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Nutritional Status of Some Aromatic Plants Grown to Produce Volatile Oils Under Treated Municipal Wastewater Irrigation


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To avoid any contamination risk of edible crops, the safety use of treated municipal wastewater is growing industrial non-food crops such as aromatic plants to produce volatile oils for manufacturing soaps, cosmetics and perfumes, etc. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in a sandy soil to investigate the influence of treated domestic sewage effluents or freshwater (control) on the essential oils of geranium, peppermint, fennel, marjoram, and chamomile plants. In the first experiment, the plants were irrigated with treated domestic sewage effluents without mineral fertilizers addition, while in the second the plants irrigated with fresh water and received the mineral fertilizers. Heavy metals accumulation in plant organs and the nutritional status of plants were studied. Results indicated that the treated municipal waste water contain obvious amount of nutrients sufficiently for growing the tested crops and the plants had higher herb yield than that irrigated with fresh water. Irrigation of geranium and fennel plants with wastewater caused a significant increment in the essential oils concentration, but lowered it in peppermint and sweet marjoram plants. The oil yields of five crops were higher under wastewater irrigation and with geranium plants exceeded than that irrigated with fresh water. Uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in plant parts was varied. No detectable amount of the potential toxic elements was recorded in the essential oils of the tested aromatic plants. From this standpoint, treated municipal waste water can be used for growing aromatic plants in the arid area without mineral fertilizers addition to produce volatile oils without causing any reduction in quantity and quality of volatile oils.
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ISSN: 2087-3948
Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 22-29 E-ISSN: 2087-3956
May 2013
Response of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals combined
with fertilization
1Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department, National Research Centre, Dokki 12311, Giza, Egypt. Tel. +202-3366-9948, +202-33669955,
Fax: +202-3337-0931, email:
2Departement of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Plant Production and Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University,P.O.Box 6622, Buhrida 51452, Al-
Qassim; Saudi Arabia
Manuscript received: 11 April 2013. Revision accepted: 5 May 2013.
Abstract. Hendawy SF, Hussein MS, Youssef AA, El-Mergawi RA. 2013. Response of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals
combined with fertilization. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 22-29. This study was investigated to evaluate the influence of different kinds of
organic and bio fertilization under different irrigation intervals on the growth, production and chemical constituents of Sylibium
marianum plant. Data indicated that all studied growth and yield characters were significantly affected by the duration of irrigation
intervals. Fertilizer treatments had a primitive effect on growth and yield characters. The interaction between irrigation intervals and
fertilizer treatments has a clear considerable effect on growth and yield characters. The obtained results indicated the favorable effect of
organic and bio fertilizers which reduce the harmful effect of water stress. Different treatments had a pronounced effect on silymarin content.
Key words: Sylibium marianum, silymarin, bio fertilization and irrigation intervals.
Abstrak. Hendawy SF, Hussein MS, Youssef AA, El-Mergawi RA. 2013. Respons tanaman Silybum marianum terhadap interval irigasi
yang dikombinasi dengan pemupukan. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 22-29. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh berbagai
jenis pupuk organik dan hayati dengan interval irigasi yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi dan kandungan kimia tanaman
Sylibium marianum. Data menunjukkan bahwa semua sifat pertumbuhan dan produksi yang diteliti secara signifikan dipengaruhi oleh
durasi interval irigasi. Perlakuan pemupukan berpengaruh nyata terhadap karakter pertumbuhan dan hasil panen. Interaksi antara interval
irigasi dan perlakuan pemupukan berpengaruh besar pada karakter pertumbuhan dan hasil panen. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan
efek menguntungkan dari pupuk organik dan hayati yang dapat mengurangi efek berbahaya cekaman air. Perlakuan yang berbeda
berpengaruh kuat terhadap kandungan silymarin.
Kata kunci: Fagus orientalis, serat, sifat biometri, pohon unggul.
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), a member
of the Mediterranean Basin, as a crop and weed on
agricultural plantations, it occurs in many European
countries, North Africa, South and North America, Central
and Western Asia and southern Australia (Carrier et al.
2002).The pharmaceutical compound of milk thistle is
derived from its fruits, which are achenes (Fructus silybi
mariani). In their dry pericarp and seed coat the plant
accumulates a group of flavonolignans commonly referred
to as silymarin (Cappelletti and Caniato 1984). Taxifolin is
their precursor. The main flavonolignans of milk thistle are
silybinin, isosilybinin, silydianin and silychristin. Several
other compounds of that type have also been identified, but
their importance in the silymarin complex is insignificant
(Kurkin et al. 2001). Silymarin, derived from the seeds of
milk thistle plant has been used widely for the treatment of
toxic liver damage (Dewick 1998). Silymarin primarily
consists of an isomeric mixture of six phenolic compounds:
silydianin, silychristin, diastereoisomers of silybin (silybin
A and B), and diastereoisomers of isosilybin (isosilybin A
and B) (Lee et al. 2007).
The compost must be added to conventional NPK
fertilizer to improve soil structure, making the soil easier to
cultivate, encouraging root development, providing plant
nutrients and enabling their increased uptake by plants.
Moreover, compost aids water absorption and retention by
the soil, reducing erosion and run-off and thereby
protecting surface waters from sedimentation, help binding
agricultural chemicals, keeping them out of water ways and
protecting ground water from contamination (leaMaster et
al. 1998). Compost has already been established as a
recommended fertilizer for improving the productivity of
several medicinal and aromatic plants, as peppermint
(O’Brien and Barker 1996), Tagetes erecta (Khalil et al.
2002), Sideritis montana (El-Sherbeny et al. 2005), Ruta
graveolens (Naguib et al. 2007) and Dracocephalum
moldavica L. ( Amer 2008). Compost tea is a highly
concentrated microbial solution produced by extracting
HENDAWY et al. – Response of Silybum marianum to irrigation and fertilizer 23
beneficial microbes from vermicompost and or compost.
Compost tea provides direct nutrition as a source of foliar
and soil organic nutrient and as chelated micronutrients for
easy plant absorption. Also, compost tea provide microbial
functions, that compete with disease causing microbes,
degrade toxic pesticides, produce plant growth hormones,
mineralize plant available nutrients and fix nitrogen
(Hendawy 2008).
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Endogonaceae)
form a mutualistic relationship with the roots of most plant
species. This plant-fungus association involves the
translocation of carbon from the plant to the fungus and
enhanced uptake and transport of soil nutrients, primarily
phosphorus, to the plant via the fungus (Newman and
Reddel 1987). Other potential benefits of AM fungal
colonization to host plants include improved uptake of
poorly mobile nutrients such as zinc (Gildon and Tinker
1983), improved plant water relations (Allen and Allen
1986) and reduced pathogenic infections (Newsham, et al.
1995). AMF can also benefit plants by stimulating the
production of growth regulating substances, increasing
photosynthesis, improving osmotic adjustment under
drought and salinity stresses and increasing resistance to
pests and soil borne diseases (Al-Karaki 2006).
However, water deficit is a limiting factor in
production of many field crops (Kafi and Mahdavi
Damghani 2001; Munns 2002) and water stress causes
different morphological, physiological and biochemical
changes including: leaf area reduction, leaf senescence and
reduction in cell development (Kafi and Mahdavi
Damghani 2001), stomatal closure (Safar-Nezhad 2003)
and photosynthetic limitation (Kafi and Mahdavi
Damghani 2001). It appears that the effect
of water stress on economic yields of
medicinal plants which are mainly
secondary metabolites, are somehow
positive (Baher et al. 2002). In many cases,
a moderate stress could enhance the content
of secondary metabolites.
This current experiment targeted the
evaluation of the influence of different kinds
of organic and bio fertilization under
different irrigation intervals on the growth,
production and chemical constituents of
Sylibium marianum plant.
Field experiment
The field experiment was carried out at
El-Nubareia Research Station (El-Behira
Governorate, Egypt), National Research
Centre, to investigate the influence of
Chemical, organic and bio fertilizers under
different irrigation intervals on growth,
yield and chemical constituents of milk
The experiment was set up on sand loam soil as shown
in Table 1.
Table 1. Main characteristics of soil
Characteristics Value
Mechanical analysis
Sand% 68.08
Silt% 16.00
Clay% 15.92
Texture Sandy loam
Chemical analysis
PH 1:2.5ext. 8.50
Ca Co3 21.70
Electrical conductivity 1:2.5ext 0.61
Soluble cations meq/l
Ca++ 3.38
Mg++ 3.62
Soluble anions meq/l
Macro-elements (ppm)
N 30.00
P 20.00
K 368.00
Micro-elements (ppm)
Zn 0.28
Mn 2.50
Fe 3.70
Cu 0.96
Figure 1. Inflorescense of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.)
5 (1): 22-29, May 2013
Experiment design and agronomic practices
The fertilization factor experiment was set up in a
randomized design in three replicates.
Experimental treatments
A. Irrigation every 3 days
1. NPK (100 kg super phosphate+150 kg nitrate ammonium+50
kg potassium sulphate).
2. Compost 20m3/feddan
3. Compost 20m3/feddan+mycorrhiza
4. Compost 20m3/feddan+compost tea 20 L/feddan
5. Compost 20m3/feddan+compost tea 20 L/feddan+mycorrhiza
B. Irrigation every 6 days
6. NPK (100 kg super phosphate+150 kg nitrate ammonium+50
kg potassium sulphate) as control.
7. Compost 20m3/feddan
8. Compost 20m3/feddan+mycorrhiza
9. Compost 20m3/feddan+compost tea 20 L/feddan
10. Compost 20m3/feddan+compost tea 20 L/feddan+mycorrhiza
C. Irrigation every 9 days
11. NPK (100 kg super phosphate+150 kg nitrate ammonium+50
kg potassium sulphate) as control.
12. Compost 20m3/feddan
13. Compost 20m3/feddan+mycorrhiza
14. Compost 20m3/feddan+compost tea 20 L/feddan
15. Compost 20m3/feddan+compost tea 20 L/feddan+mycorrhiza
The seeds were directly sown in 20th of October 2010.
Each plot was 13.5 m2 consisting of 9 rows with a distance
of 50 cm between the rows and 30 cm between each
successive plant.. Weeding and thinning was done after 30
days of plantation. Recommended agronomic practices
were adopted.
Super phosphate or compost was added during
preparing soil. The other chemical fertilizers (Ammonium
nitrate and Potassium sulphate were divided into two equal
portions during the growing season, the 1st portion was
added after one month of sowing, while the second one was
applied after one month from the 1st. Tea compost (Table 2,
3) was sprayed after 60 days from sowing and repeated
after 15 days.Vesicular arbscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi
which contained 3 effective strains representing Glomus
etunicatum, Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus intraradices.
VAM fungi was used for soil inoculation. The VAM
inoculation was applied into sowing hills at a rate of 5
mL/hill. The amount contained about 200 VAM spores/hill.
The effect of the above treatments was measured by
plant height, branches number, capitula number/plant, seed
yield and silymarin content.
Table 2. Microbial population of organic compost tea
Constituent Value
Bacterial Plate Count (CFU/ml) 7.1 X 107
Bacterial Direct Count (Cell/ml) 6.4 X 108
Spore Forming Bacteria (CFU/ml) 7 X 104
Total Fungi (CFU/ml) 2.8 X 105
Table 3. Chemical analysis of organic compost tea
Constituent Value
Bulk Density kg/m3 510
Moisture Content% 18.2
Electrical conductivity dS/m 9.65
PH 7.6
Total Organic Carbon% 24.6
Total Organic Matter% 42.41
Total Nitrogen% 1.35
C/N Ratio 18.22
NH4-N, mg/kg 880
NO3-N, mg/kg 450
Total Phosphorus% 1.6
av. Phosphorus mg/kg 410
Total Potassium% 2.3
av. Potassium mg/kg 620
Trace Element (ppm)
Fe 960
Zn 280
Mn 320
Cu 140
Note: Nematodes (nil), Weeds germination (nil), Parasites (nil),
Pathogenic (nil), Humus value (5)
Extraction procedure
Silymarin content was extracted according to ( Cacho et
al. 1999). Gram of seeds were defated in a Soxhlet
apparatus with 50 mL of petroleum-ether at 40-60 oC for 12
h. The residue was extracted with 50 mL of methanol at 65-
70 oC over 8 h. The methanolic solution was concentrated
to a dry residue. The extract was dissolved in 10 mL of
HPLC analysis
HPLC was carried out using an HPLC pump monitored
at 280 nm by a UV detector and quantified by an integrator.
A Shim-pack C18 ( 1250 x 4.6 mm ID) column was used,
eluting with MeOH-H2O-AcOH 40:60:5, at a flow rate of 2
mL/min. Mixture of flavonolignans obtained from Alex
Pharm, Egypt (specifications: Silychristin 25% Rt 2.94
min, silydianin 9.7% Rt 3.64 min, silybin A 21.3% Rt 7.84
min, silybin B 32% Rt 9.18 min, isosilbin A 8.7% Rt 13.61
min and isosilybin B 3% Rt 15.18 min).
Vegetative growth and yield
Irrigation intervals
Data tabulated in Table 4 indicated that all studied
growth and yield characters were significantly affected by
the duration of irrigation intervals.
By increasing the severity and duration of drought from
3 days to 9 days, plant height (cm) showed significant
reduction. Such reduction in plant height in response to
drought may be due to blocking up of xylem and phloem
vessels thus hindering any translocation through (Lovisolo
and Schuber 1998). Similar results were obtained by Singh
et al. (2006) and Khalil et al. (2010).
HENDAWY et al. – Response of Silybum marianum to irrigation and fertilizer 25
Table 4. Effect of irrigation intervals on vegetative growth and
yield of Silybum marianum
Seed yield
Plant height
20.9120.606.60179.003 days
17.3918.207.20169.406 days
14.8915.808.60166.2 9 days
0.4770.5820.5760.504LSD at 5%
Data on hand, illustrated also that, number of
branches/plant increased significantly with decreasing of
irrigation, this may be due to that drought reduced cycling-
dependent kinase activity results in slower cell division as
well as inhibition of growth (Schuppler et al. 1998). This
supported by the results of (Rahmani et al. 2008) on
Calendula officinalis L. and (Taheri et al. 2008) on
Cichorium intybw L.
Significant higher numbers of flowers head/plant and
seed yield (g/plant) were recorded with the shortest
irrigation interval (3 days) followed by (6 days). The
decrease in yield attributes under the longest irrigation
interval (9 days) may be due that water stress changing the
hormonal balance of mature leaves, thus enhancing leaf
senescence and hence the number of active leaves
decreased, as well as leaf area was reduced by water
shortage, which was attributed to its effect on cell division
and lamina expansion. When the number of active leaves
decreased the light attraction and CO2 diffusion inside the
leaf decreased and the total capacity of photosynthesis
decreased, therefore, the photosynthetic materials that
transferred to seeds will decreased (Ahmed and Mahmoud
2010; Moussavi et al. 2011).
Fertilizer treatments
Data tabulated in Table 5 show that fertilizer
treatments had a significant effect on growth and yield
characters of Silybum marianum plants. The mean values
of plant height were 174.33, 164.33, 168.33, 171.0 and
179.67 cm as a result of NPK, compost, compost+
mycorrhiza, compost+compost tea and compost+compost
tea+mycorrhiza treatments, respectively. So, the highest
value of plant height was obtained as a result of
compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza treatment.
Table 5. Effect of fertilizer treatment on vegetative growth and
yield of Silybum marianum
Fertilizer treatments
16.4917.007.33171Compost+compost tea
1.0540.3180.4490.825LSD at 5%
The results in Table 5 reveal that, fertilizer treatments
had a pronounced effect on branches number. It can be
noticed that, mean values of branches number recorded
8.33, 6.33, 7.33, 7.33 and 8.00/plant were obtained from
NPK, Compost, Compost+mycorrhiza, compost+compost
tea and compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza treatments,
respectively. Thus, the maximum mean value of branches
number/plant (8.33) was obtained as a result of NPK
treatment followed by compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza
treatment, which recorded 8.00/plant. There is no
significant difference between NPK treatment and
compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza treatment.
The averages of heads flowers number were 21.33,
17.00, 16.67, 17.00 and 19.00/plant as a result of NPK,
Compost, Compost+mycorrhiza, compost+compost tea and
compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza treatments, respectively.
Thus, the maximum mean value of flowers heads
number/plant (21.33) was obtained from NPK treatment
followed by compost+compost tea treatment, which
recorded 19.00/plant.
It is evident from data in Table 5 that fertilizer
treatments had a significant effect on seed yield (g/plant).In
this respect, mean values of seed yield (g/plant) were
18.15, 15.74, 18.90, 16.49 and 19.37 g/plant as a result of
as a result of NPK, compost, compost+mycorrhiza,
compost+compost tea and compost+compost tea+
mycorrhiza treatments, respectively. Therefore, compost+
compost tea+mycorrhiza treatment gave the highest mean
value of seed yield (19.37g/plant) followed by
compost+mycorrhiza treatment which recorded (18.90
The promotion effect of compost on the growth and
yield of plant could be explained through the role of
organic materials including composts in improving soil P
availability (Gichangi et al. 2009). Since during
composting, labile nutrients are converted into stabilized
organic material (Zucconi and De Bertoldi 1987), therefore
a large proportion of nutrients are labile. Composts provide
microbes not only with P but also C and N and are
therefore likely to induce changes in P pools that differ
from those of inorganic P addition (Hassan et al. 2012).
The favorable effects of the combination between
compost +compost tea+mycrohiza may be explained based
on the beneficial effects of them on the improvement soil
physical and biological properties and also, the chemical
characteristics resulting in more release of available
nutrient elements to be absorbed by plant root and its effect
on the physiological processes such as photosynthesis
activity as well as the utilization of carbohydrates. A
similar suggestion was made by Hanafy et al. (2002) on
rocket plants. Furthermore, this stimulative effect may be
related to the good equilibrium of nutrients and water in the
root medium (Abdelaziz and Balbaa 2007) or to the
beneficial effects of mycorrhiza on vital enzymes and
hormonal, stimulating effects on plant growth and yield.
Interaction treatments
The interaction between irrigation intervals and
fertilizer treatments has a clear considerable effect on
growth and yield characters (Table 6). It can be observed
5 (1): 22-29, May 2013
that the maximum mean value of plant height (190.00 cm)
was obtained from the combination treatment between
irrigation intervals every 3 days and fertilized with
compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza. On the other hand, the
lowest average of plant height (158.00 cm) was obtained
from the combination between irrigation intervals every 9
days and compost treatment. The variation in plant height
between maximum and the minimum values reached to
For branches number/plant, it can be observed that, the
highest mean value of branches number/plant (10.00/plant)
against the lowest value (5.00/plant) were obtained as a
result of the combination between irrigation intervals every
9 days and NPK treatment and the combination irrigation
intervals every 3 days with compost treatment,
respectively. The variation in branches number/plant
between maximum and the minimum values reached to
Data shown in Table 6 indicated that, the combination
between irrigation intervals every 3 days and NPK
treatment gave the highest mean value of flowers heads
number (25.00/plant),while the combination between
irrigation intervals every 9 days and compost+compost tea
treatment gave the lowest mean value (13.00/plant). The
variation in flowers heads number/plant between maximum
and the minimum values reached to 92.31%.
Concerning the interaction treatments, it can be noticed
that the combination between irrigation intervals every 3
days and compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza treatment
resulted in the maximum mean value of seed yield (23.40
g/plant) while the interaction between irrigation intervals
every 9 days and compost+compost tea treatment gave the
lowest one (13.00 g/plant). The variation in seed yield
(g/plant) between maximum and the minimum values
reached to 78.49%.
The obtained results indicated the favorable effect of
organic and bio fertilizers which reduce the harmful effect
of water stress through their effect on improving the soil
texture. The structural improvement can encourage the
plant to have a good root development by improving the
aeration in the soil. The favorable effects of these fertilizers
may be due to the role of organic material for continues
supply of nutrients, which improve some physical
properties of soil and increase water retention (Abd-
Elmoez et al. 1995; Fliessbach et al. 2000).
Table 6. Effect the interaction treatments between irrigation intervals and fertilization on growth and yield of Silybum marianum
Seed yield
Flowers heads
Plant height
(cm) Fertilizer treatmentsIrrigation
19.5025.007.00183.00 NPK 3 days
18.7019.005.00170.00 Compost
22.6018.006.00175.00 Compost+mycorrhiza
20.3321.008.00177.00 Compost+compost tea
23.4020.007.00190.00 Compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza
18.5520.008.00174.00 NPK 6 days
15.4017.007.00165.00 Compost
19.6018.007.00167.00 Compost+mycorrhiza
15.5017.006.00166.00 Compost+compost tea
17.9019.008.00175.00 Compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza
16.4019.0010.00166.00 NPK 9 days
13.1115.007.00158.00 Compost
14.5014.009.00163.00 Compost+mycorrhiza
13.6513.008.00170.00 Compost+compost tea
16.8018.009.00174.00 Compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza
1.0671.3011.2881.126 LSD at 5%
Table 7. Effect irrigation intervals on silymarin content (mg/g seed) of Silybum marianum
Irrigation Intervals Silychristin Silydianin Silybin ASilybin BIsosilybin AIsosilybin BTotal
3 days 17.952 11.182 11.092 18.576 7.216 2.814 68.832
6 days 18.584 12.032 12.086 19.332 7.538 3.078 72.65
9 days 22.028 13.352 14.776 23.34 8.734 3.184 85.414
Table 8. Effect of fertilizer treatment on silymarin content (mg/g seed) of Silybum marianum
Fertilizer treatmentsSilychristin Silydianin Silybin ASilybin BIsosilybin AIsosilybin BTotal
NPK19.62 11.76 12.61 20.82 7.64 3.07 75.52
Compost19.49 13.10 12.35 20.00 7.92 3.09 75.95
Compost+mycorrhiza20.49 12.53 13.35 21.48 8.21 2.79 78.85
Compost+compost tea19.37 12.34 12.80 20.27 8.18 3.36 76.32
Compost+compost tea+ mycorrhiza 18.34 11.22 11.96 19.51 7.20 8.47 76.7
HENDAWY et al. – Response of Silybum marianum to irrigation and fertilizer 27
Table 9. Effect the interaction treatments between irrigation intervals and fertilization on silymarin content (mg/g seed) of Silybum marianum
Total Isosilybin
B Isosilybin
A Silybin
B Silybin
A Silydianin Silychristin Fertilizer treatments Irrigation
71.74 3.02 7.49 19.45 11.66 11.48 18.64 NPK 3 days
69.64 2.95 7.26 18.46 11.02 11.83 18.12 Compost
64.86 2.03 6.98 17.70 10.79 10.34 17.02 Compost+mycorrhiza
72.00 3.38 7.57 19.14 11.38 12.03 18.50 Compost+compost tea
65.92 2.69 6.78 18.13 10.61 10.23 17.48 Compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza
72.24 3.29 7.33 18.74 11.71 12.80 18.37 NPK 6 days
68.96 2.69 7.22 18.51 11.30 11.30 17.94 Compost
75.95 3.13 8.15 20.21 12.55 12.39 19.52 Compost+mycorrhiza
71.3 2.92 7.63 19.35 12.48 10.81 18.11 Compost+compost tea
74.8 3.36 7.36 19.85 12.39 12.86 18.98 Compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza
82.58 2.89 8.11 24.27 14.47 10.99 21.85 NPK 9 days
89.24 3.64 9.28 23.02 14.74 16.16 22.40 Compost
96.29 3.20 9.50 26.54 17.25 14.87 24.93 Compost+mycorrhiza
85.64 3.77 9.33 22.32 14.54 14.17 21.51 Compost+compost tea
73.32 2.42 7.45 20.55 12.88 10.57 19.45 Compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza
Silymarin content
Data tabulated in Tables 7, 8 and 9 indicated that total
silymarin content (mg/g seed) ranged from 64.86 to 96.29
mg/g. The main constituent of silymarin were Silybin B
(17.70-26.54 mg/g) followed by Silychristin (17.48-24.93
mg/g). In this connection, dried extracts of milk thistle
seeds contain approximately 60% silymarin, where
silymarin consists of four flavonolignans of silybinin (~ 50
to 60%), isosilybinin (~ 5%), silychristin (~ 20%) and
silydianin (~ 10%) (Burgess, 2003). (Ibrahim et al. 2007)
found that the concentration and total yield of six silymarin
compounds showed wide variations between lines, varieties
and generations ranged from 11.92 to 62.85 mg/g seed and
between 329.8 to 2121.3 mg/plant, respectively. Six
silymarin compounds: silychristin, silydinin, silybin A,
silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B were detected in
the extract of all tested treatments. These results were in
agreement with (Ibrahim et al. 2007).
Irrigation intervals
Data tabulated in Table 7 show that, the mean values of
total Silymarin content (mg/g seed) were 68.83, 72.65 and
85.41 mg/g were obtained as a result of irrigation intervals
at 3, 6 and 9 days, respectively.
Silybin B followed by silychristin were the main
components of silymarin. The maximum mean values of
Silybin B (23.34 mg/g) and Silychristin (22.03 mg/g) were
observed as a result of irrigation intervals every 9 days.
Drought stress increases the secondary products
percentage of more medicinal and aromatic plants, because
in case of stress, more metabolites are produce in the plants
and substances prevent from oxidization in the cells, but
secondary products content reduce under drought stress,
because the interaction between the amount of the
secondary products percentage and mass production is
consider important as two components of the secondary
products content and by exerting stress, increases the
secondary products percentage but mass production
decreases by the drought stress, therefore secondary
products content reduces. The data from (de Abreu and
Mazzafera 2005) showed that also the total amount of some
secondary plant products per plant indeed is significantly
higher in plants grown under drought stress than in those
cultivated under normal conditions. Although stressed
plants had been quite smaller, the product of biomass and
substance concentration yields in a 10% higher amount of
phenolic compounds; however, the total content of
betulinic acid was nearly the same in plants when grown
under drought stress or under standard conditions. Also the
studies published by Nogues et al. (1998), who found a
massive increase of phenolic compounds in stressed peas,
allow calculating the overall yield of the related substances.
Despite the fact that the total biomass of pea plants grown
under drought stress is just about one third of those
cultivated under standard condition, the overall amount of
anthocyanins (product of biomass and anthocyanin
concentration) is about 25% higher in the stressed plants.
Apart from that, the overall yield of total flavanoids was
nearly the same in Pisum sativum plants grown under
drought stress or under non-stress conditions.
Fertilizer treatments
Data tabulated in Table 8 indicated the effect of
different fertilizer treatments on silymarin content (mg/g).
Total silymarin content ranged from 75.52 to 78.85 mg/g.
Compost+mycorrhiza treatment gave the maximum mean
values of total silymarin content (78.85 mg/g) followed by
Compost+compost tea+mycorrhiza treatment which gave
76.70 mg/g. The highest mean values of Silybin B (21.48
mg/g) and Silychristin (20.49 mg/g) were obtained as a
result of compost+mycorrhiza treatment compared with
other treatments.
As for the favorable effect of applying organic and/or
bio fertilizers on silymarin content may be due to effect of
these fertilizers on accelerating metabolism reactions as
well as stimulating enzymes. Application of bio fertilizers
and compost significantly improved secondary products
such as essential oil, rutin and coumarin (El-Sherbeny et al.
2007 a, b). Variations in plant growth and active principles
in mycorrhizae inoculated plants have been reported for
5 (1): 22-29, May 2013
many other medicinal plants (Sailo and Bagyara 2005;
Copetta et. al. 2006).
Interaction treatments
It can be noticed that compost+ mycorrhiza treatment
under 9 days irrigation intervals gave the maximum value
of total silymarin content (96.29 mg/g) followed by
compost treatment under the same irrigation intervals
which gave 89.24 mg/g (Table 9). The lowest value of
Sylimarin content (64.86 mg/g) was obtained as a result of
compost+mycorrhiza treatment under 3 days irrigation
Moreover, the highest values of Silybin B (26.54 mg/g)
and Silychristin (24.93 mg/g) were observed as a result of
compost+ mycorrhiza treatment under 9 days irrigation
intervals. In this respect, mycorrhiza fungi play a critical
role in interest cycling and ecosystem function. They
improve plant growth and survival through a mutuality
relationship in which photosynthates are exchanged for
increased access to water and nutrients (Kernaghan 2004).
These effects may be played an important role to increase
the secondary metabolites accumulation.
All presented data indicated that all studied growth and
yield characters were significantly affected by the duration
of irrigation intervals also organic and bio fertilizer showed
a primitive effect on growth and yield characters. The
interaction between irrigation intervals and fertilizer
treatments has a clear considerable effect on growth and
yield characters. Organic and bio fertilizers can reduce the
harmful effect of water stress.
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... Loghmani-Khouzani et al. (2007) also showed similar results and stated that phenyl ethyl alcohol and citronellol was major components of essential oil extracted from R. damascena. Khalifa et al. (2011) showed that citronellol as major compound in essential oil of some aromatic plants with little increase under treated wastewater. There was elevation in citronellol contents during 2018 as compare to 2017 year's data in R. bourboniana, R. centifolia and R. damascena. ...
... Furthermore, the heat applied during oil extraction abolishes the health concerns due to bacterial pathogens of human (Lal et al., 2013). Khalifa et al. (2011) also described that due to wastewater irrigation, HMs and various other pollutants were not found in essential oils of different aromatic plants. Furthermore, results of Bedbabes et al. (2015) support the use of oil bearing aromatic plants as an alternative and value added crops for heavy metals enriched soils. ...
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Climate change and the consequent alteration in agricultural circumstances enhance the susceptibility of fresh water use particularly in water-scarce regions. Marginal quality water reuse is a common alternative practice but possible perils of metal accretion in plant parts are mostly ignored. The present research aimed to probe the impact of treated wastewater (TWW) and untreated wastewater (UTWW) on metal accumulation in flower petals and their influence on essential oil contents of fragrant Rosa species (R. Gruss-an-teplitz, R. bourboniana, R. centifolia, R. damascena) in a peri-urban area of Faisalabad, Pakistan during January, 2017 to December, 2018. The mineral and chemical contents in canal water (CW) and TWW were less than recommended levels of national environmental quality standards (NEQS) for wastewater of Pakistan. The experimentally UTWW possessed higher electrical conductivity (EC), biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD), and some metals (Pb, Co, Cr) that were above the permissible levels. The experimental data revealed that except Cr other metals contents in the flower petals were less than the WHO recommended limits (for medicinal plants) under experimental irrigation regimes. Rosa centifolia and R. damascena possessed higher metal i.e. Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co contents while Fe and Ni contents were higher in R. Gruss-an-Teplitz and R. bourboniana respectively. There were twelve constituents which were detected in essential oil by gas chromatography. Major constituents were phenyl ethyl alcohol, citronellol, geranyl acetate, γ-unde-lactone, methyl eugenol, and limonene whose share was 48.17%, 41.11%, 8.46%, 4.82%, 4.44%, and 4.15% respectively whereas concentrations of other 06 constituents were less than 3.7%. Phenyl ethyl alcohol, lion shared constituent of essential oil was found highest (48.17%) in R. Gruss-an-Teplitz whereas minimum level was recorded in R. damascena (28.84%) under CW. In contrast, citronellol (chief component of fragrance) was highest in R. damascena (41.11%) in UTWW while the lowest level was found in R. Gruss-an-Teplitz (17.41%) in CW. This study confirmed the variations in metal concentrations of Rosa species due to different absorbability of each metal in flower petals. It also indicates that wastewater did not affect the composition but there were quantitative differences in aroma constituents and chemical composition of essential oil.
... Many studies have examined the effects of TWW on horticultural and open field crops, evaluating how TWW affects plant growth and soil characteristics both in the short and long-term period [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]. Little attention has been paid to the use of TWW for the cultivation of aromatic species [48][49][50][51], probably due to cultural reasons related to public acceptance and bad perception of TWW reuse in agriculture [52][53][54]. It was found [48] that TWW irrigation did not significantly affect the yield quantity and quality and the essential oil (EO) composition in oregano and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in comparison with potable water irrigation. ...
... In another study [50], it was observed that TWW irrigation increased EO yields in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). In Egypt, five aromatic species were monitored for two years in order to evaluate the effect of TWW on EO quantity and quality, and it was reported that TWW irrigation of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plants led to an increment in EO concentration, but to a reduction in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) plants [51]. It is well-known that the major risk associated with the use of TWW is the possible contamination of edible plants due to pathogen accumulation [43][44][45][46]. ...
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Aromatic plants can benefit from the use of treated wastewater to satisfy their water requirements, but the effects on the essential oil yield and quality need an assessment. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of freshwater and treated wastewater obtained from a Sicilian (Italy) pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system on plant growth and yield, essential oil yield and composition of oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart) and soil characteristics. The system had a total surface area of 100 m2 and was planted with giant reed and umbrella sedge. An experimental open field of oregano was set up close to the system. Two years and two different sources of irrigation water were tested in a split-plot design for a two-factor experiment. Treated wastewater was characterized by higher values of mineral and organic constituents than freshwater. The results highlight that short-term irrigation with freshwater and treated wastewater, in both years, led to increased plant growth, dry weight and essential oil yield of oregano plants. However, it did not significantly affect the essential oil content and composition in comparison with the control. Furthermore, the year and source of irrigation water did not significantly vary the chemical composition of the soil. Our results suggest that treated wastewater can be considered an alternative to freshwater for the cultivation of oregano due to the fact that it does not greatly influence the yield quality and quantity of this species in the short-term.
... Additionally, it has been reported that many grass species have a high phytoremediation capacity and are effective hyperaccumulators when growing in wastewater containing potentially toxic elements [44]. Moreover, sewage water can be used in the production of aromatic plants, whereas [45] demonstrated that the production of sweet marjoram, peppermint, geranium, fennel, and chamomile oils did not suffer from any reduction in the quantity or quality of volatile oils when grown in treated municipal wastewater. Additionally, it is possible to use the wastewater that has been treated to grow horticultural plant species [46]. ...
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The foremost threat facing all living organisms is water pollution, which has a number of detrimental effects. Moreover, the search for alternative sources of clean water has become a high priority for all governments. The current study’s goal is to determine whether it is possible to use the treated wastewater found in wadi Al-Khumra effluent stream in Jeddah governorate in irrigating non-edible crops, gardens, and aromatic plants, instead of allowing it to flow into the sea without being put to any useful use. In light of its high nutritional value, notably in terms of Ca, Mg, and NO3, the results of the water analyses demonstrated the prevalence of its suitability for irrigation. The amount of potentially toxic elements in this water is markedly lower than the Saudi regulations’ permitted limit. Furthermore, the analysis results of soil samples collected from the sewage stream at the study sites showed the richness of this soil with various macro and micronutrients, though the level of some potentially toxic elements exceeded the permitted limits. Overall, before the competent authority decides to use these resources for reforestation and irrigation of some economically significant crops, the mineral content of irrigation water and the soil must be taken into consideration.
... A number of studies [65,[79][80][81] have investigated the reuse of TWW on various medicinal and aromatic plants, such as basil, chamomile, mint, oregano and rosemary, in arid and semi-arid regions, focusing generally on the effects of TWW on the essential oil content and anti-oxidant properties of the plants. In particular, in a study on rosemary [81], it was found that rosemary plants continued to grow well when irrigated with urban TWW over two years and plant canopy diameter increased significantly during the test period. ...
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This paper describes a case study that was carried out on a Sicilian company (Italy) dealing with separate waste collection and recycling of glass. The aims of this study were to evaluate the overall efficiency of a vertical subsurface flow system (VSSFs) constructed wetland (CW) operating for the treatment of first-flush stormwater and the effects of treated wastewater on the morphological and aesthetic characteristics of ornamental pepper and rosemary plants. The system had a total surface area of 46.80 m2 and was planted with common reed and giant reed. Wastewater samples were taken from October 2018 to July 2019 at the CW inlet and outlet for chemical-physical and microbiological characterization of the wastewater. Two separate experimental fields of rosemary and ornamental pepper were set up in another Sicilian location. Three sources of irrigation water, two accessions of rosemary and two varieties of ornamental pepper were tested in a split-plot design for a two-factor experiment. The results showed very high organic pollutant removal (BOD5 75–83%, COD 65–69%) and a good efficiency of nutrients (TN 60–66%) and trace metals (especially for Cu and Zn) removal. Escherichia coli concentration levels were always lower than 100 CFU 100 mL−1 during the test period. Irrigation water and plant habitus had significant effects on all the morphological and aesthetic characteristics of the plants. For both the crops, plants irrigated with freshwater and treated wastewater had greater growth and showed a better general appearance in comparison with plants irrigated with wastewater. The higher trace metal levels in the wastewater produced adverse effects on plant growth and reduced the visual quality of the plants. Our results suggest the suitability of a VSSFs constructed wetland for the treatment of first-flush stormwater and the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes, in accordance with legislation requirements concerning wastewater quality.
... In oregano, the percentages of Sabinene, Myrcene, α-Terpinene, Limonene, δ-Terpinene, p-Cymene, Linalyl acetate, and Terpinen-4-ol had been increased while those of α-Pinene, β-Phellandrene, Terpinolene, Linalool, β-Caryophyllene, Methyl chavicol, and α-Terpineol had been decreased (Figure 4). The variations in the percentage of components of essential oil could be explained based on both the nutritional value of TWW and plant species (Bensabah, Lamiri, & Naja, 2015;Khalifa at al., 2011;Kotb et al., 2012;Rahimi et al., 2010). These data indicate additions of significant beneficial values from the treated wastewater to the low fertile calcareous soil to produce the valued aromatic plants. ...
Full-text available
The design of this study was to analyze the influence of irrigation by freshwater (FW) or by treated wastewater (TWW) on the growth and essential oil components in two aromatic plants: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and oregano (Origanum marjourm L.) grown in low fertile calcareous soil. A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse. The seeds of basil and oregano were sown and irrigated by either FW or TWW and harvested after 70 days from sowing for analysis. Tests between-subject effects point out there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two forms of irrigation water on shoot yield, the yield of the flowering shoot, the quantity of essential oil, and some element concentrations in leaves of plants (N, P, Cu, Fe, and Mn), while there is no significant difference between essential oil percentage, K and Zn content. The obtained results specified that the essential oil yield significantly increased, as a result of irrigation by TWW from 0.58 to 1.08 in basil and from 2.00 to 3.06 ml 100 g⁻¹ dry matter in oregano. Irrigation by TWW influenced the percentages of the essential oil components, whether positively or negatively, with reference to those produced by FW irrigation. The highest value of relative increase (719%) was that of d-Camphor (oxygenated monoterpene) in basil leaves and the lowest value of relative decrease (83%) was detected in basil leaves for methyl eugenol (oxygenated monoterpene). Regarding oregano; the highest and lowest values were 82% and 55% for p-Cymene (monoterpene hydrocarbons) and terpinolene (monoterpene hydrocarbons) respectively. These results provide significant beneficial additions due to irrigation of low fertile calcareous soil by treated wastewater to produce high valued essential oils from aromatic plants.
... The use of treated wastewater to grow non-edible industrial crops including herbal plants to synthesize aromatic oils is increasing. For example, Khalifa et al. (2011) have demonstrated that wastewater irrigation increased the uptake of heavy metal(loid)s in a number of aromatic plants although low levels of toxic elements were noticed in the volatile oils of these plants. Similarly, Lal et al. (2013) noticed that Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentrations in lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) were higher in recycled water than with groundwater irrigation. ...
The last few decades have seen the rise of alternative medical approaches including the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines, which are collectively known as 'Complementary medicines'. However, there are increasing concerns on the safety and health benefits of these medicines. One of the main hazards with the use of complementary medicines is the presence of heavy metal(loid)s such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). This review deals with the characteristics of complementary medicines in terms of heavy metal(loid)s sources, distribution, bioavailability, toxicity, and human risk assessment. The heavy metal(loid)s in these medicines are derived from uptake by medicinal plants, cross-contamination during processing, and therapeutic input of metal(loid)s. This paper discusses the distribution of heavy metal(loid)s in these medicines, in terms of their nature, concentration, and speciation. The importance of determining bioavailability towards human health risk assessment was emphasized by the need to estimate daily intake of heavy metal(loid)s in complementary medicines. The review ends with selected case studies of heavy metal(loid) toxicity from complementary medicines with specific reference to As, Cd, Pb, and Hg. The future research opportunities mentioned in the conclusion of review will help researchers to explore new avenues, methodologies, and approaches to the issue of heavy metal(loid)s in complementary medicines, thereby generating new regulations and proposing fresh approach towards safe use of these medicines.
... It could be used to decontaminate vast areas, could be carried out with little environmental disturbance and is applicable to a broad range of contaminants. There are many studies [1,2,3,4,5], reported that using certain plants in the phytoremedation with or without soil amendments had a significant role in removing the PTEs and Pathogens and some reports concluded that after the phytoremedation process it can growing the sensitive plants to PTEs without any adverse impact on the final products [6,7] and these processes are economic [8]. Using some integrated measures with corn and sunflower plants to cleanup soil irrigated with sewage effluent from certain heavy metals. ...
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Phytoremediation is one of the most recent developments in biotechnology valid in remediating contaminated soil ecosystems. The concept of successive bioremediation protocols had been recently highlighted that involves furnishing the contaminated soil with certain remediative amendments followed by biofortification with varied micro-organisms. The released PTE and decomposed organic toxins are thereafter removed from the soil using phytoremediation techniques. The current article covers some phytoremedation processes such as phytoextraction, phytodegradation, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatilization, phytorestoration, phytotransformation and phytoremediation of multi-inorganic contaminants.
... Studies have been carried out on the following species: Abutilon sp., Viburnum tinus, Weigelia florida (Gori et al., 2000), Juniperus chinensis, Thuja orientalis (Sakellariou-Makrantonaki et al., 2003), Myrtus communis, Spiraea japonica, J. horizontalis (Lubello et al., 2004), Rosmarinus officinalis (Gerhart et al., 2006), Matthiola incana (Grieve et al., 2006), Nerium oleander (Bozdogan, 2009), Lavandula officinalis (Bozdogan and Sögüt, 2013), Rosa hybrida (Oliveira-Marinho et al., 2013), Verbena laciniata (Bozdogan, 2013), and Tagetes erecta (Bozdo an, 2015). Studies on the irrigation of medicinal and aromatic species with TW in arid or semi-arid regions have included Ocimum basilicum (Darvishi et al., 2010), Mentha piperita, Pelargonium graveolens, and Matricaria chammomilla (Khalifa et al., 2011). These studies have generally focussed on the effects on the essential and volatile oil and anti-oxidant contents of the plants. ...
Full-text available
Treated wastewater (TW) is now accepted as an alternative source of irrigation water that can be used throughout the year, particularly in arid areas suffering from water shortages. The objective of this study, conducted at Karaisali, Adana, Turkey in a Mediterranean climatic zone between April 2008 and December 2009, was to determine the efficacy of TW for irrigating Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) plants to be used for decorative and medicinalaromatic purposes. The trial was arranged in a random block design with three replications. Fresh water (FW) or TW were used for irrigation. Data on plant growth were collected each month. The data were statistically analysed using Student’s t-test. It was found that plant growth was more rapid for both type of irrigation in 2008 than in 2009 and, in 2009, R. officinalis plants that had been irrigated with TW grew more slowly for some parameters than those irrigated with FW. No negative effects on plant growth were identified during the study. At the end of the study, many of the measurements of growth were high in plants irrigated with TW. Average measurements of growth in November 2009, based on irrigation water type, were: plant height 92.23 cm (FW) or 99.76 cm (TW); plant diameter 53.29 cm (FW) or 107.88 cm (TW); numbers of shoots 58.35 (FW) or 134.23 (TW); length of shoots 62.26 cm (FW) or 71.50 cm (TW); and diameter of shoots 4.15 mm (FW) or 5.18 mm (TW). As a result, TW may be accepted as an alternative source of irrigation water in arid areas planted with rosemary, which would conserve FW sources.
Environmental decontamination is an integral part of sustainable development. In recent years there has been growing interest in using plants for decontamination. On the other hand, water, soil and air are increasingly contaminated. Large amounts of toxic waste have been dispersed in thousands of contaminated sites spread all over the globe. These pollutants belong to two main classes: inorganic and organic. The challenge is to develop innovative and cost-effective solutions to decontaminate polluted environment. Phytoremediation is emerging as an invaluable tool for environmental cleanup. Various strategies are being applied to reduce the accumulation of toxic metals in plants. Cultivation of edible crops in contaminated soils is a subject of human health concern if the contaminant concentration in the edible parts of crops plant exceed the permissible level. In such cases non-food crop production viz. value chain and value additions appears profitable. In this review: (1) the contamination due to industrial effluents in peri urban region of greater Hyderabad, and (2) the strategies to use contaminated soil and water for raising phytoremediation crops, and generation of value products. Crops and products include medicinal and aromatic plants, ornamental plants, biofuels, tree crops, fiber crops, dyes, and plants for carbon sequestration.
This book contains 16 chapters aiming to better understand urban waste water use in agriculture in developing countries (Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia), and detailed case study documentation of what works and what does not. It makes pragmatic recommendations aimed at protecting both the public health and farmers' income. This volume will be of significant interest to those working in hydrology, soil science, agricultural engineering, development economics, public health, development studies, urban and peri-urban agriculture and water resource policies.