Article

3463 Frontal Alpha Asymmetry in Alcohol-Related Intimate Partner Violence

Abstract

OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The current study is the first investigation of frontal alpha asymmetry in distressed violent (DV) and distressed nonviolent (DNV) partners during a placebo-controlled alcohol administration and emotion-regulation study. Because this is the first study of the pharmacological effects of alcohol on FAA, the first portion of the study was conducted to characterize alcohol effects in DV and DNV partners during the baseline condition. The subsequent portions of the study were conducted to characterize the effects of alcohol and evocative stimuli on FAA in DV and DNV partners. We hypothesized that DV partners would demonstrated greater left frontal alpha asymmetry when intoxicated and viewing evocative partner stimuli than DNV partners. Lastly, we attempted to replicate previous research that has found associations between baseline measures of FAA and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory – 2 (Spielberger, 1999) subscales of Trait Anger, Anger Expression-Out, Anger Expression-In, Anger Control-Out, Anger Control-In (Hewig, Hagemann, Seifert, Naumann, & Bartussek, 2004). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Partners in the present study were drawn from a larger study investigating over-arousal as a mechanism between alcohol use and intimate partner violence (AA022367). Couples were recruited from the community via radio, television and newspaper advertisements, and eligibility screening occurred at the couple level. Participants included in the present analysis were 23 DV partners (12 female, 11 male), and 15 DNV partners (7 female, 9 male). The mean age of the sample was 32 (SD 4.8 years, range 23-40 years). Data from two DV partners were not included in the analyses of the FAA in the emotion-regulation tasks due to movement artifacts during the alcohol condition leaving too little data for analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The expected beverage by couple type interaction did not reach significance [F (1, 36) = 3.93, p = .055], but the between-subjects effects of couple type revealed a significant difference [F (1, 36) = 4.425, p = .042]. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, these results suggest that under conditions of alcohol, DV partners evidenced significantly greater relative right frontal alpha power asymmetry whereas DNV partners evidenced greater relative left frontal alpha power asymmetry. Although there was no significant between-subjects effect, there was a nearly significant interaction between beverage type and emotion regulation condition [F = (1, 36) = 4.032, p = .052] and a significant main effect of emotion regulation condition [F (1, 36) = 7.579, p = .009]. It appears that asking the participants to “not react” to their partners’ evocative stimuli caused significantly greater right frontal alpha asymmetry. Because intimate partner violence is best understood in the context of conflict between two partners, we also examined partner-reported experiences of anger as predictors of DV participant’s FAA. The model as a whole predicted 67.4% of the variance in DV partner FAA, R squared change =.674, F Change (5, 15) = 6.21, p = .003. Three anger experience scales were statistically significant. The partner Anger Control-Out (B = -1.23, p =.001) scale recorded a higher standardized beta value and accounted for 40% of the variance in this model. Anger Control-In (B = .63, p = .022) accounted for 14% of the variance in the model, and Anger Expression-Out scale (B = .57, p = .024) accounted for 13.7% of the variance in the model. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The current study is the first pharmacological study of the effects of alcohol on frontal alpha asymmetry in distressed violent and distressed nonviolent partners. Contrary to our hypothesis, under acute alcohol intoxication during the baseline condition, DV partners exhibited significantly greater relative right FAA compared to DNV partners who exhibited significantly greater relative left FAA. Because intimate partner violence is best understood in the context of couple conflict, we examined the ability of partners’ anger experiences to predict DV and DNV partners’ FAA, and a very interesting pattern emerged among our DV participants and their partners. The anger experiences of our DV participants’ partners accounted for 67% of the variance in the FAA of our DV participants when they were intoxicated and viewing evocative stimuli.
Murine in vivo experiments were conducted on female Swiss
Webster mice (10 per group). Femoral fractures were induced with
a 3-point bending device and stabilized. Mice were dosed with
3 nmol/kg/d of targeted-ePTHrP, non-conjugated (free) ePTHrP,
or saline. Following a 4-week study, fracture callus densities were
measured using microCT. Canine in vivo experiments were con-
ducted on 1-year-old male beagles. Beagles underwent a 10 mm bilat-
eral ulnar ostectomy. Two dogs in the treatment group and Three
dogs in the control group were dosed daily with either targeted-
ePTHrP 0.5nmol/kg/d or saline respectively. Dogs were x-rayed
weekly for the first 6 weeks and then every other week thereafter.
One tailed ANOVA followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test was used
to establish significance. All animal experiments were conducted as
described in approved IACUC protocols. P<0.05 was considered sig-
nificant. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: RESULTS SECTION:
In the murine studies we observed a marked increase in fracture cal-
lus size and a 2-fold increase in bone deposition was observed in the
targeted-ePTHrP group over the saline group (P<0.01). A significant
doubling in bone density was also observed. Targeted-ePTHrP group
fractured femurs were able to achieve their pre-fracture strength as
early as 3 weeks compared to 9 weeks in the saline mice representing
a 66% reduction in healing time. In the canine studies, we observe a
significantly higher closure of the ostectomy gap than saline controls
(P<0.05). In addition, no significant differences in weight are observed
in the treatment vs. saline controls. No significant difference between
the control group and treatment groups was found in a histological
investigation of the organs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF
IMPACT: DISCUSSION: Although attempts have been made in
developing a systemically administered fracture therapeutic for frac-
ture repair, i.e. teriparatide, to date, no such anabolics have been
approved for this use. In these studies there is evidence that anabolic
activity was occurring at the fracture site, but at a level that did not
meet FDA required end-points.2 It is plausible that if sufficient drug
were to be delivered to a fracture site then improved fracture repair
would be possible. In previous studies, we demonstrated fracture spe-
cific accumulation bone anabolics can be achieved by modifying the
drug with acidic oligopeptides.3 Here, by modifying a safe, clinically
proven, parathyroid hormone receptor agonist with an acidic oligo-
peptide we observe improved bone deposition and strength in mice.
Furthermore, when administered to canine critical sized defect ostec-
tomies, a more relevant and difficult model, we observe improved
ostectomy closure. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:: The ability to acceler-
ate bone fracture repair is a fundamental need that has not been
addressed by conventional methods. By targeting bone anabolic
agents to bone fractures, we can deliver sufficient concentrations
of anabolic agent to the fracture site to accelerate healing, thus avoid-
ing surgery and any ectopic bone growth associated with locally-
applied bone anabolic agents.
3463
Frontal Alpha Asymmetry in Alcohol-Related Intimate
Partner Violence
Brandi C Fink, PhD
University of New Mexico Clinical and Translational Science Center
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The current study is the first inves-
tigation of frontal alpha asymmetry in distressed violent (DV) and
distressed nonviolent (DNV) partners during a placebo-controlled
alcohol administration and emotion-regulation study. Because this
is the first study of the pharmacological effects of alcohol on FAA,
the first portion of the study was conducted to characterize alcohol
effects in DV and DNV partners during the baseline condition. The
subsequent portions of the study were conducted to characterize
the effects of alcohol and evocative stimuli on FAA in DV and
DNV partners. We hypothesized that DV partners would demon-
strated greater left frontal alpha asymmetry when intoxicated and
viewing evocative partner stimuli than DNV partners. Lastly,
we attempted to replicate previous research that has found associ-
ations between baseline measures of FAA and the State-Trait Anger
Expression Inventory 2 (Spielberger, 1999) subscales of Trait
Anger, Anger Expression-Out, Anger Expression-In, Anger Control-
Out, Anger Control-In (Hewig, Hagemann, Seifert, Naumann, &
Bartussek, 2004). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Partners in
the present study were drawn from a larger study investigating
over-arousal as a mechanism between alcohol use and intimate
partner violence (AA022367). Couples were recruited from the
community via radio, television and newspaper advertisements,
and eligibility screening occurred at the couple level. Participants
included in the present analysis were 23 DV partners (12 female,
11 male), and 15 DNV partners (7 female, 9 male). The mean
age of the sample was 32 (SD 4.8 years, range 23-40 years). Data
from two DV partners were not included in the analyses of the
FAA in the emotion-regulation tasks due to movement artifacts
during the alcohol condition leaving too little data for analysis.
RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The expected beverage by
couple type interaction did not reach significance [F (1,
36) =3.93, p =.055], but the between-subjects effects of couple type
revealed a significant difference [F (1, 36) =4.425, p =.042].
Contrary to our hypothesis, however, these results suggest that
under conditions of alcohol, DV partners evidenced significantly
greater relative right frontal alpha power asymmetry whereas
DNV partners evidenced greater relative left frontal alpha power
asymmetry. Although there was no significant between-subjects
effect, there was a nearly significant interaction between beverage
type and emotion regulation condition [F =(1, 36) =4.032,
p=.052] and a significant main effect of emotion regulation con-
dition [F (1, 36) =7.579, p =.009]. It appears that asking the partic-
ipants to not reactto their partnersevocative stimuli caused
significantly greater right frontal alpha asymmetry. Because intimate
partner violence is best understood in the context of conflict between
two partners, we also examined partner-reported experiences of
anger as predictors of DV participants FAA. The model as a whole
predicted 67.4% of the variance in DV partner FAA, R squared
change =.674, F Change (5, 15) =6.21, p =.003. Three anger expe-
rience scales were statistically significant. The partner Anger
Control-Out (B =-1.23, p =.001) scale recorded a higher standard-
ized beta value and accounted for 40% of the variance in this model.
Anger Control-In (B =.63, p =.022) accounted for 14% of the vari-
ance in the model, and Anger Expression-Out scale (B =.57, p =.024)
accounted for 13.7% of the variance in the model. DISCUSSION/
SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The current study is the first pharma-
cological study of the effects of alcohol on frontal alpha asymmetry in
distressed violent and distressed nonviolent partners. Contrary to our
hypothesis, under acute alcohol intoxication during the baseline con-
dition, DV partners exhibited significantly greater relative right FAA
compared to DNV partners who exhibited significantly greater rela-
tive left FAA. Because intimate partner violence is best understood in
the context of couple conflict, we examined the ability of partners
anger experiences to predict DV and DNV partnersFAA, and a very
interesting pattern emerged among our DV participants and their
partners. The anger experiences of our DV participantspartners
accounted for 67% of the variance in the FAA of our DV participants
when they were intoxicated and viewing evocative stimuli.
106 JCTS 2019 Abstract Supplement
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