Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A recurring debate in mixed methods research involves the relationship between research methods and research paradigms. Whereas some scholars appear to assume that qualitative and quantitative research methods each necessarily belong with particular research paradigms, others have called for greater flexibility and have taken a variety of stances toward the integration of paradigms and methods in mixed-method studies. In this article, we review these arguments and stances, positioning ourselves in favour of flexible (but intentional) integration of any research method with any research paradigm. We then draw on a recent study of teachers’ experiences of professional development to provide an illustration of how a single paradigm can be used to inform the entirety of a mixed methods study, including study design, data collection, analysis and reporting. This illustration is particularly noteworthy since past mixed-method studies that have been grounded in a single paradigm have typically used the post-positivist paradigm, whereas our study involved an interpretive stance and a social constructivist epistemology. This article may, therefore, provide a useful resource for those considering the design of mixed methods studies as well as a practical demonstration to support theoretical claims in support of moving away from binary methods–paradigm associations and assumptions. KEYWORDS: Mixed methods research; interpretivist paradigm; cross-cultural research; social constructivist research; paradigm; teacher voice; professional development

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... To support robust mixed methods research, a strong case can be made that it is potentially possible to situate any research method within any paradigm (Creamer 2018;Johnson & Onwuegbuzie 2004;McChesney & Aldridge, 2019a). This means that we can combine methods and paradigms in a range of ways. ...
... Typically, mixed methods studies that reflect this approach have involved a positivist or post-positivist paradigm (Alise & Teddlie, 2010), but other paradigm choices are possible. Exemplars of this approach include my doctoral research, which used an interpretivist paradigm (McChesney, 2017;McChesney & Aldridge, 2019a); Jarrett's (2014Jarrett's ( , 2017 Master's research, located within a transformative paradigm; and Si'ilata's (2014) doctoral research, which combined a critical theory paradigm with Pasifika research methods. ...
... Journals such as the Journal of Mixed Methods Research or the International Journal of Research and Method in Education are worth considering here; the editorials of these journals often contain helpful advice about how to write a publishable methods article. I published such an article based on my doctoral study (McChesney & Aldridge, 2019a), and there are many other examples of methods articles published based on postgraduate research, whether involving mixed methods or other methodologies (see, for example, Cronenberg & Headley, 2019;Lee, 2009;Lehner-Mear, 2020;Msoroka & Amundsen, 2018;Naufahu, 2018;Ong, 2020). Such articles should offer postgraduate students both exemplars and courage in considering writing their own methods article(s). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed methods research is increasingly popular both within and beyond education because of the advantages offered by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Some mixed methods research, however, does not fully harness the potential or depth that mixed methods has to offer. In this article, I consider some of this potential in terms of how mixed methods research can contribute to addressing "wicked problems," theory generation, and culturally responsive research. I then discuss two important considerations for quality mixed methods research: appropriate paradigmatic foundations and the genuine integration of qualitative and quantitative components. The article is intended to provide both provocations and resources for those learning about, teaching about, considering, using, or contributing to mixed methods research in education.
... This study -part of a wider mixed-method project -is underpinned by an interpretivist paradigm, with a relativist ontology and a constructivist epistemology [25]. This means that in this work we consider the nature of reality to be multiple, with subjective realities being constructed in each individual mind, and therefore knowledge is co-constructed, with the researchers' own experience mediating what can be understood [26]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since the end of 2019 and throughout 2020 the world has been devastated by the SARS COVID-19 pandemic. The sport world suddenly had to deal with a massive reorganization of events with important implications on the physical and psychological preparation of athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore how these changes impacted coaches’ and athletes’ goal setting strategies and their experience of goal adjustment. As part of a wider mixed-method project involving 2162 coaches and 1354 athletes, an online qualitative survey was used, and data collected were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings highlighted three overarching themes, in response to goal adjustment: “Moving on toward new goals”, “Letting go of goals”, and “Trying to hold on”, with several themes and sub-themes identifying different nuances of athletes’ and coaches’ experience. The implications of such findings for the mental preparation of high-level athletes are discussed in two ways. Firstly, in light of existing literature on goal setting from an applied perspective; secondly, in the broader perspective of the sport culture and the application of our themes to other challenging moments that sport professionals might encounter.
... Interpretivism is a philosophical theory that frequently underpins qualitative research, and posits that a person's social reality is constructed through their own subjective interpretation of their experiences [19]. Consequently, the study's data collection will be based on understanding the lived experience of informal caregivers of people with ESKD receiving CM, as opposed to explaining, generalizing or critiquing [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is an overwhelming illness that impacts not just patients, but also their informal carers. Patients who opt for conservative management rather than dialysis experience difficult symptoms and the psychosocial consequences of their condition. Informal carers of patients who choose conservative management can also experience high levels of psychosocial burden, yet there is little guidance on how best to support informal carers, and no evidence on psychosocial interventions to address unmet needs. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the experiences and unmet needs of informal carers of patients with ESKD receiving conservative management in order to inform the development of a psychosocial intervention. Methods: This qualitative study will consist of three stages: (I) semi-structured interviews with informal carers in England and Northern Ireland, (II) focus groups with healthcare professionals and informal carers, and (III) national workshops to refine the components of a psychosocial intervention. Discussion: Informal carers of patients with ESKD who are receiving conservative management experience a high psychosocial burden, but there is limited evidence on how best to provide support, particularly as the patient nears the end of life. To our knowledge this study will be the first to address this gap by exploring the experiences and unmet needs of informal carers, with the aim of informing the development of a psychosocial intervention to support the health and wellbeing of informal carers.
... More specifically, an experience is understood as a subjective and relativistic mental phenomenon that is real to the person experiencing it, and one that can be described and interpreted with words. The study aims to approach the experience as authentically as possible, but at the same time understanding the interpretative nature of both describing the experience and analysing the data (McChesney & Aldridge, 2019). This approach was chosen to capture as broad a view of the phenomenon as possible, given the few previous studies of these experiences that have been carried out. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unexplained experiences are common in the context of bereavement. According to the theory of Continuing Bonds (CB), these experiences relate to a post-death relationship with the deceased and are a part of grief. This study sought to describe unexplained experiences in the context of bereavement through an analysis of 408 narratives by 181 participants. The goal was to generate knowledge on a less-researched topic that could be utilised in supporting bereaved individuals and in the development of grief interventions. The study found that bereaved individuals undergo unexplained physical, mental, and sensory experiences. Physical experiences included experiences with the irregular operation of electronic devices, unusual object phenomena and unusual natural phenomena. Mental experiences included experiences of communication, changed state of being and feeling the presence of the deceased. Sensory experiences involved experiences of seeing figures, as well as auditory, tactile, and olfactory experiences. The experiences were diverse and occurred in the context of close and meaningful relationships. A shared feature of the various experiences was the individual’s perception of the phenomenon’s connection to the deceased. Due to the realistic and powerful nature of the experiences, considering them in the provision of grief support seems imperative.
... This study positions itself within the interpretive paradigm. The interpretive paradigm can be referred to as naturalistic (Patton, 2015) or constructivist (Katrina and Jill, 2019). Interpretivist research takes place in "real-world settings and the researcher does not attempt to affect control or manipulate what is folding naturally" (Patton, 2015: 48). ...
Article
Scholars have acknowledged that the current education system in Zimbabwe has done very little to incorporate learners’ socio-cultural experiences. The purpose of the qualitative case study, from which this research draws its data, was to examine the views of the teachers and education officers on the challenges of integrating Indigenous Knowledge (IK) into the teaching of weather and climate. The study was conducted in secondary schools of Manicaland in Zimbabwe. It is hoped that these views from the various stakeholders can contribute to the ongoing discussions on updating the Geography curriculum (2015 – 2022) in Zimbabwe. Data was generated using interviews and focus group discussions. The study revealed numerous challenges in integrating IK into Geography in secondary schools which include the lack of written texts given the oral tradition, the training of teachers, insufficient IK experts for guidance, teachers own attitudes and beliefs, assessment challenges and urbanisation. However, I argue that these challenges should not detract from the decolonizing project of integrating IK into the Zimbabwean Geography curriculum, rather the challenges should open up avenues for further discussion on including IK in the curriculum. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education seek to address the challenges, reported on the integration of IK into the Geography curriculum, that lie within the ambit of teaching, learning and assessment.
... Can this be overcome if teachers are gently pressured to implement a practice (Guskey, 2002;Hayes et al., 2019) so they can experience success (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002;Hayes et al., 2019)? The finding that prior GST workshop attendance and higher GST skills resulted in lower implementation of Geospatial Inquiry points to the strong influence of the individual in changing practices (Hall & Hord, 2001;McChesney & Aldridge, 2019). This conflicts with past studies (Rubino-Hare et al., 2016), but aligns with the contention that teachers hold tight to prior belief systems and need to see a better way of doing something and positive changes in student outcomes to change their practices (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002;Evans, 2014;Hayes et al., 2019). ...
Article
The current study examined the effects of a nationally scaled up Professional Learning and Development (PLD) model on teachers’ classroom implementation of the Geospatial Inquiry instructional framework. Geospatial Inquiry is defined as: asking and answering a research question through the analysis and communication of data that is linked to a geographic location on, above, or near Earth. These data are often represented visually via maps and explored with geospatial technologies. It also examined the relationships between Geospatial Inquiry Teacher Workshop (GITW) implementation and teacher implementation of the Geospatial Inquiry Cycle. Situated cognition provided a theoretical framework for the design, development, and implementation of the GITWs and lessons. Surveys, technology assessments, lessons, and artifacts were analysed using a-priori coding, descriptive statistics, and a generalised linear modelling approach that included hierarchical analysis. Results indicated teachers implemented Geospatial Inquiry lessons with integrity to the principles of Geospatial Inquiry and utilised research-based pedagogical practices. Format of GITWs (e.g. face-to-face or blended) resulted in differences during teachers’ lesson implementation. In addition, whether GITWs were delivered by an individual facilitator or a team of facilitators impacted teachers’ lessons. The findings have several implications for the design and scaling of PLD.
... There is a distinction frequently made between positivism and interpretivist research perspectives (Bryman & Bell, 2015;Hughes & Sharrock, 1997;(McChesney & Aldridge, 2019;Travers, 2001) with a central belief that a positivist approach is how researchers take a 'scientific' perspective when observing social behaviour, with an objective analysis possible to achieve (Bryman & Bell, 2015;Travers, 2001). However, there is caution against assuming how the positivism approach and sciences are the same concepts, noting the differences between a positivist philosophy and a scientific approach. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
... However, discrepancies in the outcomes of different studies may reflect varied study designs, as well as a variety of methodologies and sample selection criteria [40]. A number of factors influence the salivary glucose level. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Saliva has been studied as a better indicator of disorders and diseases than blood. Specifically, the salivary glucose level is considered to be an indicator of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, saliva collection methods can affect the salivary glucose level, thereby affecting the correlation between salivary glucose and blood glucose. Therefore, this study aims to identify an ideal saliva collection method and to use this method to determine the population and individual correlations between salivary glucose and blood glucose levels in DM patients and healthy controls. Finally, an analysis of the stability of the individual correlations is conducted. Methods: This study included 40 age-matched DM patients and 40 healthy controls. In the fasting state, saliva was collected using six saliva collection methods, venous blood was collected simultaneously from each study participant, and both samples were analyzed at the same time using glucose oxidase peroxidase. A total of 20 DM patients and 20 healthy controls were arbitrarily selected from the above participants for one week of daily testing. The correlations between salivary glucose and blood glucose before and after breakfast were analyzed. Finally, 10 DM patients and 10 healthy controls were arbitrarily selected for one month of daily testing to analyze the stability of individual correlations. Results: Salivary glucose levels were higher in DM patients than healthy controls for the six saliva collection methods. Compared with unstimulated saliva, stimulated saliva had decreased glucose level and increased salivary flow. In addition, unstimulated parotid salivary glucose was most correlated with blood glucose level (R2 = 0.9153), and the ROC curve area was 0.9316, which could accurately distinguish DM patients. Finally, it was found that the correlations between salivary glucose and blood glucose in different DM patients were quite different. The average correlation before breakfast was 0.83, and the average correlation after breakfast was 0.77. The coefficient of variation of the correlation coefficient before breakfast within 1 month was less than 5%. Conclusion: Unstimulated parotid salivary glucose level is the highest and is most correlated with blood glucose level, which can be accurately used to distinguish DM patients. Meanwhile, the correlation between salivary glucose and blood glucose was found to be relatively high and stable before breakfast. In general, the unstimulated parotid salivary glucose before breakfast presents an ideal saliva collecting method with which to replace blood-glucose use to detect DM, which provides a reference for the prediction of DM.
... This study-part of a wider mixed-method project-is underpinned by an interpretivist paradigm, with a relativist ontology and a constructivist epistemology [28]. This means that in this work we consider the nature of reality to be multiple, with subjective realities being constructed in each individual mind, and therefore knowledge is co-constructed, with the researchers' own experience mediating what can be understood [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the end of 2019 and throughout 2020, the world has been devastated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The sports world suddenly had to deal with a massive reorganization of events with important implications for the physical and psychological preparation of athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore how these changes impacted coaches’ and athletes’ goal-setting strategies and their experience of goal adjustment. As part of a wider mixed-method project involving 2162 coaches and 1354 athletes, an online qualitative survey was used, and data collected were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings highlighted three overarching themes, in response to goal adjustment: “Moving on toward new goals”, “Letting go of goals”, and “Trying to hold on”, with several themes and sub-themes identifying different nuances of athletes’ and coaches’ experiences. The implications of such findings for the mental preparation of high-level athletes are discussed in two ways. Firstly, in light of existing literature on goal setting from an applied perspective; secondly, in the broader perspective of the sports culture and the application of our themes to other challenging moments that sports professionals might encounter.
... The philosophical worldview research approach component, also knows as a paradigm, is a set of beliefs that guide a researcher's actions, and are comprised of a researcher's discipline, inclinations, and experiences which guide the researcher's inclination towards utilizing the appropriate method in their research (Creswell, 2016). Although a range of paradigms have been identified (Lincoln & Guba, 2013;, paradigms that are widely recognized within social research include the Positivist, Post Positivist, Constructivist, and Interpretivist paradigms (McChesney & Aldridge, 2019). Positivism is often associated with the realist premise that one true reality exists, however, it is not synonymous with realism (Gamlen & McIntyre, 2018). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study examines the effect the project schedule has on extensions to project duration and budget overruns of Microsoft Dynamics ERP implementation projects. This larger problem was explored through an in depth study of the completeness of the detailed project schedules, the alignment of the detailed project schedules with the activities and deliverables of the ERP implementation methodology, the incorporation of the detailed project schedules into the project manager’s daily project governance activities, and its effect on project adherence to budget and timeline and the organizational behavior of project resources. This study followed the constructivism paradigm and utilized the case study design of the qualitative method to guide the gathering and analysis of the data, as well as the interpretation of the research results. Three themes were developed based on these case studies: behavior of the team, project schedule, and methodology. Recommendations for action and further study were suggested, along with the biblical foundations supporting the profession of project management and ERP implementation projects.
... A constructivist interpretive approach (McChesney & Aldridge, 2019) was then applied to the qualitative data from the open ended survey questions. The mixed methods approach was used to enhance the richness of data and explore the topic from the participant's perspective (Anderson, Croxon, & McGarry, 2015;Fleming, Martin, Hughes, & Zinn, 2009;Goodwin et al., 2014;McChesney & Aldridge, 2019;Smith, 2012Smith, , 2014. Having experience with the EWIL program and a vested interest in determining its impact warranted students, industry partners and university lecturers being included as participants. ...
... This project used a qualitative research design and an interpretivist stance which argues that the world is socially constructed and truths and facts are based on the perceptions and interpretations of participants (Creswell 2014;Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, and Lowe 1991;McChesney and Aldridge 2019;Willis 2007). The purpose of interpretivist research is to 'understand the complex world of lived experience from the point of view of those who live it' (Schwandt 1998, 221). ...
Article
The cognitive, educational and economic benefits of learning a second language have been well documented in the literature. This paper reports findings on perspectives of 13 stakeholders on the benefits of a case study about teaching Vietnamese to preschoolers in a regional early childhood context in Tasmania, Australia in 2017. Using a thematic approach in analysing 13 semi-structured interviews, five main themes on the benefits of the program for the children identified were language development, cultural and global awareness, numeracy enhancement, reading engagement, and personal development. The results showed that participating educators and parents all had positive attitudes towards the early Vietnamese language program, believed that there were many benefits and expressed a desire for its continuity. These findings suggest that there is a need and desire for second language education in early childhood in the Tasmanian context. Therefore, policy makers, educators and researchers should provide preschools access to learning and teaching resources of a language of their choice to benefit children's overall development and learning in early childhood, adolescence and beyond.
... Herein, an experience is understood as a subjective and relativistic mental phenomenon that is real to the person experiencing it and which can be described and interpreted with words. The study looks to present the experiences as authentically as possible, but with an understanding that both the description of the experiences and the analyses of the data will necessarily involve interpretation (McChesney & Aldridge, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Unexplained experiences are common among bereaved people and are a natural part of grieving, but their consequences may affect their coping with grief. However, professionals lack awareness of these unexplained experiences, which may lead to an unnecessary pathologising of the experiences and a lack of opportunity for the bereaved to process their experiences in a safe environment. The study involved an inductive content analysis of 408 narratives of the consequences of unexplained experiences shared by 181 bereaved individuals. The consequences of the unexplained experiences were: (1) Experiencing after-effects which may alleviate or aggravate wellbeing, as well as be life-affecting; (2) consequences related to sharing or concealing the experiences, and the reactions of others to recounting the experience; (3) documenting the experience through videography, photography and keeping mementos. In conclusion, these experiences have consequences to bereaved which needs to be taken account in support interventions aimed at bereaved individuals.
Article
Professional learning evaluators struggle to balance the pursuit of rigorous outcomes with the time and money that some effective measures entail. While many evaluations rely on surveys for their ease of administration and application, little research has explored how surveys can measure multiple constructs beyond participant satisfaction as part of an evaluation framework. This study validates a survey of professional learning outcomes based on Guskey's framework of professional development evaluation. The 23-item survey was administered to 1,351 teachers in one district in the United States who receive professional learning interventions related to assessment use and assessment literacy. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the study demonstrates the discriminatory validity of four constructs: knowledge gained from professional learning, skills used in the classroom, attitudes about professional learning, and beliefs about assessment. The study provides additional credence to the relevance of Guskey's framework for evaluating professional learning interventions and insights regarding the utility of survey research in program evaluation activities.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate if videos created by teaching staff had a positive impact on student learning of integrative physiological concepts. Eighteen undergraduate students enrolled on a sport and exercise science degree attended an introduction to immunology short course. All students were taught together and then split into two groups stratified by performance on a recent summative assessment. One group used the taught materials to prepare for a test, and the other group was provided with three animations alongside the taught materials. All students sat matching tests on the day of the course and repeated the test 1 week later. The intervention group scored on average 22% (95% CI 11, 33) higher than the control group on test one. The scores from both groups reduced by approximately 10% on test two. Results on the multiple-choice questions were comparable between groups, with the main difference observed in short answer questions. Students in the intervention group identified that the animations helped to simplify processes by providing a more visual way of learning. This may suggest that the videos are most efficacious for helping the understanding of biological processes rather than the recollection of facts or information.
Article
Approximately 33% of those with bipolar disorder (BD) have a comorbid eating disorder (ED). However, the trajectory of these conditions has received little research attention. Nine participants who met criteria for BD and an ED participated in qualitative interviews exploring experiences of illness onset, the interaction of these conditions, and service provision. Almost all participants in the sample reported minimal to no screening of ED problems, despite their health professionals' frequent discussion of obesity. Findings suggested that ED features were diverse and evolved over time. Mania and depression were connected to ED features such as overeating and restricting, but this differed between and within participants. Most participants disclosed historic trauma which they considered central to their mental health concerns. This clinical group appears to be underserviced. Clinicians and researchers should routinely screen for ED features when treating and diagnosing BD to inform their physical and mental health interventions.
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of the research was to examine the methodological and thematic trends in scientific periodicals in the field of pedagogy. Two Croatian journals for education, Život i škola and Napredak in the period from 2012 to 2017, were analysed. A total of 370 articles were analysed, 143 from Napredak and 227 from Život i škola. The research results indicate that the analysed period is dominated by the topics of assessment, teacher competence, and teaching climate, while the topic of the future of education is the least represented in all segments. In methodological terms, the dominant papers are those with empirical quantitative research and categorization of original scien tific and review papers. Based on the analysis of the obtained facts, the main conclusions were synthesized, and they show that the methodological and thematic trends in Croatian scientific periodicals occur with an emphasis on the dominance of the positiv ist paradigm, lack of historical, theoretical and futuristic research, and a small number of studies with a qualitative methodological approach.
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence of a range of theoretical and applied Indigenous climate change adaptation strategies, yet analyses of African examples are generally focused at single local spatial scales, with limited description of how they have evolved over time. Drawing from research across three districts in northern Ghana, this study employs a mixed-methods approach and an interpretivist framework to develop understanding of how farmers are implementing Indigenous adaptation strategies in response to climate change risks at both household and community scales. Farmers are perceiving multiple climate risks such as increased temperatures, erratic rainfall and prolonged droughts, which are disrupting cropping calendars and decreasing productivity. In response to those impacts, farming households are utilising Indigenous knowledge to individually implement diverse strategies such as rainwater harvesting, relocation of farms to water sources, neem leaf extract and organic manure applications, while communities are collectively engaging in congregational prayers, rituals for rainmaking, taboos, investment in local irrigation systems and tree planting. Farmers’ adaptation strategies are evolving over time, as many people are integrating Indigenous practices with modern knowledge and technologies to facilitate improvements in irrigation, organic manure application, planting drought-resistant crops, agroforestry and crop diversification. Decision-makers in local, regional and national government institutions could work to design multi-scalar adaptation interventions that support the integration of Indigenous and modern knowledge to address the complexity of climate change risks across different scales to promote sustainable livelihoods.
Article
Sweden is internationally regarded as an inclusive educational system. This study explores how teacher education programmes in Sweden have been organised as regards inclusive education (IE). Specifically, the study examines how teacher candidates and staff perceive teacher pre-service training for IE in terms of its curriculum and pedagogical practices towards students. The question was explored through a case-study of a large, well-respected university in Sweden, using semi-structured interviews and group-discussions with teacher candidates and staff members, and document analyses. The study revealed that the university makes several purposeful efforts to prepare its teacher candidates to practise IE, e.g. all teacher education programmes have a specific course on inclusion, while this content is also infused into several other courses. Nonetheless, the study also demonstrates that teacher candidates lack a deeper understanding of relationship between special education and inclusion, which can probably be attributed to the wider socio-political context dominated by the special education narrative.
Article
Full-text available
Because adolescent life satisfaction is associated with important affective, behavioural and health-related outcomes during both adolescence and later life, strategies for promoting adolescent life satisfaction have potential social value. In the study reported in this article, associations are reported between perceptions of the school climate and reports of bullying, resilience and life satisfaction for 6120 Australian adolescents. The study extended past research, which has given little attention to either the relationships between these variables or the relative roles of various school climate sub-constructs. Aspects of the school climate explained 41% of the variance in adolescents’ resilience, 16% of the variance in bully victimisation, and 54% of the variance in life satisfaction. Further, resilience was positively associated with life satisfaction. These results affirm the importance of the psychosocial school climate as a mechanism for improving adolescent (and life-course) outcomes, strengthening calls for schools to give greater attention to improving their psychosocial climates.
Article
Full-text available
This research collected the voices of students in a UK university, better to understand their perception of their ‘moral responsibility’ as trainee early years educators. The UK Early Years Framework states that practitioners will instil in young children an understanding of what is ‘right and wrong’. This is a formidable expectation in itself; yet early years educators are also expected to work ethically, sensitively and respectfully with a wide network of colleagues and stakeholders. This research, carried out through a fully anonymised survey, provided the opportunity for some student teachers to share that where ethical responsibility was concerned, they just didn’t get it. The research found that an understanding was often assumed by tutors and that a more conscious effort needed to be made more explicitly to explore these concepts, and the associated lexicon, within module content.
Article
In many advanced economies, two phenomena coexist: many people struggle finding meaning in their jobs and a growing number of persons hold multiple jobs at the same time. The research stream on meaningful work calls for more qualitative studies that investigate individual experiences of meaningful work across different jobs. The field on multiple jobholding has recently focused on the psychological foundations and struggles or positive effects. Prior research shows that individuals who were pushed (e.g. by financial reasons) into an additional job will likely experience depletion through it, while those motivated by pull factors (e.g. by psychological fulfillment reasons and the desire for meaningfulness) will likely yield enrichment. To address these research gaps jointly, we empirically investigate the motivations and meaningfulness experiences of multiple jobholders with the same secondary job, that is, practicing yoga teachers. We apply a mixed-method design by conducting and analyzing narrative interviews with 27 part-time yoga teachers in Germany.
Article
This article explores how research management, through a research advisory model (RAM), can guide accounting students and supervisors to transition to a research-focused community of practice by gaining greater methodological diversity and theoretical development during their higher degree studies. Memory-work narrative responses from e-interviews with 21 accounting faculty members, of which 15 were higher degree students and six supervisors, were thematically analysed. Document analysis was conducted to explore how the faculty’s research profile has changed since the inception of the new faculty and the implementation of the research management capacity-building programme. In line with the theory of legitimate peripheral participation (LPP), this article shows how a peripheral model of participation assisted accounting higher degree students and their supervisors to embrace research and become part of a community of scholars. The novel advisory model can be used to assist higher degree students and their supervisors during the challenging transition from accounting professional to researcher. A conceptual trajectory including LPP theory as an analytical and practical lens to support pathways to change is offered as a modest contribution. The RAM is posited as an option for faculties in guiding students to overcome related challenges and gain confidence in the research process. The model can also be useful for other faculties working towards similar goals.
Article
Full-text available
Efektyvi politikos lyderio krizių komunikacija gali būti itin reikšminga pandemijos valdyme. Šiame straipsnyje siekiama ištirti Lietuvos Respublikos prezidento Gitano Nausėdos COVID-19 tematikos krizių komunikaciją socialiniame tinkle „Facebook“. Taikant mišraus pobūdžio turinio analizės metodą straipsnyje yra nagrinėjami 2020-2021 metų prezidento asmeninėje paskyroje paskelbti įrašai. Tyrimas parodė, kad Gitanas Nausėda anksti pripažino COVID-19 sąlygotą sveikatos krizę, skleidė pakankamai aiškias bei empatiškas žinutes, raminančias gyventojus ir informuojančias, kaip elgtis pandemijos laikotarpiu. Tačiau dėl nepakankamo intensyvumo prezidento komunikacija buvo menkai matoma ir girdima, be to, komunikuojant buvo beveik nebendradarbiaujama su Vyriausybe. Visa tai galėjo lemti mažesnį prezidento komunikacijos vaidmenį kovoje su pandemija.
Article
With its aggressive education reform, multinational teaching workforce, and increasing implementation of Western-based approaches, Abu Dhabi provides a rich site for learning more about international policy-borrowing in educational improvement initiatives. This article uses survey and interview data from n=35 Abu Dhabi public school teachers who participated in a combined total of 297 professional development activities over an academic year. The study examined the design and impact of the professional development activities and the relationships between design and impact in the Abu Dhabi context. The study offers implications for international professional development practice and insights into international policy-borrowing in education.
Article
Full-text available
Mixed methods research has become an important approach to research worldwide. The combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods has made it possible for a deeper and broader understanding of multifaceted phenomena, thereby offering readers more confidence in research findings and conclusions. The use of mixed method designs became more established in the 1980s and early 1990s, but some controversies surrounding the approach remain. Nonetheless, experts in the field of mixed methods research have continued to work on the central premise that the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches, in combination, provides a better understanding of research problems than either approach alone. This concept paper discusses some of the known controversies around mixed methods with the aim of providing useful insights to emerging researchers interested in learning the methodology.
Article
The study reported in this paper was conducted as part of a collaborative research project designed to develop a culturally sustaining approach to science, technology, and engineering education in preschool classrooms. Readiness through Integrative Science and Engineering (RISE) is an integrated approach to providing professional development support to Head Start teachers. Our strengths-based sociocultural approach is centered on best practices in preschool science, technology, and engineering (STE) pedagogy and intentional engagement of families through a home-school connections (HSC) perspective. Two forms of narrative analysis were integrated to generate multidimensional profiles of teachers that were then categorized into three groups representing variation in the teachers’' pathways to understanding and appropriating the RISE approach.
Article
The closure of schools and colleges worldwide, as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown and stay-at-home protocols, were timely actions given the surge in infection rates. It became immediately necessary for innovative strategies to be put in place to engage students while they remained at home. In Ghana, many traditional universities adopted the use of online learning tools to promote learning amongst their students during this period of uncertainty. In this exploratory case study, I explore the experiences of final year undergraduate students ( N = 18) in the University of Ghana with the intention of examining: (1) the various strategies adopted by lecturers to engage students in online learning during this time when they were at home; (2) the challenges the students experienced; and (3) the students’ views on ways of promoting effective student online learning engagement during future emergencies. Three strategies were identified by the students as being used by the lecturers for online learning engagement, namely videoconferencing, use of discussion boards, and use of regular assignments. It was found that the students experienced manifold engagement challenges in online learning including data and network problems, technical difficulties, assessment overload, as well as administrative issues. In order to ensure effective student online learning engagement in future national emergencies, it was suggested that resources such as internet facilities should be made available to students; assessment load should be reduced while interactive and active online learning engagement strategies are prioritized; and administrative support should be offered to students. The study’s findings have significant implications for the planning, design and the implementation of online learning programmes in higher education.
Article
Full-text available
Students must develop higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) that allow them to think critically and use their learning in novel situations. However, little is known about how including HOCS in teaching and assessment affects students’ perception of learning. We combine quantitative and qualitative data to determine whether the inclusion of HOCS and the presence of constructive alignment influences students' perceptions of learning within the first-year practical components of an undergraduate biology degree at a UK research intensive university. We applied the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT) and Bloom’s Dichotomous Key (BDK) to quantify the proportion of HOCS present during practical sessions and their related assessments and found that a combination of tools can be used to reliably assess the requisite cognitive skills required to complete tasks. Students completed an online survey and provided free-text responses regarding which practical sessions they perceived had the most beneficial effects on their learning. Students valued both LOCS and HOCS for their learning but could only recognise and value HOCS in practical sessions featuring high proportions of HOCS. Our research provides methods for assessing and improving constructive alignment in the teaching of biology and furthers our understanding of when students will recognise and value HOCS.
Article
Purpose How to improve healthcare for the ageing population is attracting academia attention. Emerging technologies (i.e. robots and intelligent agents) look relevant. This paper aims to analyze the role of cognitive assistants as boundary objects in value co-creation practices. We include the perceptions of the main actors – patients, (in)formal caregivers, healthcare professionals – for a fuller network perspective to understand the potential overlap between boundary work and value co-creation practices. Design/methodology/approach We adopted a grounded approach to gain a contextual understanding design to effectively interpret context and meanings related to human–robot interactions. The study context concerns 21 health solutions that had embedded the Watson cognitive platform and its adoption by the youngest cohort (50–64-year-olds) of the ageing population. Findings The cognitive assistant acts as a boundary object by bridging actors, resources and activities. It enacts the boundary work of actors (both ageing and professional, caregivers, families) consisting of four main actions (automated dialoguing, augmented sharing, connected learning and multilayered trusting) that elicit two ageing value co-creation practices: empowering ageing actors in medical care and engaging ageing actors in a healthy lifestyle. Originality/value We frame the role of cognitive assistants as boundary objects enabling the boundary work of ageing actors for value co-creation. A cognitive assistant is an “object of activity” that mediates in actors' boundary work by offering novel resource interfaces and widening resource access and resourceness. The boundary work of ageing actors lies in a smarter resource integration that yields broader applications for augmented agency.
Article
The purpose of the article is to contribute to structuring the problem of how to advance a sustainable energy transition and achieve carbon neutrality goals while ensuring a democratic and inclusive process, by drawing on a pilot case – i.e., the energy transition in Portugal. By building on approaches and concepts from the Sustainability Transitions research field, the article explores perceptions, values, and concerns regarding distributed and centralized energy models; inclusivity and energy democracy; energy systems’ sustainability concerns and the speed of the transition. The study draws on the hypothesis that stakeholders across the state, market, community and third sector spheres, while equally supporting decarbonization, have different perceptions, values, and concerns regarding the social, environmental, and technological dynamics of the energy transition that need to be better understood for accelerating the transition. The multi-method approach included interviews, a survey (N = 110) and a stakeholder workshop, to unpack the key values and preferences around energy system technologies, sustainability and inclusionary aspects, the role of centralized and distributed energy systems and new investments, namely in green hydrogen and lithium mining. The results indicate there is a significant convergence on the fact that decarbonization is a priority that needs to be supported by inclusive and democratic processes. Decentralization, energy communities and solar energy are extremely valued, and transparency and information sharing are crucial expectations for new lithium mining projects, large-scale solar and green hydrogen investments. These findings outline some avenues for future research, where participation and transparency become anchors for a sustainable and inclusive transition.
Thesis
Men comprise approximately 1.8% of the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) workforce in Ireland, despite national and international recommendations to increase this number. This thesis examines the career trajectories of men in the ECEC workforce in Ireland. Underpinned by Connell’s theories of gender as structural, an embedded mixed-methods design was employed using semi-structured interviews with men and women in the ECEC workforce, a focus group with post-primary school careers guidance teachers and a survey of parents accessing ECEC provision. The factors that influence men’s entry to the ECEC workforce and experiences which shape their trajectories are explored. Key findings suggest an interaction of micro, meso and macro factors influence men’s entry into and trajectories in the ECEC workforce. Societal expectations of men and men’s roles, family and friend influences and their own aspirations form a complex set of influences. A lack of visibility of men in caring roles, awareness of caring professions as options in adolescence, and lack of careers guidance in post-primary school are evident. The impact of the onset of the economic recession in 2007-2008 which had a significant impact on male dominated industry is influential for the men in this study. The expectations of men and their experiences within ECEC are often contradictory, and influence their vertical and horizontal trajectories. Key events can have a significant impact on their sense of belonging and satisfaction. This thesis makes recommendations in relation to increasing visibility of ECEC as a career in post-primary education, policies to support increased entry, career pathways and professionalisation in which men and women can see a viable career in ECEC.
Chapter
Full-text available
Najistaknutiji aspekt razvoja sadašnje generacije skriven je u percepciji slike globalne budućnosti. Brojne sociološke studije bavile su se analizama predviđanja pozitivnih i negativnih scenarija budućnosti s različitih aspekata (filozofija, teologija, psihologija, povijest i antropologija), no jako je malo istraživanja koja su se odnosila na dublje analize „pogleda u budućnost“ iz perspektive pedagogije, didaktike i metodologije. Usprkos brojnim razlikama u stajalištima, mnogi su se autori u opisivanju teorija društvene dinamike prilikom predviđanja različitih budućih scenarija suprotstavljali teoriji kontinuiranog evolucijskog napretka uz pomoć genetike, biokemije, a u novije vrijeme sve više i umjetne inteligencije. S obzirom da u većini studija koje se bave istraživanjima odgoja i obrazovanja nailazimo na već dobro poznate istraživačke tehnike, ovaj rad ima za cilj predstaviti upravo suprotno: prikazati i sistematizirati dosadašnje spoznaje o relativno novoj istraživačkoj metodi praktičarima i znanstvenicima te pokazati različite mogućnosti njene primjene u kontekstu odgoja i obrazovanja, a posebno u pedagogiji i didaktici. Navedena metoda ulazi u domenu futuroloških istraživačkih metoda i svakako je jedna od onih koja zaslužuje ravnopravan tretman u odnosu na druge istraživačke metode. Metoda je nadahnuta osnovnim idejama za koje se zalagao sociolog Fred Polak koja je po njemu i dobila ime pa ju nazivamo Polakovom igrom (engl. Polak game) ili metodom „Gdje stojiš“ (engl. Where Do You Stand?). Peter Hayward je sa svojim suradnicima prvi kreirao proces koji je olakšao postupak provođenja ove metode koja se provodi u stvarnom vremenu, a od sudionika se traži da se pozicioniraju na jednom od četiri kvadranta. Kvadranti su raspoređeni prema zamišljenoj matrici 2x2 koja predstavlja četiri dimenzije: esencijalni pesimizam, esencijalni optimizam, optimizam mogućnosti utjecaja i pesimizam mogućnosti utjecaja. Uz pomoć voditelja (moderatora) od sudionika se očekuje da iskoriste fizički prostor u kojemu se nalaze kako bi preispitali pretpostavke o budućnosti na jednostavan, moćan i generativan način te demonstrirali svoje razumijevanje budućnosti u smislu očekivanja pozitivnog odnosno negativnog ishoda, s jedne strane, i njihovog osjećaja osobnog utjecaja na postizanje željenih promjena, s druge strane. Današnje je vrijeme doba denaturacije, a upravo planski i ciljano planiranje pozitivno usmjerene budućnosti može biti panaceja za većinu današnjih izazova s kojima se susrećemo i za većinu onih s kojima ćemo se tek susretati. U tome nam od iznimne pomoći može biti Polakova igra kao jedna od novijih mogućnosti u istraživanjima tema iz pedagogije, didaktike te odgoja i obrazovanja.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare research continues to attract international interest. This article discusses how one exemplar study evaluated the impact of PPI on cancer research outcomes, with user involvement sewn into the design. The research aligned to interpretivist and pragmatist paradigms and resulted in a mixed methods sequential design. Phase 1 involved 23 in-depth interviews to explore perceptions of impact of PPI on cancer research outcomes with patients, researchers and stakeholders. Analysis from Phase 1 formed the basis of a ‘stimulus paper’ to use in Phase 2. Phase 2 adopted the modified Delphi technique with a virtual panel of 35 experts. This research found several factors shaped the impact of PPI on cancer research outcomes. However, the data itself are not the foci of this article, the methodological process, theoretical decisions, limitations and lessons learned across the research are.
Chapter
Compliance, or the behavioral response to legal rules, has become an important topic for academics and practitioners. A large body of work exists that describes different influences on business compliance, but a fundamental challenge remains: how to measure compliance or noncompliance behavior itself? Without proper measurement, it's impossible to evaluate existing management and regulatory enforcement practices. Measuring Compliance provides the first comprehensive overview of different approaches that are or could be used to measure compliance by business organizations. The book addresses the strengths and weaknesses of various methods and offers both academics and practitioners guidance on which measures are best for different purposes. In addition to understanding the importance of measuring compliance and its potential negative effects in a variety of contexts, readers will learn how to collect data to answer different questions in the compliance domain, and how to offer suggestions for improving compliance measurement.
Article
Scant research has centred on the wellbeing of librarians. This paper seeks to answer how do librarians in the Higher Education sector describe their wellbeing, including what enables and impacts it? Method An Adapted Interactive Model of Research Design (AIRD) (adapted from Maxwell, 2009) was used together with Contributive Research Method (Puig et al., 2018). Data was collected during an online satellite event where 97 people from 34 institutions in three countries participated, from which 57 contributed data to the study through a workshop presentation on maintaining wellbeing. During the online interactive workshop, data was gathered in a contributory a manner, using embedded digital tools Mentimeter, and Hypothes.is. Results Higher Education librarians in the study aligned with Diener's (1984) conceptualisation of subjective wellbeing when defining wellbeing. Data also surfaced a shared understanding of subjective wellbeing, and identification of impactors and enablers to the wellbeing of librarians in the Higher Education Sector. The study surfaced two key findings: firstly six enablers to wellbeing were identified; and secondly, the wellbeing of Higher Education sector librarians is heavily impacted by work intensification. Conclusions The voices of librarians in the Higher Education sector have surfaced the need for inclusive wellbeing programs and strategies.
Book
Full-text available
The centering of ways to integrate qualitative and quantitative data through all phases of a research project is reflected by the title and the framework of this practical textbook intended for use in an introductory mixed methods research course. In part because I have largely adopted terminology that is already used widely, this textbook will be useful in setting the stage for a more advanced course in mixed methods research. For instructors, there is a full set of slides for each chapters on the SAGE website. The primary purpose of the text is to provide novice researchers and those new to mixed methods the tools to design, execute, and evaluate a mixed methods research study. For a class with an enrollment of masters-level students, I envision the principal task of the text to provide a systematic way to evaluate a mixed methods publication in order to determine its contribution to knowledge and/or practice. In my experience, doctoral students bring an interest in learning how to design a credible mixed methods study to the class. The goals for the book are: 1. To provide an introductory textbook for graduate students in applied disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences that reflects contemporary views that mixed methods requires integration of different data sources in multiple phases of the research process. 2. To provide novice researchers and those new to mixed methods the tools to design and execute a fully integrated mixed methods study. 3. To provide supplemental materials that will assist instructors to teach an introductory mixed methods course. 4. To introduce the terminology associated with the methodology. 5. To illustrate ways that the qualitative and quantitative strands can be integrated at all stages of the research process. 6. To provide an extended discussion of data transformation as an analytical strategy to mix qualitative and quantitative data. 7. To propose a rubric to evaluate the quality of a mixed methods research publication. 8. To illustrate key concepts by weaving references to a set of exemplary publications across chapters throughout the book. 9. To explore the use of mixed methods approaches to grounded theory, content analysis, and case study research. Three chapters in this textbook are devoted to mixing. A full list of chapters is: PART 1: FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES Chapter 1: Definitional Issues Chapter 2: Classifying the Purposes of Mixed Methods Research Chapter 3: Recognizing Paradigmatic Assumptions Chapter 4: Distinguishing Mixed Methods Designs PART 2: EXECUTING FULLY INTEGRATED MIXED METHODS RESEARCH Chapter 5: Strategies for Mixing Prior to Analysis Chapter 6: Mixing Method Analytical Procedures Chapter 7: Data Transformation and other Strategies for Mixing During Analysis PART 3: ASSESSING QUALITY Chapter 8: Evaluating Quality in Mixed Methods Research Publications Chapter 9: Designing and Reporting a Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research Proposal or Doctoral Dissertation PART 4: CONTROVERSIES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS Chapter 10: Controversies and Future Directions Draft copies of several chapters are available through ResearchGate.
Article
Full-text available
I argue that the use of paradigms as philosophical frameworks that delineate assumptions about ethics, reality, knowledge, and systematic inquiry helps clarify the basis of disagreements by members of the mixed methods research community. One paradigmatic position is not correct and the others wrong. However, continued debate about these frameworks provides fertile ground for expanding our understandings of the value and challenges associated with mixed methods research.
Article
Full-text available
Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been criticized for an a-paradigmatic stance (Greene, 2007). Critics posit that this seemingly unreflective “what-works” (Denzin, 2012) approach threatens the validity of findings (Lipscomb, 2008). This chapter maintains this position and argues that evaluators need to examine their philosophical orientations and how this informs credible evidence in mixed methods evaluation. Accordingly, this work provides an overview of Deweyan pragmatism, emphasizing intelligent action. Next, important aspects of intelligent action are used to explore central questions in mixed methods evaluation and evidenced-based practice. To conclude, a case example, illustrating how intelligent action can inform mixed methods evaluation, is offered. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc., and the American Evaluation Association.
Article
Full-text available
We provide a philosophical justification for analyzing qualitative and quantitative data within the same study. First, we present several recent typologies of analyses in social science research that incorporate both monomethod (i.e. purely quantitative research or purely qualitative research) and mixed research studies. Second, we discuss what has been referred to as the fundamental principle of empirical data analysis, wherein both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques are shaped by an attempt to analyze data in a way that yields at least one of five types of generalizations. Third, building on the frameworks of Denzin and Lincoln (2005), Heron and Reason (1997) and Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004), we compare and contrast three qualitative-based paradigms (i.e. constructivism, critical theory, participatory), one quantitative-based paradigm (i.e. postpositivism) and one mixed research-based paradigm (i.e. pragmatism) with respect to three axiomatic components (i.e. ontological, epistemological and methodological foundations) and seven issues (i.e. nature of knowledge, knowledge accumulation, goodness or quality criteria, values, ethics, inquirer posture and training). Also, we link each paradigm to data analysis strategies. Fourth, we illustrate similarities in goals between some qualitative and quantitative analyses; in so doing, we deconstruct the strong claim that analysis must be either qualitative or quantitative and illustrate that regardless of perspective (e.g. postpositivist or constructivist), both qualitative and quantitative data can be jointly analyzed. Finally, we compare and contrast 11 mixed research paradigms/worldviews, linking them to mixed analysis strategies, thereby situating mixed analyses in the philosophy of social science and promoting mixed research as a distinctive methodology.
Chapter
Full-text available
The growth of mixed methods research has been accompanied by a debate over the rationale for combining what has previously been regarded as incompatible methodologies. The debate has focused on what paradigms are involved in mixed methods research. Four dominant paradigms are identified, namely postpositivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism and three approaches to incorporating these in mixed methods research outlined. Of these a single paradigm is proposed as the most appropriate approach. Existing single paradigms, however, do not provide an adequate rationale for mixed methods research. Both transformative and pragmatic paradigms have serious limitations. A realist perspective, it is argued, overcomes these limitations and provides a satisfactory paradigm for mixed methods research.
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a “methodological orthodoxy” in how mixed methods is practiced that currently favors quantitative methodologies, with a mixed methods praxis that positions qualitative methods second and quantitative methods as primary with an overall mixed methods design that is in the service of testing out quantitatively generated theories about the social world. This article upends the current methodological focus on positivism by centering qualitative approaches to mixed methods practice. A qualitative approach seeks to empower individuals’ stories with the goal of understanding how they how make meaning within their social world. Through intensive case studies this article demonstrates the synergy of combining methods in the service of qualitatively driven approaches.
Article
Full-text available
The claim that mixed methods is the third methodological movement of the twentieth century could have unexpected consequences for the future of research in the social sciences and health disciplines. Implied is a belief that the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods will produce the ‘best of both worlds’. This assumption, combined with inherent promises of inclusiveness, takes on a reality and certainty in research findings that serves well the powerful nexus of economic restraint and evidence-based practice. I argue that the use of the terms ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ as normative descriptors reinforces their binary positioning, effectively marginalising the methodological diversity within them. Ideologically, mixed methods covers for the continuing hegemony of positivism, albeit in its more moderate, postpositivist form. If naively interpreted, mixed methods could become the preferred approach in the teaching and doing of research. Rather than the promotion of more co-operative and complex designs for increasingly complex social and health issues, economic and administrative pressures may lead to demands for the ‘quick fix’ that mixed methods appears to offer.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. The first section argues for the value of Kuhn’s concept of paradigm shifts as a tool for examining changes in research fields such as social science research methodology. The next two sections consider the initial rise of the “metaphysical paradigm” that justified the renewed interest in qualitative research and the subsequent problems that have encouraged efforts to replace that paradigm. The final section of the paper advocates a “pragmatic approach” as a new guiding paradigm in social science research methods, both as a basis for supporting work that combines qualitative and quantitative methods and as a way to redirect our attention to methodological rather than metaphysical concerns.
Article
Full-text available
This study uses a national probability sample of 1,027 mathematics and science teachers to provide the first large-scale empirical comparison of effects of different characteristics of professional development on teachers’ learning. Results, based on ordinary least squares regression, indicate three core features of professional development activities that have significant, positive effects on teachers’ self-reported increases in knowledge and skills and changes in classroom practice: (a) focus on content knowledge; (b) opportunities for active learning; and (c) coherence with other learning activities. It is primarily through these core features that the following structural features significantly affect teacher learning: (a) the form of the activity (e.g., workshop vs. study group); (b) collective participation of teachers from the same school, grade, or subject; and (c) the duration of the activity.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to examine how the field of mixed methods currently is being defined. The authors asked many of the current leaders in mixed methods research how they define mixed methods research. The authors provide the leaders' definitions and discuss the content found as they searched for the criteria of demarcation. The authors provide a current answer to the question, What is mixed methods research? They also briefly summarize the recent history of mixed methods and list several issues that need additional work as the field continues to advance. They argue that mixed methods research is one of the three major “research paradigms” (quantitative research, qualitative research, and mixed methods research). The authors hope this article will contribute to the ongoing dialogue about how mixed methods research is defined and conceptualized by its practitioners.
Article
Full-text available
Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.
Article
Full-text available
examine interpretivism, beginning with a general sketch of some critical issues in social science epistemology that shape this family of persuasions / single out several particular interpretivist approaches for a close look at how each defines the purpose of human inquiry / these include Clifford Geertz's view of interpretive anthropology, the Herbert Blumer-G. H. Mead version of symbolic interactionism, and Norman Denzin's reformulation of interpretive interactionism introduce constructivist thinking through the work of Nelson Goodman [on cognition] / discuss Ernst von Glasersfeld's radical constructivism, Kenneth Gergen's social constructionism, feminist standpoint epistemologies, Egon Guba and Yvonna Lincoln's constructivist paradigm, and Elliot Eisner's aesthetic approach to educational inquiry as illustrations of constructivist thinking / conclude . . . with an overview of several kinds of criticisms often made of both constructivist and interpretivist approaches (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Thesis
This thesis reports an interpretivist, mixed-methods investigation of teachers’ experiences of professional development within a major education reform in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Drawing on data from 393 Arab and Western teachers, the study considered the factors (design, non-design-related, and cultural) that contributed to the impact of professional development in this context. The study extended existing literature by highlighting the importance of culture and context in influencing teacher professional development. Keywords: Teacher professional development; professional development evaluation; education reform; culture; cultural differences; policy and practice; Abu Dhabi; United Arab Emirates; mixed-methods research; interpretivist research. The full-text of this thesis is available at https://espace.curtin.edu.au/handle/20.500.11937/57566
Article
Schools and education systems are being challenged to improve the evaluation of teacher professional development, yet there is a lack of practical tools for doing so. This article describes the development and validation of a new instrument to assess teachers’ perceptions of the impact of professional development. This instrument, designed to be time- and cost-effective, was theoretically grounded and, as evidenced by the results reported in this article, psychometrically sound. The instrument was completed twice (examining different types of professional development) by 393 teachers. The results for both data-sets demonstrated a strong factor structure with good internal consistency for all scales. Further data analysis indicated that the scales could effectively distinguish between the experiences of different groups of teachers. The finalised instrument, named the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Questionnaire, is presented in full, and the practical advantages and limitations of the instrument are discussed. Keywords: Teacher professional development, evaluation, impact, questionnaire, teacher perceptions
Article
This article advances the conditional incompatibility thesis, which when left unaddressed, poses challenges to the pragmatic maxim as a guiding framework for mixed methods research. The conditional incompatibility thesis stands in opposition to two claims, the first pertaining to the position that incompatibility can be avoided by adherence to a “whatever-works” maxim. Also questioned is the claim that quantitative and qualitative data are inherently incompatible. Arguing that there are conditions under which incompatibility occurs, we illustrate within the context of latent variable modeling how particular techniques, methods, and/or decisions fail to be philosophically neutral. Offered are methods through which researchers can be more mindful of, and thus transparent about, the influence of philosophical perspectives in their work.
Article
There has been much debate about the role of paradigms in mixed methods research. In the face of past calls for each researcher to operate within a single paradigm, it turns out that some researchers/practitioners find many positive features in more than one paradigm. This “multiparadigmatic perspective” used in mixed methods research needs a systematic framework for the practice of engaging in difference. Also, individuals committed to a single paradigm need a philosophical/theoretical framework for working in multiparadigmatic teams. This article provides such a framework. It is a metaparadigm, and it is labeled dialectical pluralism 2.0 or more simply dialectical pluralism. The word “pluralism” refers to the acceptance and expectancy of difference in virtually every realm of inquiry, including reality, and the age-old word “dialectical” refers to the operative process which is both dialectical and dialogical. Dialectical pluralism provides a way for researchers, practitioners, clients, policy makers, and other stakeholders to work together and produce new workable “wholes” while, concurrently, thriving on differences and intellectual tensions.
Article
While recent mixed methods publications advocate for researchers’ explicit discussion of their paradigmatic foundations, more guidance is needed regarding how these paradigms can be used. This article comparatively analyzes four major paradigmatic perspectives discussed in mixed methods literature: pragmatism, transformative-emancipation, dialectics, and critical realism. It offers a discussion of each perspective’s implications for mixed methods and how they can be used to influence research based on recent publications. While there are several similarities, such as emphasizing divergent results and allowing for researcher choice in methods, each perspective offers a unique set of advantages and disadvantages. Emphasizing how paradigms can be used then promotes more explicit engagement with them in future research.
Article
In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature and discuss some of the language, which can prove confusing to the early career researcher and problematic for post-graduate supervisors and teachers of research. The authors argue that discussions of research methods in research texts and university courses should include mixed methods and should address the perceived dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research methodology.
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
Book
Over the past two decades, the relevance of cross-national and cross-cultural methodologies has heightened across various fields of study. Responding to increasing cultural diversity and rapid changes in how research is conducted, Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts addresses the need for refined tools and improved procedures in cross-cultural and cross-national studies worldwide. Based on research submitted to the International Conference on Multinational, Multicultural, and Multiregional Survey Methods (3MC), this book identifies important changes in comparative methodology approaches, outlines new findings, and provides insight into future developments in the field. Some of the world's leading survey researchers gather in this volume to address the need for a standard framework that promotes quality assurance and quality control in survey research, and its impact on various stages of the survey life cycle, including study design and organization, cross-national sampling, testing and pretesting, data collection, and input and output variable harmonization. Self-contained chapters feature coverage of various topics, such as: Question and questionnaire design, from both global and study-specific perspectives The construction and evaluation of survey translations and instrument adaptations The effects of cultural difference on the perception of question and response categories Non-response issues Analysis in comparative contexts, featuring discussion of polytomous item response theory, categorization problems, and Multi-Trait-Multi-Methods (MTMM) The significance of evolving methodologies for current international survey programs, including the European Social Survey, the International Social Survey Programme, and the Gallup World Poll Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts is a valuable supplement for courses on comparative survey methods at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as an insightful reference for professionals who design, implement, and analyze comparative research in the areas of business, public health, and the social and behavioral sciences.
Article
This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates ostensibly divergent findings by bringing them under a more comprehensive framework. Intertwined with this analysis, the article distinguishes mechanical from agential causation. Mechanical causation accounts for ordered processes of human behavior on the model of the natural sciences; agential causation accounts for ordered processes of human behavior in terms of norm-governed institutions and practices. The article concludes that there are no barriers to triangulating qualitative and quantitative methods (disjunctively or conjunctively) with respect to either mechanical or agential causation, taken separately. However, it also concludes that more comprehensive, “holistic” causal explanation that combines mechanical and agential causation, for example, explaining defiant behavior by appeal to lead poisoning, is discontinuous.
Article
A third way of conceptualizing mixed methods research is proposed, one based on critical interpretive methodologies.
Article
Over the past 10 years or so the “Field” of “Mixed Methods Research” (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings by generating and comparing different sorts of data, and different respondents’ perspectives, on the topic under investigation. Respondent validation has sometimes been included in such processes, but it is an element that has not attracted significant attention from the MMR community. The article argues that attention to respondent validation is a significant issue for methodological debate and that it should be an important aspect of the development of democratic participation in MMR.
Article
This article is concerned with the possibility that the development of mixed methods research is being hindered by the tendency that has been observed by some researchers for quantita- tive and qualitative findings either not to be integrated or to be integrated to only a limited extent. It examines findings from 20 interviews with U.K. social researchers, all of whom are practitioners of mixed methods research. From these interviews, a wide variety of possible barriers to integrating mixed methods findings are presented. The article goes on to suggest that more attention needs to be given to the writing of mixed methods articles.
Article
A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are significant differences in the methods employed (quantitative, mixed, qualitative) in pure (psychology, sociology) as opposed to applied (education, nursing) disciplines. The prevalence rate for mixed methods research is higher in applied (16%) compared with pure disciplines (6%). Quantitative methods and the underlying postpositivistic paradigm are prevalent in articles from ‘‘elite’’ journals from pure disciplines, especially psychology. Methodological issues are discussed, including the importance of the sampling procedures employed in prevalence rates studies.
Article
The last 100 years have witnessed a fervent debate in the USA about quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Unfortunately, this has led to a great divide between quantitative and qualitative researchers, who often view themselves as in competition with each other. Clearly, this polarization has promoted purists, namely, researchers who restrict themselves exclusively either to quantitative or to qualitative research methods. Mono‐method research is the biggest threat to the advancement of the social sciences. Indeed, as long as we stay polarized in research, how can we expect stakeholders who rely on our research findings to take our work seriously? Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore how the debate between quantitative and qualitative is divisive and, hence, counterproductive for advancing the social and behavioural science field. This paper advocates that all graduate students learn to utilize and to appreciate both quantitative and qualitative research. In so doing, students will develop into what we term as pragmatic researchers.
Article
The author suggests that we apply recent research knowledge to improve our conceptualization, measures, and methodology for studying the effects of teachers' professional development on teachers and students. She makes the case that there is a research consensus to support the use of a set of core features and a common conceptual framework in professional development impact studies. She urges us to move away from automatic biases either for or against observation, interviews, or surveys in such studies. She argues that the use of a common conceptual framework would elevate the quality of professional development studies and subsequently the general understanding of how best to shape and implement teacher learning opportunities for the maximum benefit of both teachers and students.
Article
This article addresses the merits of and warrants for considering mixed methods social inquiry as a distinctive methodology. In each of four methodological domains—philosophy, methodology, practical guidelines, and sociopolitical commitments—the status of the mixed methods field is reviewed. Signal accomplishments are noted in each domain, as are impor- tant priorities for further development.
Book
""Doing Research in the Real World introduces readers to all the essential aspects of the research process and will be an essential guide to any student on a research methods course. David Gray's clear and accessible introduction starts by setting out best approaches to the design of appropriate research tools, and leads the reader into issues of data collection, analysis and writing up. Practically focused throughout, this book encourages the reader to develop an awareness of the real nature of research and the many means by which data can be collected, validated and interpreted. Gray's book will help students with the full research process and covers: How to select appropriate projects and research questions How to decide on the most effective research design strategies How to select and use appropriate data and literature sources How to choose and implement methods of data collection How to analyse and present data in a coherent and effective manner. This new edition provides five new chapters on: Research ethics Searching, reviewing and using the literature Research design using qualitative methods Mixed methods research designs Planning presentations and passing vivas. In addition, a wide variety of case studies, activities and new practical 'Top Tips' for the discerning researcher have been incorporated. The new edition also includes an extensive companion website which includes links to journal articles, tutorial questions and data sets. Written in a lively and accessible way, Doing Research in the Real World can be used as a set text on an introductory methods course and can be used as an essential resource for students and researchers completing research projects across the social sciences, education and business studies
Article
A mixed method approach to educational and social inquiry is presented as an important counterpoint to the contemporary debate about what constitutes valid, rigorous, and ‘scientific' research. By welcoming all legitimate methodological traditions, mixed method inquiry meaningfully engages with difference and thus offers some generative potential for better, enriched, more insightful understanding.