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Morphological abnormality in Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea Anostraca) a specimen with three compound eyes

Authors:
143
ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA
Acta zool. bulg., 71 (1), 2019: 143-144
Short Communication
Introduction
The occurrence of morphological abnormalities have
been occasionally recorded in crustaceans, e.g., non-
equal length of cercopods and swelled second male
antennae in the fairy shrimp Branchipus schaeeri
(see  et al. 2013), intestinal prolapse or skel-
eton breakage in copepods   
  ), non-sexual skeletal abnormali-
ties in the copepod Acartia lilljeborgii (see 
  ) and the deformation
of endopod and exopod of the copepods Boeckella
poppei and Eurytemora velox (see  &
 . As commented by   
(2013), the only abnormality reported for the brine
shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) was gy-
nandromorphy (individuals consisting of distinct
male and female tissues whose phenotype is deter-
mined by their own genotypes), including bilateral
and non-bilateral (mosaic) patterns. Here we report a
new type of malformation in genus Artemia.
Materials and Methods

cultured population of the parthenogenetic Artemia
       -

stereomicroscope.
Results
The abnormal Artemia specimen was an adult female,
  

         
0.15 mm in diameter) than the normal compound eye
         
some of the visual pigments of the front eye were dis-
tributed into its eyestalk. Except for the doubling of
the right eye, other morphologic/morphometric char-
-
mal individuals of the same population.
Morphological Abnormality in Artemia Leach, 1819
(Crustacea: Anostraca): A Specimen with Three
Compound Eyes
Muhammad Saleem Chang1,2, Alireza Asem3 & Shi-Chun Sun1*
1
China; E-mail: sunsc@ouc.edu.cn
2
E-mail: 
3asem.alireza@gmail.com
Abstract: An abnormal specimen with three lateral compound eyes was found in a laboratory-cultured population
of the parthenogenetic Artemia

-
tion.
Key words: abnormality, Crustacea, Artemia.
*Corresponding author: sunsc@ouc.edu.cn
144
Chang M. S., Alireza Asem А. & S.-C. Sun
Discussion
Various biological and non-biological causes are
among the probable reasons for morphological de-

breakage of copepods was attributed to unfavourable
abiotic conditions in natural habitats (
 ); aberration in the append-
ages of some copepods was interpreted as a result of
hybridisation or mutation (
or a result of the expression of genetically unstable
morphological characteristics under the combined

environmental factors (  
      
sects were referred to environmental contaminations
( 2000,  et al. 2000,

Artemia was referred to the loss or damage of W sex
chromosome during cleavage (   2013).
The doubling of the compound eye in Artemia is
likely a result of a mistake of organ formation during
the early stages of development. However, why and
how this development error has taken place remain
to be studied.
Acknowledgements: 


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
phological abnormalities in adult fairy shrimp Branchipus
schae eri

Acar-
tia tonsa     

   
ability and teratology of lower crustaceans (Copepoda and


       
skeletal abnormalities in Acartia lilljeborgii 
 

Coro-
natella monacantha (Cladocera, Anomopoda, Chydoridae)
     



Fig. 1. Dorsal view of the Artemia specimen with three
lateral compound eyes.
... It is an ecologically important organism in the food chain, which links microscopic algae on the lower end, to water birds on the higher end (Asem et al., 2014(Asem et al., , 2016. Two patterns of morphological abnormalities have been recorded in Artemia until now, including a gynandromorphic pattern (see Asem & Sun, 2013) and a specimen with three compound eyes instead of the usual two (Chang et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Malformations of crustaceans have been observed in their natural habitats as well as in laboratory studies. Two patterns of morphological abnormalities have been recorded in species of the brine shrimp genus Artemia, including a gynandromorphic pattern and a specimen with three compound eyes. Here we report a hitherto unknown pattern of morphological deformation, viz., a tumour-like abnormality that occurred in the telson skeleton of a specimen of Artemia from China. RÉSUMÉ Des malformations chez les crustacés ont été observées dans leurs habitats naturels comme dans des études en laboratoire. Deux types d'anomalies morphologiques ont été observés chez les espèces du genre de Branchiopode Anostracé Artemia, incluant une forme gynandromorphe et un spécimen avec trois yeux composés. Ici, nous rapportons un modèle de malformation morphologique jusqu'alors inconnue, à savoir une anomalie ressemblant à une tumeur apparue dans le squelette du telson d'un spécimen d'Artemia de Chine.
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The intra-population morphological variability in two calanoid species and cases of teratology in lower crustacean from the orders Calanoida and Cyclopoida (Copepoda), and from Diplostraca (Branchiopoda) from sub-polar and polar regions are presented. For the morphological analyses of the calanoids we focus on the most variable body part: the fi fth pair of legs. The teratological morphology affects the number and the shape of setae on exopod 3 of P5 in females of Boeckella poppei, and the number of segments of the endopod of the right P5 in males. In Eurytemora velox we observe additional teratological spine on exopod 2 in females, and from one to three transversal folds on the distal end of exopod 3 in males. In half of the male specimens of E. velox we also fi nd one or two additional teratological articles. In the cyclopoids from Iceland, there are morphological aberrations affecting the posterior part of the body. In one specimen of Bosmina longispina from Swedish Lapland we observe teratologically reduced upper ramus of the right antennule. We assume as a probable reason for the above described teratologies the expression of genetically unstable morphological characteristics under the combined effect of circumpolar abiotic factors. As opposed to the opinion of other researchers, who consider morphological stasis a common phenomenon in copepods, we observe exceptional variability at morphological level in the populations from the studied polar and sub-polar regions.
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Morphological abnormalities in copepods and other planktonic crustaceans are usually associated with tumour-like structures (Skovgaard,2004; Bhandare & Ingole, 2008), sexual characters (Steuer,1932; Brylinski,1984; Martinelli-Filho et al.,2009; Longetal.,2010), and skeletal malformations (Pandourski & Evtimova,2005).Pollution, ecto-and endoparasitism, and even food limitation have often been considered causes for these aberrations (e.g.,Bowman,1963; Behrendsetal.,1997; Gusmão & McKinnon,2009) .For species of the genus Acartia, deformations of the fifth swimming leg (P5) are common, possibly with species-specific frequencies(Behrends et al.,1997). In Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht,1889, the discovery of rostrate and arostrate populations has been considered as resulting from genetic rather than environmental conditions (Bowman,1963). These have all been attributed to environmental pollution, although some may result from collecting, sampling, or fixation artefacts. This study reports the finding of a new non-sexual morphological aberration in A. lilljeborgii, during the investigation of stomach contents of Stellifer rastrifer Jordan 1889, a common carcinophagous fish from the Brazilian coast.
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Branchipus schaefferi Fischer, 1834, is a common and one of the most abundant large branchiopods widely distributed in Europe. In this work, for the first time, we describe and classify some of the most frequently observed morphological anomalies in this species. These are deformities in the head structures as well as in cercopods. Possible causes of such anomalities are discussed in detail. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176019]
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The calanoid copepod Eurytemora velox (Lilljeborg, 1853) was found in the backwater system of the Danube River upstream of Vienna (km 1948) in 1994. Since that time, the species has invaded the side arms of the river between kms 1897 and 1988, as confirmed by findings from 10 different localities. In Hungary, the species has been known since 1992. In the present article, we report 15 new sites in the westernmost part of this country. A brief diagnosis of the morphology of male and female of the Austrian specimens is presented, including detailed illustrations of the structures used in this paper for taxonomic analysis. Females show morphological variability mainly on the structure of the fifth leg pair. Right and left legs frequently have a different spinulation pattern. Males show less morphological variability, particularly in the structure of the basis and the distal section of exopod 2 of the fifth left leg. Morphological variation within E. veloxwas determined by comparing specimens from Austria, Hungary and Rumania. The geographic distribution of the species in the Palearctic region, Austria and Hungary is presented.
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The acute lethal toxicity of copper, as well as its sublethal effect on molting, was studied on larval and postlarval stages of the pinnotherid crab Tunicotheres moseri. The most sensitive stage was zoea I, presenting a significant mortality above 0.5 microg x L(-1). Abnormal setation of the maxillipeds was observed in zoeae II moulted from zoeae I exposed to 100 microg x L(-1) and higher copper concentrations, causing a reduced swimming activity of the larvae. This pathology could be reverted after molting of affected zoea II to megalopa, which would be the first report in crustacean larvae that states the possibility of reverting morphological abnormalities after molting. For zoeae II and megalopae, the inhibition of molting and high mortality was registered at 1,000 microg x L(-1). The effect of copper on the duration of the larval and postlarval stages was differential: It retarded the duration of the stage zoea I, did not modify that of zoea II, and accelerated the ecdysis of the megalopae to first crab. However, precocious molting to megalopae was associated with a smaller body size at the concentration of 100 microg x L(-1). This differential effect of copper on the larval stages throughout the larval development could be ecologically relevant. Because of their lecithotrophia, their short developmental period, their good survival in control conditions, and the high sensitivity showed to copper (especially zoea I), larvae of T. moseri have shown that they are an excellent model for studying the effect of pollutant on survival, molting rate, growth, and morphogenetic changes during development.
Article
Standard deviated aspects related to morphology and size are not new in marine and fresh water Copepods. However, the author has never heard of muff shaped formations on anal segments, at least not among Copepods and believes it to be an intestinal prolapse, perhaps as a consequence of inappropriate nutrients like hydrocarbons or pabulum, influenced in some way by environmental changes. Appendage I was found in females of Acartia discaudata var. mediterranea at the roads of Augusta and in Barcelona (Spain), in females of Acartia italica captured in Milazzo harbor and in others of Vigo including the species A. clausi, Centropages hamatus, Paracalanus sp. and both males and females of Temora longicornis. The lumen of the muff belonging to the female of Barcelona bore a black clot. As demonstrated by the different individual development of appendages and contemporaneously by the fact that not all specimens are appendage bearers, the present phenomenon takes place gradually. It can be argued that the prolapse - injured individuals, together with the remaining plankton inhabiting the polluted zone, should stay there at least as long as due consideration be given to appropriate researches on polluted waters.
Article
Recent studies have shown the value of complementing standard taxonomy with genetic analyses to reveal cryptic diversity and to aid in the understanding of patterns of evolution. We surveyed variation in the COI mitochondrial gene in members of the three genera of centropagid copepods from the inland waters in Argentina. In general, we found a close association between molecular and morphological systematics in this group. Similar to findings for marine calanoids, genetic distances within Boeckella species were modest (< 4%), while distances among morphospecies were much larger (> 11%). Parabroteas is currently monotypic, although we detected cryptic genetic diversity, with two lineages showing 5.5% divergence. In contrast, Karukinka was not a valid genus, apparently representing an interesting and atavistic offshoot of B. poppei, a result reinforcing the value of considering both morphological and molecular evidence. Moreover, we used combined genetic and morphological information, analysed with maximum likelihood methods, to evaluate the common assumption that evolution tends to proceed via the loss of structures in crustaceans. Although analysis of other taxa and character types is required to evaluate fully the reduction hypothesis, our results suggest that structures may be gained readily as well as lost. © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 90, 279–292.
Morphological alteration in Acartia tonsa (Saco da Mangueira
  • M Montu
  • I Gloeden
Montu M. & Gloeden I. 1982. Morphological alteration in Acartia tonsa (Saco da Mangueira, Lagoa dos Patos, Brasil).