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DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS, SEXUAL IDENTITY AND SEXUAL FUNCTIONING OF TURKISH HETEROSEXUAL MALES Şaban KARAYAĞIZ * -Ertuğrul TAŞ ** -Zeliha SUBAŞI ***

Authors:

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate males' perspectives on sexuality. Sexual identity, demographic factors and sexual functioning in males are important to examine how they perceive and understand when it comes to sexuality before and after the marriage. Few studies were conducted on male sexuality in Turkey. A total of 78 healthy heterosexual males volunteered in order to collect data for this research. Due to the potential insufficiency for the necessary number of participants, they were selected with the snowballing data collection technique. Their ages ranged between 23 and 57 years old with an average of 30. Most of them (61%) were either married or being in a relationship. They agreed to participate in this study and responded the items in two questionnaires, demographic data form, and sexual history questionnaire. Questionnaire items included biological sexual identity and sexual orientation questions. The items on both forms were semi-structured, prepared by the researchers with implementing related previous studies. Findings showed that most of the participants had a sexual interest in others including the girlfriend, neighbor, schoolmates, and relatives during adolescence and adulthood times. Their sexual functioning was sexual intercourse during these periods. They mainly masturbate, prefer coitus at home at least twice a week, and highly satisfied with their sexual life. According to our results, like masturbation habits, Turkish males showed similar sexual behaviors and functioning compared to their international counterparts. Their sexual behaviors transform into adulthood, from erotic fantasies to physical sexual activities. Several males (70%) continued masturbation
Turkish Studies
Volume 14 Issue 2, 2019, p. 539-551
DOI: 10.7827/TurkishStudies.14814
ISSN: 1308-2140
Skopje/MACEDONIA-Ankara/TURKEY
Research Article / Araştırma Makalesi
A r t i c l e I n f o / M a k a l e B i l g i s i
Received/Geliş: Ocak 2019
Accepted/Kabul: Mart 2019
Referees/Hakemler: Doç. Dr. Mustafa GÜÇLÜ – Doç. Dr. Kasım TATLILIOĞLU –Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Timuçin AKTAN -
Dr. Onur ÖZTÜRK
This article was checked by iThenticate.
DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS, SEXUAL IDENTITY AND SEXUAL
FUNCTIONING OF TURKISH HETEROSEXUAL MALES
Şaban KARAYAĞIZ* - Ertuğrul TAŞ** - Zeliha SUBAŞI***
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate males' perspectives
on sexuality. Sexual identity, demographic factors and sexual
functioning in males are important to examine how they perceive and
understand when it comes to sexuality before and after the marriage.
Few studies were conducted on male sexuality in Turkey. A total of 78
healthy heterosexual males volunteered in order to collect data for this
research. Due to the potential insufficiency for the necessary number of
participants, they were selected with the snowballing data collection
technique. Their ages ranged between 23 and 57 years old with an
average of 30. Most of them (61%) were either married or being in a
relationship. They agreed to participate in this study and responded the
items in two questionnaires, demographic data form, and sexual history
questionnaire. Questionnaire items included biological sexual identity
and sexual orientation questions. The items on both forms were semi-
structured, prepared by the researchers with implementing related
previous studies. Findings showed that most of the participants had a
sexual interest in others including the girlfriend, neighbor, schoolmates,
and relatives during adolescence and adulthood times. Their sexual
functioning was sexual intercourse during these periods. They mainly
masturbate, prefer coitus at home at least twice a week, and highly
satisfied with their sexual life. According to our results, like
masturbation habits, Turkish males showed similar sexual behaviors
and functioning compared to their international counterparts. Their
sexual behaviors transform into adulthood, from erotic fantasies to
physical sexual activities. Several males (70%) continued masturbation
* Dr. Öğr. Üyesi, Nuh Naci Yazgan Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi, Psikoloji Bölümü E-posta: drkarayagiz@yahoo.com
** Dr. Öğr. Üyesi, Nuh Naci Yazgan Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Psikoloji Bölümü, E-posta: tas.ertugrul@gmail.com
*** Dr. Öğr. Görevlisi, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, E-posta: zeliha.subasi@omu.edu.tr
540 Şaban KARAYAĞIZ - Ertuğrul T - Zeliha SUBAŞI
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Volume 14 Issue 2, 2019
after marriage, which was an unexpected result. 23% of the male
participants normally don’t expect extraordinary desires from their
partners and almost none of the partners expect them, either. They hold
thoughts of sexual fantasies more than partners.
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT
Sexuality is a long-term issue for fundamental human functioning
due to its consequences on the lives and richness involving being
happy, success at work and family life, and being healthy both
physiologically and physically. Several more studies were conducted on
women sexuality (Dennerstein et al., 1994; Kinzl et al., 2001; Valadares
et al., 2008) and very limited on men sexuality. Lately, more and more
studies have been investigating both males’ and females’ sexuality as
modern societies started having optimistic to inquire their sexual
characteristics and looking for treatments for the issues.
Investigating male sexuality in Turkey is one of the most difficult
and challenging areas that a researcher should want to conduct. This is
mostly dues to the fact that heavy cultural and societal pressure
especially on young males and females. Many Turkish people consider
and understand human sexuality as mythical and sacred therefore it is
very difficult to discuss about it with them. For such reasons, this study
was intended to explore Turkish heterosexual males’ sexuality.
Specifically, the purpose of this study was to investigate heterosexual
males’ sexual life during adolescent and adult periods. It was conducted
since were few studies exist on relationships among sociodemographic
factors, sexual identity and functioning of Turkish males. Midlife
sexuality has a significant responsibility for adults, especially for
women (Fraser, Maticka-Tyndale, & Symlie, 2004) due to a critical
period. Fraser and colleagues (2004) investigated more than 15.000
Canadian women 35-49 years of age in terms of the influence of
sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors on their sexual
intercourse activity. Their findings indicated that investigations of older
people sexual functioning play an important role in determining
younger human beings’.
The main goal of this study was to explore Turkish males’
sexuality compared with their demographic characteristics including
gender, age, education level and employment. Specifically, their sexual
perspectives, tendencies, functioning and untold stories were
investigated to reveal their secrecies about how males consider sexuality
and coitus. This is very important because in general people believe in
myths and legends when it comes to sexual relationships. It is more
difficult if males and females weren’t eager to speak up their thoughts
and beliefs.
The participants for the research was included with the snowball
sampling method and volunteer participation. 78 male subjects were
interviewed to obtain the study data. They responded several items
considering their biological sexual identity, gender identity, and sexual
orientation as well as some sociodemographic characteristics including
age, marital status, education level, employment status. The
questionnaires consisted of items on their sexual functioning their
Demographic Factors, Sexual Identity and Sexual Functioning of Turkish Heterosexual.... 541
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Volume 14 Issue 2, 2019
adolescent and adult periods. They had complete biological structure
and sexually active during the data collection.
For data collection purposes, one compact inventory that
consisted of two separate data collection tools, was utilized with a total
of 86 items. It contained several Likert-scale items and some open-
ended questions. The researchers developed it by utilizing previous
inventories (Master & Johnson, 1966; Shover et al., 1979). Such
inventories were developed, their reliability and validity were examined.
The first form (Sociodemographic Data Form) includes 17 questions
regarding socioeconomic information of the participants, including
consisting of age, gender, education level, and employment status. The
second data collection inventory (Sexual History Questionnaire) had 59
items regarding the sexual identity, sexual behavior, sex life (sexual
intercourse), and sexual functioning. Specifically, the items consist of
the statements on sexual functioning, foreplay, coitus, and post-coitus
as well as questions about social gender and sexual orientation.
Preliminary results of this study displayed that many participants
don’t usually request unusual sexual desires from their partners and
almost all of their partners asked for any unusual desires. They shared
having more sexual fantasies. They are also more disposed to to
practice uncommon coitus. This is accepted as taboo for women, and
they don’t like to discuss about them, however most males desire
similar fantasies since they are open talk about them with their friends
throughout their adulthood (Ellis & Symons, 1990; Dawson et al.,
2016).
Regarding Sexual Functioning, Table 2 indicated that most of the
participants took sexual interests towards various individuals during
adolescence including girlfriend (20%), a classmate (19%), and friend or
neighbor (19%). Some of the participants answered this question with
‘other' such as porn stars, relative, father's secretary, and older women
(e.g. teacher). Such individuals included. Foreplay time is an important
part of sexual intercourse for nearly all participants (97%) and the
partners (97%) as indicated in Table 6. It also shows that participants
also said that about 92% of their partners spend enough time for
foreplay. Most of them (70%) specified spending at least 10 minutes for
foreplay during coitus.
The participants mostly experience coitus at night times and that
was surprising since men testosterone levels peak in morning hours.
That could be explained due to their partners’ preferences, work or
other reasons. Also, this might be due to the fact that social learning
and traditional family cultures of sexuality in the crowded family
structure of the night could have been an instructive factor. Nearly, all
of them prefer sharing sexual issues with their partners. They
experience coitus at least once a week. Two-third of them expressed 8
or above (out of 10) levels of sexual satisfaction.
Men and women typically prefer spending additional period
regarding foreplay. The participants indicated that the partners spend
enough time for foreplay with at least 10 mins and an average of 16
mins. Such a result was found to be around the average foreplay time
when compared with other studies conducted in other countries. The
participants also indicated penetration time with at least 5 mins and an
542 Şaban KARAYAĞIZ - Ertuğrul T - Zeliha SUBAŞI
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Volume 14 Issue 2, 2019
average of 7 minutes. They mostly (85%) end with an orgasm. Also,
many couples praise each other’s body or coitus following it. This is very
important for the couples to fire up their sexual life. Also, it strengthens
their partnership in life and prolong their marriage.
Since this study could be considered as one of its kind that
examined sexual behaviors and functioning among Turkish males, from
a teenager into adulthood, it is very important to follow it up and gather
more information regarding males’ sexuality. More profound and
comprehensive investigations should be conducted to explore what
other reasons lie behind some particular behaviors found in this study.
More in-depth investigations should be conducted for such purposes.
Keywords: Male sexuality, sexology, sexual functioning,
heterosexual males, sexual identity.
HETEROSEKSÜEL TÜRK ERKEKLERİNDE DEMOGRAFİK
FAKTÖRLER, CİNSEL KİMLİK VE CİNSEL İŞLEYİŞ
ÖZET
Bu araştırmanın amacı, erkeklerin cinsellik hakkında sahip
oldukları bakış açıları incelemektir. Erkeklerde cinsel kimlik,
demografik faktörler, cinsel işleyiş, evlilik öncesi ve sonrasında cinsellik
algılarını incelemek açısından önemlidir. Türkiye’de erkek cinselliği
üzerine az sayıda çalışma yapılmıştır. Araştırma için gerekli olan veriler,
çalışmaya katılmaya gönüllü ve heteroseksüel olan 78 sağlıklı erkek
bireyden sağlanmıştır. Katılımcıların seçimi, çalışmanın hassaslığından
ve yeterli sayıda olmama tehlikesinden dolayı kartopu veri toplama
tekniği ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Katılımcıların yaşları 23 ile 57 arasında
ve ortalaması 30 olmuştur. Bireyler, çalışmaya katılmaya ve demografik
bilgi formu ile cinsel öykü anketinde yer alan soruları cevaplandırmaya
gönüllü olmuşlardır. Anket maddeleri, biyolojik kimlik ve cinsel yönelim
soruları içermektedir. Her iki formda bulunan maddeler, daha önce
yapılan çalışmalardan yararlanılarak araştırmacılar tarafından
yapılandırılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular arasında,
katılımcıların çoğunun ergenlik ve yetişkinlik dönemlerinde kız arkadaş,
komşu, okul arkadaşları ve akrabalarına cinsel ilgi gösterdiği
belirlenmiştir. Aynı dönemde en yaygın cinsel işleyiş, cinsel ilişki olarak
belirtilmiştir. Yetişkinlik dönemlerinde mastürbasyon ve cinsel ilişki
tercih etmekte; cinsel hayatlarından oldukça memnun olduklarını ifade
etmektedirler. Ayrıca, seks fantezilerini partnerlerinden daha fazla
düşündüklerini belirtmişlerdir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre çalışmamıza
katılan Türk erkekleri diğer ülkelerde yapılan çalışma sonuçları ile
benzer davranışlar göstermişlerdir. Örneğin, cinsel davranışları
yetişkinlik dönemlerinde erotik fantezilerden fiziksel cinsel aktivitelere
dönüşmektedir. Pek çoğu (%70) evlilikten sonra da mastürbasyona
devam ettiklerini belirtmişlerdir. Erkeklerin %23’ ü kendilerinin ve
partnerlerinin neredeyse tamamının birbirlerinden olağandışı cinsel
istekler talep etmediklerini ifade etmişlerdir. Ayrıca, erkeklerin
kadınlara oranla daha fazla cinsel fantezi taleplerinin olduğu yapılan
araştırma ile tespit edilmiştir.
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Anahtar Kelimeler: Erkek cinselliği, seksoloji, cinsel işleyiş,
heteroseksüel erkekler, cinsel kimlik.
1. Introduction
Human sexuality has started since the beginning of the human race, but corresponding studies
weren’t conducted until the 1900s (Bullough, 1990). Early researches primarily focused on initial
factors such as sex and gender. Sexuality is defined as the manifestation of sexual sensation and
related intimacy among human beings. Psychologically, it is the means to display the fullness of love
between couples. Of all studies on human sexuality, the ones that focus on sociodemographic issues
including age, gender, and environment drew more attention.
Human sexuality is one of the most important and fundamental human functioning, because its
effects reflect on the lifestyles and richness involving being happy, success at work and family life,
and being healthy both physiologically and physically. Additionally, more studies were conducted on
women sexuality (Dennerstein et al., 1994; Kinzl et al., 2001; Valadares et al., 2008) and limited on
men sexuality. For such reasons, this study was intended to explore Turkish heterosexual males’
sexuality. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to investigate heterosexual males’ sexual life
during adolescent and adult periods. It was conducted since were few studies exist on relationships
among sociodemographic factors, sexual identity and functioning among Turkish males.
Sexual identity is proposed to possess four components: biological sex, gender identity, social
sex-role, and sexual orientations (Shively & De Cecco, 1977). There existed theories about each one
of them and were discussed in early studies that focused on sexual identity. Social sex roles involve
femininity and masculinity.
A recent study conducted on sexual orientations showed that regardless of the ethnicity, most
adolescents grow at developmentally appropriate ages in males (Dubé & Savin-Williams, 1999). Th
researchers (Dubé and Savin-Williams, 1999) explored how ethnicity affects the sexual development
of adolescents. They investigated 139 sexual-minority male youths' sexual identity developments
based on developmental milestones, the disclosure of sexual identity, and hidden homophobia. Their
results revealed no significant difference between sexual development and cultural characteristics.
They also found relatively low levels of internalized homophobia. However, differences based on the
ethnicity were found in timing and sequencing of certain milestones, the disclosure of sexual identity
and romantic and sexual involvement with females.
Sexuality at midlife plays an important role for adults, especially for women (Fraser, Maticka-
Tyndale, & Symlie, 2004) due to stepping into a critical period. Fraser and colleagues (2004)
investigated more than 15.000 Canadian women 35-49 years of age in terms of the influence of
sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors on their sexual intercourse activity. Their findings
indicated that investigations of older people sexual functioning play an important role in determining
younger human beings’.
164 sexual minority young adults participated, in an investigation by Savin-Williams and
Dimond (2000), to explore gender differences according to sexual identity development, self-labeling,
timing, milestones, and disclosure. According to their results, adolescent males had an earlier onset of
all milestones except disclosure. Female participants were emotionally oriented and male subjects
were sexually oriented for sexual identity milestones. In conclusion, gender was not significant in
achieving sexual identity milestones.
Kinsey, Wardell, and Martin (2003) investigated social behaviors among the human males.
Their study was one of the many studies conducted on older males’ homosexuality. They explained
the convergence, resulted in the study, owing to family, cultural and environmental challenges. In a
544 Şaban KARAYAĞIZ - Ertuğrul T - Zeliha SUBAŞI
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similar study, Remafedi et al. (1992) explored patterns of sexual orientation in a representative sample
of 35.000 high school students. Most (88%) of the subjects described themselves as predominantly
heterosexual. No gender difference existed but responses to sexual orientation items varied with age,
religiosity, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. They concluded that sexual orientations depend on
sexual experience and demographic factors.
Several studies have been conducted on other factors related to sexuality involving female
sexual functioning (Yeni et al., 2003), premarital sex (Eşsizoğlu et al., 2011; Aras et al., 2007; Ayotte,
2000; Pelin, 1999; Sakalli-Ugurlu & Glick, 2003), self-consciousness (Celik, 2013), sexual
dysfunction (Sadock et al., 2000; Oksuz & Malhan, 2006; Kadioglu et al., 2005; Cayan et al., 2004;
Yaylali et al., 2010; Kettaş et al., 2008; Dogan & Dogan, 2008; Thompson, 2005) around the world.
Although various studies have been conducted around the world, it is different in the case of
Turkey. Sexuality has been accepted as secrecy and taboo in Turkey until recently. Sexual studies and
the topic sex of ordinary people weren’t explored in great detail. Few studies were conducted
especially on male sexuality in Turkey (Yeni et al., 2003; Eşsizoğlu et al., 2011; Aras et al., 2007;
Pelin, 1999; Sakalli- Ugurlu & Glick, 2003; Oksuz & Malhan, 2006; Kadioglu et al., 2005) and some
on females’sexual behaviors and sexual identity (Celik, 2013; Eliuz, 2011; Kaderli, Z., 2017; Usluer,
2007). This may be due to males’ unwillingness to share their sexual intimacy with others. In fact,
males are less prone to openness in sexuality than females no matter what their marital status is
(Oksuz & Malhan, 2006).
2. Method
Participants
The research sample was constructed by the snowball technique and volunteer participation.
78 male subjects were interviewed to obtain the study data. They were asked about their biological
sexual identity, gender identity, and sexual orientation as well as some sociodemographic
characteristics including age, marital status, education level, employment status. The questionnaires
involved items on their sexual functioning their adolescent and adult periods. They had complete
biological structure and sexually active during the data collection. Following the approval by the
ethical committee and related institutions, the data collection process was initiated.
Some major demographic characteristics of the participants are illustrated in Table 1. The
participants who were involved had ages between 23 and 57 with an average of 30 years and a
standard deviation of 6.5. Of them, 41 (53%) were married or engaged, 25 (32%) were single and 10
(13%) were couples but not married. Most of them (N=47, 60%) were high school graduate and 12
were middle school graduate. 55 (71%) had a job and 12 (15%) were unemployed during the data
collection process. Rest of them didn't respond to this question.
Table 1. Demographic information of the participants
N
%
Single
25
32
Married/Engaged
41
48
Lover
10
13
Elementary
14
18
High School
47
60
College and up
6
8
No response
11
14
Employed
55
71
Unemployed
12
15
No response
11
14
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Data Collection Tools
For data collection purposes, one inventory, that consists of two parts, was utilized with a total
of 86 items. They contained Likert-scale items and some open-ended questions. The researchers
developed it by utilizing previous inventories (Master & Johnson, 1966; Shover et al., 1979). Such
inventories were developed, their reliability and validity were examined.
The first section (Sociodemographic Data Form) of the form includes 17 questions regarding
socioeconomic information of the participants, including consisting of age, gender, education level,
and employment status.
The second part (Sexual History Questionnaire) of the form covers 59 items regarding the
sexual identity, sexual behavior, sex life (sexual intercourse), and sexual functioning. Specifically, the
items consist of the statements on sexual functioning, foreplay, coitus, and post-coitus as well as
questions about social gender and sexual orientation.
3. Findings
This study was designed as a descriptive field investigation and participants’ responses were
evaluated with the use of frequency distributions. Demographic information was analyzed according
to critical issues. They were classified and grouped for tendencies. The results of the main parts,
sexual functioning, foreplay time, coitus, and post-coitus periods, were specified in terms of their
significant relationships and effect on male sexual behaviors’. The results revealed central structures
and relationships between the participants’ sociodemographic information and sexual behaviors, and
functioning.
3.1. Sexual Functioning
As shown in Table 2, 75 (96%) indicated that they had any sexual interest towards some
individuals in adolescence. Such individuals included girlfriend with 20%, a classmate with 19%, and
friend or neighbor with 19%. 26% of the participants answered this question with ‘other' such as porn
stars, relative, father's secretary, and older women (e.g. teacher).
Above table also indicates that most participants responded girlfriend, neighbor or classmate
to the question ‘whom they had a sexual interest in adolescence’. They mainly experienced
masturbation or similar approaches to ejaculation and intercourse for their sexual behaviors. Another
important finding of sexual functioning was regarding whom they had a sexual interest in adolescence.
26% of them chose other option and the ones who responded mostly indicated girlfriend (20%),
schoolmate (19%), and friend/neighbor (17%). In terms of sexual behaviors, almost half of them
indicated masturbation as their leading sexual activity preference.
Table 2. Sexual functioning in adolescence
N
%
Any sexual interest in adolescence
Y
75
96
N
2
3
NR
1
1
Girlfriend
16
20
Friend/neighbor
13
17
To whom
Schoolmate
15
19
Teacher
5
6
Other
20
26
NR
9
12
Sexual behavior
Erotic influence
10
13
Masturbation
36
46
Coitus
14
18
Other
14
18
NR
4
5
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Table 3. Sexual functioning in adulthood
N
%
Did you have any sexual interest in someone during
adulthood?
Y
73
94
N
1
1
NR
4
5
Wife/Partner
11
14
Girlfriend
32
41
To whom did you have sexual interest during adulthood?
Fiancée
1
2
Friend/Neighbor
11
14
Other
11
14
NR
12
15
Sexual Behavior
Erotic influence
2
3
Masturbation
4
5
Coitus
61
78
Other
3
4
NR
8
10
The subjects responded similar questions about their sexual life in adulthood in above Table.
Approximately all of them (94%) denoted that they had had a sexual attraction towards opposite
gender during adulthood. They noted experiencing sexual interests typically in girlfriend (41%),
spouse (14%), and friend/neighbor (14%). Most (78%) of them did have coitus for sexual behavior
during adulthood.
The participants mostly (82%) had sexual fantasies and majority of them (74%) felt
comfortable sharing their sexual fantasies with their partners. In the case of their partners, only half of
them had sexual fantasies and only 49% of them shared them with the participants. 59 (76%) of the
participants indicated that they considered unusual sexual desires with their partners (Table 4). Also,
majority of them (92%) said that their partners did not have unusual sexual desires.
Table 4. Sexual fantasies of the participants
N
%
your unusual desire?
Y
59
76
N
18
23
NR
1
1
partners unusual desires?
Y
6
8
N
72
92
your sexual fantasies?
Y
64
82
N
13
17
NR
1
1
partners know fantasy?
N
6
8
Y
15
19
Together
43
55
NR
14
18
partners fantasies?
Y
37
47
N
37
47
NR
4
6
know partners fantasies?
Y
23
29
N
14
18
Together
24
31
NR
17
22
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Sexual functioning was additional issue for the participants. 70% of them mentioned
masturbating and ejaculating with other approaches (Table 5). In terms of sexual activities with their
partners, they prefer bedroom (55%) or different rooms (25%) in the house for coitus. Above table
also shows that half of them (44%) spend their time during night hours on sexual activities. Some of
them said (28%) it is variable and instantaneous. Nearly all of them (94%) talk sexual issues with their
partners. Regarding coitus frequency, thee are mostly involved in sexual activities at least once a
week. When asked about sexual satisfaction based on 10 points Likert scale, most (76%) said 8 an
above out of 10 being most satisfied.
3.2. Foreplay Time
Foreplay is an important part of sexual intercourse for nearly all participants (97%) and the
partners (97%) as indicated in Table 6. It also shows that participants also said that about 92% of their
partners spend enough time for foreplay. Most of them (70%) specified spending at least 10 minutes
for foreplay during coitus.
Table 6. Foreplay process
N
%
interested in foreplay?
Y
76
97
N
2
3
partner interested in foreplay?
Y
76
97
N
2
3
partner spend enough time?
Y
72
92
N
5
7
NR
1
1
foreplay time (min.)
0-5
6
8
6-10
17
22
11-20
33
42
21-30
16
20
31+
6
8
Table 5. General information about sexual functioning
N
%
Do you masturbate?
Y
54
70
N
24
30
Morning
9
11
The time period for sexual activities
Evening
7
9
Night
34
44
Variable
28
36
Bedroom
43
55
Different rooms in the house
19
25
Sexual activity places
Open places
3
4
Other
12
15
NR
1
1
Do you share sexual issues with your partner?
Y
73
94
N
5
6
Once a day
6
8
Twice a week
29
37
Once a week
11
14
The frequency of sexual intercourse
Once a two-weeks
10
13
Once a month
6
8
Once a few months
9
11
None
6
8
NR
1
1
Overall satisfaction with sexual intercourse
1-4
5
7
5-7
22
27
8-10
51
66
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3.3. Sexual Relationship Process
When the penetration time of the participants' sexual functioning was examined, 66 (66%)
experiences at least 6 minutes or longer (Table 7). Also, 66% of them said that their sexual intercourse
ends with an orgasm or ejaculation.
3.4. Post-Coital Process
As shown in Table 8, the participants were asked about post-coital behaviors for themselves
and their partners. Some (27%) praise their partners, coitus or say love words. Half of them (44%) did
say other but not specified what they were. When the same question was asked about their partners,
26% of them reacted with praising sexual intercourse or showing intimacy. Interestingly, most of them
(57%) had other responses.
Table 8. Post-Coitus Behaviors
N
%
Your behavior…
Praise partner or coitus
15
19
Love words
6
8
Request to meet again
5
6
Sleeping
8
10
Shower
6
8
No reaction
4
5
Other
34
44
Partners’ behavior…
Praise partner or coitus
17
22
Love words
3
4
Sleeping
5
6
Shower
4
5
No reaction
5
6
Other
44
57
4. Discussion and Conclusion
This study was structured to examine sexual functioning, sexual tendencies and
sociodemographic properties of a group of middle-aged Turkish men prior and following marriage in a
central Anatolian city. The first stimulating result was as follows: their sexual functioning didn't
change as they grew up into adulthood. However, their interests transformed from girlfriend and
neighbor (e.g. platonic) into sexual relationships with wives, partners and lovers. Such a finding could
be accepted as typical behavior for men after getting married, because Turkish traditions and culture
prohibit premarital sex and being a virgin is considered as a taboo (Civil & Yıldız, 2010; Bleys, 1996;
Aras et al., 2007). For this reason, Turkish males should sexually recognize their spouses and partners
as well as share fantasies. Such disputes could be solved if health courses related to human sexuality
functioning are offered at pre-college schools.
Correspondingly, male sexual behaviors change following adulthood, from erotic fantasies to
physical sexual behaviors. Another finding showed that many (70%) continued masturbation after
marriage, an unexpected result. This result might be explained that they don’t get enough sexual
Table 7. Penetration time for sexual functioning
N
%
Penetration t. (min.)
<1
7
9
2-5
20
25
6-10
35
45
11+
16
21
Does your coitus end with an orgasm?
Yes
66
85
No
12
15
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Volume 14 Issue 2, 2019
satisfaction with their partners, easier to get sexually satisfied or easy alternative when their partners
were not in the mood (Carvalheira et al., 2015; Leitenberg et al., 1993).
Most men (76%) don’t have any unusual sexual desires from their partners and more than 90%
of the partners never asked for any unusual desires. They have more sexual fantasies than their
partners. They are also more prone to experience unusual coitus. This is a taboo for women, and they
don’t like them, but men desire such fantasies because they easily talk about them with their friends
when growing up (Ellis & Symons, 1990; Dawson et al., 2016).
The participants mostly experience coitus at night times and that was surprising since men
testosterone levels peak in morning hours. That could be explained dues to their partners’ preferences,
work or other reasons. Also, this might be due to the fact that social learning and traditional family
cultures of sexuality in the crowded family structure of the night could have been an instructive factor.
Nearly, all of them prefer sharing sexual issues with their partners. They experience coitus at least
once a week. Two-third of them expressed 8 or above (out of 10) levels of sexual satisfaction.
Concerning foreplay, both men and women mostly prefer spending additional period. They
believed the partners spend enough time for foreplay with at least 10 mins and an average of 16 mins.
That result was around the average foreplay time comparing other nationalities studied in previous
studies (Fraser et al., 2004). The participants also indicated penetration time with at least 5 mins and
an average of 7 minutes. Most (85%) ends with an orgasm. Additionally, most couples praise each
other’s body or coitus.
This study was one of its kind that examined sexual behaviors and functioning among Turkish
males, from a teenager into adulthood. More in-depth and comprehensive studies should be conducted
to explore what other reasons lie behind some particular behaviors found in this study. More in-depth
investigations should be conducted for such purposes.
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