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''The Usage of the God Sobek's Name in the Formation of Names in Ancient Egypt

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Abstract

The Usage of the God Sobek's Name in the Formation of Names in Ancient Egypt
The Usage of The God Sobek's Name in The Formation of
Names in Ancient Egypt
Dr. Mofida el- Weshahy
Dr. Faten el-Elemy
Suez Canal University
Faculty of Tourism and Hotels
Abstact:
Names in Ancient Egypt were of great important and the word "rn" referred to the
living part of the person, Gods also had many names designating their different
manifestations. Names were used as a weapon on taking vengeance.
In the consideration of the usage of Sobek's name in the formation of the King's name
and private name they were used from the Old Kingdom .
Sbk is confirmed by the writing of sbjk or s3q in the New Kingdom and M.Murray
refered that s-bk3 means "He who causes to be pregnant", but the Egyptian of later
times interpreted the name as "He who is reassembled" (Brovarski , 1984).
Basilophore names of Sobek were not use for one gender, but for the both males and
females held the name of Sobek in the formations of their names such as ddw-sobek
(male), and wr.(t)-sobek (female) (Vercoutter,1957) .
This paper aims at studding the Theaphoric names referring to the god Sobek and all
the formations of the kings and private names such as S, S -, S -
, S -, S -, S………, at Nubia, Thebes, Fayoum, Saqqara
and Delta.
This paper consists of three main parts:
1 -The king and queen names
2 -The private names
3 -Conclusion
Introduction:
Sobek as a deity is a crocodile-God Sbk Greek Sukhus (Sϋχuν), was worshipped in
various places all over Ancient Egypt, but especially in Fayoum krocodilopolice,
Armant, and Gebelein and Kom-Ombo in Upper Egypt ( Leitz , 2003,& Rübsam ,
1974 & Brovarski , 1984). In later times became a primordial deity, a creator god, and
a keeper of the world, he was also associated with the moon and sun disks
)El-Weshahy, 2002.(
As the principal manifestation of the crocodile-God in the Old Kingdom, Sobek of
Shedet is mentioned five times in the Pyramid Texts, is commemorated in a cylinder
seal, and is represented in the funerary temples of Userkaf, Niuserre, and Pepi II
(Brovarski , 1984 & Faulkner, 2007).
Sobek the Shedtite became one of the principal dynastic patrons when Amenemhat III
(Middle Kingdom) installed his pyramid and one of his residences at Hawara, not far
from Fayoum. One of the names of the Fayoum province from the Middle Kingdom
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was , “Lake of Sobek” (Brovarski , 1984). In New Kingdom, Kom-Ombo was
the home of Horus the elder and Sobek, lord of Ombos .
Amenemhat III has built the temple of Sobek at Hawara and was rebuilt from the New
Kingdom up to the Ptolemaic Period (Petrie, 1889 & El-Weshahy, 2002).
During the Middle Kingdom Crocodile-God was a symbol of royal power (Doxey,
2001), but he became a primordial deity and a creator god in the New Kingdom.
In the Greco-Roman Period at Fayoum, Crocodile-God have many mythical and
magical names, such as Pnepheros “  “, Ptosokhos “ “,
“Sokanobkoneus”, Sobek, lord of the lake, “Sokanoboneus” Sobek, lord of the
Gnwt,“Soknebtynis” Sobek, lord of Tebtunys “Soknebtynis” Sobek, lord of Tebtunys
(,    1999&  1998)
Crocodile-God were associated with many great gods such as ram headed-gods
Amon, Chnum and Harsaphis because they were also a water anf fertility gods, Osiris,
Spd, Horus, Horus who is a guest in Shedet, Horpocrates, Horoeris, Geb, Panebtawy,
Tatenen Kamwt.f, Bes, Seth, Chonso and he is like Shu who separated heaven and
earth (El-Sayed, 1981, & El-Weshahy, 2002).
In addition he connected with the goddesses who were represented as his consorts
such as Hathor, Isis, and Isis Nepheres at Fayoum, Isis Hygiea at Aexandria, Rattawy
at Gebel El-Silsila, Nehbet at El-Kab, and as his mother Neith and Mehet-Wrt, he was
also associated with Tawert an Rennut (Wegner, 2001 & El-Weshahy, 2002).
Basilophore names of Sobek were not only use for the private names but also the king
and queen names for examples :
I - The names of the Middle Kingdom kings:
Document I- 1:
Name: The queen Sobeknefru, the birth name is (beautiful of the god Sobek). She
was named after the name of the god Sobek, also known as "- S "
(Beckerath, 1999).
The thrown name of the queen is " S " Sobek is the soul (ka) of Re.
(Clayton, 1994 & Beckerath, 1980)
The queen had also the title of beloved of sobek shedty " S" (fig.1)
)Petrie, 1889 ,(and the title of ,  (Kuentz, 1929, &
Gauthier, 1910).
Date: XII Dynasty, 1785-1782 B.C.
2
Fig.1: The titles of the queen Sobeknefru
Document I- 2:
Name: The name of the king Sobek-Hotep I (S) (fig.2), means Sobek is
satisified or pleased as seen:
Fig.2: Sobek-Hotep I
a) S: the son of the god Re Sobek-hotep
b) S: the boat of the god Re is Sobek-hotep
c) S: Sobek-hotep
D) Hr anx S: the living Horus, Sobek-hotep
Date: XIII Dynasty (Petrie, 1889& Beckerath, 1980) .
Document I- 3:
Name: The king Sobek-hotep II (Amenemhet VI) : the
birth name is (S, Amun is at the head, pleasing to the god Sobek
(fig.3) (Petrie, 1889) .
3
Fig.3: Sobek-hotep II
Date: XIII Dynasty, 1750 B.C. (Petrie, 1889& Beckerath, 1999& Beckerath, 1980).
Document I- 4:
Name: The king Sobek-hotep III : the birth name is (S,
pleasing to the god Sobek).
a) xa nfr Ra S: the beauty of the god Re is shining
b)  S: the double beauty of sobek-hotep shine
c)  S: the son of the god Re, sobek-hotep
Date: XIII Dynasty, 1745 B.C. (Clayton, 1994 & Petrie, 1889& Beckerath, 1999&
Beckerath, 1980).
Document I- 5:
Name: Sobek-hotep IV : the birth name is ( S, pleasing to
the god Sobek).
Date: XIII Dynasty, 1730-1720 B.C.
Object: Three statue of the king were found at Tanis perhaps from Memphis or Lisht.
(Clayton, 1994 & Beckerath, 1999& Beckerath, 1980).
Document I- 6:
Name: Sobek-hotep V is another king of the Middle Kingdom (Beckerath, 1980&
Spalinger, 1984).
Date: XIII Dynasty (fig.4).
4
Fig.4: Sobek-hotep V
Document I- 7:
Name: Sobek-hotep VI, mr-htp-R
Date: XIII Dynasty (fig.4).
Object: Who ruled for almost two years, he was mentioned in Turin and Karnak king
lists (Spalinger, 1984) .
Document I- 8:
Name: Sobek-hotep VII
Date: XIII Dynasty
Object: He is known from Turin and Karnak king lists, and a statue in Karnak. He
had two sons,Sobekhotep and Bebi are known(Spalinger, 1984).
Document I- 9:
A king's name also was connected with the god sobek and was called  sisobek
(the son of the god sobek) (fig.6) (Petrie, 1889).
Fig.5: Sisobek
Document I-10:
Name: Sobekemsaf I, his name means, S the god sobek is
his protection (Gauthier, 1912).
Date: XIII Dynasty, (Beckerath, 1999& Beckerath, 1980& Spalinger, 1984).
Document I-11:
Name: Sobekemsaf II, the birth name is S,Sobek is his
protection.
Date: XIII Dynasty (Clayton, 1994 & Beckerath, 1999& Beckerath, 1980&
Spalinger, 1984).
From this entire document, the most of these kings start their names with Sobek, and
most of them their names were composed with Sobekhotep.
5
II - The private names in the Old Kingdom period:
Document II-1:
Name: Hemsobek, , companion .
Date: I-III Dynasty
Object: Vessel in diorite was found in galleries of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara
)JE.88397) (PM III, 2, 1985.(
Perhaps, he may be a priest of Sobek from the Old Kingdom, and it may be refers to
the cult of Sobek from this period.
Document II-2:
Name: Hemsitsobek,  (♂), royal acquaintance, the mother of
Kai, the judge and boundary official.
Date: V Dynasty
Object: Necropolis no 35, north of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara (PM III, 2, 1991).
It may be refers to the cult of Sobek from the Old Kingdom.
Document II-3:
Name: Sobeky, , overseer of the cabinet and high priest (Daressy,
1926) .
Date: VI Dynasty- Heliopolis.
Document II-4:
Name: Sobeky, , scribe of the royal archives and high priest
(Daressy, 1926) .
Date: VI Dynasty- Heliopolis.
The names sbky referred that they were belonging to the god Sobek.
Document II-5:
Name: …sensobek-bebi, ///
Date: Old Kingdom
Object: A rock text of …sensobek-bebi, was found at Hieroglyph Hill near Gebel
Sheikh Suleiman (PMVII, 1975).
Document II-6:
Name: Sobek Hotep, 
Date: Old Kingdom
Object: A relief panel in the tomb of Sobekhotep no ch/90- Elphantine, is showing his
title, overseer of the ka-priests Sobekhotep and his family (Vischak, 2007).
6
III - The private names in the Middle Kingdom:
Document III -1:
Name: Sobekmshe, , it means sobek in the lake.
Date: XI Dynasty
Object: The name of sobekmshe, the overseer of the cabinet was found in a rock text
between Kalabsha and Dendur in Abu-Hor west (Weigall, 1907).
Document III -2:
Name: Sobeknakht, 
Date: XI Dynasty
Object: The name of sobeknakht, the royal acquaintance, was found in a rock text at
Toshka east (Weigall, 1907).
Document III -3:
Name: Sobekhotep, 
Date: XI Dynasty
Object: The name of sobekhotep the scribe of the treasury was found in text at Abu
Simbel small temple (PM VII, 1975).
Document III -4:
Name: Sobekre, he was the overseer of gardeners (PM I, 1, 1985).
Date: XI Dynasty
Object: The name of sobekre was found in a scene in the tomb of Dagi TTno 103, at
Sheikh Abd el Qurna. This scene has shown a man picking grapes before Sobekre.
The name Sobek-Re reflexes the relationship with the sun god Re and his disk
( El-Weshahy,2002).
Document III -5:
Name: Sobek-wr, , overseer of the dueling (Petrie, 1889).
Date: XI,-XII Dynasty.
Document III -6:
Name: Sobekkhu, 
Date: XII Dynasty
Object: A fragment of Sobekkhu (Gauthier, 1912), was found on Semna west, and
also a stela, now in Manchester Museum (PM VII, 1975).
The name reflexes the fear of the crocodile in Ancient Egypt.
Document III -7:
7
Name: Sobeknakht, 
Date: XII Dynasty
Object: An alabaster jar of Sobeknakht, nomarch of El-Kab, now in Khartum
Museum (1087) (PM VII, 1975).
Document III -8:
Name: Sobekherhab, 
Date: XII Dynasty, year 44 of Amenemhat III
Object: A rock-stela of sobekherhab, overseer of the cabinet of the treasury, was
found at Serabit el Khadim in Sinai, and another stela of the same person, was found
at Serabit el Khadim in Sinai at the temple of Hathor (PM VII, 1975).
Document III -9:
Name: Sobek-hotep
Date: XII Dynasty
Object: Stela of the goddess Hathor was dedicated by Sobekhotep, trusty one and the
scribe of Amenemhat III, was found at Serabit el Khadim in Sinai, temple of Hathor,
now in Brussels Museum (E.5266) (Speelers, 1923).
Document III -10:
Name: Sitsisobek,  (♂), wife of Antefoker, the governor
of the town and vizier.
Date: XII Dynasty
Object: Tomb no 60 of Antefoker, at Sheikh Abd el-Qurna (PM I, 1, 1985).
Document III -11:
Name: Sobek-hotep, , a ranger of the director of offerings,
son of the ranger of the director of offerings Mentihotep (Petrie, 1889).
Date: XII- XIII Dynasty.
Document III -12:
Name: Sobekhotep, , director of food of offerings (Petrie,
1889).
Date: XII- XIII Dynasty.
8
Document III -13:
Name: Sobeksit,  (♂), lady of house daughter of Sobek
(Petrie, 1889).
Date: XII-XIII Dynasty.
Document III -14:
Name: Sobeknakht-renfsonb, , 
Date: XIII Dynasty .
Object: Granite statue of Sobeknakht-renfsonb in Cairo Museum, founds in Kiman
Faris (PM IV, 1934).
Document III -15:
Name: Sobekemhab,  may be this title refers to the feast of
the God Sobek).
Date: XIII Dynasty
Object: A black basalt statue of sobekemhab, the scribe of troops, was found in the
temple area of Abu Simbel, now in Khartum Museum (PM VII, 1975).
Document III -16:
Name: DeduSobek, ,
Date: XIII Dynasty
Object: A stela of a woman called
Nekt and Dedusobek, was found in a grave from Buhen (fig.6), now in Khartum
Museum (5516) (Vercoutter, 1975).
It may refer to the two donation which Sobek gives.
Fig.6: Khartum Museum (5516)
Document III-17:
Name: Sobekhotep
Date: XIII Dynasty
9
Object: A scarab with the name of Sobekhotep was found in dust in a Punic rock-
tomb at Malta (PM VII, 1975).
Document III -18:
Name: Sobek-hotep,  he was a royal relative (Petrie, 1889).
Date: XIII-XIV Dynasty.
This sign mean “south, rswt” ( Wb,1971), so the name referred to the god
Sobek of the south “ “ (Armant), and the geometric designs are generally
confined in time to the Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period and can be
divided into four general categories : spiral scroll concentric circles , coiled cord
patterns , and cross patterns ( Robert, 2001).
Document III -19:
Name: Sobek-si, he was a royal relative (Petrie, 1889).
Date: XIII-XIV Dynasty.
Document III-20:
Name: Sobek-hotep, he was a priest of Nekhab (Petrie, 1889).
Date: XIII-XIV Dynasty.
Document III -21:
Name: Sitsobek,  (♂) (PM III, 2, 1991).
Date: First Intermediate period or early Middle Kingdom.
Object: Side-piece of a false door is in Cairo Museum (man censing before deceased
and wife sitsobek) found around Teti and Merykare pyramid (CG.57211, JE.38552).
Document III -22:
10
Name: Sobekhotep, 
Date: Middle Kingdom
Object: The name of sobekhotep was found in a rock text between Qertassi and Tafa
in Mudenegâri (PM VII, 1975).
Document III -23:
Name: Sobekhotep, 
Date: Middle Kingdom
Object: The name of physician sobekhotep was found in a rock text between Tafa and
Kalabsha in Bab el-Kalabsha (Weigall, 1907).
Document III -24:
Name: Sobekherhab, , it means sobek is on feast.
Date: Middle Kingdom
Object: The name of sobekherhab, the director of works, was found in a north rock
text of Gerf-Husein temple (Roeder, 1902).
Document III -25:
Name: Sobekuser, .
Date: Middle Kingdom
Object: A stela of sobekuser, was found in Quban, now in Berlin Museum (13721)
(Roeder, 1901).
Document III -26:
Name: Sobekemhet,  , Sobekemhat,
Date: Middle Kingdom
Object: Texts of sobekemhet and Sobekemhat, were found at Wâdi Hammamat (PM
VII, 1975).
N.B: The name of Sobek Re was written in Middle Kingdom by different signs as
shown in:
Document III -27:
Name: Sobekre,  (Vercoutter, 1929).
Date: Middle Kingdom
Document III -28:
Name: Sobekre,  (Vercoutter, 1929).
Date: Middle Kingdom
Document III -29:
Date: Middle Kingdom
11
Object: A stela of Iunnefer, son of Sobek-Re was found at Wadi el Hudi (PM VII,
1975).
Document III-30:
Name: Sobek(♂)
Date: Middle Kingdom
Object: A fragment of ivory wand of a woman called Sobek…, with figures of Tawert
and lioness in relief, was found at Palestine in Tell el-Ajjul (PM VII, 1975).
IV - The private names in the New Kingdom:
Numerous of sobek names formations are known in the New Kingdom all over Egypt
as shown in these examples:
Document IV-1:
Name: Sobek-hotep , 
Date: XVIII Dynasty .
Object: statue of Sobek-hotep hereditary prince of Fayoum and scribe from Dimai
(Berlin Museum 11635) (Brugsch, 1893).
Document IV-2:
Name: Sobek-hotep, , 
Date: XVIII Dynasty .
Object: Black granite squatting statue of Sobek-hotep, mayor and chief in Fayoum,
whose wife was the chief of the temple performers (hnrt) of sobek (Kitchen, & Kess,
1961 & Brugsch, 1893).
Document IV-3:
Name: Sobek-hotep,  he was the mayor of the
southern lake and the lake of Sobek (PM I, 1, 1985).
Date: XVIII Dynasty .
Object: Tomb no 63 of Sobek-hotep at Sheikh Abd el-Qurna (Dziobek, Abde Raziq,
1999& Heleck, 1984).
 
For the ka of the prince, the overseer of treasury of Lower Egypt, the only one (friend)
overseer of the seals Sobek-hotep.
Document IV-4:
12
Name: Sebknakht,  (♂), she was the wife of Amenemhet, the
agent of Amun.
Date: XVIII Dynasty.
Object: Tomb no 53 of Amenemhet, at Sheikh Abd el-Qurna (PM I, 1, 1985).
Document IV-5:
Name: Sobekemsaf , 
Date: XVIII Dynasty.
Object: A fragment from cemetery H.24 of Sobekemsaf, he was judge of Nekhen
(PMVII, 1975).
Document IV-6:
Name: Ptah-sobek, 
Date: XVIII Dynasty.
Object: The name of Ptah-sobek was written on a stela, found at Gurab, know in the
Cairo Museum (JE.20110) (Loat, 1929).
It reflexes the relationship between the god Sobek and the God Ptah.
Document IV-7:
Name: Sobekms, , (Heleck, 1984).
Date: XVIII Dynasty (Amenophis III).
Document IV-8:
Name: Sobeknakht, 
Date: XIX Dynasty.
Object: Black statue in diorite of Sobeknakht, in the Cairo Museum (CG.707), he
was the responsible of the temple of Amun, and the priest of Hathor in the temple of
Amun (Borchadt, 1921).
Document IV-9:
Name: Sobekmosi, sbk-ms, he was the wacb-priest, divine
father in the temples of Amenophis III, and Sokaris (Gauthier, 1920).
Date: XIX, XX Dynasty (Ramesside).
Object: Tomb no 275 of Sobekmosi at Qurnet Muray (PM I, 1, 1985).
13
Document IV-10:
Name: Sobekhotep.
Date: XIX,-XX Dynasty (Ramesside).
Object: A Stela of sobekhotep, overseer of treasury of gold and silver was found in
Sinai at Serabit el-Khadim(PM VII, 1, 1975).
Document IV-11:
Name: Sobeknakht.
Date: XIX-XX Dynasty (Ramesside).
Object: A Stela of sobeknakht was found at El-Sebua temple (PM VII, 1, 1975).
Document IV-12:
Name: Sobekmosi
Date: New Kingdom
Object: Three statuette-bases of Panehsi were dedicated by Sobekmosi, overseer of
the treasury, in Edinburgh, Roy.Scotesh Museum 1905.284.1, and no 221 in
London.Un.coll. (PM I, 1, 1985).
Document IV-13:
Name: Pedesobk, prophet of Neith, 
Date: XXX Dynasty or Ptolemaic Dynasty .
Object: Stela of Pedesobk in Cairo Museum (PM IV, 1934).
It referred to the donation which the god Sobek gives.
Document IV-14:
Name: Dusobk, the gifts of Sobek
Date: Ptolemaic Dynasty (PM IV, 1934) .
Conclusion:
 is credited as being the first queen of Egypt whose name is composed of
the god  from the Middle Kingdom.That period was not only a witness of the
most important development and growth of the cult of  but also witnessed a great
rise in using the name of the god  in the formation of the royal and private
names.
The names can be formed as one word Sobek, two words, a phrase or a complete
sentence. Names can be classified into main categories; which the first one especially
called Theophoric names which also include attributes of deities, sometimes they
represented the relationship between the name bearer and a certain deity.
The first part of the research reveals that many persons of the Old Kingdom were used
the name of the god  in their names. So the first name was found at Saqqara not at
Fayoum the cult center of  and it was.
The most of the royal and private names were composed with Sobekhotep.
14
Among his earliest potroyals in an Early Dynastic cylinder seal showing a crocodile
on a standard or a shrine and one document only shows it as a standing
crocodile.
The research gives a study of the usage of the god Sobek's name in the Formation of
names in Ancient Egypt as the following table:
New Kingdom
Middle
Kingdom
Old Kingdom
Sobeky
Sobeky
Heliopolis
SitsobekHemsobek
Hemsitsobek
Saqqqara
Sobekhotep
Sobekhotep
Sobeknakht-
renfsonb
Fayoum
Sobekhotep
Sebknakht
Sebknakht
Sobekmosi
Sobekmosi
Sobekre
Sitsisobek
Thebes
Sobekemsaf
Sobeknakht
Sobekmshe
Sobeknakht
Sobekhotep
Sobekkhu
Sobeknakht
Sobekemhab
DeduSobek
Sobekhotep
Sobekhotep
Sobekherhab
Sobekuser
sensobek-bebi
Sobekhotep
Nubia
SobekhotepSobekherhab
Sobekhotep
Sobekemhet
Iunnefer son
of Sobek-Re
Sinai
Sobek(♂)
Sobekhotep
Out side
Egypt
10216total
References:
- ) ,    1999,( , ,  !"# $% &' ()* *+)"# , -.# /0#+%126 .
- ) , 1998,( , , ,  !"# 1+2 &34 (567 $% (8"#100-101 .
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17
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