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Epidemiological investigation and molecular typing of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in dogs and cats

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... This species has velvety white colonies with the reverse showing yellow to orange pigmentation when grown in vitro on most mycological media; microscopically, it presents fast-growing and numerous spindle-shaped macroconidia, with thick, rough cell walls with septations that can vary from five to nine [38]. This zoophilic fungus can be found in asymptomatic cats, which are its main reservoir, together with some other mammal species [42]. M. canis is frequently isolated from their hair, even in the absence of lesions. ...
... M. canis is frequently isolated from their hair, even in the absence of lesions. M. canis is more commonly found in puppies, more frequent in cats than in dogs, especially in asymptomatic cases [42]. In humans the most frequent clinical manifestation associated with M. canis are tinea capitis tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium. ...
... M. canis is responsible for most infections by dermatophytes in children. In adults, unusual clinical presentations of M. canis infection have been described such as severe and inflammatory tinea barbae and very atypical Tinea faciei [42]. In addition, transplant recipients, patients with cancer or immunosuppressive conditions, especially due to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are at risk for infection by this species [45]. ...
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Purpose of Review Species of the Microsporum and Nannizzia complexes are some of the etiological agents of dermatophytosis, an important cutaneous infection that affects humans and other mammals and whose incidence is increasing worldwide. This article aims to review the pertinent knowledge about dermatophytosis, specifically with these etiological agents. Recent Findings The immunological mechanisms involved in the prevention and control of these infections are not fully understood. Many reports suggest that the mammalian immune system evolved with the interaction of these pathogens, and the infection depends directly on the virulence of the strain, geographic location, and environmental resources. As virulence factors, thermotolerance, melanin production, and cell wall components stand out. Treatment for dermatophytosis includes the use of topical or systemic drugs. Summary These fungi present an increasing risk in human health care; studies in physiology, genetics and biochemistry, pathology of dermatophytosis, and immune response are essential for the development of new diagnostic measures, treatment protocols, and prevention strategies.
... La dermatofitosis, es una micosis superficial causada por un grupo de hongos llamados dermatofitos, capaces de degradar la queratina del estrato corneo de la piel, pelo y uñas (Larrondo et al., 2001;Martinez et al., 2012). De éstos, Microsporum canis es la principal especie que ha sido aislada desde muestras clínicas de perros y gatos, tanto en Chile como en el mundo (Silva et al., 2003;Betancourt et al., 2009;Murmu et al., 2015;da Cunha et al., 2019). ...
... días para obtener material biológico, alargando el tiempo de diagnóstico (Brillowska-Dabrowska et al., 2007;Kobylak et al., 2015;da Cunha et al., 2019).Igualmente, otros grupos, han utilizado genes de la secuencia ITS1 del ADN ribosomal de estos hongos, realizando el diagnóstico a nivel de género, no logrando identificar las especies M. canis y M. audonii(Brillowska-Dabrowska et al., 2010, 2013. Para validar nuestros resultados respecto al de otros ...
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Dermatophytosis, mycosis commonly known as ringworm, is a skin disease caused by keratinolytic fungi that affect keratinized structures such as skin, hair and nails. Clinically, it is characterized by causing alopecia lesions of concentric growth, with presentation of desquamation, erythema and pruritus in varying degrees. The methods traditionally used for the diagnosis of dermatophytosis are based on direct microscopic examination and culture. Several studies have proposed detection methodologies based on molecular biology techniques, which have the disadvantage of detecting more than one dermatophyte species simultaneously. In this work we develop a detection method based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allows the precise detection of Microsporum canis, the main species of dermatophyte that causes ringworm. This method showed to be fast and specific for the detection of this species, decreasing the time of diagnosis of days to 8 hours.
... Clinically, the disease is characterized by alopecia, crusty lesions, erythema, and pruritus in various body parts. We found that lesions were mainly on the heads and trunks of infected cats and dogs and in the hands of infected people, which is in line with what has previously been reported [12][13][14]. The higher rates of Tinea manuum infection (lesions in hands) among patients are due to handling and direct contact with infected pet cats and dogs, which reflect inadequate sanitation and awareness among locals toward the disease. ...
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Background and Aim: Dermatophytosis is a zoonotic infection of the hair, skin, or nails in animals and humans caused by dermatophytes fungi. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dermatophytosis and its associated factors in cats, dogs, and humans in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Materials and Methods: Skin scraping samples were taken from cats, dogs, and humans with or without skin lesions. In total, 271 samples were collected; 133 from cats, 94 from dogs, and 44 from humans. The collected samples were cultured on dermatophyte test media for fungal isolation and molecular identification. Results: The prevalence of the disease was 44.36%, 40.43%, and 65.91% in cats, dogs, and humans, respectively. Microsporum canis, the most frequently isolated dermatophyte, occurred in 94.92% of cats, 92.11% of dogs, and 100.0% of humans whereas, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was only isolated from 5.08% of cats to 7.89% of dogs. Animals and humans at younger ages were more susceptible to the infection. Males were more susceptible than females among animals, while the reverse was true in humans. Housed cats were at higher risk of dermatophytosis than outdoor-reared cats, whereas outdoor-reared dogs were at higher risk of dermatophytosis than indoor-reared dogs. The affected skin in animals and humans is significantly associated with higher prevalence rates of the disease. Contact with infected cats and dogs was associated with increased infection rates in humans. Patients with a history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were found to be at higher risk of dermatophytosis than those with no history of COVID-19. Conclusion: Awareness should be raised among people about the zoonotic aspect of the disease, especially among those with COVID-19, to avoid contact with cats and dogs, who are at risk of the disease.
... В настоящее время хорошо изучены возможные пути передачи микроспории от домашних [2], бесхозных [3], диких животных [4]. Представлены данные о генетической изменчивости Microsporum canis (M. ...
Article
The significant growth and spread of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis determine the interest to the research of this causative agent. The last time such technologies as metabolomics,transcriptomics and proteomics appeared to be effective. The role of zinc was examined. Zinc deficiency effect on gene expression, metabolism and pathogenicity of Microsporum canis. It was also proved that cyclic lipopeptides obtained from Bacillus subtilis inhibit the growth of cat’s Microsporum canis.
... In addition, the prevalence is commonly high in owner-pet pairs that include symptomatic cases [8]. A high presence of contaminated surfaces has even been reported in households where there are pets with signs and symptoms [9]. The low prevalence rate of dermatophytes in the present study could be explained by the lack of symptomatic cases in our population and the low number of sampled cats. ...
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Background and purpose: Superficial mycoses are the fourth most common cause of disease worldwide. It is not surprising that zoonotic transmission occurs to humans due to close contact with different animals, be it companion or farm animals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence of asymptomatic dermatophyte carriers in the owner-pet pairs, identify the most common etiologic agents, and find the likely connection between the carrier status of an owner and the presence of dermatophytes in their pets. Materials and methods: From May 2019 to January 2020, 21 cats and 115 dogs with their respective owners were selected for dermatophyte culture. All the dogs and cats included in the study were from the communities of southeastern Mexico. The samples were taken with a cotton swab, which was vigorously rubbed and twisted on the scalp or body of the pet four times and grown on Mycosel Agar. The isolates were identified based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The prevalence of the binomial ranged from 0.73% in pet skin and human hands to 2.2% in human scalp. In humans, the agents were Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton verrucosum, while in pets, a strain of Trichophyton sp was found. Conclusion: Different species of dermatophytes were found in the owner/pet pairs, which denotes that coexistence is not related in asymptomatic cases.
... . Pet animals infected with M. canis should be considered as a potential risk, and should not be mixed with other animals, as minimal exposure can lead to infection (MANCIANTI et al., 2003;DA-CUNHA et al., 2019). ...
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Dermatophytoses is a very old and neglected ailment in man as well as animals. The development of antifungal resistance is another emerging issue. Among the different etiologies, Microsporum canis plays a crucial role. The present study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of, characterize, and explore the antifungal susceptibility profile of M. canis isolated from pet animals. A total of 97 (59.15%) (Dog-46, Cat-51) isolates were identified as M. canis by using PCR. The prevalence of M. canis was highest in puppies (19.1%) and kittens (25.78%) in relation to age. No sexual predisposition was found in this study. Seasonal distribution revealed the highest prevalence in summer and lowest in winter. Resistance against Fluconazole and Griseofulvin was observed in a few isolates. The results indicate the need to properly identify the pathogen, and to be cautious in selecting the drug for treatment in order to stop the further development of resistant dermatophytes.
... Microsporum canis, one of the zoonotic zoophilic dermatophyte can be isolated from dogs and cats with or without skin lesions (Singh et al., 2018;Moriello, 2019) and has recently found to develop resistance against various antifungals like fluconazole, amphotericin-B and terbinafine (Aneke et al., 2018). It produces arthroconidia which can remain infectious in the environment for as long as 12 to 24 months and this is the phase that plays crucial in the epidemiology of dermatophytoses through infection and re-infection (da-Cunha et al., 2019). ...
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Dermatophytes are responsible for a majority of superficial fungal infections. They are distinctive from other pathogenic fungi in their ability to use keratin as living. They can sustain in different ecosystems that added in their morphological and ecological range with high flexibility to changing environmental conditions. Lately, Microsporum canis has evolved as a resistant pathogen against several antifungals and has been in the focus of interest for causing outbreaks and epidemics in humans from domestic animals. The increasing evolution of resistance, therapeutic failures, and reduced number of available drugs stimulated to investigate therapeutic alternatives by using some commonly available plants empirically used for their antifungal properties. Likewise, the present study reports the in vitro antifungal efficacy of crude as well as fractionalized extracts with different solvents of Ficus racemosa leaves (L.), Cassia fistula L. and Nerium oleander L. Antifungal activity was evaluated according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC's) values on a clinical isolate of M. canis that showed resistance to some commonly used antifungals. All crude phyto-extracts except Nerium oleander L. effectively inhibited the growth of M. canis. The methanolic extract of Ficus racemosa L. and Cassia fistula L. completely inhibited the fungal growth at a concentration of 2 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL respectively. These two phyto-extracts proved to have significant antifungal activity against common antifungal resistant M. canis isolate. Further studies with the identified plant parts through in vivo studies and pinpoint isolation of the active compound may prove beneficial as an effective alternative therapy for the pathogen.
... Lesions in cases of dermatophytosis are variable for each species of animal [1,[24][25][26], the most common clinical symptoms being hair loss, skin crust, erythema, and pruritus ( Figures-3 and 4). Other studies showed that dermatophyte infection in dogs cause lesions localized to the face, legs, and/or tail [27]. The previous studies [1,19,26] have demonstrated that infected dogs clinically showed lesions in the skin such as multifocal alopecia, erythema, papule, b a pustule, scale, and crust with a distinctive formation known as ringworm. ...
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Dermatophytosis, a zoonotic disease, is caused by fungi of three main genera, namely, Micropsorum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton. Specific lesions of dermatophyte infections are localized in the face, legs, and/or tail. Skin lesions in infected animals demonstrate localized alopecia, erythema, and crust, which are more commonly known as ringworm. Factors that affect dermatophytosis include the dermatophyte species; virulence factors of the agent; and the immune status, age, and sex of the host. High levels of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines have also been reported to play an important role in dermatophyte infection. This review aims to explore and understand factors that affect dermatophyte infection with an emphasis on the prevalence, clinical signs, pathogenesis, immune response, and the roles of cortisol and cytokines in companion animals infected by a dermatophyte.
... Infected animals may be asymptomatic carriers without clinical signs. Examples are 16% M. canis carriage in a study of European cats [140], 27% in suspected Brazilian cats [141], and the isolation of T. mentagrophytes dermatophytes from 4% of clinically healthy rabbits and 17% of guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops [142]. ...
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Over time the human-animal bond has been changed. For instance, the role of pets has changed from work animals (protecting houses, catching mice) to animals with a social function, giving companionship. Pets can be important for the physical and mental health of their owners but may also transmit zoonotic infections. The One Health initiative is a worldwide strategy for expanding collaborations in all aspects of health care for humans, animals, and the environment. However, in One Health communications the role of particularly dogs and cats is often underestimated. Objective: Evaluation of positive and negative One Health issues of the human-companion animal relationship with a focus on zoonotic aspects of cats and dogs in industrialized countries. Method: Literature review. Results: Pets undoubtedly have a positive effect on human health, while owners are increasing aware of pet's health and welfare. The changing attitude of humans with regard to pets and their environment can also lead to negative effects such as changes in feeding practices, extreme breeding, and behavioral problems, and anthropozoonoses. For the human, there may be a higher risk of the transmission of zoonotic infections due to trends such as sleeping with pets, allowing pets to lick the face or wounds, bite accidents, keeping exotic animals, the importation of rescue dogs, and soil contact. Conclusions: One Health issues need frequently re-evaluated as the close human-animal relationship with pet animals can totally differ compared to decennia ago. Because of the changed human-companion animal bond, recommendations regarding responsible pet-ownership, including normal hygienic practices, responsible breeding, feeding, housing, and mental and physical challenges conforming the biology of the animal are required. Education can be performed by vets and physicians as part of the One Health concept.
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The present report discussed the diagnosis and therapeutic management of dermatophytosis and staphylococcal pyoderma coinfection in a Pitbull dog. A three-year-old male Pitbull dog was presented at the veterinary clinical complex with a history of skin lesions, mild itching, bilateral ocular discharge, and difficulty walking due to pedal lesions without any response to Ivermectin administration. Clinical examination revealed focal alopecia over the dorsal side of the body, lesions around the eyes and margins of ears, crust formation on all over the body including the scrotal region, pododermatitis, congested mucus membrane, mildly swollen lymph nodes, a rectal temperature of 102.8°F and negative pinna pedal reflex. Three samples (impression smear, deep skin scraping, and some hair and debris) were collected for further diagnosis. The etiological agents were identified on the basis of the presence of fungal hyphae in skin scrapping and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Treatment consisted of a combination of systemic antibacterial (Cefadroxil) and antifungal (Itraconazole) drugs selected on the basis of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests along with the topical application of Nebasulf Powder. A slight improvement in pedal lesions was noticed one week after the therapy and the dog showed marked recovery after 20 days of treatment.
Article
Objetivo. Comparar dos métodos de diagnóstico de Microsporum canis, lámpara de Wood (LW) y dermatophyte test metium (DTM). LW se fundamenta en la presencia de una luz ultravioleta en pelo infectado por dermatofitosis de manera específica, se la considera una prueba cualitativa y de fácil uso, mientras que el DTM es una prueba de laboratorio muy útil de amplio uso y más específica, debido al aislamiento del género y especie de dermatofito. Metodología. Para el estudio se evaluaron 200 pacientes caninos que presentaron lesiones dermatológicas generalizadas, a las cuales les fueron tomadas muestras a partir de los raspados de piel, depilación o cepillado. Para la identificación del agente etiológico (Microsporum canis), mediante la LW que se basa en emitir fluorescencia de color verde-amarillenta en caso positivo de la presencia M. canis; mientras que el DTM es un cultivo que permite el crecimiento de agente infeccioso el cual puede ser visto al microscopio, es así como está considerada una prueba microbiológica de tipo selectiva y específica. Resultados. Mostraron que, de los 200 pacientes caninos analizados, el agar DTM se comportó de manera superior 2.26 veces más que la lámpara de Wood, en el diagnóstico de Microsporum canis, no mostró diferencias significativas con respecto al sexo y tipo de muestra tomada (pelo o costra), con valores de 0.069 y 0.145 respectivamente. Conclusiones. concluyendo que le método más eficaz al determinar dermatofitosis por Microsporum canis es el agar diferencial DTM.
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Background and Aim Microsporum canis (M. canis) is a dermatophyte fungal pathogen that causes ringworms. Cats are considered to be a dominant reservoir host enabling M. canis transmission to humans. The concerns of dermatophyte resistance were raised among the usage of antifungal drugs to treat the ringworm. This study aimed to evaluate the fungal activity of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) obtained from Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) as an alternative method for the inhibition of M. canis growth. Materials and Methods The culture plate of M. canis from confirmed cats with ringworm infection was provided. The purification of CLP extract, fengycin, iturin A, and surfactin was carried out from B. subtilis by preparative thin-layer chromatography (PTLC) coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods. Half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) and agar well diffusion assays were performed to determine the efficacy of Bacillus CLP extract, fengycin, iturin A, and surfactin to inhibit the growth of M. canis isolated from cats. Results All purified Bacillus substances displayed antifungal activity to control the growth of M. canis when compared with 80% ethanol (control). EC50 values for CLP extract, fengycin, iturin A, and surfactin were 0.23, 0.05, 0.17, and 0.08 mg/mL, respectively. In agar well diffusion assay, the ability of CLP extract, fengycin, iturin A, and surfactin on fungal inhibition had no statistically significant difference at 24 and 48 h after treatment (p<0.05). However, CLP extract showed a statistically significant difference on M. canis inhibition at 62.21% followed by surfactin with 59.04% at 72 h after treatment. Conclusion In vitro, Bacillus CLPs revealed an inhibitory effect on M. canis growth which is a zoonotic pathogen that causes ringworms. This study suggests an alternative approach to control the growth of M. canis using substances obtained from B. subtilis as a biomedicine agent with antifungal activity.
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Background: Dermatophytosis is one of the most common skin diseases that affects cats and dogs. Geographic factors play an important role in determining prevalence, showing high rates of prevalence in warm and humid environments. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the macroscopic and microscopic identification of different types of dermatophytes present on stray dogs. Methods: The design of this study was laboratory-based research. Each sample was collected from an infection site (nail, hair, or skin) that was identified by conducting a physical examination of a stray dog that was infected with fungi. The skin scraping, nail clipping, and fur cutting samples were collected from infected dogs and then cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The cultures were incubated at 26°C for five weeks. The isolates of fungi were then examined macroscopically and microscopically. The Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) staining technique was used for fungi morphology identification. Results: Overall, the most common type of dermatophytes that affected the dogs were Trichophyton spp. (64.70%), Aspergillus spp. (10.10%), Microsporum spp. (7.20%), and Curvularia spp. (5.60%). Conclusion: This study revealed the most common dermatophyte infections found on stray dogs in Selangor, Malaysia. This study can assist investigators in understanding the prevalence of the dermatophyte burden in stray dogs and help prevent further complication, such as the spread of illness, especially zoonotic infection.
Article
Background Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection that affects humans and is very common in small animals. The treatment using the most commonly used antifungals is failing and new therapeutic alternatives are required to combat the resistance of these fungal infections. Previous studies by the group have shown that clioquinol is an important therapeutic alternative in the treatment of dermatophytosis. Objectives To conduct studies of antidermatophytic activity and the irritant potential from the double and triple combinations of clioquinol, terbinafine and ciclopirox in ex vivo and in vivo alternative models. Methods To evaluate the irritant potential of antifungal combinations, the alternative HET‐CAM method (chicken egg test chorioallantoic membrane) was used. Ex vivo models were used to assess the effectiveness of antifungal combinations, using pig hooves and veterinary fur. Any possible tissue damage was to assess through in histopathology of swine ears. Results HET‐CAM results showed that all combinations can be classified as non‐irritating, corroborated by the results of the histopathological evaluation of the pig's ear skin. Only the double combinations managed to remove 100% of the colony forming units (CFU) formed on the pig's hooves. The clioquinol + terbinafine combination and the triple combination were more effective than clioquinol + ciclopirox in eradicating the preformed biofilm in fur of veterinary origin. Conclusions These results show the potential of formulations of clioquinol in combination with antifungals for use in humans and in the veterinary field to combat dermatophytosis, as an important alternative therapy, for use in the near future.
Article
Background: Dermatophytosis is one of the most frequent superficial mycoses in the world. Main aim To describe the cases of skin dermatophytosis and its main etiologic agents in patients referred to a Mycological Reference Laboratory in Medellín, Colombia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out with records of patients referred between 1994 and 2016 to the Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB), Medellín-Colombia, because of clinical suspicion of skin dermatophytosis. Results: Of a total of 5628 clinical records of patients with suspicion of skin dermatophytosis analyzed, 2780 (49.4%) had a proven or probable dermatophytosis diagnosis, 2774 cultures were performed, and etiologic agents were isolated in 2576 samples (92.9%). The most frequently isolated etiologic agents were Trichophyton rubrum (44.3%), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex (33.3%), Epidermophyton floccosum (12.4%), Nannizzia gypseum complex (5.7%, formerly Microsporum gypseum), Microsporum canis (3.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (0.8%). The most frequent clinical forms were tinea pedis (72.7%) and tinea corporis (12.7%). In addition, a group of patients (0.9%) developed mixed infections by two dermatophyte agents and another (4.1%) developed infections in more than one anatomical site. Conclusions: The results of the present study are coherent with previous reports of where T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex were the main causative agents of dermatophytosis. However, the increased incidence of N. gypsea complex over M. canis is worth highlighting.
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Microsporum canis is a dermatophyte fungus of which cats and dogs are recognized as the natural hosts. M. canis is also easily transmitted to humans, causing lesions to the glabrous skin (tinea corporis) and to the head (tinea capitis). The present study describes some cases of infection with M. canis in children from a veterinary perspective, highlighting some important features of this clinical entity (e.g., the necessity to identify the animal source of infection with appropriate diagnostic tests; the fact that infected cats may present with no or atypical dermatological signs; and the importance of the environment as a fungal reserve).
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Background: Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. Objectives: The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs. Methods: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. Conclusions: No one diagnostic test was identified as the gold standard. Successful treatment requires concurrent use of systemic oral antifungals and topical disinfection of the hair coat. Wood's lamp and direct examinations have good positive and negative predictability, systemic antifungal drugs have a wide margin of safety and physical cleaning is most important for decontamination of the exposed environments. Finally, serious complications of animal-human transmission are exceedingly rare.
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Background: Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Case report: Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Conclusions: Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy.
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With the growing importance of infectious diseases in health care and communicable disease outbreaks garnering increasing attention, new technologies are playing a greater role in helping us prevent health care–associated infections and provide optimal public health. The microbiology laboratory has always played a large role in infection control by providing tools to identify, characterize, and track pathogens. Recently, advances in DNA sequencing technology have ushered in a new era of genomic epidemiology, where traditional molecular diagnostics and genotyping methods are being enhanced and even replaced by genomics-based methods to aid epidemiologic investigations of communicable diseases. The ability to analyze and compare entire pathogen genomes has allowed for unprecedented resolution into how and why infectious diseases spread. As these genomics-based methods continue to improve in speed, cost, and accuracy, they will be increasingly used to inform and guide infection control and public health practices.
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Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (Movp) is considered to be one of the most important mycoplasmas causing respiratory disease in small ruminants. Most epidemiologic and characterisation studies have been conducted on strains collected from sheep. Information on the presence and characteristics of Movp in healthy and pneumonic goats is limited. Phenotypic or genotypic differences between sheep and goat isolates have never been studied. The objective of our study was to characterise and compare the similarities and differences between caprine and ovine Movp strains isolated from affected and asymptomatic animals in order to elucidate phenotypic and genotypic variability. Four different techniques were used on a set of 23 Movp isolates. These included SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, random amplified polymorphic DNA and the heat shock protein 70 gene sequence-based method. A high degree of phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Movp strains was demonstrated in this study. Our results demonstrated differences between goat and sheep strains, revealing not only a link between strains and host ruminant species, but by geographical origin as well. However, the finding of immunodominant antigens of molecular masses 36, 38, 40 and 70 kDa (±3 kDa) in Movp isolates from sheep and goats foretells their potential use in the development of serological diagnostic tests and vaccines.
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Dermatophytoses in animals are fungal diseases of the skin caused by dermatophyte fungi of the genus Microsporum or Trichophyton. Because the infection is generally follicular, the most common clinical sign is one or many circular areas of alopecia with variable erythema, scaling and crusting, and the primary differential diagnoses are follicular infections, such as bacterial folliculitis and demodicosis. Although dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm is the most commonly observed lesion of dermatophytoses in animals, other presentations may be observed according to the host species and the dermatophyte involved: dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm, scaling and crusting in dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor, nodule in case of kerion or mycetoma, matted hairs, seborrheic dermatosis or miliary dermatitis in cats, generalized exfoliative dermatoses in dogs, cats and horses, superficial non-follicular pustules, papules and macules in the Devon Rex cat, pruritic dermatophytoses in dogs, cats and horses, and onychomycosis in dogs, cats and horses. Since manifestations of dermatophytosis are highly variable, particularly in the cat, dermatophytosis should be considered in case of any annular, papular, nodular or pustular dermatoses, alopecic or not, sometimes pruritic, and nodular dermatoses as well.
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Case summary A 10-year-old male neutered British Shorthair cat was presented with a 6 month history of lethargy, weight loss and alopecia. Clinical examination revealed widespread alopecia of the ventral abdomen and hindlimbs. The skin in these areas was smooth and shiny and hairs could be easily epilated. Spontaneous pruritus was observed. Cytological examination of superficial impression smears showed a severe Malassezia species dermatitis and pyoderma. Ectoparasites could not be detected and no sign of dermatophytosis was visible in trichograms and Wood’s lamp analysis. Abdominal ultrasound found a focally thickened wall of the large intestine and multiple nodules in the liver. Fine-needle aspirates from lymph nodes, liver and altered colonic wall were consistent with an undifferentiated malignant neoplasia. The cat was euthanased at the owners’ request, owing to potential neoplasia with metastatic spread. At necropsy a metastasising carcinoma of the colonic wall was found, as well as a paraneoplastic alopecia. Relevance and novel information Feline paraneoplastic alopecia has been reported in association with pancreatic carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as with neuroendocrine pancreatic carcinoma and hepatosplenic plasma cell tumour. This is the first reported case of feline paraneoplastic alopecia associated with a colon carcinoma.
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Dermatophytes are amongst the most common fungal agents causing superficial skin infections. The epidemiology of dermatophytosis has changed during the last century under the influence of socioeconomic factors, modern life, intensification of travel, migration of populations from the southern to the northern hemisphere. As result, Trichophyton rubrum has become the most frequent species worldwide, causing mainly tinea pedis and tinea unguium, while Microsporum canis is still the main agent in tinea corporis and capitis in Mediterranean countries. However, the prevalence of anthropophilic dermatophytes causing tinea capitis in young children is increasing overall in the big cities of Europe and America, causing epidemics and becoming a public health concern. This review summarizes the current status of dermatophyte infection in Europe, Africa, Asia and America and gives an overview of the most recent molecular methods currently available for the laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis.
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Aim: The ringworms of pet dogs, cats, and stray animals (dogs, cats, and other animals) could be a potential source of zoonotic infections causing a serious public health problem in the busy city Kolkata. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to check the prevalence of dermatophytosis in dogs, cats, and in pet owners. Materials and methods: A total of 362 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis from dogs (123 in number), cats (202 in number), and human beings (37 in number) were collected and studied from in and around Kolkata to detect the presence of significant dermatophytes. Direct microscopy and cultural examination of the isolates were performed following standard methodology. Identification and characterization of the isolates were done by different biochemical tests. Results: Samples (n=285) having significant dermatophytic fungal infections were found to be of highest number in cats (158, 55.5%) than in dogs (108, 37.8%) and humans (19, 6.7%), respectively. The incidence of Microsporum canis (60.0%) was the highest from affecting dogs, cats, and human beings in comparison to Microsporum gypseum (22.5%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.8%) and Trichophyton rubrum (1.7%). Detection of T. rubrum was only from human cases in this study, whereas the presence of rest three were slightly higher in cats than that of the dogs and humans in this present study. The incidences were higher in young animals and in humans of the age group of 21-30 years, during the rainy season (from April to August) and also in in-contact human beings. Conclusion: M. canis was the most commonly pathogen among all causing dermatophytosis in animals and also in the pet owners. M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were other pathogens associated with these infections. These infections were more prevalent in the rainy seasons and in in-contact human patients or pet owners.
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Guinea pigs are commonly kept as pet animals; however, information about particular disease prevalence is lacking. The objective of this article was to present disease prevalence in 1000 pet guinea pigs from private owners divided into three age groups: under two years; between two and five years; and above five years. Medical records of guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) that were presented to the authors’ clinic in the period from January 2008 to August 2013 were reviewed. The most commonly diagnosed disease in guinea pigs was dental disease (36.3 per cent), with higher prevalence in the middle age group (P<0.001) and in males (P<0.001) rather than females. Skin problems were seen as the second most common disease (33.3 per cent), with higher prevalence in male guinea pigs (P<0.001) and in animals younger than two years (P<0.001). Ovarian cystic disease was the third most commonly seen disorder, with higher prevalence in females older than two years (P<0.001). Other common health disorders included gastrointestinal stasis, heterotopic ciliary body calcifications, fatty eye and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Only 81 guinea pigs from a total of 1000 animals were healthy. This is the first study to describe the disease prevalence in three age groups of pet guinea pigs.
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The objective of this study was to assess the medical records of the patients whose mycological culture of the hair in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide was positive for dermathophytes, and review the cases of dermatophytosis. One hundred and thirty six medical records of patients (114 dogs and 22 cats) with dermatophytosis attended in a period of 54 months in the Veterinary Hospital of the UNESP – Botucatu were evaluated. Results obtained in this analysis have shown that the majority of the cultures were positive for Mycrosporum canis. There was no statistical difference between genders, but the number of defined breed dogs presenting dermatophytosis was higher than mongrel dogs. Among feline cases, however, there were a higher number of mongrel cats. The majority of the people and animals in contact with the patients did not report skin lesions. 32,5% 0f the dogs presented middle intensity itchiness, while in cats itchiness was absent in 77,3% of cases. 69,3% of the animals did not present clinical signs other than dermatological. Mean ages were 4 years in dogs and 3 years in cats. There was no statistical effect of season in the occurrence of dermatophytosis. Among animals submitted to Wood lamp evaluation, 40,9% of the dogs and 33,3% of the cats were positive for dermatophytes. Most dogs had generalized lesions, while the majority of cats presented focal lesions. The most common lesions observed were: alopecia, crusts and erythema.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os prontuários dos pacientes cuja cultura micológica do pêlo, em meio Ágar Sabouraud dextrose, suplementado com cloranfenicol e ciclohexamida, foi positiva para dermatófitos, e realizar um levantamento da casuística de dermatofitose. Foram avaliados 136 prontuários de pacientes (114 caninos e 22 felinos) com dermatofitose atendidos em período de 54 meses, no Hospital Veterinário da UNESP de Botucatu. Pela análise dos resultados, observou-se que a maioria dos cultivos foi positiva para M. canis. Não foi observada diferença estatística quanto ao sexo dos animais. Os cães de raça definida foram mais acometidos. A maior parte dos felinos era sem raça definida. A maioria dos humanos e animais que mantinham contato com os pacientes não apresentava lesões de pele. 32,5% dos cães apresentavam prurido de intensidade moderada, enquanto nos gatos o prurido estava ausente em 77,3% dos casos. 69,3% dos animais não apresentavam sinais clínicos não dermatológicos. A média aproximada de idades nos caninos foi de quatro anos e de três anos nos felinos. Não houve diferença estatística para a ocorrência da dermatofitose nas diferentes estações do ano. Dos animais avaliados com a Lâmpada de Wood, 40,9% dos cães e 33,3% dos gatos foram positivos. A maior parte dos cães apresentava lesões generalizadas, enquanto na maioria dos gatos eram localizadas. As lesões mais comumente observadas foram: alopecia, crostas e eritema.
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Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view.
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Practical relevance: Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats that, depending on the geographic region and practice caseload, may be encountered uncommonly through to commonly. This is a self-curing disease in an immunocompetent cat. Global importance: Dermatophytosis is prevalent worldwide and is one of a number of zoonotic skin diseases that cat owners are at risk of contracting. Clinical challenges: Dermatophytosis causes non-specific signs of hair loss, erythema and scaling, making it a differential diagnosis for many skin diseases of cats. The fact that this disease is infectious and contagious, and does not have any one classic clinical presentation, makes knowledge of diagnostic tools important in detection. The veterinarian's role is in early disease recognition and institution of appropriate therapy to hasten resolution of the disease. Aim: The focus of this article is to provide an update and review of the most pertinent aspects that may be helpful in the management of dermatophytosis in any single or multiple cat situation. Evidence base: Where appropriate, evidence from the literature is used to supplement a summary of the author's clinical experience and research in feline dermatophytosis.
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Dermatophytosis is caused by a dermatophyte fungus that affects the stratum corneum and keratinized tissue. Dermatophyte fungus has been reported worldwide as the causative agent of dermatophytosis, but the etio-epidemiological aspects of these mycoses in the state of Pará remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the etio-epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis diagnosed in patients at the Evandro Chagas Institute from May 2005 to June 2006. A total of 494 patients were admitted, and their samples were collected, submitted for direct microscopic examination using 20% KOH and cultured in Sabouraud and Mycosel medium. The identification was based in macro and microscopic characteristics. Direct examinations were positive in 13% (66/494) of the patients, and agent isolation by cultivation of the biological sample was successful in 4% (20/494), with a high prevalence of T. mentagrophytes (40%; 8/20). Dermatophytosis was more frequent in women (58%; 38/66). Fifty-two percent (21/38) of the cases were children with an average age of 8 years. The most frequent clinical presentation was Tinea corporis (55%, 36/66). For the cases in which the dermatophyte agent was not isolated, we discuss the factors that may be interfering with isolation. Tinea corporis occurred more frequently observed when T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were the major etiologic agents.
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OVERVIEW: Dermatophytosis, usually caused by Microsporum canis, is the most common fungal infection in cats worldwide, and one of the most important infectious skin diseases in this species. Many adult cats are asymptomatic carriers. Severe clinical signs are seen mostly in kittens or immunosuppressed adults. Poor hygiene is a predisposing factor, and the disease may be endemic in shelters or catteries. Humans may be easily infected and develop a similar skin disease. INFECTION: Infectious arthrospores produced by dermatophytes may survive in the environment for about a year. They are transmitted through contact with sick cats or healthy carriers, but also on dust particles, brushes, clothes and other fomites. DISEASE SIGNS: Circular alopecia, desquamation and sometimes an erythematous margin around central healing ('ringworm') are typical. In many cats this is a self-limiting disease with hair loss and scaling only. In immunosuppressed animals, the outcome may be a multifocal or generalised skin disease. DIAGNOSIS: Wood's lamp examination and microscopic detection of arthrospores on hairs are simple methods to confirm M canis infection, but their sensitivity is relatively low. The gold standard for detection is culture on Sabouraud agar of hairs and scales collected from new lesions. DISEASE MANAGEMENT: In shelters and catteries eradication is difficult. Essential is a combination of systemic and topical treatments, maintained for several weeks. For systemic therapy itraconazole is the drug of choice, terbinafine an alternative. Recommended topical treatment is repeated body rinse with an enilconazole solution or miconazole with or without chlorhexidine. In catteries/shelters medication must be accompanied by intensive decontamination of the environment. VACCINATION: Few efficacy studies on anti-M canis vaccines (prophylactic or therapeutic) for cats have been published, and a safe and efficient vaccine is not available.
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Foram submetidos a exame clínico laboratorial de dermatofitose e inqueridos sobre o possível contato com cães e gatos 158 pacientes residentes na área urbana de Fortaleza, que apresentavam lesões suspeitas de dermatofitose. Esta busca associada aos dados obtidos em questionário permitiram identificar a freqüência de surtos domiciliares. Dentre os 83 dermatófitos isolados de infecções humanas, predominaram as espécies antropofílicas sobre as zoofílicas, tendo sido observado uma confluência de diagnóstico humano e animal em 100% dos casos de dermatofitoses zoofílicas humanas, onde foram identificadas as mesmas espécies no homem e nos animais contactantes: Microsporum canis e Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Já os pacientes portadores de dermatófitos antropofílicos variaram quanto ao contato com animais domésticos, não tendo sido isolado estes fungos de nenhum animal contactante. Diante da baixa freqüência de dermatofitoses zoofílicas, considerou-se que o convívio do homem com cães e gatos domésticos foi pouco representativo como fator condicionante da ocorrência de dermatofitoses no meio urbano.
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Outbreaks of infectious disease often result from exposure to a common source of the etiologic agent. Generally, the etiologic agent causing an outbreak of infection is derived from a single cell whose progeny are genetically identical or closely related to the source organism. In epidemiological terms, the organisms involved in the outbreak are clonally related; that is, they have a common origin. Clonally related organisms are members of the same species that share virulence factors, bio- chemical traits, and genomic characteristics. However, there is sufficient diversity at the species level that organisms isolated from different sources at different times and in different geo- graphical regions may be differentiated or classified into sub- types or strains.
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Between January, 1, 1986 and December, 31, 2000, dermatological specimens from 10.678 animals (7.650 cats and 3.028 dogs) were examined for dermatophytes. All the animals presented clinical signs of ringworm. Two thousand-four hundred fifty-six of the 10.678 (23%) examined animals scored positive for dermatophytes, 566 out of 3.028 canine (18.7%) and 1890 out of 7.650 feline specimens (24.7%). Microsporum canis constituted 83% and 97% of the isolated dermatophytes respectively in dogs and cats, M. gypseum represented 13% and 2.6% and T. mentagrophytes 5.5% and 0.2%. A sexual predisposition for mycotic infections was not observed. The animals with less than 1 year of age were more frequently infected. Canine toy breeds showed a significantly higher (P < 0.001) prevalence of infections by M. canis. Microsporum gypseum was mostly recorded from sporting (hunting) breeds [such as T. mentagrophytes (6.7%)]. Microsporum canis was isolated from long-haired cats with a ratio of 2:1 versus short-haired cats, while M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were never recovered from Persian cats. The annual distribution of the infections in dogs showed a significantly higher incidence for M. gypseum in summer versus winter and spring, while the recovery rate of M. canis from cats was very significantly higher in fall and winter than in summer and spring. Trichophyton mentagrophytes did not show a similar seasonal distribution.
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Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus the environment. The environments inhabited by 30 symptomatic animals (21 cats and 9 dogs) infected by M canis were examined by sampling both surfaces and indoor air. The surfaces were examined by means of contact plates; the air sampling was performed with a Sas super-100 AIR SAMPLER (PBI, Italy). Environmental contamination was detected in all households with cats, while only four out of nine houses harbouring dogs were found positive. The frequence of isolation in each sampling, and the results in terms of colony forming units per plate in the different houses appeared to be quite homogeneous. Heavily infected environments harboured kittens only. Infected owners were observed in eight households, in all of which at least one infected cat was present. No history of human dermatophytosis in households harbouring dogs was found. On the basis of our results, infected cats appear to cause substantial environmental contamination, and provoke a substantial presence of viable airborne fungal elements. Dogs seem to be of lower importance in the spread of M CANIS: they contaminated surfaces, but they never contaminated the air. The results of this study confirm the potential leading role of the feline species in the environmental spread of M canis.
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Dermatophytosis are superficial mycoses caused by fungi that can invade stratum corneum and keratinized tissues. In order to study the frequency of dermatophytes species and the clinical manifestations caused by these fungi, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, the authors analyzed cultures isolated at the Mycology Laboratory from a selected population (15,300 out-patients of the Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine of University of São Paulo) from January 1992 to June 2002. The most prevalent dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (48.7%), followed by Microsporum canis (20.9%), Trichophyton tonsurans (13.8%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (9.7%), Epidermophyton floccosum (4.1%), and Microsporum gypseum (2.5%). These agents determined more than one clinical manifestation, i.e., tinea corporis (31.5%), tinea capitis (27.5%), tinea unguium (14.8%), tinea cruris (13.9%), tinea pedis (9.9%), and tinea manuum (1.9%). Clinical variants of dermatophytosis and their relationship to the etiologic agents were studied and the results were compared to those obtained in previous studies in other regions of Brazil and in other countries.
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Trichophyton rubrum is an important cause of dermatomycoses. Molecular strain typing methods have recently been developed to address questions about epidemiology and source of relapse following treatment. This report describes the application of RAPD for molecular strain differentiation of this fungus utilizing the primers 1- (5'-d[GGTGCGGGAA]-3') and 6- (5'-d[CCCGTCAGCA]-3'). A total of five RAPD patterns were observed among 10 strains of T. rubrum, with each of the primers used. We conclude that RAPD analysis using primers 1 and 6 can be used in epidemiological studies.
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Cutaneous infections and infestations are common among children and adolescents. Ectoparasitic infestations affect individuals across the globe. Head lice, body lice, scabies, and infestations with bed bugs are seen in individuals who reside in both resource poor areas and in developed countries. Superficial cutaneous and mucosal candida occur throughput the life cycle. Dermatophyte infections of keratin-containing skin and skin structures result in tinea capitis (scalp), tinea corporis (body), tinea pedis (foot), and tinea unguium (nails). Less frequent endemic fungal infections such as blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, and histoplasmosis may present with skin findings. This article will describe the epidemiology and transmission of these conditions as well as their clinical manifestations. The approach to diagnosis will be addressed as well as primary prevention and current therapies.
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Candida albicans is the most prevalent opportunistic fungus of humans and animals. While most studies focus on human isolates, they rarely focus on poultry isolates. In this study, C. albicans strains were recovered from poultry in the southern Hebei Province (China) and identified. Molecular typing and analyses were performed to understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of the strains. The fungi were isolated from live birds with presumed candidiasis or their corpses. The isolates were identified based on morphology, differential medium culture, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequencing. The identified C. albicans strains were analyzed by ABC genotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Clonal groups were identified using the eBURST (version 3.0) software, and an UPGMA phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA (version 6.06) software. Overall, 72 isolates were divided into three genotypes (A, B, and C), 48 novel sequence types (STs), five groups with 10 singletons, and four clades. Results indicated that candidiasis is common in poultry in the southern Hebei Province, and that the genetic composition of the C. albicans poultry population from the area is relatively complicated. Based on the eBURST analysis for the STs in this study and others, we suggest that C. albicans poultry isolates were relatively independent but not completely separated from human isolates. The strains with the same or closely related genotypes but recovered from both birds and humans could have transferred and evolved between the two types of host.
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Objectives: Superficial and cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are an important public health problem and are common in tropical and subtropical countries. Pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, erythrasma, onychomycosis, and otomycosis are the major diseases associated with SCFIs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative agents of dermatomycoses over a period of 10 years in Kerman Province, southeast Iran. Methods: A number of 1782 subjects, including 1096 females and 686 males, with cutaneous disorders in their skin, nail, and hair suspected to have SCFIs participated in this study. The collected specimens were examined using direct microscopy examination, staining, culture on specific media and PCR-RFLP technique. Results: In total, 617 (34.62%) subjects had SCFIs, of whom 290 (47%) were female and 327 (53%) were male. Identified SCFIs included yeast infections, dermatophytosis, saprophyte onychomycosis, erythrasma, and otomycosis due to non-dermatophytic molds (NDMs). The highest prevalence of dermatomycoses was found among the 41-50-year and 31-40-year age groups. Tinea unguium was the most common clinical pattern of dermatomycoses, and T. mentagrophytes was the predominant agent. Also, Aspergillus spp. were the most common NDMs agents of onychomycosis and otomycosis. Conclusions: This study summarized the epidemiological trends and etiologic agents of SCFIs in a 10-year period in Kerman, southeast Iran. Consideration of the current epidemiologic trends in the prevalence and knowledge of the exact causative agents of SCFIs may play an important key role towards further investigations, diagnosis, and modification of current treatments.
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Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection.
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In a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. Aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. Detection of feline and fungal DNA was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. Most of the subcutaneous infections in cats were caused by Alternaria spp. (63.5%), followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (7.7%), Histoplasma capsulatum (5.8%), Sporothrix spp. (3.8%), Aspergillus vitricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala attenuata, Fusarium oxysporum, Lecythophora cateniformis, Microsporum canis, and Phialophora sp. (1.9% each). The results from molecular identification indicate that correct identifications of the fungal pathogens by histology alone were rarely possible. The spectrum of fungal pathogens identified after DNA extraction from FFPE samples was much broader than that expected by classical histopathology. This was especially noted in alternariosis in that the micromorphological pattern in tissue was misleading and could be confused with that of cryptococcosis. Due to different susceptibilities to antifungal agents, it is important to arrive at a definitive diagnosis, which might be possible by examination of the fungus recovered in culture and/or molecular methods, in addition to the histopathologic techniques. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Article
ABSTRACTA total of 181 dermatologically healthy pet cats from 177 different households, attending a veterinary clinic, were sampled for the presence of dermatophytes by a modified MacKenzie hair brush technique. Microsporum canis was the only dermatophyte recovered and was isolated from four cats (2.2 per cent) from four different households. In addition to clinical details, owners were questioned about the environment and management of all the cats sampled. The data regarding the cats from which M canis was recovered showed little variation from that of the culture-negative cats except that all four cats were from multi-cat (more than two cats) households, whereas only 35 per cent of the culture-negative cats were from a similar environment. The viability of M canis in infected feline hairs stored at room temperature was maintained for between 13 and 18 months.
Article
The patient was a 19-year-old female student who purchased a puppy from a pet shop four weeks earlier. At the time of her first examination, an annular edematous erythema with adherent scales and vesicles surrounding its margin was seen on the left forearm. On direct examination of the vesicles, fungal elements were detected, and Microsporum canis was isolated. The puppy was a Pomeranian and was kept in the house at all times. No clinical lesions were seen on the puppy, and the Wood's lamp test was negative. However, M. canis was isolated from the animal by the hairbrush method. Symptoms disappeared after the patient was treated topically with terbinafine cream for three weeks. Although the dog received no treatment whatsoever, there was no evidence of the disease on the pet. Results of the hairbrush method performed on the pet two and three weeks later were negative, but, at five weeks, it was again positive. Human infection with M. canis from an asymptomatic dog was demonstrated in this case. Attention should be paid to preventing infections from animals without lesions.
Article
In urban environments, pet animals such as dogs and cats may be largely responsible for the progressive increase of zoophilic over anthropophilic dermatophytes in the aetiology of human dermatophytoses. Mapping, in each city, of the natural foci of zoophilic dermatophytes may thus be important for understanding the epidemiology of human dermatophytoses, and for planning preventive measures. We have surveyed dogs and cats suspected of carrying dermatophytic lesions in the Turin area. Hairs, skin scrapings and the contents of pustules or vesicles were inoculated on Dermasel agar supplemented with choramphenicol and cycloheximide. The mating type of the isolates was checked, testing their compatibility with the two mating types of Arthroderma simii Stockdale, Mackenzie and Austwick. We isolated dermatophytes from about 40% of the cases examined. Microsporum canis Bodin was the only dermatophyte found in the lesions. In the cats the lesions were more frequent, in the dogs more severe. Animals less than a year old and male dogs were most often affected. Some cases of transmission of the infection between animals and from animals to man are described. All the isolates of M. canis, tested for mating behaviour, were non-reactive.
Article
To evaluate the presence of keratinophilic fungi in the environment, 400 samples were collected from the floors of 50 private veterinary clinics using 55-mm-diameter 'contact plates', containing mycobiotic agar. After incubation for 15 days at 25 degrees C, the following species were isolated: Microsporum canis, Trichophyton terrestre, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton ajelloi, Chrysosporium tropicum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum and Chrysosporium pannorum. It is concluded that the keratinic material shed by infected pets may contribute to the development and propagation of dermatophytes and related fungi in veterinary clinics. Therefore, such veterinary clinics may represent sites where pets and humans are exposed to risk of infection with keratinophilic fungi from the environment.
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Strain typing is an integral part of epidemiological investigations of nosocomial infections. Methods for distinguishing among bacterial strains have improved dramatically over the last 5 years, due mainly to the introduction of molecular technology. Although not all molecular techniques are equally effective for typing all organisms, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is the technique currently favored for most nosocomial pathogens. Criteria to aid epidemiologists in interpreting results have been published. Nucleic acid amplification-based typing methods also are applicable to many organisms and can be completed within a single day, but interpretive criteria still are under debate. Strain typing cannot be used to replace a sound epidemiological investigation, but serves as a useful adjunct to such investigations.
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In 64 patients with culturally proven Microsporum canis infections, Wood's light examination was performed. In 30 patients (47%) the characteristic fluorescence correlated with the cultural findings, whereas in the remaining 34 patients (53%), Microsporum canis was isolated, although Wood's light examination was negative. Of the 30 positive and 34 negative cases eight patients of each group had been pre-treated. From the results presented, Wood's light examination has a poor sensitivity in cases of Microsporum canis-infections. Zusammenfassung. An 64 Patienten mit erwiesencr Microsporum canis-Infektion wurden Wood-Licht-Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Bei 30 Patienten (47%) korrelierte die charakieristische Fluoreszenz mit den kulturellen Befunden, während bei den übrigen 34 Patienten (53%) die Wood-Licht-Inspektion negativ war. Von den 30 positiv und 34 negativ befundeten Patienten waren 8 aus jeder Gruppe vorbehandelt. Nach diesen Ergebnissen hat die Wood-Licht-Untersuchung bei M. canis-Infektionen nur eine geringe Sensitivität.
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Trichophyton rubrum is an important cause of onychomycosis. Molecular strain typing methods have recently been developed to address questions of epidemiology and source of relapse following treatment. To determine whether T. rubrum nail infections are caused by one or more strains of this fungus. Nail specimens from 10 patients with onychomycosis due to T. rubrum were cultured and five colonies per culture plate were selected for molecular strain typing. DNA was extracted from these isolates and subjected to a polymerase chain reaction-based typing method that analyses variations in numbers of repetitive elements in the non-transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene repeats. In six of 10 specimens, there were two or more T. rubrum strain types present. This preliminary study suggests that in many cases of fungal nail infection by T. rubrum, multiple strains are involved. This has important implications for epidemiological studies and possibly for therapy.
Article
The aims of this study were to compare the genetic relatedness of: (i) sequential and single isolates of Candida strains from women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVC); and (ii) Candida strains from women who had only one episode of infection within a 1-year period. In total, 87 isolates from 71 patients were cultured, speciated and genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Patients were categorized into three groups, namely those with: (i) a history of RVC from whom two or more yeast isolates were obtained (group A); (ii) a history of RVC from whom only a single isolate was obtained (group B); and (iii) a single episode of vaginal candidiasis within a 1-year period (group C). Six yeast species were detected: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida famata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Interestingly, the prevalence of non-albicans species was higher in group A patients (50 %) than in patients in groups B (36 %) or C (18.9 %). Eighty RAPD profiles were observed, with a total of 61 polymorphic PCR fragments of distinct sizes. Clustering analysis showed that, overall, the majority of patients in group A had recurrent infections caused by highly similar, but not identical, sequential strains [mean pairwise similarity coefficient (S(AB)) = 0.721 +/- 0.308]. The range of mean S(AB) values for intergroup comparisons for C. albicans isolates alone was 0.50-0.56, suggesting that there was no significant relatedness between strains from different groups. Genetic similarity of C. albicans isolates from patients in group A was lower than that of C. albicans isolates from patients in group C (mean S(AB) = 0.532 +/- 0.249 and 0.636 +/- 0.206, respectively); this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.036). These results demonstrate that the cause of recurrent infections varies among individuals and ranges between strain maintenance, strain microevolution and strain replacement; the major scenario is strain maintenance with microevolution. They also show that C. albicans strains that cause recurrent infections are less similar to each other than strains that cause one-off infections, suggesting that the former may represent more virulent subtypes.
Article
Over a one year period (November 2000-December 2001), clinical specimens from 189 dogs and 38 cats, from the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, were examined at the Specialized Medical Mycology Center at the Federal University of Ceará to detect animals with dermatophytoses. The mycological analyses were conducted by direct microscopy and by fungal culture on Sabouraud agar, Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar and Mycosel agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 27 of the 189 (14.3%) canine specimens and 14 of the 38 (36.8%) feline specimens. The identified dermatophytes were Microsporum canis (95%), M. gypseum (2.5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (2.5%). Microsporum canis was the most common species isolated (92.6% and 100%, for dogs and cats respectively). The percentage of positive direct microscopic examinations of clinical specimens and positive cultures was 61%. There was a high proportion of positive cultures from cats less than 1 year of age, but in dogs no significant differences were detected. There were no significant differences between the sexes. Dermatophytes were more frequently isolated in March, April and May, but no significant differences were detected in the seasonal distribution of canine and feline dermatophytoses.
Article
Over a 3-year period (March 1999 to March 2002), 944 patients with scalp lesions attended a dermatology reference center in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Clinical specimens were examined at the Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, to detect patients with tinea capitis. Specimens were obtained from pus, scales, and hairs from suspected lesions of tinea capitis. Mycologic analyses were conducted by direct microscopy and by fungal culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar, with or without chloramphenicol and Mycosel agar. The culture tubes were incubated at 28 degrees C and examined daily for 1 month. Fungi were seen in 438 (46.4%) of the 944 clinical specimens. The percentage of positive direct microscopic examinations of the clinical specimens was 83.7%. Of those patients with tinea capitis, 157 (35.8%) were males and 281 (64.2%; P < 0.001) were females. The distribution of dermatophyte species in males, from 136 positive cultures, was Trichophyton tonsurans (54.41%), Microsporum canis (38.97%), T. rubrum (4.41%), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (1.47%), and M. gypseum (0.74%). On the other hand, only three species, from 251 positive cultures, were present in females: T. tonsurans (80.08%), M. canis (17.53%), and T. rubrum (2.39%). There was a high proportion of positive results in children under 10 years of age (n = 309). No significant difference was detected in the seasonal distribution of tinea capitis. Our data show that T. tonsurans is the main etiologic agent of tinea capitis, and is more likely to be found in females and in the prepubertal population.
Article
A total of 424 animals (268 dogs and 156 cats) with skin lesions (alopecia and peripheral scaling) were examined from January 1999 to December 2002. Of the 424 samples examined, 99 (23.3%) yielded a positive culture and, in particular, 20.5% of the dog samples and 28.2% of the cat samples. Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated from dogs and cats (77.7%), followed by geophilic dermatophyte species (M. gypseum, Trichophyton terrestre). Young dogs and cats, especially those younger than 1 year, showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of M. canis infection than older animals. No statistically significant association was found between infection and sex in cats, while male dogs were more affected by dermatophytes. Among breeds, Yorkshire terriers showed the highest positivity (50%) caused mainly by M. canis (46.6%), while no differences were noticed for cats. A significantly higher prevalence of positive samples was registered in summer and in autumn for cats. The presence of dermatophytes was not associated with itching. The diagnostic value of Wood's lamp fluorescence and microscopic examination proved to be scarce compared with fungal cultures as only 45.5% of the 77 samples that tested positive for M. canis at the cultural examination was positive under Wood's lamp florescence and 53.2% at microscopic examination.
Article
The proportion of positive samples in relation to the number of samples examined from cases of dog and cat dermatophytosis varies considerably from one investigation to another. In dogs, it ranges between 4% and 10% and few studies show higher prevalences. On the other hand, the percentages of positive cultures cited in the reviewed literature from dogs with or without suspected dermatophytosis are quite similar. In dogs with suspected lesions of dermatophytosis, with few exceptions, Microsporum canis is the most common species isolated. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum are less frequently isolated. In cats the prevalence of dermatophytes is usually higher than in dogs, and it is usually higher than 20%. However the frequency of positive findings is higher in cats with suspected dermatophytosis than in cats without visible lesions, with the exception of asymptomatic infected cats and transient carrier cats. Cats are accepted as the principal reservoir for M. canis. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice in canine and feline dermatophytosis.
Article
This study investigated the possible correlation between the phenotypical and genotypical characteristics of Microsporum canis isolated from cats and dogs in north-east Brazil. The mycological study was conducted by direct microscopic examination and by fungal culture. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme analysis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques were used for the genotypical analysis. The morphological analysis showed a considerable diversity of colonies as well as different morphologies of conidia, despite the M. canis strains having been isolated under the same conditions. However, the molecular analysis showed that all analysed strains are genetically similar. This study, based on phenotypical and molecular analysis, evidences the wide spectrum of phenotypical variations in M. canis in contrast to the stable genotypes of such dermatophytes. The findings of this study indicate that M. canis isolated from cats and dogs with dermatophytosis in north-east Brazil may be clones, well adapted to the conditions of this region, despite M. canis showing different morphological features.
Article
Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis. Molecular strain-typing methods have recently been developed to tackle epidemiological questions and the problem of relapse following treatment. A total of 67 strains of T. rubrum were screened for genetic variation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, with two primers, 5'-d[GGTGCGGGAA]-3' and 5'-d[CCCGTCAGCA]-3', as well as by subrepeat element analysis of the nontranscribed spacer of rDNA, using the repetitive subelements TRS-1 and TRS-2. A total of 12 individual patterns were recognized with the first primer and 11 with the second. Phylogenetic analysis of the RAPD products showed a high degree of similarity (>90 %) among the epidemiologically related clinical isolates, while the other strains possessed 60 % similarity. Specific amplification of TRS-1 produced three strain-characteristic banding patterns (PCR types); simple patterns representing one copy of TRS-1 and two copies of TRS-2 accounted for around 85 % of all isolates. It is concluded that molecular analysis has important implications for epidemiological studies, and RAPD analysis is especially suitable for molecular typing in T. rubrum.
Article
Microsporum canis has been frequently isolated from human cases of tinea capitis and tinea corporis. The infection may be acquired from infected animals with cutaneous lesions but also from asymptomatic carriers or from the environment. As asymptomatic M. canis carriers are considered to be a critical factor in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in humans, this study investigated the relationship between the presence of dermatophytes on the hair coats of dogs and cats without cutaneous lesions and the occurrence of the disease in their respective owners. A total of 136 dogs and 248 cats were sampled from January 1999 to January 2005. Seventy-eight animals (22 dogs and 56 cats) belonged to individuals affected by tinea corporis caused by M. canis and 306 (114 dogs and 192 cats) to individuals without dermatophytosis. Age, sex, breed, habitat and season were recorded for each animal and examined as potential risk factors. Dermatophytes were isolated from 20.5% of the dogs and 28.2% of the cats. Microsporum canis was isolated from 36.4% of dogs cohabiting with owners diagnosed with tinea corporis but it was never isolated from dogs whose owners had no lesions. By contrast, M. canis was isolated from 53.6% of cats cohabiting with owners diagnosed with tinea corporis and from 14.6% of cats whose owners had no signs of the disease. These results clearly indicate that both cats and dogs should be considered as a major source of pathogenic dermatophytes for humans even when they do not present clinical signs of dermatophytosis.
Article
Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities, high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible for the majority of the cases, viz. Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton equinum and Trichophyton verrucosum, as also the geophilic species Microsporum gypseum. According to the host and the fungal species involved, the typical aspect of dermatophytic lesions may be modified. As a consequence, an accurate clinical examination, a good differential diagnosis and laboratory analyses are required for a correct identification. Few antifungal agents are available and licenced for use in veterinary practice, and the use of systemic drugs is limited in livestock due to the problems of residues in products intended for human consumption. The high resistance of the dermatophyte arthroconidia in the environment, the multiplicity of host species, and the confinement of animals in breedings are cause of an enzootic situation in many cases. Prevention is difficult, but research development on the immune response to dermatophytes and the use of vaccination, especially in cattle, have brought some interesting results.