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Abstract

Augmented Reality (AR) is a promising and growing field in marketing research and practice. Very little is known if, how, and why AR-apps can impact consumers' perception and evaluation of brands. The following research presents and empirically tests a framework that theorizes how consumers perceive and evaluate the benefits and augmentation quality of AR apps, and how this evaluation drives subsequent changes in brand attitude. The study reveals consumer inspiration as a mediating construct between the benefits consumers derive from AR apps and changes in brand attitude. Besides providing novel insights into AR marketing theory, the study also suggests that marketers should consider evaluating mobile AR apps based on the inspiration potential (and not simply based on consumer attitudes, such as star-ratings in app stores).

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... When the digital transformation in marketing activities is evaluated from the perspective of both businesses and customers, it reveals the following research opportunities for researchers and businesses (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). ...
... Although there is no clear definition of AR marketing, when Augmented Reality is used in marketing, it is called "Augmented Reality Marketing" AR marketing is a strategically driven marketing act generally used with other media tools that combine digital information or objects with the perceived physical world in a way that could help businesses achieve their aims and to provide benefits to the consumer (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). ...
... AR Marketing can also enhance and extend established marketing approaches ranging from advertising to content marketing to storytelling. In this sense, AR marketing can be applied to company-provided (e.g., virtual mirrors in stores) or user-provided technologies (e.g., mobile devices such as tablets and smart glasses) (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). ...
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Due to mobile applications have become popular in marketing activities, many retail businesses have begun to launch their Augmented Reality (AR) applications. The application of AR technology to marketing is a very new process. When businesses create interactive channels through which they can reach consumers, they can influence the purchasing decision processes of consumers. In addition, companies aim to provide consumers with an unforgettable shopping experience. The study's research question was, "How do consumers' innovativeness and AR experiences affect their loyalty and purchase intentions? Also, innovativeness has a significant effect on their AR application use intentions. This study investigates the impact of innovativeness and AR experience on consumer loyalty and purchase intention. Based on the assumption that the importance of AR applications in marketing activities will gradually increase, it can be said that examining the effects of AR applications on consumer attitudes and behaviours is gaining reputation. Studies investigating the impact of augmented reality applications are very limited in the consumer behaviour literature. This situation shows the original value of the study. In the application part of the study, a quantitative research design was used. In this context, the convenience sampling method was selected. Data were collected from 319 participants via an online questionnaire, and the responses obtained were analysed using a structural equation model. The results showed that the AR experience had been affected positively by the innovation dimension, while consumer loyalty was affected positively by the AR experience.
... First, AR engages consumers in online settings by providing real-time direct product/service experiences in various aspects of marketing . Specifically, it overcomes the limitations of online shopping by allowing prospects to try on products, such as makeup (Smink et al., 2019;Hsu et al., 2021;Javornik et al., 2021), eyewear (Pantano et al., 2017;Yim et al., 2017;Yim and Park, 2019), clothing (Huang and Liu, 2014;Huang and Liao, 2017;Plotkina and Saurel, 2019), shoes (Hilken et al., 2018;Plotkina et al., 2021), and furniture (Rauschnabel et al., 2019;Kowalczuk et al., 2021;Qin et al., 2021b) virtually without having to interact physically with them. Major online retailing platforms, such as Amazon (McLean and Wilson, 2019), JingDong (Fan et al., 2020), Alibaba (Fan et al., 2020), and eBay (Banerjee and Longstreet, 2016), as well as leading brands, such as Tiffany & Co. (Whang et al., 2021), L'Oréal (Hilken et al., 2017), Sephora (Smink et al., 2019), Nike (Hilken et al., 2018), Converse (Whang et al., 2021), Zara (Yuan et al., 2021), IKEA (McLean and Wilson, 2019;Qin et al., 2021b), Mini (Carmigniani et al., 2011), and Lego (Hinsch et al., 2020), have devoted lots of efforts to introduce various forms of AR. ...
... Furthermore, compared with the studies focused on the effects of AR use, research on the impacts of AR characteristics delves deeper into the underlying mechanisms of how AR characteristics influence consumers' responses to the AR technology/AR retail application. Except for the evaluation of the utilitarian value and hedonic value (Hilken et al., 2017;Pantano et al., 2017;Rese et al., 2017;Yim et al., 2017;Hsu et al., 2021;Nikhashemi et al., 2021;Qin et al., 2021b), this stream of literature also proposes and validates a variety of psychological mechanisms, such as affective responses and cognitive responses (Kowalczuk et al., 2021), flow (Javornik, 2016), inspiration (Rauschnabel et al., 2019;Nikhashemi et al., 2021), and mental image (Park and Yoo, 2020). ...
... Consumers' brand attitude refers to their feelings about a brand (Rauschnabel et al., 2019;Smink et al., 2019Smink et al., , 2020van Esch et al., 2019). Consumers' perceived brand personality describes their systematic and enduring perception of a set of human traits that serve as the foundation of brand relational consequences and brand equity (Plotkina et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Augmented Reality (AR) is a potentially disruptive technology that enriches the consumer experience and transforms marketing. With the surging popularity of AR in marketing practice, academic efforts to investigate its effects on consumer experience, response, and behavior have increased significantly. To obtain an integrated and comprehensive view of the front-line in AR marketing research and identify the gaps for future research, we analyze the existing AR marketing literature through a systematic literature review. Using 99 journal articles selected from the Web of Science core collections, this research sheds light on the general characteristics such as publication year, publication outlet, research design, and research method. Moreover, this research also gains insight into the AR marketing relevant factors such as application area, application context, AR type, and theoretical lenses. The findings of the analyses reveal the state-of-the-art of scholarly publications on AR marketing research. First, the number of journal articles on AR marketing increased rapidly in the past few years, and the journals that published articles on AR marketing cover a wide range of disciplines. Second, the empirical studies in most literature adopted the quantitative research design and used survey or experiment methods. Third, the studies in more than half of the journal articles used mobile AR applications in various online contexts. Fourth, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework are the two most widely used theoretical lenses used in the literature. After that, the major application areas of AR in marketing are retail, tourism, and advertising. To identify the focal themes discussed in the three application areas, this research summarizes the studies by the outcome variables. Specifically, the outcome variables have five categories: technology-related, product-related, brand-related, tourist destination-related, and advertisement-related. Finally, this research proposes the agenda for future academic efforts in AR marketing.
... Within the field of marketing and product visualization, it is easy to find multiple uses: as an advanced product visualization tool in a physical store via smartphone [39], as a method of previewing the arrangement of furniture [27,44], or to establish settings in the presentation of products during their online retailing [18]. However, at present, AR is not yet a widespread element in physical store shopping processes, and its effectiveness on the shopping process is still under evaluation [16,56]. ...
... However, at present, AR is not yet a widespread element in physical store shopping processes, and its effectiveness on the shopping process is still under evaluation [16,56]. Some studies try to validate whether their inclusion improves brand reputation and user experience, and thus increases consumer conversion rates [44]. By adding these functionalities to the user experience, retailers expose themselves to a paradigm shift in the way their potential customers interact with their products and with the decisions they have to make before and after agreeing to purchase the product [29,49]. ...
... The questions were designed to express impressions of the AR experience at four levels: Hedonic, Utility, Spatial Presence and Purchase Intentions. The definition of the questions was based on the analysis of questions on different aspects raised in the literature on users' perception of an AR experience [6,15,29,44,53] (see Table 1). Moreover, a final question was included to measure the user's overall satisfaction with the product. ...
Article
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Augmented Reality techniques allow the user to visualize part of the real world through a display device by incorporating graphical information into the existing physical information. In this sense, it is important to know how the physical presence of the user in the augmented reality experience can affect the perception and evaluation of the product. To this end, this work presents a theoretical framework that explains how users perceive and evaluate the benefits and quality of augmentation with augmented reality through their physical presence, compared to visualizing the same experience through a video. The application was developed for the exhibition and sale of ceramic molds. Users viewed graphical information about the mold, placed between them and the screen while seeing themselves in the television as if it was a mirror. The experiments showed that the integration of the product into the environment and the spatial presence of the users had a positive effect on the perceived value in terms of usefulness and enjoyment, improved comfort in the purchase decision, and reinforced the overall opinion of the product.
... Transactions move towards mutually nurturing relationships [39,41]. Customer relationships may be characterized by dedicated personal assistance, self-service, automated services, communities, or cocreation [43]. These relationships are possible online. ...
... These relationships are possible online. Intimate relationships, such as dedicated personal assistance or cocreation, are possible in global networks using the Internet of Things [43]. From a business process management perspective, marketing is called customer relationship management [39,43]. ...
... Intimate relationships, such as dedicated personal assistance or cocreation, are possible in global networks using the Internet of Things [43]. From a business process management perspective, marketing is called customer relationship management [39,43]. A customer journey model for AR marketing comprises the following phases: awareness, exploration, planning, purchase, use, and loyalty [39,43]. ...
Article
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This research highlights how cloud platform as a service technologies host extended reality technologies and convergent technologies in integrated solutions. It was only around 2019 that scholarly literature conceptualized the role of extended reality, that is, augmented reality, virtual reality, and mixed reality, in the marketing function. This article is a multiple case study on the leading eleven platform as a service vendors. They provide the programming technology required to host software as a service in the cloud, making the software available from everywhere. Of the eleven cases, 10% integrate technologies in solutions. Research results show that extended reality technologies reinvent digital marketing; as part of this, they shape the customer delivery model in terms of customer value proposition; favor the choice of customer channel (the omnichannel); possibly lead to new customer relationships, such as cocreation; and reach global mass customers. Extended reality in the delivery model is complemented by other technologies in the operating model. These combinations provide the foundations of the business models, which are either network or platform business models. This study identifies a number of solutions enabled by extended reality, which have an integrated goal in the form of customer value contribution and are to be studied in further articles.
... Given its high inherent interactivity, AR apps foster positive consumer brand engagement (Hollebeek et al., 2019;Jessen et al., 2020;McLean et al., 2021). The studies of Sung et al. (2021) and Rauschnabel et al. (2019) found that AR apps stimulate greater CBE, leading to positive behavioural responses. When customers have a pleasant and memorable experience with AR apps, they are more likely to engage with the brand on a physical, mental, social, and emotional level (Carù and Cova, 2003;Hayes and MacLeod, 2007;Ullah et al., 2018, Kang et al., 2021. ...
... The following sections discuss conceptually proposed and empirically examined dimensions of quality of AR apps and their impact on CBE, leading to further WoM and purchase intention. Based on the previous studies, five dimensions of quality of AR apps are identified: perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), visual appeal, technical and perceived augmentation (Arghashi and Yuksel, 2022;Hilken et al., 2017;McLean et al., 2021;McLean and Wilson, 2019;Nikhashemi et al., 2021;Patel et al., 2020;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). ...
... The AR apps augments or superimposes virtual product elements on the actual environment to produce a clear representation of the product (McLean and Wilson, 2019). The degree to which a virtual depiction of a product seems realistic is referred to as perceived augmentation quality (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). It also allows customers to inspect the features and quality of the products before purchasing them (Kim and Forsythe, 2008). ...
... The online marketing landscape has changed dramatically overcoming various challenges (Hoyer et al., 2020;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). During the last decade, online merchants faced challenges such as high return rates, online shopping card abandonment, and webrooming (view items online, then shop merchandise offline) (Dacko, 2017;Hilken et al., 2018). ...
... AR has the potential to boost online conversion rates and minimize return rates for marketers and retailers since it provides a 'try before you buy' experience (Dacko, 2017). Additionally, this is vital for boosting sales, customer satisfaction, and the brand's reputation (Rauschnabel et al., 2019;Smink et al., 2019). With this potentiality, it is hoped that there will be a 1.6 billion market for virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) in retail globally by 2025 (Joshi 2019). ...
... Customers' responses to AR and websites have been contrasted by some writers; while others have looked at how AR omnichannel experiences may be incorporated into both online and physical environments (Cuomo et al., 2020). Enhancement of the product/object (Sunglasses; Smink et al., 2019), enhancement of the self/body (Sephora make-up app; Juvornik et al., 2021), and enhancement of the environment (Ikea app ;Rauschnabel et al., 2019) are the three most common forms of augmentation described in the literature. There have been a few studies in Malaysia that focus on managers and owners, such as those in tourism ) and retail (Alam et al., 2021;Nikhashemi et al., 2021). ...
Article
The main objective of this study is to identify the factors that affect consumers’ intention to use AR for their online buying context. This study integrated three theories with additional constructs of perceived enjoyment and personal innovativeness. Data was collected through a personal-administered questionnaire from 265 respondents. In this study, PLS based Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the data. The study results show that all the estimated relationships were found significant and positive except the relationship between social identity and attitude, social identity and perceived usefulness, and personal innovativeness and perceived ease of use. Attitude significantly and positively mediates the association between two constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and behavioral intention. The findings of this study also reveal that self-efficacy significantly moderates the association between attitude and behavioral intention. This study validated a new model developed for examining the intention to use augmented reality in the online buying context. Here, a model is developed by integrating the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Social Identity Theory, and Self-identity Theory with additional constructs of perceived enjoyment and personal innovativeness. This study will contribute to the knowledge extension of using augmented reality in the online buying context.
... Our results verify inspiration as a motivational state that brings ideas to fruition (Oleynick et al., 2014). The obtainment of physical presence, social presence, and co-presence allows consumers to be better informed of the product and imagine its influence on their off-line life (Rauschnabel et al., 2019), which may well lead to an inspiring moment of "Aha" that facilitates a rapid transition of behavior (Böttger et al., 2017). The above conclusion confirms customer inspiration as a key concept in the explanation of consumer behavior (Böttger et al., 2017;Rauschnabel et al., 2019), which is especially important for understanding impulsive purchase behavior in short video context. ...
... The obtainment of physical presence, social presence, and co-presence allows consumers to be better informed of the product and imagine its influence on their off-line life (Rauschnabel et al., 2019), which may well lead to an inspiring moment of "Aha" that facilitates a rapid transition of behavior (Böttger et al., 2017). The above conclusion confirms customer inspiration as a key concept in the explanation of consumer behavior (Böttger et al., 2017;Rauschnabel et al., 2019), which is especially important for understanding impulsive purchase behavior in short video context. Study 1 examines the influencing mechanism of presence on impulse purchase intention by a questionnaire survey. ...
... It is shown in the findings that customer inspiration mediates the impact of physical, social and co-presence on impulse purchase, which demonstrates the significance of customer inspiration in the short customer journey from "being inspired by" to "being inspired to" under short video marketing scenario. It confirms that inspiration, as noted in many studies, is an emerging and promising key construct in marketing research that can be applied to further interpretation of consumer behavior (Böttger et al., 2017;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). ...
Article
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It has been found in many cases that consumers are prone to exhibit impulsive buying behavior that is manifested as being immediate, emotional, and irresponsible especially under short video scenario. Supported by the customer inspiration theory, this study explores the psychological mechanism underlying impulse purchase in short videos that differentiates the traditional web shopping by the strong sense of presence in short video marketing. On the basis of a questionnaire survey and three laboratory experiments, this study examines the relationship among presence, customer inspiration, and impulse purchase intention. The empirical results point to the fact that social presence, co-presence, and physical presence have significant positive effects on impulse purchase intention, and customer inspiration mediates the effect of social presence, physical presence, and co-presence on impulse purchase intention. Furthermore, it is indicated that social and co-presence have stronger influences on impulse purchase intention than physical presence, thus proving a stronger effect of social factors on impulse purchase intention than physical factors in short video environment. The research results testify the impact of presence on consumer behavior in the upgrading short video marketing and provide valuable reference for marketing strategies to shorten consumers' decision-making time in short video purchase.
... Given its high inherent interactivity, AR apps foster positive consumer brand engagement (Hollebeek et al., 2019;Jessen et al., 2020;McLean et al., 2021). The studies of Sung et al. (2021) and Rauschnabel et al. (2019) found that AR apps stimulate greater CBE, leading to positive behavioural responses. When customers have a pleasant and memorable experience with AR apps, they are more likely to engage with the brand on a physical, mental, social, and emotional level (Carù and Cova, 2003;Hayes and MacLeod, 2007;Ullah et al., 2018, Kang et al., 2021. ...
... The following sections discuss conceptually proposed and empirically examined dimensions of quality of AR apps and their impact on CBE, leading to further WoM and purchase intention. Based on the previous studies, five dimensions of quality of AR apps are identified: perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), visual appeal, technical and perceived augmentation (Arghashi and Yuksel, 2022;Hilken et al., 2017;McLean et al., 2021;McLean and Wilson, 2019;Nikhashemi et al., 2021;Patel et al., 2020;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). ...
... The AR apps augments or superimposes virtual product elements on the actual environment to produce a clear representation of the product (McLean and Wilson, 2019). The degree to which a virtual depiction of a product seems realistic is referred to as perceived augmentation quality (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). It also allows customers to inspect the features and quality of the products before purchasing them (Kim and Forsythe, 2008). ...
Article
Augmented reality (AR) apps are rapidly gaining attention from both users and retailers in India. The purpose of the paper is to examine how quality of AR apps affect consumer brand engagement, which eventually leads to a positive word of mouth and purchase intention, as well as moderating role of perceived brand value among consumers in India an emerging market in Asian region. An online survey was used to collect data from 428 respondents having experience of AR apps to test the path model. The analysis confirmed five dimensions of quality of AR apps and they have a positive impact on customer brand engagement. Results also suggest the moderating effect of perceived brand value over customer brand engagement in positive WoM and purchase intent. The paper provides new insights for retailers on the implementation of AR apps at the point of sale. Keywords: AR apps; quality dimensions; customer brand engagement; CBE; perceived value of brand; moderation; emerging market; India.
... Firms are using different Augmented Reality (AR, hereafter) strategies for creating customer value perceptions (Hilken et al., 2017), improving consumers' responses (Rauschnabel et al., 2019), and generating more meaningful consumer-brand relationships (Scholz & Duffy, 2018). AR aims to develop a better service experience for online shoppers "that aligns with the ways customers naturally process information" (Hilken et al., 2017, p.885). ...
... AR uses media format (Rauschnabel et al., 2019) and virtual material (Yim et al., 2017) to modify the aesthetic and environment. That generates hedonic shopping value by user's experience and recreation (Poushneh & Vasquez-Parraga, 2017) and utilitarian shopping value by technical aspects (Park & Yoo, 2020). ...
... AR is "an interactive tool that can modify the physical environment using superimposed virtual elements" (Fan et al., 2020, p. 2). By modifying the environment, AR uses an innovative media format (Rauschnabel et al., 2019) so that customers can interact with the offer evoking hedonic features (Hilken et al., 2017). Aligning with the UTAUT model, individuals believe using a particular AR technology would help them achieve superior performance and be free from effort. ...
Article
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR), as a consumer-centric technology, helps businesses by providing new consumer experiences at the purchase occasion. However, we do not know the mechanisms behind AR when influencing behavioral intentions. Drawing on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, the authors develop a framework based on AR as antecedent, hedonic and utilitarian values as first mediators, attitude and satisfaction as second mediators, and behavioral intentions as a consequence. Based on 1,275 effect sizes from 58 manuscripts with 505,416 individuals, the meta-analysis supports AR’s main effect on behavioral intentions and the indirect impact through both sets of mediators. We also found moderating effects depending on AR application design, AR characterization, QR code utilization, access specificity, and display medium. For managerial applications, we developed a post-hoc taxonomy of four dimensions of AR, such as aesthetic, informativeness, perceived usefulness, and enjoyment, and how firms used them for explaining consumers’ responses.
... Branding. Metaverse applications may offer brands the opportunity to extend their real-world positioning or to completely reposition their brands in a new environment (Rauschnabel et al.,2022a;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). For example, in November 2021, Nike opened a virtual replica of its Beaverton, Oregon, global headquarters through the Roblox virtual experience. ...
... Apart from metaverse applications through VR interfaces, opportunities also exist for firms to increase brand attitudes in the metaverse through AR. For example, Rauschnabel et al. (2019) show that utilitarian and hedonic benefits as well as high augmentation quality increase customer inspiration, which in turn has a positive effect on brand attitudes. Firms can link brands in both locations, with the opportunity to create synergies between virtual and real worlds. ...
Article
Full-text available
The metaverse has the potential to extend the physical world using augmented and virtual reality technologies allowing users to seamlessly interact within real and simulated environments using avatars and holograms. Virtual environments and immersive games (such as, Second Life, Fortnite, Roblox and VRChat) have been described as antecedents of the metaverse and offer some insight to the potential socio-economic impact of a fully functional persistent cross platform metaverse. Separating the hype and “meta…” rebranding from current reality is difficult, as “big tech” paints a picture of the transformative nature of the metaverse and how it will positively impact people in their work, leisure, and social interaction. The potential impact on the way we conduct business, interact with brands and others, and develop shared experiences is likely to be transformational as the distinct lines between physical and digital are likely to be somewhat blurred from current perceptions. However, although the technology and infrastructure does not yet exist to allow the development of new immersive virtual worlds at scale - one that our avatars could transcend across platforms, researchers are increasingly examining the transformative impact of the metaverse. Impacted sectors include marketing, education, healthcare as well as societal effects relating to social interaction factors from widespread adoption, and issues relating to trust, privacy, bias, disinformation, application of law as well as psychological aspects linked to addiction and impact on vulnerable people. This study examines these topics in detail by combining the informed narrative and multi-perspective approach from experts with varied disciplinary backgrounds on many aspects of the metaverse and its transformational impact. The paper concludes by proposing a future research agenda that is valuable for researchers, professionals and policy makers alike.
... Thus, an inspiration state is a process where an urge is felt owing to external stimuli or trait inspiration, which results in actualising a new idea (Thrash and Elliot, 2003;Oleynick et al., 2014). Rauschnabel et al. (2019) described inspiration as a motivation that propels individuals to realise an idea through initiation and positivism. The application of inspiration as a psychological construct in the marketing and consumer behaviour domains is a recent phenomenon. ...
... Owing to the relatively recent introduction of the concept of "consumer inspiration" in marketing and consumer behaviour parlance, empiricism involving the construct is limited. In the augmented reality marketing context, Rauschnabel et al. (2019) observed the mediating role of consumer inspiration in the association between AR application and brand attitudes. Similarly, Hinsch et al. (2020) conceptualised hedonic and utilitarian benefits as the potential antecedents of inspiration towards AR in mobile apps. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rising income and the aspirations of the middle-class have resulted in the emergence of a new category of luxury brands popularly known as "masstige brands". Researchers have attempted to establish masstige branding and masstige marketing as a differentiated research domain from luxury marketing. As an attempt to this end, the current study, which is confined to women's fashion clothing brands, investigates whether various luxury consumption values are equally applicable in inspiring masstige purchase. In addition, this study investigates whether dimensions of perceived authenticity of a masstige brand moderate the association between various consumption values and masstige purchase intention. By employing an online survey, 462 useable responses were collected from middle-income female consumers in India and analysed using PLS-SEM and multi-group analysis. The findings show that functional, experiential and symbolic consumption values inspire masstige fashion purchase but the zero-moment-of-truth consumption value does not. Quality and sincerity (but not heritage) dimensions of perceived brand authenticity enhance the consumption value perceptions leading to masstige purchase. This study is the first of its kind to examine the applicability of various luxury consumption values in masstige consumption besides testing the moderating effect of perceived brand authenticity.
... The existing literature on AR marketing uncovers several dimensions such as AR media characteristics and consumer response (Javornik, 2016), consumer acceptance of AR (McLean and Wilson, 2019;Huang and Liao, 2015), customer experience (Huang et al., 2019) and AR's Meta-analysis of augmented reality marketing impact on consumer behavior (Kumar, 2021;Kumar and Srivastava, 2022). Additionally, an in-depth review of existing literature on AR marketing reveals that scholars have shown keen interest in investigating how various media characteristics such as interactivity, augmentation, vividness and novelty (McLean and Wilson, 2019;Javornik, 2016;Yim et al., 2017;Kim and Hyun, 2016) create hedonic (Javornik, 2016) and utilitarian values (Hinsch et al., 2020;Poushneh, 2018) which ultimately deliver desirable outcomes in the form of consumers' positive brand attitude (Rauschnabel et al., 2019), purchase intention (Hilken et al., 2017), consumer engagement (McLean and Wilson, 2019), impulse buying (Kumar and Srivastava, 2022) and usage intention (Yim et al., 2017;Gatter et al., 2022). The focus of these inquiries has been specific AR media characteristics and perceived consumer values that might determine consumer behavior. ...
... Lastly, the study further validates the theoretical arguments based on the SOR theory (Qin et al., 2021;Hsu et al., 2021), wherein the authors posited that the AR media attributes work as a stimulus, creating hedonic and utilitarian values for the users (organism), that ultimately results in the behavioral intentions (response). Additionally, the study also supports the uses and gratification theory (UGT) premise in the AR marketing context (Nikhashemi et al., 2021;Rauschnabel et al., 2019) because we found that people use AR due to its power of realistically augmenting the virtual object and interact in the real-time, which allow them to obtain hedonic and utilitarian values. Table 3. ...
Article
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Purpose Amidst the ambiguity about the impact of augmented reality (AR) attributes on hedonic or utilitarian values, the present study aims to understand what AR attributes create hedonic and utilitarian values and how their interaction determines consumers' behavioral intention. Design/methodology/approach The study synthesizes the results of 19 quantitative studies on AR marketing by using the meta-analysis technique. Findings The findings reveal that interactivity and augmentation are salient AR attributes that offer users both hedonic and utilitarian values. They are instrumental in fostering users' behavioral intention. However, interactivity does not have any direct influence on the behavioral intentions. Originality/value Being one of the first meta-analyses on AR marketing; theoretically, it synthesizes the statistical data of the state of art literature on AR marketing. The results of the study would allow AR practitioners to decide on their AR marketing related activities in a better way.
... These articles discuss how AR characteristics lead to changes in customers' responses to the brands. The dependent variables studied include brand perception, brand evaluation, brand attitude, brand usage intention, brand engagement, and brand love (Huang, 2019;McLean and Wilson, 2019;Rauschnabel et al., 2019;van Esch et al., 2019). The AR characteristics studied include augmentation quality, novelty, interactivity, vividness, ownership control, rehearsability, and anthropomorphism. ...
... These studies often specified the mechanisms underlying changes in customers' brand attitudes. For example, psychological inspiration can mediate the relationship between AR use and brand attitude change (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). AR characteristics such as novelty, interactivity, and vividness impact customers' brand engagement through changing their perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and perceived subjective norms (McLean and Wilson, 2019). ...
Article
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The emergence and proliferation of augmented reality (AR) technology in retailing has revolutionised consumer shopping and service experience. A body of research on AR in business applications, particularly for retailing, is quickly developing. This research shed light on the current status of the scholarly works on AR in retailing by conducting a systematic literature review using bibliometric analysis and thematic analysis. Specifically, this research examines 51 peer-reviewed journal articles using bibliometric analysis. It provides a detailed view of the literature, including research trends, publication venues, and authorships. Moreover, it classifies and reviews three major themes and summarises the articles in each theme. Finally, this research identifies and discusses the possible directions for future research.
... A connectivity and ubiquity model of online learning could also foment a digital attitude based on sharing, constructing and exchanging digital resources that places collective intelligence at the service of knowledge and the enrichment of the educational community (Moreno, Leiva & López-Meneses, 2017;Rauschnabel, Felix & Hinsch, 2019). Technology is driving constant continuous transformation in people's lives, in the way they search for information, interact with others and generate content, as well as in resolving everyday problems; and technology used in education provides benefits and possibilities that affect traditional content transmission methods (López-Belmonte, Pozo, Morales-Cevallos & López-Meneses, 2019). ...
... The results from the students' perceptions on the relation between the advantages and disadvantages of AR for the educational environment can be observed in the Atlas-Ti network in Figure 2. Villalustre, 2020), in that the students reacted favourably towards the use of this type of emerging technologies because they considered them to be good motivational tools for learning (Chiang et al., 2014). AR apps also foment a proactive environment in teaching (Rauschnabel et al., 2019) and produce a high level of satisfaction among students (Chen, 2019). Likewise, as other investigations have testified (Barroso & Gallego, 2017;Cabero et al., 2018), AR is useful for developing emerging competences in ICT, strengthening group work, and for discovering new useful, immersive didactic resources in social education and social work scenarios that were previously unknown to the majority of the students; this can generate new educational processes based on an investigative, constructivist and ubiquitous perspective. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... AR-related research has grown in the last few years, with some scholars focusing on users' AR usage behaviors (Scholz & Smith. , 2016;Poushneh & Parraga, 2017;Alexander Jessen, et al., 2020) and others investigating the potential of AR in the marketing field and user needs (Rauschnabel, et al., 2019;Kazmi, et al., 2021). It has been found that AR technology strongly influences user experience via numerous aspects that affect product quality, and satisfaction and purchase intention are also influenced by this (Poushneh & Parraga, 2017). ...
... Furthermore, enhancing the client experience and enhancing brand effects are both made possible by augmented reality (Rauschnabel et al., 2019;Smink et al., 2019). It has been shown that augmented reality features and technological acceptance attributes such as perceived usefulness have a substantial effect on brand engagement with augmented reality apps. ...
Article
Increasing customer participation and engagement with the brand has become prominent to increase customer brand experience along the customer journey. Technological advancement and the growth in Augmented reality (AR) provide marketers with promising opportunities to engage customers. This study investigated the effect of augmented reality on customer brand engagement (CBE); the technology attributes based on the Technology acceptance model (TAM); perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and enjoyment were used as a mediator. An experiment was conducted on females in Egypt on a cosmetic AR Mobile application. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to identify the relationships of AR attributes, technology attributes, and customer brand engagement. All the hypotheses were statistically supported. The findings confirmed that augmented reality attributes positively affect customer brand engagement. Additionally, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and enjoyment mediated the indirect and positive effects on CBE. The research provides marketers with practical implications for using AR technology.
... Understanding the volume of waste is a particular challenge for consumers, and digital technologies, such as Augmented Reality (AR), could provide a supportive metric to increase awareness with the potential to inspire consumers positively [4] by providing a visual aid to understand the amount of waste produced. AR is a suitable technology for this purpose, as it is becoming more accessible and widespread, largely due to the capabilities of smart phones. ...
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Food waste is a significant challenge, and our societal behaviours play a role in the amount of food items discarded. Thus, an effective method to inform consumers about high wastage patterns may help reduce the amount thrown away. This research investigates how Augmented Reality can be harnessed to enlighten consumers and work towards addressing high food waste patterns. Yet research on this topic is still very much in its infancy. To pursue this solution, food behaviour data are employed to provide an insight into how much is wasted from 9 catering industry locations in the Netherlands. An Augmented Reality application is developed, where models of food are projected onto real-world environments to provide scale on waste over a 7-day period. A quantitative evaluation of higher-education attendees demonstrated the approach has potential to incentivise reduction in waste.
... AR is a digital reinforcement of an individual's sense of sight and hearing that is frequently accessed through smart glasses (head-worn projective displays), laptops, computers, tablets and smartphones (Buettner, 2017;Carmigniani et al., 2011;Liang & Elliot, 2020;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). AR is portrayed as an application that adds the present reality with computer-made virtual objects that seem to exist together in the same space as the present reality (Azuma et al., 2001). ...
Chapter
Worldwide Climate change is a challenging issue for every sector from business to agriculture or society. Tourism is not exempt from the adversity of Climate Change impact in a disaster-prone country like Bangladesh. Tourism could be regarded as a worst victim to Climate Change and it contributes to global Climate Change as well. However, the chapter outlays the Climate Change impact on tourism in Bangladesh and potential tackling strategies for sustainable tourism development of the country. A thorough systematic review has been done based on peer reviewed journals, reports of tourism policy makers or civil society dialogues to outline potential adaptation strategies that could be implanted by the tourism industries or stakeholders of Bangladesh to make it more sustainable. Though tourism industry of Bangladesh is still lagging behind than the neighboring countries, it is high time to adopt the strategies generated from both primary and secondary sources of data. To observe Climate Change impact thermal images had been analyzed of top tourist destination of Bangladesh and temperature data had been investigated for analysis based on the climatic data collected from the Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Other resources also show same evidence that climate change is bringing about temperature rise, beach erosion, uneven precipitation rate and salinity intrusion in the country. Finally, after identifying probable impacts on tourism because of Climate Change, adaptation measures have been suggested widely. Thus, there is always scope for further research to develop tourism sector is a sustainable manner and combat with the Climate Change adversity.
... When subjects used AR applications, the overall attitude toward a brand remained positive. Other findings include that brand attitude is often associated with the quality of the virtual content [29]. ...
Article
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Recently, museums and historic sites have begun reaching out beyond their traditional audience groups, using more innovative digital display technology to find and attract a new audience. Virtual, mixed, and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies are becoming more ubiquitous in our society and "virtual history" exhibits are starting to be available to the public. There are numerous studies focusing on AR, however a scant amount of research is being done at historical sites. An initial experiment used repeated measures (ANOVA) to compare and rank three different types of AR devices used at a site of cultural heritage. A further experiment was then undertaken to observe participants using two different AR devices with and without sound to determine if which device used or the presence of sound impact the usability of the device, or the user's satisfaction/preference of specific devices. Several surveys, including demographic and usability surveys, were provided in order to collect a range of user data. A two-way repeated measures (ANOVA) were used to analyze the quantitative data gathered. No significant effects were observed based on the quantitative data provided by the surveys, indicating that all devices were equally usable and satisfactory, and that sound did not have a significant impact in this instance. However, the qualitative data indicated that users may prefer using AR technology on a smartphone device and preferred to use this device paired with sound.
... However, in parallel to the numerous researches on the hedonic reasons leading consumers to adopt m-shopping, an emerging literature also highlights the need to analyse the consumer experience from a cognitive perspective (Hristov and Reynolds, 2015). Some recent studies have highlighted how utilitarian aspects are useful to generate more favourable responses in those who shop through the mobile application (Hamouda, 2021;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). As verified by Groβ (2016), albeit in a context of great growth in mobile sales, if consumers do not trust in the mobile vendor and/or perceive a high financial or security risk, they may be reluctant to adopt m-commerce. ...
Purpose This paper aims at shedding light on the competing extrinsic motivations behind the mobile shopping process of regular and occasional shoppers. Price and convenience, shopping security, order delivery and post-sale service are investigated as antecedents of the mobile shopping attitude-intention path. Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis is based on a multigroup structural equation model (SEM) developed on 903 online questionnaires collected among Chinese shoppers in a pre-Covid-19 pandemic retailing context. Findings Findings evidence contrary motivations behind the attitude – intention to shop using a mobile retail app of regular and occasional shoppers. While all the investigated aspects result to be positively relevant for regular m-shoppers, shopping security and post-sale service do not impact the attitude – intention path of occasional mobile shoppers. Results support retailers’ strategies in the context of mobile shopping growth. Originality/value The paper contributes to the emerging retailing literature on mobile shopping by offering a comparison of the motivations behind the mobile shopping intention of regular and occasional shoppers. Extrinsic motivations before, during and after the transaction are jointly investigated in the study.
... As argued by these studies, if at the beginning, AR was expensive and not fully accessible, now, technological development has cut the costs and made the use of AR within different devices possible. It can be embedded into fixed devices such as screens or mirrors, as well into mobile devices such as smartphones or wearable devices such as smart glasses (Yaoyuneyong et al., 2016;Rauschnabel et al., 2018Rauschnabel et al., , 2019. By creating an experience more immersive, enjoyable, and useful, AR technology can rise positive attitudes toward the used media, as shown, for instance, in the e-commerce field (Esteban-Millat et al., 2014;Yim et al., 2017). ...
... As a motivational state in individuals, inspiration could lead to emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral results (Bottger et al., 2017). For instance, it can lead to positive emotions and customer loyalty (Thrash et al., 2010), cause changes in brand attitude (Rauschnabel et al., 2019), increase tourist engagement (He et al., 2021), promote the intention to purchase and willingness to pay (Pansari & Kumar, 2017;Sheng et al., 2020;Tang & Tsang, 2020), and increase the intention to travel and revisit (Cheng et al., 2020;Khoi et al., 2021). It can also evoke pro-environmental intention (Kwon & Boger, 2021) and customer citizenship behaviors . ...
Article
Considering the popularity of creative tourism, increasing research has focused on the creative atmosphere in creative tourism destinations. Based on Stimulus–Organism–Response framework, this research examined how creative atmosphere influences tourists' post‐experience behaviors—experience intensification and experience extension—through the mediating roles of tourist inspiration and place attachment. Using survey data from 345 tourists at three representative creative tourism destinations in Xiamen, this study finds that creative atmosphere positively predicts experience intensification and experience extension. Besides, tourist inspiration and place attachment were demonstrated to play significant serial mediating roles in both creative atmosphere–experience intensification and creative atmosphere–experience extension relationships.
... Brand equity (BE), a valuable marketing asset, generates competitive advantages and boosts an organization's financial success. BE research has mostly focused on the customer perceptions of a product's brand value when exposed to branding and marketing elements (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). BE concepts and indicators are diverse but ambiguous and are frequently being measured by business performance. ...
Article
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This study investigated the impact of value consonance on employee-based brand equity through the mediating role of teachers' self-efficacy and belongingness. For this purpose, a deductive approach was followed, and data were collected under a cross-sectional research design from academia through a questionnaire. Prior approval from the administration was sought before administrating the questionnaire on a large scale and a sample of 520 teachers was approached in the first phase. At this stage, 418 answered questionnaires were received, while in the second wave, questions related to the teacher's self-efficacy and employee-based brand equity were asked from the respondents. Out of these 418 re-distributed questionnaires, 387 were received back and after discarding the partially filled and incomplete questionnaires, the useable sample size was left as 372. Data have been analyzed by using the structural equation modeling technique, which was assessed through measurement and structural model. Results indicate that value consonance can promote positive behaviors in the workplace. Moreover, teachers with high self-efficacy can develop based on brand equity. Similarly, employees with high-value consonance develop a sense of belongingness with their academic institutes. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.
... Meißner et al. (2020) explored how virtual reality affects consumer choice and found that consumers show more variety-seeking in high-immersive than low-immersive virtual reality. Future research could investigate the underlying mechanism of the effect of virtual reality on variety-seeking behaviors and how augmented reality could affect such behaviors (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Variety-seeking is a popular choice strategy in consumers’ daily lives, and many factors influence it. This study conducted a narrative and structured literature review based on three popular online academic databases to understand how researchers used influencing factors, adopted theoretical perspectives and underlying mechanisms, and developed measure methods in their studies. This paper consolidated and analyzed 61 articles on variety-seeking behaviors in consumer research, including empirical studies spanning from 2000 to 2021. This paper primarily focused on articles published at top tiers in the marketing literature. From these articles, a collection of internal and external factors, theoretical perspectives, underlying mechanisms, and measure methods adopted was summarized and tabulated for easy reference and comprehension. A research framework was developed to illustrate the relationships between influence factors and variety-seeking proposed by previous researchers. The literature review may not be exhaustive because variety-seeking behaviors could involve various research topics; however, the proposed research framework and suggested directions may be representative references for future research. This study is a more comprehensive literature review of variety-seeking behaviors in consumption research after 2000, and it contributes to a better understanding of the causes and effects of variety-seeking behaviors in consumption.
... From the customer decision-making process perspective, studies often focus on the user's cognitive scheme (Fan et al., 2020;Heller et al., 2019) to explain how customers use AR in processing information whilst shopping; however, these studies ignore the importance of affective schemes in the AR context (Javornik, 2016;Rauschnabel et al., 2019;Yim et al., 2017). Wang et al. (2021) recently advanced the literature by confirming the effect of customers' emotional experiences with AR on their decision comfort, but they considered only the affective aspect. ...
Purpose This study investigates the role of an augmented reality (AR)-based tool in customers' shopping processes. Design/methodology/approach Using the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) and consumer decision-making models, this study builds a comprehensive theoretical model that investigates the mechanism sequentially connected AR-enabled shopping tool and customer responses. Décor Matters was chosen as the AR-enabled mobile application for this study. Qualtrics, which conducted the survey, collected 150 responses in the USA. The authors used structural equation model to test the hypotheses. Findings This study enriches the retail-related AR theory by offering a holistic and structural view of the factors that connect customers' cognitive and affective internal processes with customers' shopping task. However, having used only one type of AR-enabled app in the study, the findings remain limited. Research limitations/implications This research advances the understanding of AR's role in the customer shopping process by validating the positive effect of immersion on purchase intention, as well as revealing the mediating effect of decision-making quality and the moderating effect of privacy concerns. However, as only one type of AR-enabled app was used in the study, the findings are still limited. Practical implications The findings can help retailers to understand why and how firms can benefit from investing in AR-enabled apps (i.e. by focussing on customer perceived immersion and decision-making quality with AR). Originality/value This study's originality lies in the SOR model's extension, which integrates the customer decision-making model, allowing for connecting customers' cognitive and affective internal experiences with their shopping task. The findings can help retail managers to understand more clearly and in-depth why and how AR works in customers' shopping process.
... Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is a rapidly evolving technology and its users are increasing day by day mainly because of the MAR integration in retail (Yavuz et al. 2021;Qin et al. 2021a;Rauschnabel et al. 2019). MAR applications have emerged as one of the most important trends in the digital market and are being adopted in a variety of industries including beauty, telecommunications, tourism, manufacturing, healthcare, and education (Chen et al. 2021;Qin et al. 2021a;). ...
Chapter
Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) technology offers a new and unique way for consumers to interact with products, increasing their desire to buy. Despite the popularity of MAR apps in the retail industry, the examination of the consumers’ emotional states, and the reasons evoking increased purchase intention are still under researched. To this end, this study seeks to explore the users’ emotional states and the design elements that affect their intention to buy a MAR viewed product, and use the app. A prototype MAR iOS app was developed, and a user test was conducted on 21 participants. The methodology was based on a mixed design approach, combining quantitative and qualitative data emerged from scaled questionnaire items, interviews, and open-ended questions. The thematic analysis revealed eight emotional codes, and six codes of perceived usefulness. Both analyses showed that the interaction with the app triggered positive emotions of enjoyment and fascination, as well as an increased desire to use the app and buy the product. The ability to test the product in the real space and the facility to combine different objects in space before the actual purchase were the strongest indicators of purchase intention. A set of specific functionality elements caused negative emotions of confusion and disappointment. Overall, the research findings provide useful insights on the MAR elements that can positively affect the consumers’ purchase intention.
... For instance, Ikea's augmented reality (AR) software, which enables customers to digitally install a new piece of furniture into their already-established living room, caters to customers' hedonic motives by appealing to their enjoyment of aesthetics, particularly shape and color. On the other hand, inspiration is dependent on the presumption that possibilities can be realized (for instance, one could argue that the level of stimulation for Ikea's augmented reality app may decrease when consumers feel the functionality of the app is reduced because, for example, the dimensions of different pieces of virtual furniture are not congruent with one another) (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). Because of the digital revolution, businesses' relationships with their customers have undergone profound shifts. ...
Conference Paper
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Aile içi şiddet küresel bir sorundur ve şiddetin bireylerde uzun vadeli olumsuz etkileri olabilmektedir. Bu bağlamda şiddetin travmatik etkilerini iyileştiren terapiler hem birey hem de toplum ruh sağlığı açısından önem kazanmaktadır. Göz Hareketleriyle Duyarsızlaştırma ve Yeniden İşleme (EMDR) yaklaşımı aile içi şiddet olgularında travmanın etkilerini azaltmada etkin rol alabilir. Araştırmanın amacı; EMDR terapi yaklaşımının, aile içi şiddetin sonucu olarak kadın danışanda ortaya çıkan travma tepkilerini iyileştirmedeki etkisini incelemektir. Çalışmada, olgu sunum yöntemi kullanılmıştır. 34 yaşındaki aile içi şiddete maruz kalmış, psikiyatrik tanı varlığı bulunmayan kadın danışan ile sekiz EMDR seansı yapılmıştır. Seansların ardından bir de kontrol seansı yapılmıştır. Terapi öncesi ve sonrası yapılan ölçümler kıyaslandığında terapi sonrasında danışandaki TSSB ve depresyon puanlarında kayda değer miktarda iyileşme saptanmıştır. EMDR terapisi; aile içi şiddetin travmatik etkilerini iyileştirmede ruh sağlığı uzmanları tarafından uygulanabilir. Ruh sağlığı profesyonelleri EMDR terapi yaklaşımı konusunda bilgilendirilebilir ve eğitilebilirler.
... For instance, Ikea's augmented reality (AR) software, which enables customers to digitally install a new piece of furniture into their already-established living room, caters to customers' hedonic motives by appealing to their enjoyment of aesthetics, particularly shape and color. On the other hand, inspiration is dependent on the presumption that possibilities can be realized (for instance, one could argue that the level of stimulation for Ikea's augmented reality app may decrease when consumers feel the functionality of the app is reduced because, for example, the dimensions of different pieces of virtual furniture are not congruent with one another) (Rauschnabel et al., 2019). Because of the digital revolution, businesses' relationships with their customers have undergone profound shifts. ...
Conference Paper
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The Internet is defined as interactive network systems that enable quick communication through computer connection and network and allow the person to send and receive the number of information that they want to multiple recipients. The TCP/IP protocol (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), comprised of international network words, and the Internet, which is connected by many computer networks, is a worldwide communication system that is developing and growing continuously. Rapid progress and change in science and technology; facilitated the fulfilment of the need for direct, fast and secure access to information. The Internet, the most important innovation of information technology, which is easy for almost everyone from children to adults, has quickly influenced people. So, one has become a mass media that affects family and social life in multidimensional terms. The increasing developments, particularly of mass media over the last two centuries, demonstrate how technology has entered the everyday lives of individuals and, over time, modern mass media have become virtually indispensable elements. Internet use has become an important part of daily life in our country as well as in the world. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting the frequency of Internet use by individuals living in Turkey. The study used a micro data set from the 2021 Information and Communication Technology Usage Survey in Households conducted by Turkey Statistical Institute. The research's sampling method is a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling. The study uses generalized ordered logistics regression analysis to identify factors associated with the frequency of Internet use of individuals.
... The benefits of ISTs for retailers are then extensively studied (as can be seen in Appendix 2). Astonishingly, less attention was dedicated to the impact on consumers' perceived and lived experience in retail shopping (Esbjerg et al., 2012) until recently (Farah et al., 2019;Rauschnabel et al., 2019;van Esch et al., 2019). Literature shows that interactive technologies, as part of smart retailing, allow consumers to experience both the physical and digital worlds by connecting and bringing digital experience into physical stores (Madsen, 2020;Siregar and Kent, 2019). ...
Article
Implementing in-store technologies (ISTs) has become a common strategy to enhance the retail experience. As ISTs become increasingly interactive, sophisticated, and present in stores, research would benefit from an updated approach to interactive technologies in the physical retail context and an integrated perspective on their impact on the consumer in-store experience. A systematic review of 125 articles is conducted, leading to a renewed and integrative approach to in-store interactive technologies, structured along with a Person-Object-Situation perspective, based on technology responsiveness and consumer participation, and adapted to physical retail. Three complementary research models are proposed, addressing key issues: the understanding of interactivity and the impact of ISTs on the consumer experience in physical stores, the impact of highly interactive technologies, and the question of forced use of ISTs. Priority research perspectives are discussed and a research agenda is proposed.
... AR technology enhances consumers' online shopping experience (Pantano et al., 2017) and influences consumers' purchasing decisions (Spies et al., 1997;Roggeveen et al., 2020). Rauschnabel et al. (2019) propose that AR is distinguished from the other virtual reality (VR) technologies. AR describes the visual alignment of virtual content with real-world contexts. ...
Article
Purpose While customer perceived augmented reality (AR) values have generally enhanced customer experience, AR value would be appreciated the most by a consumer segment that remains unexplored. Drawing from human value orientation theory and consumption value theory, this research proposes a new model analysing the effects of human value orientation (openness to change, conservation, self-transcendence, and self-enhancement) on perceived AR values (playful, social, visual appeal, usability) and subsequently the effects on customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach :The authors employed a two-step online data collection. The first step was to identify those who had used retailers' AR applications, who were then invited to participate in the full survey in the second step. A sample of 253 AR technology users' data was analysed using partial least square and structural equation modelling. Findings The results reveal that each human value orientation is associated with its unique perceived AR values and that various perceived AR values influence customer satisfaction differently. Originality/value This study shows the pivotal role human value orientation plays in influencing customer perceived AR values and their impacts on customer satisfaction. The findings offer key implications for digital marketing segmentation.
... Marketers should concentrate on affection, trendiness, sense of belonging, informativeness, and self-expression more than past time and sociability. Recently, TikTok has introduced Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) to its camera, which helps users to create and develop their camera effects and feel they are within a scenic environment; therefore, marketers can use this property as a marketing tool and the study recommends studying the effect of TikTok Augmented Reality on users' behavior and attitudes [147]. Moreover, the VR in the xReality framework can provide 360-degree views to multi-sensing, as well as allow a full-immersion VR experience [148]. ...
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People use social media not only for social purposes but also for business purposes. It is used in management and marketing as a tool to manage organizations and market products and services, especially to influence customers’ intention and satisfaction. Therefore, the research purpose is to define factors that influence continuous intention to use TikTok in Jordan and to what extent satisfaction with TikTok influences continuous intention to use TikTok. The current research uses a quantitative cross-sectional approach. Data was collected by online surveys and shared on several social media sites such as WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook. A total of 402 responses were valid for further analysis. Then, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was performed. The results indicate that the following factors significantly affect satisfaction: self-expression, informativeness, a sense of belonging, and trendiness in TikTok. However, the following factors do not significantly affect satisfaction: sociability, affection in TikTok, and past time in TikTok. The factors can explain 48.5% of satisfaction. Finally, satisfaction has a positive significant influence on users’ continuous intention to use TikTok and can explain 30.6% of the user’s continuous intention to use TikTok. In conclusion, the organizations have to heavily use the factors that influence the users’ satisfaction to increase users’ continuous intention.
... AR attitude, perceived usefulness, and future destination intention were adapted from Chung et al. (2015). Augmentation quality items were adapted from Rauschnabel et al. (2019). AR psychological engagement is a new variable developed from prior studies (Hollebeek et al., 2019;Quoquab et al., 2020). ...
Article
The current study of Augmented Reality technology aims to understand consumers’ behavioural aspects toward tourism destination intentions in the current situation of a pandemic. Augmented Reality’s role has significantly influenced consumers’ intentions to travel in the future, yielding fruitful results for academics and managers. The technology readiness index, technology acceptance model, quality, Augmented Reality psychological engagement, attitude, and enjoyment were used to assess consumer behaviour. The final data analysis included 484 respondents, who provided insights into the use of Augmented Reality technology. The findings suggest that Augmented Reality aspects influence tourists who want to travel, tour, and realize their desired destination intention in the future. The conceptual framework’s overarching theories with Augmented Reality aspects provide relevant findings across the fulcrum of tourism research.
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In this paper, the author addresses the process of achieving visual effects aesthetics with the new extended reality technology that is escalating in the creative media and film industry to execute virtual production. It draws importance of the technical and creative decisions in the very early stage of production known as pre-visualization to real time in camera visual effects for completion and thus shortening and advancing the process of traditional production. The author signifies three major aspects of virtual production here as part of the objectives which are the XR system, LED screen and real time in-camera visual effects creation. Virtual production has often led the charge in leveraging remote collaboration techniques. The core issues to be critically analysed are the technical limitations which concerns LED screen calibration to match the foreground, solving the appearance of moiré and achieving in-camera visual effects with real time feedback that involves the server thus hardware specifications alongside the evolving software, Unreal Engine virtual production tool. The aim of this research is to critically analyse virtual production widely to be considered for creative filmmaking. It investigates the application of extended reality systems on the practice of visual effects in virtual production using LED walls and volumes for real time production. The research aims to address the findings using mixed methods. The author chose Concurrent Nested as an interpretivist prioritizing qualitative analysis while nesting the quantitative data which is to be conducted in the future. The findings refer to the expert’s experiences from different perspectives encircling phenomenology by using qualitative methods as major via interview, discussions, and observation. A panel interview has been conducted with Epic Games, Disguise technology and XR Stage Malaysia virtual production practitioners. In the coming phase, quantitative data analysis will be conducted to address the issues in virtual production from audience perspective. Keywords: Virtual Production, Extended Reality, Visual Effects, Virtual Film making, Immersive experience
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Using 412 respondents based on a questionnaire collected data from Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) located at lower Northern of Thailand with the aimed at to figure out the catalyst of Social Media (SM) adoption by SMEs owner-managers—could hopefully predict SM adoption intention. With the great advance of SM technologies coupled with the support of digital technologies can lead to the opportunity for SM to thrive by nascent entrepreneurs. As such, it could transform the business model where family-owned businesses; particularly, the second or third owner generation leverages the empowerment of SM tools by integrating such new technologies with its own legacy system. The goal of this study was to identify and explore the elements that influence SMEs' decisions to use SM as a marketing platform in rural areas. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT-2) with the extension of three new factors, including personal innovativeness, perceived fear, and competitive pressure, was proposed along with the original constructs in the UTAUT-2 model. The empirical findings reveal that competitive pressure, performance expectations, perceived fear, pricing value, and personal innovativeness all have a significant impact on the intention to use and adopt SM, according to the research findings. Hedonic motivation, however, has not revealed a significant impact of such an intention. This research provides theoretical and practical guidance on how SME owners, managers, and policy makers may adopt and implement a strategic plan on SM adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Advances in information technologies today have created rich forms of reality to engage consumers. This study examines the effects of augmented realism and technology fluidity of augmented reality (AR) applications on consumer decision-making. A posttest-only between-group experiment was conducted in a laboratory setting to enable the completion of a simulated product-evaluation task via a web-based AR system, a mobile-app based AR system and a non-AR marketing device. Findings demonstrated that augmented realism and technology fluidity strongly influenced consumers’ flow experience, which led to cognitive and affective responses toward the brand and/or the AR-interface medium, in addition to increased purchase intention. The four sub-dimensions of flow also helped explicate the relationships between immersive shopping experience and cognitive, affective and behavioral outcomes. The study contributes to theory building in AR-based immersive and online marketing research.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of customer immersive experience on attitude and adoption intention toward mobile augmented reality applications (MAR apps). This paper also examines the moderating role of technology anxiety on the relationship between immersive experience on attitude and adoption intention toward MAR apps. A dataset of 322 customers and the partial least square structural equation model (PLS-SEM) with the SmartPLS 3.2.8 statistical software were used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results show that immersive experience significantly affects attitude and adoption intention toward MAR apps. In addition, the vital role of technology anxiety in moderating the relationship between customer immersive experience and their responses toward MAR apps is revealed. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
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The most crucial key to successfully approaching customers is enhancing the interaction experience between customers and retailers. This study explores the motivations for adopting augmented reality (AR) in retailing small and medium-sized retailers in Vietnam. A structured questionnaire was delivered to a total sample of 302 Vietnamese retailers and got 215 clean and valid responses. The survey was conducted both online and offline for ten months, from February 2021 to December 2021. The chosen surveyors are retailing managers and owners of retailing firms. These firms sell fashion products, technology gadgets, and household products. The data were statistically analyzed using Smart PLS software and the partial least equation structural model. The findings indicate three direct, positive, and significant factors that influence the retailer’s AR adoption, including (1) organizational attitude toward AR, (2) organizational innovativeness, and (3) competition pressure in which organizational attitude toward AR and organization innovativeness are two critical motivational drivers. The competition pressure has been identified as the challenge barrier. The cost barriers affect organizational attitude toward AR but do not significantly influence AR adoption. Along with theoretical contributions, this paper also gave some theoretical and practical implications for retailers who have the intention to adopt AR and integrate AR into their current retailing system.
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The integration of new technologies into the lives of consumers has caused significant changes in their journey, while directly altering consumers’ moment of truth. This study proposes a theoretical framework depicting recent innovations, the ongoing integration of digital touch-points within the consumer journey, and their overall impact on the first moment of truth (FMOT). The paper also discusses the role of digital social responsibility in the consumer journey, mediating the relationship between the used touch points and customers’ advocacy to the purchased brand. The proposed conceptual model is based on a thorough enquiry of the effects of technology on purchasing decisions and brand advocacy. It incorporates a comprehensive updated consumer journey across four stages, namely: (1) awareness and consideration, (2) engagement and purchase, (3) delivery, and (4) brand advocacy, mediated by digital social responsibility. As such, the paper reflects the ongoing integration of digital touch-points within the consumer journey. As the role of multi-channel marketing in the consumers’ consumption journey and its subsequent impact on the FMOT is still under-researched, the current study enhances the understanding of the new consumer journey allowing marketers to tailor and enhance the user experience at various touch-points.
Consumers' exposure to online reviews influences their online retail shopping behavior. They search for reviews while evaluating products for purchase decisions. Past studies have indicated that online reviews affect the credibility and trust of the sellers and the products they sell on online platforms. Keeping this in view, the current paper aims to develop and validate a scale to understand the impact of online reviews on consumer purchase decisions. Data were collected from 431 young online shoppers for this research. The initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results helped identify four factors, viz. source credibility, volume, language and comprehension, and relevance which constitute the scale. The scale was validated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The study's findings fill the gap of having a standardized scale that online retailers can use as indicators to assist consumers in their online decision-making. The discussions and implications support consumers' susceptibility to online reviews, an essential source for product and brand information in facilitating online consumers' purchase decisions.
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This study extends the “Uses and Gratifications” approach (U&G) from a web context to a new one, i.e. mobile applications. It seeks to investigate the effect of the key benefits generated from interacting with branded mobile apps on consumer satisfaction and purchase intentions. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect the study data. The questionnaire was distributed to 358 participants inside seven major malls in a Middle Eastern country (Jordan). Purposive sample was employed. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (AMOS 18). Four key findings emerged from the current research. First, the study confirms the existence of four interaction-based benefits in the context of mobile apps, namely: learning benefits, social integrative benefits, personal integrative benefits and hedonic benefits. Second, apart from social integrative benefits, the other three benefits are found to influence consumer satisfaction to varying degrees. Third, with regard to purchase intentions, only learning benefits and hedonic benefits are found to generate that. Finally, the study confirms the relationship between consumer satisfaction and purchase intentions in a mobile context. The study contributes to the literature through adopting the U&G approach as a theoretical base to examine the key benefits that consumers gain when interacting with branded mobile apps.
Conference Paper
Virtual try-ons have recently emerged as a new form of Augmented Reality application. Using motion caption techniques, such apps show virtual elements like make-up or accessories superimposed over the real image of a person as if they were really wearing them. However, there is as of yet little understanding about their value for providing a viable experience. We report on an in-situ study, observing how shoppers approach and respond to such a “Magic Mirror” in a store. Our observations show that the virtual try-on resulted in initial surprise and then much exploration when shoppers looked at themselves on a display that had been set up as part of a make-up counter. Behavior tracking data from interactions using the mirror supported this. Survey data collected afterwards suggested the augmented experience was perceived to be playful and credible while also acting as a strong driver for future behavior. We discuss opportunities and challenges that such technology brings for shopping and other domains.
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Handheld and wearable smart devices have enabled Augmented Reality (AR) Technologies (ART), including AR Hypermedia (ARH) print ads, in which mobile smart devices act as viewfinders to superimpose virtual hyperlinked 2D images over traditional print ads. This study utilizes eight constructs, Attitude-toward-the-Ad (Aad), Informativeness, Entertainment, Irritation, Advertising Value, Time-Effort, Novelty, and Ad Effectiveness, to compare consumer response to three different ad formats, a Traditional print ad, a Quick Response code Hypermedia (QRH) print ad, and an ARH print ad. Results showed the ARH print ad was preferred, yielding higher perceptions of Informativeness, Novelty, and Effectiveness; whereas the QRH print ad resulted in higher Irritation; and the Traditional print ad resulted in higher Time-Effort. Theoretical and managerial recommendations are offered based on these findings.