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Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT) Into Agriculture


Abstract and Figures

Modern technologies are revolutionizing the way humans have lived. The world's population is expected to reach 9.6 billion by year 2050 and to serve this much population, the agricultural industries and layman farmers need to embrace IoT and e-agriculture or ICT in agriculture. Feeding the global population is the biggest problem of the world. The terminology has advanced from IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things), IoFT (Internet of Farm Things), IoSFT (Internet of Smart Farming Things), etc. The agriculture industries are open for ideas, advances, and technically trained workforce to help sustain ever increasing needs of food and allocate better choices of resources. Smart farming is less labor intensive and more capital intensive. Smart farming is furthering the Third Green Revolution around the globe by using various ICT technologies in agriculture.
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Chapter 9
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7811-6.ch009
Modern technologies are revolutionizing the way humans have lived. The world’s
population is expected to reach 9.6 billion by year 2050 and to serve this much
population, the agricultural industries and layman farmers need to embrace IoT
and e-agriculture or ICT in agriculture. Feeding the global population is the biggest
problem of the world. The terminology has advanced from IIoT (Industrial Internet of
Things), IoFT (Internet of Farm Things), IoSFT (Internet of Smart Farming Things),
etc. The agriculture industries are open for ideas, advances, and technically trained
workforce to help sustain ever increasing needs of food and allocate better choices
of resources. Smart farming is less labor intensive and more capital intensive. Smart
farming is furthering the Third Green Revolution around the globe by using various
ICT technologies in agriculture.
Sustainable Smart Farming
for Masses Using Modern
Ways of Internet of Things
(IoT) Into Agriculture
Rahul Singh Chowhan
Agriculture University Jodhpur, India
Purva Dayya
MPUAT, India
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
Adapting to farming and meeting its requests are extremely challenging in today’s
time. Farming fills in as the core of Indian economy and half of the populace in India
survives on the basis of agriculture. Adapting to farming and meeting its requests
are extremely challenging in today’s time. Farming fills in as the core of Indian
economy and half of the populace in India survives on the basis of agriculture. The
technological acceptance in Indian Farming activities is confined to many reasons
which may include lack of skilled labor, less trust on technology, etc but IoT is an easy
innovation which fills in as an answer for the various issues in agricultural scenarios.
It utilizes different sensors which are associated through web and furthermore with
the coordination to the satellites it does monitoring of all segments. It is as easy as
using smart phones now-a-days. Sometimes the implementation and maintenance cost
is also high due to which farmers producing at low scale may hesitate to introduce
new technology for farming. IoT has wide range of components comprising of
features like high precision, high accuracy, mobility etc. which farmers can use as
per need at lower costs (Khattab, 2016). It additionally utilizes different conventions
by empowering the IoT to become faster in processing and monitoring capabilities.
The Internet of Things has opened up to a great degree profitable approaches for
agriculturists and cultivators to develop soil and raise animals with the utilization of
simple to-introduce sensors and a wealth of keen information they offer. Succeeding
on this productive develop of the Internet of Things in horticulture, brilliant
cultivating applications are making strides with the guarantee to convey day in
and day out perceivability into soil and harvest wellbeing, apparatus being used,
capacity conditions, animal behavior, and vitality utilization level. The open-source
IoT Platform is a significant middleware innovation that permits strolling securely
into the IoT enables farms and fields. IoT based smart farming bonds and entwins
distinctive sensors, associated gadgets, and cultivating offices by streamlining the
advancement of keen cultivating frameworks to the greatest degree conceivable
(Kviesis, 2015). This likewise empowers high accuracy crop control, valuable
information accumulation and automated cultivating methods. IoT conveys its capacity
to improve the scene of current cultivating strategies is completely noteworthy.
IoT sensors are fully equipped to submit agriculturists data about harvest yields,
pest infestation, and soil sustenance are significant to generation and offer exact
information which can be utilized to enhance cultivating strategies overtime. With a
future of proficient, information driven, profoundly exact cultivating techniques, it is
certainly to call this kind of cultivating smart. We can expect IoT will always show
signs of change the way we develop to grow food with newly generated methods.
Regarding natural issues, IoT based smart farming can serve many awesome advantages
including more productive water use, or enhancement of available resources. In
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
IoT-based smart farming, a framework is maintained for checking and monitoring
the field with the assistance of sensors (temperature, soil moisture, humidity and so
on.) and computerizing the agricultural framework (Azaza, 2016). The agriculturists
can inspect the farms from their mobile devices. Smart farming based on IoT is
profoundly effective when contrasted with traditional approach.
The uses and application domain of IoT based smart farming is not confined
to the large cultivation activities but also extends to inspire other developing
basic patterns in horticultural as in organic farming, small space cultivation like
kitchen gardening, preservation of quality crops and also helps in upgrading the
straightforward cultivation processes. IoT based smart cultivation process can give
incredible advantages to deal with natural issues, including more productive water
utilization, or streamlining of information sources and optimized treatments. Presently,
the talk of town is all about the significant contribution and utilizations of IoT based
smart farming that are revolutionizing the conventional way of monitoring farms
and increasing income in agri-businesses.
To numerous individuals, IoT summons pictures of most recent contraptions like
Google Glass, Apple Watch or self communicating automated systems. Indeed, the
most imaginative and daily purpose applications are going on in the industries using
Internet of Things like urban communities, savvy horticulture, brilliant manufacturing
plants, and so forth. Be that as it may, the utilization of IoT in horticulture can have
the best effect. The Internet of Things is changing the horticulture business more than
ever by enabling agriculturists and cultivators to manage the colossal difficulties they
confront. Till now, farming has been a high-hazard, work serious, low-compensate
industry (Silva, 2011). Agriculturists are probably going to be affected by sudden
natural changes, monetary downturns, and numerous other hazard factors.
IoT can help reshape agriculture tactics in various ways. At its most essential
level, sensors can be sent crosswise over homestead and cultivating hardware so as
to empower ranchers to pick up a plenitude of quick information, for example, the
temperature of storage, the measure of compost utilized, the measure of underground
water, the quantity of seeds planted, capacity conditions, the status of cultivating
gear and apparatus being used, and so on. Agriculturists and farmers can monitor
without much of a stretch track of an assortment of ecological factors and take
educated choices once an IoT-empowered framework is set up in the farms and
fields. Smart farming is only a tool for improvement of present strategies but is
an important advancement, which if effectively executed could enable farmers to
manage every one of the difficulties they to look in cultivating. Besides, the rich
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
bits of knowledge got from savvy sensors could enable ranchers to be more exact in
their utilization of pesticides and composts, in this way moderating some ecological
effects (Channe, 2015). IoT organization in horticulture can address numerous
difficulties and increment the quality, amount, and cost-viability of rural creation.
Agriculture lands are getting up more associated and interconnected as
agriculturists and farmers understand the capability of IoT advances in helping them
limit activity cost that too accomplishing better outcomes. This incorporates the
higher harvest, reduced losses of domesticated animals, and less water consumption.
IoT developers and commercial companies keep on developing various devices
applicable to development stages to help enhance cultivate execution that can detect,
process, and impart accurate ecological information. Behind these IoT lies the stage
in a variety of advances that incorporates sensing, microcontrollers, transmitters,
vitality gathering, LED lights, automatons, drones and many more.38
These days, technological innovations play an indispensable part in numerous
domains of our lives. While it appears farming would be excluded from that but
cultivating crops isn’t an easy task by just dropping seeds on ground and letting
plants grow. As the populace develops at an exponential rate it makes extreme issues
for sustaining individuals. More population implies more food should be delivered.
Be that as it may, more individuals likewise imply more homes will be build-up
and more water will be consumed. That result in significant utilization of land and
water assets required for population. Keeping all scenarios modern agriculture has
to sustain this developing populace with minimal assets, this also means that the
modern farming businesses need to adapt mechanical and technological enhancements
for optimal growth and supply of products (Channe, 2015). The technologies and
smart farming applications that are helping the modern farmers in cultivation and
raising livestock are as under.
Livestock Tracking and Geo-Fencing
Animals and fields are collared with tracking devices and cameras, respectively, to
monitor the health of grazing animals directly from smart phone or home computer.
This has become possible with IoT based smart tag for tracking livestock. This neckline
tracking tag utilizes satellite system to geo-fence domesticated animals, helping
ranchers discover animals that are near the edge of a fenced zone or have gotten away.
It additionally gives agriculturists the chance to take a more educated and proactive
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
way to deal with herding so they lose lesser animals to predators. When it is evident
that a sheep has not moved in some time, the agriculturist is currently ready to send
herders to the appropriate location of the lost animal, sparing significant time and
assets (Malveaux, 2014). Ranchers conveying the collars have effectively encountered
a noteworthy decrease in the quantity of animals lost to ailment or predators, which
directly affects their pay. It is also capable of tracking the areas where the cattle
often fees themselves. This helps to best utilize and decide the appropriate area for
grazing and safe deploying of animals (Chen, 2011). The figure 1 shows the GPS
tag based communication that happens among the connected devices.
Internal Sensor for tracking digestion related problems and external sensor can
track movement patterns to determine the health, sensing injuries, checking the
breeding time, eating habits etc. This data can help in analyzing the overall health
patterns of a particular animal. These sensors can also help to monitor heart rate,
respiratory rate, blood pressure, digestion and other vitalities on or before time
(Zhao, 2010). A few favorable advantages of using this technology for the cattle
industry are status covers for cows and their group nutritional information collection,
reproduction reports, ailment, fodder quality and area with geo-fencing. Moreover, it
will encourage cow roaming in remote regions and will give early burglary notices
straightforwardly to the farmer’s cell phone. One such technology within the IoT
domain is narrowband mobile IoT service which allows more sheep collar devices
to be connected to mobile connection or GPS device at very low cost. These narrow
bandwidth devices possess longer battery life and sound connection as they are
occasionally used and not in constant connection with the device (Zhang, 2012).
They are mostly activated when animals are unfenced and free roaming outside the
fence often for grazing.
Figure 1. GPS Tag based Communication
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
We can use modern technology to make our everyday life easier by digitizing the
daily things. These devices can be helpful in dealing with 10% of flocks that is lost or
have travelled far from the mentored area. These collar devices have basically three
main parts: low cost collar that has inbuilt GPS receiver, communication unit and
a rechargeable battery (Jin, 2017). These collars transmit the GPS location which
is collected on smart phone installed with app on which a map shows location of
all the herds. The collar provides real time monitored data like herd’s movement,
rumination, temperature, number of chews before regurgitating etc. This gathered
information on one device allows farmers to actively take care for each one of
animal in the herd. IoT is conveying new levels of productivity to the horticultural
part. IoT is required to keep farmers in knowledge of their livestock location. It
provides tracking capabilities and committed assurance for roaming animals (Yan,
2011). The blend of microprocessor, microchips and satellite communication has
made it reasonable to track domesticated animals, especially dairy cattle, sheep and
deer which wander in remote parts of the world. There is a tremendous potential in
understanding the effect of reproducing and animal behavior on welfare, wellbeing
and items, for meat, wool and dairy products. IoT trackers have made it easy to
conceive to quantify the animal is eating, resting and strolling to fabricate a profile
of its conduct & behavior and optimizing its grazing patterns. The smart automated
tracking tools installed on computer can say connected to cloud for data collection
and computing of cattle movement, fertility, behavior, lactation and health related
data so if any animal coming down sick can be treated on time.
Low Power Wide Area Network, also called as Low Power Network, is also
one such technology for livestock monitoring. This is capable of working at less
connectivity area, variable weather condition and reduced data rate. This has
longer battery lives and reliable connectivity even in remote areas. This technology
considers three C’s: Cost, Current and Coverage and all that with less processing
Figure 2. GPS Tagging for Geo Fencing
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
power and memory. They are used to form a private wireless sensor network as a
service or infrastructure served by third party allowing the farmers to monitor the
data locally (TongKe, 2013).
Water Conservation and Irrigation Monitoring
Internet of Things can be utilized for getting the appropriate measure of water at
the required destination in correct duration of time. It is essentially a data-driven
water conservation move which is made conceivable by the remote correspondence
empowered by the addition of Internet of Things. The IoT can be utilized to decide
when, where, and how much water is required in scene and agrarian water system. IoT
ought to be utilized to rouse the appropriation of innovation based water conservation
measures. The IoT can help diminish water deficiencies by giving noteworthy data
which empowers utilization be more proficient and less inefficient (Fulton, 2018).
AMI or Advanced Metering Infrastructure frameworks are basically the IOT’s
response to the water meter that any utility uses to quantify a farmer’s water utilizes.
In the past the meter must be physically & consistently checked for overall water
consumption. However, now AMI meters can send a flag to IoT connected water
utility revealing how much water has been utilized at regular intervals. This permits
water holes to be repaired all the more proficiently, sparing enormous measures
of water and it additionally keeps the service organization from losing profitable
water, which saves the cash too.
IOT gadgets, for example, cloud-associated meters, stream checking gadgets,
and water system frameworks are always gathering information, which can offer
building proprietors and tenants phenomenal levels of data about their water utilize.
Regardless of whether refreshed hourly or month to month, the capacity to get to use
data makes individuals more mindful of their water utilize and the outcome is that
water clients are engaged to all the more viably actualize preservation endeavors
and screen the accomplishment of those endeavors (Gómez-Candón, 2014).
AMI meters may give extra knowledge into water use without the steady need
to peruse physical water meters. AMI frameworks utilize programming to show a
property of water utilization rapidly and feature issues so farm proprietors would
more be able to effectively screen their utilization. The smart sensors are implanted
in the farms that measure the dampness and moisture levels. The sensors at that
point transfer this data to the smart sprinkler and the sprinklers make use of only
the appropriate measure of water (Sundmaeker, 2016). The sensor based intelligent
irrigation technology can curb the overwatering inefficiencies in conventional
irrigation system.
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
Plant and Soil Monitoring
Internet of Things (IoT) innovation has appeared on farm bases as introduction of
easy to install soil sensors. Agriculturists are putting specific dampness measuring
sensors all through their fields to gauge and offer information about moisture within
the farm field. This supportive and real time data is then sent to a central collection
point where it can be gathered and examined. At last this gives ranchers a guide
decisively demonstrating where water levels are less, ideal, or high (Yong, 2013).
Internet of Things in agriculture is making efforts to care for every drop by plotting
intelligent and innovative methods of farming. In the most advanced water systems,
these sensors are withstanding to convey certain levels of automation reducing
mechanization and saving water. After rainfall, they can recommend changing
schedules of pre-specified water systems either by holding off, or diminishing the
measure of water connected to the field. This significant information empowers
ranchers to utilize just what is required and not a drop more (Hedley, 2009).
A standout amongst the most energizing potential outcomes of IoT innovation
is the scale at which it can be connected. The costs for IoT sensor equipment have
fallen in the course of the most recent decade. Smallholder ranchers in creating
farming easier for developing countries like India will acquire access to this effective
Figure 3. Remotely Monitored Data Maps16
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
innovation (Jafar, 2014). A variant of this development is as of now furnishing
smallholder ranchers in rising economies with opportune information. At the point
when rainfall is lacking, ranchers definitely hope to streams, waterways, groundwater,
and lakes to fulfill water requirements. The more weight is put on these environments
and the harder it progresses toward becoming to maintain natural water resources.
Embracing sensor innovations and technologies can help ranchers to improve
freshwater conservation during rainfall and water management during drought.
The more efficiently natural resources are treated, the more productive farming
becomes as the sensor based technology reduces the overall water dependency on
natural resources (Ye, 2013).
Precision Farming
This is the farm management technique, also called as Precision Agriculture, which
makes use of various autonomous systems, control systems, hardware, different kinds
of sensors and many more. This way of farming provides quite accurate and precise
data for livestock and crops (Kaiwartya, 2016). This trend of agriculture adopts the
speedy internet connection, reliable network connectivity even with mobile devices,
high precision agricultural-technological tools like global positioning system etc.
Figure 4. Sensor Equipment to Measure Soil Moisture (Kumar, 2016)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
for purpose of imagery data analysis. The famer’s tractor may use GPS-associated
controller that can naturally directs the view of the directions and coordinates feed
of the field (Khosla, 2002). This decreases controlling blunders by drivers and along
these lines any over passes on the field. Thus, this outcome makes appropriate use
of seed, compost, fuel, and time. There are various technologies under an umbrella
of precision agriculture that are as under.
Variable Rate Irrigation
In the precision agronomics, the most famous precision farming technology is
VRI (Variable Rate Irrigation). This system takes care for uneven leveling of farm
lands, variable soils and topography by conserving water usage in areas with limited
water resources. The uniform fields typically make use of center pivot irrigation
methodology which is inefficient for the non-uniform fields (Lecocq, 2015).
VRI defines the site-specific management of water by varying the supply of water
used for irrigation in zones within a particular field. The motto of this technology
is to avoid overwatering or under-watering tendencies while allowing the farmers
Figure 5. Various Field Data for VRI
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
to conserve the water resources with appropriate watering. This is achieved by
using the various automated and manual controls that are capable of detecting the
dry land areas, non-cropping areas, steep slopes etc. using pulse control system
to turn on/off water utility. The basic need for this technology is a computer, VRI
software, controller and differential global positioning system (DGPS) (Lei, 2018).
This helps in reducing the water application rates, energy conservation, increased
pump efficiency, reduces percolation and prevent the yield losses (Dan, 2015).
Precision farming is a growing scope in agricultural-technological domain. It may
also include high precision positioning systems, automated steering systems, Geo-
mapping Systems etc. The others may include integrated communication systems,
variable rate technology (VRT) and many more.
Soil Sampling Using GPS
This is another major technology used within the precision farming that is capable
of testing the soil various reasons like acknowledging the available nutrients in soil,
checking the pH of soil and other vital data that makes the system to take profitable
future decisions and required preventions (Mobley, 2013). The soil sampling data
can also be fed to Variable Rate Applications that can optimize at time of seeding,
composting, watering and using fertilizer. This allows the Hi-tech farmers to take site-
specific soil sampling to identify regions with poor or rich soil fertility. It generates
individual layers for different nutrients that can help in recognizing deficiency or
efficiency of any nutrients within the site-specific area. This makes it more cost-
efficient, reduces the impact of chemicals on land and preserves the water.
Remote Sensing
This is the way to getting information about any object or process without being
physically in contact with it. Remote sensing is utilized to conjecture the normal
yield creation and yield over a given region and decide the amount of the product
will be collected under particular conditions. Analysts can have the capacity to
anticipate the amount of product that will be delivered in a given farmland over a
given timeframe (Mobley, 2016).
This methodology is basically called as Crop Production Forecasting (CPF) in
agricultural terminology. In case of losses in harvest or any advances in yield, remote
sensing can be utilized to decide precisely the amount of a crop has been damaged
and the status of remaining crop. This way it can be used to assess crop damage and
progress based on previously recorded data. Remote sensing can also be used to
analyzing the flower growth patterns and based on analysis various predictions and
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
reports can be generated. It also helps in studying and identifying the crop culture
for various mysterious species (Ferrández-Pastor, 2016).
Soil Moisture Probes
The soil moisture technology makes use of electromagnetic signals to measure
the moisture within the soil. There are many Soil Moisture Probes like Frequency
Domain Relflectometry (FDR), Gypsium Blocks, Netron Probes etc. In general
this sends the electromagnetic signals that propagate in to soil through the channel
of metallic wires. The amplitude of reflected signals are measured and a voltage
signal is generated that can be used in mathematical equations to estimate the soil
water contents.
Smart Greenhouses
Greenhouses are basically used to enhance yields of veggies, fruits and others.
These require manual maintenance for controlling environmental parameters like
humidity, temperature etc. This way of dealing with greenhouse is not cost effective
as it causes production losses and also requires labors for manual intervention.
Smart Greenhouse is an automatic, small scale atmosphere controlled system for
ideal plant development. Smart or intelligent greenhouses drastically reduce the
Figure 6. Active and Passive Remote Sensing (Harun, 2015)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
manual inspection, improving the model to automatically carry out work under the
shed. They are fit with various sensors to monitor soil dampness, humidity in air,
temperature, luminosity, ventilation and many more. They also have automatic drip
irrigation system that check for requirement of water time to time and regulates the
water usage. These all devices within the smart greenhouses are controlled using a
Wi-Fi router connected to farmer’s smart-phone. The associated software generates
a health card for green house including parameters like soil moisture, air humidity,
and temperature and water consumption. It reacts to the environmental changes and
triggers automatic action plans to actuators. It can pass on the signals to actuators
for evaluation of changes and take proper action likewise if sunlight is needed it
can instruct windows to open up etc. In general any smart greenhouse can have
three major integral parts: greenhouse armed with sensors and actuators, central
control hub and a device installed with interactive app for wireless communication
(Jayaraman, 2015).
Greenhouse Armed With Sensors and Actuators
The devices that are connected inside the smart greenhouse pass on the messages
using two major devices: a sensor hub and an actuator hub. Both communicate based
on the data collected on various parameters by the different sensors within the smart
greenhouse. The sensor hub signals the actuators hub for any action to be taken
associated with that particular measured sensory data. The actuator hub pass on the
action to the connected actuators like automated window, ventilator or luminosity
controller. This is also called a Microcontroller Unit from which Iot enables devices
communicate with each other. With help on various microcontrollers, cameras can be
fit in to monitor the real time growth of plants. These are configured with Bluetooth
and are fitted either in the stem of plant or in the soil (Satpute, 2014).
Central Controller Hub
It has various parts as controller web application, web server, input functions and
others. It is capable of taking inputs from interactive web interface and acting as
per given instructions. It also enables web app to display various monitored data
from sensors. With this request and response mechanism it also allows valid user
authentication that can authenticate an app based controls of smart greenhouse.
Its live streaming web server also avails with real time data display of various
parameter like humidity, soil moisture etc. on the display to farmer’s device. It also
tells the current status of actuators such as if a sprinkler is on it could show its state
as busy. Though the parameters are monitoring live and there are times when data
variation is high. That time it would express too many readings from sensors but this
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
situation must not impact the actuators (Rad, 2015). So there is a lambda function
that would take preconfigured based on the average of five latest readings. Like if
temperature inside smart greenhouse is being high for too long then it would fire a
pre-configured sequence of action, often called as action plan, to open a ventilation
window, turn on fan and other required measures.
Interactive Interface
This is a web app or software that can be installed on computer connected with the
central controller hub. This provides with a facility of dashboard to interact with
smart hub. It also displays the monitored data and statistics. This requires the user
authentication for approved access to various controls of smart hub. The farmer can
get direct access to control manipulation from which actuators can be instructed
with action plans. It is also enables with simple voice command based support to
activate or deactivate various actuators (Stojkoska, 2017).
Agricultural Drones
Drones are put to farm fields to ameliorate crop production and monitoring the
growth of crop. They have completely revolutionized the way agriculture was growing
and farming was carried out. There are various categories of drone technology that
contributed by monitoring, fertilizer sprinkling, field investigation, real time data
collection and many more applications that are growing day by day. Farmers are
continuously embracing the drone technology as they are revolutionizing the food
production, increase in productivity, reduced water consumption, and many more
benefits to traditional farming techniques. The various uses of agricultural drones
in various aspects are as under:
Soil and Farm Analysis
Drones can carry out early soil analysis i.e. before the seeds are going to be planted.
They can generate the 3D view in form of maps and help agriculturists for proper
plantation. Post-plantation also they can investigate fields for the appropriate irrigation
procedure and nitrogen level management.
They are capable of planting seeds automatically based on the pre specified arguments
for plantation. They have shoot pipes that can plant seeds and that too with appropriate
nutritional contents. These are called the seed pods that are filled with nutrients
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
this reduces the scattering of seeds that often happens in aerial spreading. Later
on they can be used to monitor plant heath and management of plant related data
on collected source (Gebbers, 2010). Automated drones are appropriate for a wide
range of complex landscape, products and plantings of differing statures.
The use of drones has opened a new possibility of spraying fertilizers and chemicals,
though use of chemical in huge amount has caused suffering from land to people
but it’s the fundamental need for large scale farming. Savvy cultivating drones are
decreasing its natural effects by appropriately spraying the chemicals on required
area only. These particular UAVs are furnished with sprayers, yet in addition with
different sorts of innovation, as ultrasonic resounding gadgets and lasers, which
can gauge distance separation with extreme accuracy. The outcome is an immense
lessening in spraying with comparison with general spraying resulting in lesser
chemicals reaching the groundwater (Santesteban, 2013). Drones are capable of
scanning ground and spraying the appropriate fertilizers or water when required.
Aerial spraying is efficient in terms of manual spraying as it is faster and only sprays
where required. Yield Spraying with an unmanned flying vehicle sprayer does not
require a runway as drones are free to fly over the field. Flying at the low height
of a few yards, the harvest splashing can be controlled. Exact harvest spraying
guarantees the best scope and utilization of composts or pesticides. New age drones
are now equipped with ultrasonic echoing technology that can help them hover at
appropriate height which results in precision spraying and reduced overspray of
chemicals. They are capable of spraying at faster pace than the manual spraying in
covering spaces and spraying appropriately.
Figure 7. Seed Capsule Plantation using Drone (Sawant, 2014)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
Disease Recognition
These are specialized drones that can take various infrared images of the field and
can detect changes to evaluate health of crop. This can help in spotting bacterial
infection or pest attacks on the farms so appropriate measures can be taken at it
earliest. There do exists thermal imaging drones fitted with multispectral sensors
that can help in detecting needs of water, fertilizers etc. to specific area in the field
and not to the whole farm.
Crop Monitoring
The regular monitoring of large fields is inefficient and man power consuming.
Drones can perform aerial mapping, giving a reasonable picture of the aggregate
size of a harvest field, and in addition indicating underutilized areas of land. They
can likewise, if outfitted with the camera, screen the soundness of plants as far as
temperature, chlorophyll levels, attack of pest and even thickness of leaves. This data
can enable a rancher to change the vital parameters of their horticultural procedure
in order to address the issues previously they turn out to be more far reaching. This
brings about higher harvest yields with efficient intervention of drones for farming
(Shaughnessy, 2013).
Figure 8. Drone based Field Spraying (Piao, 2010)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
Health Assessment
It is very necessary to evaluate wellbeing and spot bacterial infections of crops
on time. By checking a product utilizing both noticeable and close infrared light,
drones attached with cameras can distinguish which plants reflect diverse measures
of green light and NIR light. This data can deliver multispectral pictures that track
changes in plants and demonstrate their wellbeing. Likewise, when an ailment is
found, agriculturists can apply and screen cures all the more decisively. This could
help whole plantation from getting affected by disease. These two potential outcomes
increment a plant’s capacity to conquer illness (Singh, 2014).
Irrigation Management
Drones can fly high and can alert for areas have pooled water or insufficient moisture
contents. Thermal drones can give better monitoring and management of fields for
appropriate and on time requirement of water. This could not only conserve water
usage but also helps in pooling or leaks in irrigation. After the growth of crop
it can also monitor the vegetation index, heat signature and growth rate of crop.
Accomplishing most extreme harvest yield at least cost is one of the objectives of
horticultural creation. Early discovery and administration of issues related with trim
yield pointers can enable increment to return and ensuing benefit. The planning and
amount of compost and herbicide applications in farming frameworks are basic where
augmenting power and yield is a definitive objective (Stoces, 2016). While manures
and fertilizers are generally used to advance plant development phase and supply
appropriate nutrients to growing plants. Herbicides are ordinarily used to control
weeds with a specific end goal to decrease the weeds’ opposition for supplements.
Satellite imaginary is much of the time used to screen horticultural exercises and
vegetation indices (VIs) are broadly connected in investigation of harvest status.
Beekeeping Monitoring
For optimized bee colony management precision beekeeping monitoring approaches
are required. The automated bee monitoring and management system can keep
track of beehive behavior. The hive health status can be remotely monitored and
inspected based on various parameters like temperature, humidity, weight of system,
disease insurgence, stocked honey and many other parameters are included. The
beehive is also fixed with a GPS system that could help locating it in case of theft
and vandalism. It is often difficult to predict actually what is happening inside the
beehive (Nandyala, 2016). So the monitoring sensor can intimate about increased
intake of food or availability of food based on which new servings can be scheduled
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
within the hive. It also considers the weather conditions which would increase in
weight parameters for the wooden boxes. Beekeepers are intimated on daily basis
about the status report of beehive via cloud server or mobile phone. The weighing
systems are the most important role player in beekeeping monitoring as they alerts
when the honey is ready for collection based on the previous parameters like weight
when hive is empty and other measures.
The user interface available on user end i.e. on PC or smart phone allows showcasing
the degree of insight obtained from multiple sensors within the hive. This enables user
to monitor colony health and behavior makes its efficient, innovative and productive.
The alarming reduction in population of bees has compelled the scientist to rethink
over the causes like Colony Collapse Disorder and their remedial solution soonest
possible. This easy deployable monitoring system seems a promising solution for
investigating bees’ behaviors and colony monitoring. Precision apiculture can be
used to monitor beehives for research and reducing the resource consumption with
delay in production (Thinagaran, 2015).
Apiary boxes are located in fields for purpose of pollination and these are
checked using transducers and ultrasonic sensors to keep track of nectar production
and bee’s input/output activities. They are also connected to microcontroller of
IEEE 108 standard for wireless intimation to monitoring unit or on smart phone.
Further, the readings gathered from each of the compartment can be stored to cloud
or transferred to an online business organization for purchase of selling. There are
various other sensors for detecting spectrum of light, honeybee foraging behavior,
Figure 9. Microcontroller for Measuring Various Parameter in Beehive (Perumal
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
weight gain of hive, detecting quality of air for oxygen and carbon dioxide, diagnosis
of disease, sound sensors to predict birth of new bees and monitoring many such
activities (Vasisht, 2017).
Sensor Based Field and Resource Mapping
Information technology can help in management of site specific resources for
betterment of farming and increase agricultural productivity. The over-stretching
of natural resource due to random growth in population has impacted the socio-
economic development of country.
This stands for Global Information System. It has become one of the major tools
for management of crops. Geographic data about soil condition causes ranchers to
be extra advantageous in sectioning arable land so as to practice differential rates
of manure, and estimating to determine when, where, and what to plant in what is
acknowledged as accuracy farming. Satellite and airborne symbolism is utilized to
break down current states of the land, soil assessments taken from the fields are
Figure 10. Various Monitoring Parameters in Apiary Boxes (Yifan, 2011)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
utilized to make an extra exact comprehension of the state of a homestead (Xiaojun,
2012). By understanding the state of farms on a miniaturized scale, ranchers and those
in the horticulture field can better oversee manure and water application, bringing
about reduced charges and higher product yields. Agricultural Global Information
System is capable of mapping water usage, tracking potential plant diseases etc.
With the collection of data from the GIS scientists and farmers can collaboratively
work to enhance the quality and effectively use the technology. GIS utilities in
agriculture has been playing an increasingly vital role in crop production throughout
the world by means of supporting farmers in growing production, lowering costs, and
managing their land resources more efficiently. GIS application in agriculture such
as agricultural mapping plays a imperative role in monitoring and administration
of soil and irrigation of any given farm land (Zacepins, 2013). GIS agriculture and
agricultural mapping act as critical tools for management of agricultural zone by using
obtaining and imposing the correct facts into a mapping environment. GIS utility
in agriculture additionally helps in administration and manipulate of agricultural
resources. GIS agriculture technological know-how helps in improvement of the
existing structures of obtaining and generating GIS agriculture and sources data.
Figure 11. Data Layers of a Field Map (Donatis, 2006)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
Remote Sensing
It is the science of acquiring knowledge about any object by sensing the reflected
energy, processing and analyzing to apply that information for overall farms
productivity. Satellite-based optical and radar sensing are utilized generally in
checking farming. Radar sensing is specifically used in stormy or rainy season.
Integrated utilization of geospatial technologies with edit models can help in
organizing auspicious yield creation conjectures and dealing with droughts. Remote
sensing also helps researchers to predict the expected production and yield based
on forecasted data. This can also help in predicting the crop losses and progress
of in farm crops. It can also detect the growing patterns of crops and can make
predictions based on the analysis of data. It can determine the quality of crops by
capturing the withstanding capacity of a crop in particular stress conditions (Jha,
2007). They can identify plants, harvesting dates, detect diseases and their infestation,
soil moisture estimation, predict rainfall patterns, monitor the drought determining
the weather patterns, air and soil moisture estimation and many more. It can also
help in detecting nutritional deficiencies in crops based on change in color, moisture
content and internal structure of leaves based on reflections received. Properties of
soil can also be inferred from microwave data using empirical methods. These soil
properties may include mineralogy, organic compound in soil, salinity, iron, soil
moisture and other contents in the soil (Lefsky, 2002).
Figure 12. Remote Sensing Monitoring (Rogan, 2004)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
The GPS stands for Global Positioning System which serves with many application
and benefits in the field of agriculture. The site specific cropping is made possible
with combination of GPS and GIS. With the help of global positioning system and
analysis of gathered data, GPS can enable farmers to keep on tracking in less visibility
conditions like heavy rain, fog and in night time. Precision farming activities allow
farmers with productive and efficient GPS-derived tools to map field boundaries,
irrigation system and various problem domains like weeds or crop diseases (Neményi,
2003). GPS also allows farmers to navigate between various locations within the
field and monitor soil conditions. The various usages of GPS are as under:
Weed Scouting
Field scouting is required everyday for record keeping of real time field conditions.
This allows monitoring of every activity from planting to harvesting, soil & compost
testing and many other features. GPS weed scouting program let farmers control
the weed problems by identifying and dealing with them.
GPS Smart Soil Sampling
GPS is capable of providing appropriate and accurate information of ideal type of
soil for a particular variety of crop. Soil sampling data can help determining and
distinguishing the quality of soil defining the growth of crops (Katzberg, 2006).
Locating Machinery
GPS trackers are as small as size of coin which can be attached with various farms’
equipments and machineries. This way they can be located in vast land areas. The
smart phone supports the app that can communicate with the devices with GPS
tracker and help them locate. It can not only intimate when the machinery is within
the field but also notifies when it moves out of geo-fences. It can also provide real
time tracking of speed, status of engine, pre-stored location history, mileage details,
vehicle route and many other tracking facilities (Shamshiri, 2013).
Characterized Classification of Field Areas
GPS helps location and terrain mapping of different areas based on the type of soil
and cultivation capabilities. It can help in identifying the suitable and unsuitable
areas for cultivation so that they can be alienated or developed based on analysis of
the data collected (Pike, 2012).
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
Soil Sampling and Property Control
GPS can help identifying the quality of soil for variability and sustainability of soil.
This also helps in applying appropriate use of pesticides reducing the overall amount
of over-sprinkling of them by estimating the size of area.
Predictive Analytics for Crop and Livestock
The development of information technology in agriculture allows prediction of crop
related information like yield, profit & loss analysis and many more. Agriculture
ecosystem deals with various varieties of fields that make use of sensing technology
and analytical tools to generate reports for accumulated data. As manual accumulation
of information make it troublesome for ranchers to accomplish ideal levels of
proficiency, particularly given the geographic dispersal of their agricultural lands.2
At this place intervention of innovation and technology is making an undeniably
essential role. The advancement of the present sensors, web empowered gadgets,
programming applications, and cloud information storage are permitting analysis
of bulk information to be controlled, analyzed and sustained to be fed into decision
systems for better management of objective data. Moisture recognizing sensors
installed in the soil can communicate accurately and wirelessly with the farm devices.
The predictive analysis can also help in controlling automated irrigation system. This
helps in proper usage of water to grow crops under monitored conditions. The modern
farming makes use of data mining techniques that includes different classification
and clustering techniques. The classification techniques can help in predicting
newly obtained unknown data sets based on the information provided in classified
samples. These techniques include supervised learning algorithm, linear regression,
generalized linear model, structured prediction, and others.48 The clustering process
is begin to compare the benchmark data that may include various factors like time,
accuracy, etc. which can help in present predictions as well as future predictions.
Climate Monitoring and Forecasting
The weather conditions directly impact the yield of crops and it’s the fundamental
parameter for the software to analyze the present data. Real time information of the
crop can be collected using various parameters like metrological data, agronomic
data, soil water holding capacity etc. Crop forecasting is the technique to know the
yields of crop and estimate the production even before the harvesting. Weather and
climatic changes are considered the most influencing factor for production of crops.
Weather Stations aggregate the weather data and transmit it to local receivers in farm
stations which help farmers in scheduling crops (Bolton, 2013). This not only helps
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
in minimizing the yield loss but also aggravates the produce quality. In this manner
harnessing the weather related information and data analysis from decision making
can provide an opportunity of transforming the climatic hazards into resources (Guo,
2014). The technology to provide reliable and easy to handle interface has developed
with time and use of these technological appliances has increased as they promises
to solve the traditional problems like variation in climate, loss of production due to
pests and disease, weather unpredictability etc. To feed the increasing population
technological advancements to monitor climatic changes can help in reducing the
associated losses.
Indian agriculture has evolved from a very long manner of manual efforts and
mounted several records by surpassing the production and productivity that man has
ever imagined in the past years of evolution of agriculture. The growing adoption
rate of technology in agriculture is enhancing and encouraging more farmers to
learn and adopt innovative ideas for urbanization of farming. Agriculture has been
hand-operative, time-consuming and labor-intensive which demands the use of
modern technologies for cooperating farming tasks to increase efficiency at reduced
costs and available resources. With the effective use of modern IoT, is providing
exact information on when to sow the crop, the temperature around their farms, the
appropriate blend of fertilizers, how to deal with crop diseases and lastly indicating
Figure 13. Cattle Data Collection at Cloud Server (Baggio, 2005)
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
the correct harvesting time of the crop based on parameters like crop maturity, size
and others.
Agriculture technologies have changed and continuously cooperating to change
almost all the domains of farming from sowing to harvesting. These technologies
are continued to evolve and invent new innovations that act as catalyst to ameliorate
farmers’ life by increasing incoming and providing the access to research stations
and agro-scientists. The interventions of IoT is not only changing the way agriculture
has been thriving to survive but also innovate novice ideas by spreading awareness
about the pragmatic application of using technology on ground level. The use of
technology can make farmers feel more empowered and enable them to adopt required
measures in needful time. It has potential capabilities to transform agriculture into a
better prospect to get aware of climatic change and appropriate use of limited natural
resources in agricultural land. There is a lot of innovation in the Internet of Things,
have the potential to make a huge impact on the farm. For example, tracking and
Geo-fencing, plant, soil & irrigation monitoring, precision farming, remote sensing
and use of GPS etc. are all within reach of even every farmer today.
This chapter projects the present and future insight into use of precision
agriculture in current ways of growing crops. It also introduces use of various
technologies that will continue enhancing the productivity based on the future needs
like water conservation, increased nutritional value of crops etc. This is also an
equal contribution of agro-industries and companies to keep on exploring the new
possibilities and providing solutions to current challenges and limitations posed by
agricultural technologies. To strengthen the supporting framework for growth, it
will be important to focus on creating new information products, like the Talking
Fields maps, that allows more accurate and on time handling of site-specific farming
techniques. Fewer production costs, as resources such as water, seeds, and fertilizer
are not wasted. More efficient in the sense of yield per fertilizer or water used. A
successful future growth strategy for agriculture will need to perceive agriculture as
a sustainable Smart Farming not accept only livelihood enterprise. Ultimately, we
think that all of these technologies, when deployed effectively, will work towards
achieving long-term objectives of sustainable agriculture.
This chapter projects the present needs and future insight into use of precision
agriculture in current ways of growing crops. It also introduces use of various
technologies that will continue enhancing the productivity based on the future needs
like water conservation, increased nutritional value of crops etc. This is also an
equal contribution of agro-industries and companies to keep on exploring the new
possibilities and providing solutions to current challenges and limitations posed by
agricultural technologies. This way the development of technological agriculture
that is soundly capable to satiate the future needs of food to feed on an approx of
9.5 billion populations in the year 2050. To strengthen the supporting framework for
Sustainable Smart Farming for Masses Using Modern Ways of Internet of Things (IoT)
growth, it will be important to focus on creating new information products, like the
Talking Fields maps, allows the farmer to more accurately react with site-specific
farming techniques. Fewer production costs, as resources such as water, seeds, and
fertilizer are not wasted. More efficient in the sense of yield per fertilizer or water
used. A successful future growth strategy for agriculture will need to perceive
agriculture as a sustainable Smart Farming not accept only livelihood enterprise.
Ultimately, we think that all of these technologies, when deployed effectively, will
work towards achieving long-term objectives of sustainable agriculture.
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... On the other hand, the modern technologies that prevail in the 21 st century are shaping the way we all live , by integrating into various domains. Based on the latest predictions the world population is expected to reach more than 9 billion and thus to serve this much of population by the time of 2050, the agriculture industry must expand all its capacity towards mega-scale production incorporating various technologies, for automating all its production tasks [3]- [6]. Nevertheless, it is evident that it requires a boost of 70% by the time of 2050 to serve that much of the population [5]. ...
... Nevertheless, it is evident that it requires a boost of 70% by the time of 2050 to serve that much of the population [5]. Hence in order to compete with that amount of demand and production, the agriculture industry and the farmers need to embrace the IoT and related technologies towards leveraging the agricultural work to the next level , where it is known as smart agriculture [4]- [6]. ...
... Also, agriculture is a major contributor to the economies of most emerging countries where it continues to contribute considerably to the gross domestic product (GDP) of many nations, as well as providing livelihood and job possibilities. According to the 2 nd Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) declared by Unites Nations, it aims to eradicate hunger, ensure food security and better nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030 [6]. On the other hand, based on the latest studies, it is evident that crop output in the agriculture sector has not progressed significantly in recent years and the food prices are rapidly rising since the agricultural output is not keeping up with demand [7]- [11]. ...
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Owing to the ever-increasing world population it makes a doubt about feeding billions of people, as to the amount of current rate of agricultural food production, where it often hindered by many natural facts such as droughts, climate changes, floods, pests, and disease carriers and so on. Apart from that tendency towards traditional farming methods and obsolete skills of farmers, this would also lead to a reduction of agricultural food production where it is believed to be not enough by 2050 based on the latest predictions and subjected to the growing population. On the other hand, the entire planet and the human race is shaping with the advancement of various technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), where it can lead to the creation of a ubiquitous connection between every digital object that prevails in the world through the Internet. This has been applied in many domains including agriculture industry for automating most of the tasks which can reduce the amount of time; and to increase the overall efficiency and have a better crop yield, by making smarter decisions. The aim of this study is to identify and examine the role of IoT in leveraging this smart agriculture to the next level; thus making it sustainable in the long run. Hence in this study, we synthesize the recent challenges, opportunities, and future directions with regard to IoT-based smart agriculture, for carrying out further research in this area and for the betterment of human society.
... In this paper, the researcher conceptualised globality as the mutual encroachment of various cultures, technologies and theories, to move it from the periphery to the centre in order to learn and unlearn from each other and share various technologies that can contribute to the creation of sustainable futures. For example, many countries are moving towards smart farming, which produces greater harvests than traditional ways of farming (Bach and Mauser 2018;Chowhan and Dayya 2019;Saiz-Rubio and Rovira-Más 2020). Evoking globality in this paper aims to share best practices, which have the impetus to end poverty, social exclusion, and social injustice, while at the same time promoting the use of local resources. ...
... Agriculture CPS lately got quite well researched in the topic of smart agriculture in the development of CPS systems [4,28]. Precision agriculture is playing a major role to enhance the efficiency and resource savings [65,89]. ...
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Current food system evolved in a great degree because of the development of processing and food engineering technologies: people learned to bake bread long before the advent of agriculture; salting and smoking supported nomad lifestyles; canning allowed for longer military marches; etc. Food processing technologies went through evolution and significant optimization and currently rely on minor fraction of energy comparing with initial prototypes. Emerging processing technologies (high-pressure, pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, ultrasound) and novel food systems (cultured biomass, 3-D bioprinting, cyber-physical chains) try to challenge the existing chains by developing potentially more nutritious and sustainable food solutions. However, new food systems rely on low technology readiness levels and estimation of their potential future benefits or drawbacks is a complex task mostly due to the lack of integrated data. The research is aimed for the development of conceptual guidelines of food production system structuring as cyber-physical systems. The study indicates that cyber-physical nature of modern food is a key for the engineering of more nutritious and sustainable paths for novel food systems. Implementation of machine learning methods for the collection, integration, and analysis of data associated with biomass production and processing on different levels from molecular to global, leads to the precise analysis of food systems and estimation of upscaling benefits, as well as possible negative rebound effects associated with societal attitude. Moreover, such data-integrated assessment systems allow transparency of chains, integration of nutritional and environmental properties, and construction of personalized nutrition technologies.
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Smart grids and smart energy systems are being deployed by power system designers all over the globe. These systems aim at reducing the cost of deployment, reducing wastage, and reducing running costs while performing highly efficient grid-to-home power transfers. This results in reduced power bills and thereby increases the productivity of both home and commercial distribution systems. Deployment of smart-grid systems with current infrastructure requires a complete re-design and thus incurs increased costs. These costs include sensor deployment costs, controller deployment costs, software testing costs, actuation costs, etc. Most of the legacy non-smart grid systems have such a huge demand, that they cannot be put into maintenance mode for non-critical applications. To enhance these systems, this text proposes a design of a novel smart Internet of Things (IoT) based device, which can be interfaced with any non-smart grid system to improve its efficiency. Moreover, most of the current grid and energy systems have limited metering security, which results in theft and other malicious activities. The proposed IoT device is capable of adding secured metering capabilities to existing grids, which enables the identification of thefts, thereby increasing the efficiency of the distribution system. An efficiency improvement of 15% is observed with the help of the proposed IoT device design, which enables multi-level power savings, and thereby reducing distribution costs to the end consumer.
Agriculture is a well-known term that refers to one of the most important sources of vegetarian food. Agriculture produces fabrics, wool, cotton, and leather in addition to food. Agriculture affects more than 65 percent of the world’s population, either directly or indirectly. For many individuals, it is their main source of income. It accounts for a substantial portion of global GDP. Farmers, however, despite spending a lot of money, are unable to produce enough quantities and quality food owing to poor weather conditions and other issues. Farmers have difficulty in detecting illness in plants, and farmers also face challenges in managing these diseases. Plant classification/recognition, fruit classification/counting, weed classification/counting, disease identification, and other agricultural topics are covered in this chapter. We also go through different deep learning methods such as CNN, RNN, and GAN, as well as preset networks like as VGG and ResNet, and solutions to specific agricultural issues.
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Although precision agriculture has been adopted in few countries; the agriculture industry in India still needs to be modernized with the involvement of technologies for better production, distribution and cost control. In this paper we proposed a multidisciplinary model for smart agriculture based on the key technologies: Internet-of-Things (IoT), Sensors, Cloud-Computing, Mobile-Computing, Big-Data analysis. Farmers, Agro-Marketing agencies and Agro-Vendors need to be registered to the AgroCloud module through MobileApp module. AgroCloud storage is used to store the details of farmers, periodic soil properties of farmlands, agro-vendors and agro-marketing agencies, Agro e-governance schemes and current environmental conditions. Soil and environment properties are sensed and periodically sent to AgroCloud through IoT (Beagle Black Bone). Bigdata analysis on AgroCloud data is done for fertilizer requirements, best crop sequences analysis, total production, and current stock and market requirements. Proposed model is beneficial for increase in agricultural production and for cost control of Agro-products.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) technology is currently shaping different aspects of human life. Precision agriculture is one of the paradigms which can use the IoT advantages to optimize the production efficiency and uniformity across the agriculture fields, optimize the quality of the crops, and minimize the negative environmental impact. In this paper, we present an IoT architecture customized for precision agriculture applications. The proposed three-layer architecture collects the needed data and relays it to a cloud-based back-end where it is processed and analyzed. Feedback actions based on the analyzed data can be sent back to the front-end nodes. We built a prototype of the proposed architecture to demonstrate its performance advantages.
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Precision nitrogen (N) management for corn has gained popularity due to both economic and environmental considerations. There is sufficient evidence demonstrating that N fertilizer efficiency can be improved by implementing sidedress and variable rate fertilization. In this paper, a crop model- and satellite imagery-based decision-support tool for recommending variable rate N fertilization at a high resolution of 5 m × 5 m is introduced. The sub-field management zones were delineated by overlapping the soil survey geographic (SSURGO) soil map units with wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVI)-derived relative productivity zones. The calibrated Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) was used to simulate a range of soil N processes, corn growth and N uptake by assimilating real-time weather data from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). Sidedress N rates were estimated based on the target rate, N loss via leaching and denitrification, plant uptake and leftover N in the soil. The tool was tested on a 66 ha corn field in Illinois, USA for the growing season of 2015. Results showed that N-Prescription was able to give reasonable management zone delineation and sidedress N recommendation. The recommended sidedress N ranged from 60 to over 120 kg ha⁻¹. Corn yield was greater in areas with higher sidedress recommendation, but the benefit from sidedress decreased with the increasing rate and plateaued above 110 kg ha⁻¹. Sensitivity analysis suggested that soil hydraulic properties and soil organic matter content were critical to the sidedress accounting. Corn growth, and hence the cumulative N uptake, can be well simulated by calibrating the WDRVI derived leaf area index. This tool could serve as a good foundation for further development in precision N management.
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The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched.
Data-driven techniques help boost agricultural productivity by increasing yields, reducing losses and cutting down input costs. However, these techniques have seen sparse adoption owing to high costs of manual data collection and limited connectivity solutions. In this paper, we present FarmBeats, an end-to-end IoT platform for agriculture that enables seamless data collection from various sensors, cameras and drones. FarmBeats’s system design that explicitly accounts for weather-related power and Internet outages has enabled six month long deployments in two US farms.
The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a set of emerging technologies that is revolutionizing the agriculture industry and enabling farmers to contend with the enormous challenges in the twenty‐first century. Precision agriculture (PA), which is also known as site‐specific farming, represents an information‐driven agricultural management system. The PA management system is designed to improve the agricultural processes by enabling continues soil/plant monitoring and precise treatment. With the latest technology, cloud‐based IoT control center collects and processes real‐time data of both crops and environment with regard to planting, fertilizing, and harvesting crops, at appropriate time and duration. Through this way, IoT‐embedded PA can be achieved to increase the quality, quantity, sustainability, and cost effectiveness of agricultural production. The chapter provides an overview of the current situation and future prospects of IoT applications in PA. More specifically, typical IoT‐based PA applications are presented in different sections, including precision irrigation, precision fertilization, crop disease and management, pest control, equipment automation, and precision livestock farming.
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Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) are used to build decision support systems (DSS) to overcome many real-world problems. Nowadays, one of the most popular fields that needs DSS is precision agriculture (PA). In general, this paper presents WSN as an alternative and efficient way to solve the farming resources optimization and decision making. Precision agriculture systems based on the internet of things (IOT) technology is explained in detail especially on the hardware and network architecture and software process control of the precision irrigation system. The system collect, analyse and monitors data from the sensors in a feedback loop which activates the control devices based on pre-calculated threshold value.
Efficient sensor deployment is one of primary requirements of precision agriculture use case of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to provide qualitative and optimal coverage and connectivity. The application-based performance variations of the geometrical-model-based sensor deployment patterns restricts the generalization of a specific deployment pattern for all applications. Further, single or double metrics based evaluation of the deployment patterns focusing on theoretical or simulation aspects can be attributed to the difference in performance of real applications and the reported performance in literature. In this context, this paper proposes a Testbed based Multi-metric Quality Measurement (T-MQM) of sensor deployment for precision agriculture use case of WSNs. Specifically, seven metrics are derived for qualitative measurement of sensor deployment patterns for precision agriculture. The seven metrics are quantified for four sensor deployment patterns to measure the quality of coverage and connectivity. Analytical and simulation based evaluations of the measurements are validated through testbed experiment based evaluations which are carried out in ‘INDRIYA’ WSNs testbed. Towards realistic research impact, the investigative evaluation of the geometrical-model-based deployment patterns presented in this article could be useful for practitioners and researchers in developing performance guaranteed applications for precision agriculture and novel coverage and connectivity models for deployment patterns.