paper disc agar diffusion method as per guidelines of clinical and laboratory standard (M44-A) with slight modifi cation. The diameters of zone (mm) of inhibition were measured, and the obtained results were compared with that of the vehicle control. Ketoconazole was used as reference standard fungicide. Results: Seven homoeopathic mother tinctures were used in this study and the results indicates that some of the homoeopathic drugs in the study showed signifi cant inhibitory activity against the growth of C. albicans as compared to control. Out of the seven medicines tested, S. jambolanum showed a maximum zone of inhibition as compared to other mother tinctures used. The effectiveness of zone inhibition against the growth of human pathogenic fungi C. albicans are S. jambolanum > T. occidentalis > A. cepa > F. religiosa > E. globulus > O. sanctum > H. antidysenterica. Conclusion: The present study suggests the inhibitory role of homoeopathic medicines against human pathogenic fungi C. albicans.
Full-text available
Article
p>The aim of this study was to assess fungicidal potential of homeopathic globules namely Thuja occidentalis and Arnica montana (30C) on plant growth and root infecting fungi particularly Rhizoctonia solani , Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments had found positive results in the suppression of root rot fungi. Investigation on present study showed that A. montana and T. occidentalis globules (100, 75 and 50% v/w concentrations) reduced disease intensity caused by root rot pathogens and improved growth of test plants, but it produces negative effects on leguminous test crops in which nodules were failing to produce.</p
Full-text available
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of homeopathic solutions Arsenicum Album 24CH; Calcarea carbonica 30CH; Kali iodatum 100CH;Phosphorus 3CH; Silicea 30CH;Staphysagria 6, 30 and 100CH; Spodoptera frugiperda 30CH; Sulphur 100 and 200CH andThuya occidentalis 200CH on biological parameters of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae . The solutions were diluted in sterile distilled water (0.1%) and were sprayed on the previously inoculated fungus on PDA culture medium. Germination, colony forming units, vegetative growth, conidial production and insecticidal activity of the fungus against larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were evaluated. Homeopathic solutions did not affect negatively the parameters evaluated. Thus, all treatments were considered compatible to the fungusM. anisopliae.
Full-text available
Article
Background: Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus accounting for up to 75% of all candidal infections in human beings. Generally, Candida grow and survive as commensals but slight modification of the host defense system can transform Candida albicans into a pathogen. Materials and Methods: Samples collected from the oral cavity and tongue of the patients suspected of suffering from oral candidiasis were incubated for growth of Candida. Fermentation and assimilation test confirmed the species as Candida albicans. Disc method was used to assess the in-vitro anti‑candidal effect of few homoeopathic drugs in 30 and 200 potencies against human pathogenic Candida albicans under in-vitro conditions and compared with standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (control), rectified spirit (control/vehicle) and distilled water (vehicle) by “inhibition zone technique” Results: Homeopathic drugs namely Acid benzoicum, Apis mellifica, Kali iodatum, Mezereum, Petroleum, Sulphur, Tellurium, Sulphur iodatum, Graphites, Sepia, Silicea and Thuja occidentalis in 30 and 200 potencies were tested against Candida albicans. Mezereum in 200 and 30 potency showed maximum inhibition of growth of Candida albicans followed by Kali iodatum 200 while Kali iodatum 30 and Petroleum 30 had minimum inhibition. Conclusion: The results of these experiments support the concept of “evidence based medicine” depicting that homoeopathic medicines not only work in in-vivo but are equally effective in in-vitro conditions having definite inhibitory activity against Candida albicans. Keywords: Antifungal, Candida albicans, homoeopathic drugs, in‑vitro inhibitory activity
Full-text available
Article
Objective: Isolation and characterisation of clinically isolated fungi from mycotic keratitis and exploration of the in vitro efficacy of various potencies of homeopathic preparations of Thuja occidentalis on the ocular fungal isolates.
Article
The homeopathic drug Aconitum napelles, a drug of aconitum species, is used extensively for its anti-inflammatory and vasodialatory action. We report here our study on how the increase in the potency of the drug affects its spectral characteristics, namely UV - Vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectra, Raman spectra and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The absorption peaks of the UV-Vis and FTIR spectra indicate definite signature of decrease in the size of the drug aggregates with increase in potency of the drug. This is confirmed in the FESEM study. Raman spectra indicate that there is no associated change in ch emical structure due to potentization. Using Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli, gram negative bacteria, we have also shown here how the change in potency of the drug affects its antibacterial property. A possible explanation of these effects has been put forwarded at the molecular level.