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Construction Grammar and its application to English

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... Para o cumprimento deste objetivo, listamos específicos: apresentar propriedades morfossintáticas da construção em análise uso dos nomes em -nte semântico-cognitivas e/ou discursivo construção; avaliar se a construção apresenta mudanças significativas no pólo formal decorrer das sincronias analisad Nosso arcabouço teórico é o da Linguística Funcional Centrada no Uso (LFCU), alinhado ao modelo teórico da Gramática de Construções. Baseamo autores como Givón (1995Givón ( , 2012Givón ( [1979), Bybee (1985, Traugott (2003, Goldberg (1995Goldberg ( , 2006, Croft (2001), Traugott e Trousdale (2013), Hilpert (2014). Assumimos, junto a esses autores pressões do uso. ...
... Incorporamos à nossa fundamentação teórica o modelo teórico da Gramática de Construções, que tem sido utilizado de forma bastante frequente em pesq Essa abordagem parte do conceito de construção: pareamento de forma e significado, em que o significando nem sempre é totalmente previsível da soma de suas partes componentes (GOLDBERG, 1995;TROUSDALE, 2013;HILPERT, 2014). Ampliando esse conceito, Furtado da Cunha, Silva e Bispo (2013) (TAYLOR, 1995;LANGACKER, 1998; LAKOFF; JOHNSON, , entendemos que não só as motivações semântico-pragmáticas são importantes para explicar a recorrência dos fenômenos linguísticos, mas também os processos mos e representamos o conhecimento cognitivamente são determinantes para o modo como a língua se configura no uso. ...
... à nossa fundamentação teórica o modelo teórico da Gramática de Construções, que tem sido utilizado de forma bastante frequente em pesquisas na LFCU. Essa abordagem parte do conceito de construção: pareamento de forma e significado, em que o significando nem sempre é totalmente previsível da soma de suas partes componentes (GOLDBERG, 1995;TROUSDALE, 2013;HILPERT, Ampliando esse conceito, Furtado da Cunha, Silva e Bispo (2013) definem como construção a associação convencionalizada (no sentido de que é compartilhada pelos falantes de uma língua) entre algum elemento formal e algum sentido, alguma função pragmática ou alguma estrutura informacional. O conceito de construção é ilustrado por Croft (2001) conforme o esquema abaixo. ...
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RESUMO:Este artigo aborda a construção nominalizadora [[X] V-nte] N , que licencia a formação de substantivos e adjetivos no Português. Os objetivos são apresentar as propriedades formais da construção, a partir da análise do uso de nomes em-nte em perspectiva diacrônica;apontar possíveis motivações semântico-cognitivas e discursivo-pragmáticas para sua configuração nos contextos em que ocorre e discutir se a construção apresenta mudanças significativas em seu pólo formal. Fundamentamo-nos, para tanto, na Linguística Funcional Centrada no Uso e na Gramática de Construções. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, com suporte quantitativo, cujos objetivos são eminentemente descritivo-explicativos. Os dados são provenientes de amostras do português escrito entre os séculos XIII e XX. Os resultados mostram que a construção exibe relativa produtividade na formação de substantivos e adjetivos e ocorre em contextos morfossintáticos diversos. Há uma herança parcial da moldura sintático-semântica do verbo-base, mediada por fatores semântico-pragmáticos e cognitivos. Por fim, percebe-se que a construção não apresenta alterações significativas em sua estrutura formal interna ao longo do tempo. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Nomes em-nte. Construção nominalizadora X-nte. Linguística Funcional Centrada no Uso. Gramática de Construções.
... Esses pareamentos simbólicos estruturam-se em um modelo de rede, por meio de nós e links (cf. GOLDBERG, 1995GOLDBERG, , 2006HILPERT, 2014). Esses nós, por sua vez, organizam--se por meio de ligações horizontais e verticais (DIESSEL, 2017). ...
... Enquanto a analogia opera no nível paradigmático, a neoanálise ocorre no nível sintagmático (cf. TRAUGOTT e TROUSDA- LE, 2013;HILPERT, 2014;GOETHEM, 2017). Comumente a neoanálise é apresentada como um mecanismo formador de conectores, ao reorganizar a estrutura sintagmática dos elementos linguísticos. ...
... Ademais, é possível distinguir funções prepositivas de fun- ções conectoras que se dispõem em um continuum que expressa gradiência construcional (cf. TRAUGOTT e TROUSDALE, 2013;HILPERT, 2014). ...
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À luz da Linguística Funcional Centrada no Uso (cf. FURTADO DA CUNHA; BISPO; SILVA, 2013; AUTOR, 2016), este artigo tem como objetivo geral postular a existência de uma ampla rede construcional associada ao esquema [X de]conect em língua portuguesa. A hipótese central é que esse esquemaabriga, pelo menos, dois subesquemas aos quais estão ligadas diversas microconstruções conectoras responsáveis pela combinação de orações hipotáticas não finitas em língua portuguesa. Este estudo, marcadamente de viés teórico, adota uma metodologia de cunho qualitativo. Os resultados aferidos comprovam que instanciações do esquema [X de]conect distanciam-se dos seus usos prepositivos canônicos e passam a figurar no domínio da conexão interoracional.
... Still another issue that arises for complex concept naming is the array of formal strategies that may perform this function, the different status these strategies may have in different research traditions, and the frequent lack of connection in the literature between different strategies. In morphology, the main mechanisms for creating complex words are derivation and compounding (Lieber & Štekauer 2009a;2014;Štekauer, Valera & Körtvélyessy 2012), to which a variety of other mechanisms can be added, from reduplication to incorporation, from conversion to subtraction, from blending to clipping, and so on. Of course, simple words may convey a complex concept, too. ...
... As for (i), we believe that Construction Grammar approaches (Goldberg 1995;2006;2019;Hoffmann & Trousdale 2013;Hilpert 2014) may be the answer, for at least two reasons. ...
... Os dois primeiros conjuntos de artigos sobre o PBL2 e sobre a descrição da LIBRAS já revelam o caráter diverso das pesquisas do NEIS/UFRJ. Tratam-se de textos, com base na hipótese da representação construcional da gramática, que articulam discussões sobre representação de línguas maternas e adicionais e sobre a emergência e a mudança da gramática (GOLDBERG, 2006(GOLDBERG, e 2019BYBEE, 2008BYBEE, e 2010TRAUGOTT;TROUSDALE, 2013;PEREK, 2015;HILPERT, 2019). ...
... (i) pressupostos teóricos dos modelos baseados no uso(BYBEE, 2008;HILPERT, 2019;GOLDBERG, 2019;HÖDER, 2018) que oferecem explicações sobre fenômenos linguísticos, tais como o da competição entre línguas e o da emergência gradual e pela experiência com o input, e sobre os processos cognitivos envolvidos na emergência de qualquer conhecimento, tais como categorização, analogização e associação transmodal; ...
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Dividido em 9 capítulos teóricos e 4 unidades didáticas, Aprendizes surdos e escrita em L2: reflexões teóricas e práticas – volume II complementa o volume I, apresentando ao leitor novas oportunidades para o aprofundamento de questões atinentes à teoria linguística, à educação multilíngue, ao ensino e à aquisição de línguas adicionais na perspectiva dos modelos funcionais baseados no uso. Reiteramos, assim, o comprometimento social de nossa empreitada com a divulgação científica acerca do ensino de PBL2.
... In this taxonomy, a construction is primarily motivated by and inherits properties from another construction that dominates it. The link between a lower level construction and its motivating construction is called an inheritance link or inheritance relation (e.g., Goldberg 1995;Goldberg and Suttle 2010;Torrent 2012;Trousdale 2013;Hilpert 2014), and has also been called taxonomic link or taxonomic relation (Croft 2001;Croft and Cruse 2004;Diessel 2015Diessel , 2019). ...
... This does not mean that a construction is necessarily more schematic than a construct, e.g., all of a sudden is a construction, but the same string is attested in constructs as well(Hilpert 2014). ...
Thesis
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In construction grammar, the term multiple inheritance has been used to talk about constructions that inherit features that can be traced back to more than one construction. The constructions involved are organized hierarchically, in that the more specific construction inherits features from multiple more general and abstract constructions (Hudson 2007; Trousdale 2013). In recent years, increased attention has been drawn to lateral or constructional relations, which connect constructions at the same level of abstraction (Cappelle 2006; Van de Velde 2014; Traugott 2018; Diessel 2019). Adopting a nested-network approach (Diessel 2019), this dissertation shows that constructions can be motivated by multiple constructions at the same level of abstraction, i.e., via lateral relations. This is explored by means of two case studies. The first study investigates the change from object-verb to verb-object order in Old to Middle English subject relative clauses. It is argued that the principle of end-weight motivated the existence of a postverbal slot, which could expand under the influence of declarative main clauses. It is shown that Old English had a group of non-prototypical subject relative clauses that bore formal and functional similarity to declarative main clauses. This group proves essential in the analysis of the analogical transfer of verb-object order from main clauses to subject relative clauses. The second study investigates Norwegian definite noun phrases of the type han mannen (lit. he man-the) in relation to three other constructions: den mannen (lit. that/the man-the), mannen (lit. man-the), and (ha)n Per (lit. he Per). The relation of han mannen to its neighbors is considered in terms of structural similarity and contrast, which is statistically evaluated with the method of partial dependence plots based on random forests. It is shown that han mannen shares relations with all three constructions individually and is partially motivated by all three. Both studies support the idea that multiple source constructions are able to motivate changes and variation of a target construction to which they are related by lateral relations, i.e., they exist at the same level of abstraction.
... A functional relation may be said to exist between prepositional and adverbial complements in that they can both denote the Goal or Endpoint of directed motion. In fact, the OED and the MED also record the directional sense with prepositional complements both in impersonal (25) and personal use (26) This might be the reason for the fact that both prepositional and adverbial patterns allow the Desired to be construed as a metaphorical Endpoint or Goal to which the Desirer's attention is directed, as may be observed in (27) and (28) In light of this functional connection, the hypothesis is here put forward that both patterns instantiate the same argument structure construction in the Construction Grammar sense of the term (Goldberg 1995, 3-4;Goldberg 2006Goldberg , 2019Hilpert [2014] 2019). Construction Grammar is a cognitive model of grammar that views language as consisting of a large network of constructions, or stored pairings of form and meaning, of varying levels of generality and productivity. ...
... Constructions are not unordered, but rather highly structured by means of various kinds of inheritance links (Goldberg 1995, 72-98) that either relate higher and lower levels of abstraction in the constructional network or link a given construction to other constructions in the network. More specifically, metaphorical links (Goldberg 1995, 81), which are of particular relevance to the research reported in this article, "connect a basic sense of a construction with an extended sense" (Hilpert [2014] 2019, 61). In the case under discussion, I would argue that the prepositional-long for deathand adverbial-longe therfore-patterns instantiated with long can be interpreted as a metaphorical extension of an intransitive motion construction. ...
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The class of English verbs of Desire in Present-Day English comprises verbs such as long or thirst, several of which are attested in earlier English in impersonal constructions characterised by the lack of a grammatical subject. In English, the impersonal construction decreased in frequency between 1400 and 1500, and effectively went out of use during the sixteenth century. Previous research has suggested that there is a need for a corpus-based study of not just Middle English, but also Early Modern English, in order to explore the different path(s) of development followed by individual impersonal verbs. The present article, therefore, investigates the development of the impersonal verb long (< OE langian) with the following objectives: a) to determine when long ceases to occur in impersonal constructions; b) to provide a diachronic overview of the personal syntactic patterns that came to replace impersonal constructions in Early Modern English; and c) to identify, within the framework of Construction Grammar, factors that may account for the development of long as a prepositional verb.
... Another notation used for the same purpose is the hyphenated form construct-i-con (e.g., Goldberg 2003;Hilpert 2019). 2 For framenets, see, e.g., Gilardi & Baker (2018), Baker & Lorenzi (2020), and Dannélls et al. (2021); for constructiCons, e.g., , and Ziem et al. (to appear). ...
... The MCA of causative do and causative make constructed in this study relies on the lexical features of the infinitives that complement the causative verbs. The approach taken in the present study subscribes to the main tenets of Construction Grammar (Goldberg 1995;Hilpert 2014;Traugott and Trousdale 2013), which means that syntactic patterns are inherently meaningful (cf. Goldberg 1995) and that the meanings of constructions are closely linked to the lexical items that typically occur within a construction (Goldberg 1995;Hilpert and Perek 2015). ...
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Middle English had a rich inventory of verbs that could be used as causatives in periphrastic (or analytic) constructions. Interestingly, we see that two verbs like do and make , which share several similarities in their basic meaning, are both used as causative verbs. The present paper explores the relationship and the uses of causative do and causative make with an infinitive complement in the Middle English period. By means of a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), it will be investigated which semantic domains are more distinctively associated with each verb. The results of the statistical analysis will shed light on the semantic features that characterise these two verbs in Middle English. In addition, the quantitative analysis will help us understand why make began to be used as a causative verb and how productive these verbs were in Middle English.
... As P2 refers to P1 without exception and THEN pertains to the condition and/or time 536 established by Q, the function of THEN P2 is likely to emphasize Q as being the 537 precondition and necessary means to achieve P1/ P2. The connection between P1 and P2 538 is non-predictable and qualifies the triclausal construction as a construction in the sense 539 of Goldberg (1995) and Hilpert (2014); see Section 3.5 for more discussion. Etymologically shì is a copula. ...
Article
Using a constructional approach to morphosyntax, this study describes a triclausal construction (a type of anankastic conditional) and related constructions in the history of Chinese. It demonstrates that the triclausal construction constitutes a context of morphosyntactic vagueness where category boundaries between modals and protasis connectives are underdetermined and consequently, bidirectional rather than unidirectional developments occur. Morphosyntactic vagueness is defined by properties shared between two morphosyntactic categories: distributional and functional similarities. Therefore, changes enabled by morphosyntactic vagueness are argued to be regular processes of change mediated by grammatical equivalence. If grammaticalization is defined as the development of morphosyntactic categories, but not in terms of non-equivalence such as unidirectionality or increased grammaticality, grammaticalization may be systematically bidirectional when enabled by morphosyntactic vagueness.
... Com base no aparato teórico da Linguística Funcional Centrada no Uso (doravante LFCU), nos termos de Traugott e Trousdale (2013) e Hilpert (2014), entre outros, analisamos neste artigo o esquema volitivo [(eu) quero lá Vinf] a partir de sua instanciação no português contemporâneo. De acordo com a perspectiva construcional assumida pela LFCU (GOLDBERG, 1995;2006;CROFT, 2001), esse esquema é concebido como uma construção, definida esta como pareamento convencionalizado de forma e conteúdo 3 , codificada como Consideramos, como Lemos (2022), que o esquema [(eu) quero lá Vinf] veicula conteúdo geral volitivo, orientado, nos termos de Dubois et al (1973, p. 615), para a expressão da "vontade do sujeito da enunciação", principalmente por conta de sua subparte nuclear verbal quero. ...
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Neste artigo, elegemos como objeto de pesquisa o esquema volitivo [(eu) quero [lá Vinf]] e sua instanciação no português contemporâneo, tal como se apresenta em AUTOR (2022). Fundamentadas no Funcionalismo, a partir de Traugott e Trousdale (2013), Hilpert (2014) e Bybee (2010; 2015), entre outros, levantamos e analisamos instanciações do esquema referido e verificamos que este se divide em dois subesquemas: um de polaridade positiva, codificado como [[(eu) quero] [lá Vinf]], e outro de polaridade negativa - [[(eu) quero lá] [Vinf]]. Com base em análise quali-quantitativa, conforme Cunha Lacerda (2016), constatamos que tais subesquemas apresentam outras distinções, além da polaridade, como nível de composicionalidade, de produtividade e de intersubjetividade.
... The link between 'cuck' and the 'white genocide' narrative can be illustrated through a constructional, frame semantic account of the verb. In Construction Grammar (Kay and Michaelis 2012;Hilpert 2014), constructions are viewed as learned pairings of linguistic patterns and meanings. Constructional approaches to language posit that meaning emerges from the interaction of these patterns; the understanding of an utterance results from how grammatical structures (such as transitive and intransitive constructions) couple with the lexical meanings of the words involved (such as 'cuck'). ...
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This article provides a multimodal semiotic analysis of the word cuck as used in online white supremacist spaces. A fundamental belief of the white supremacist ‘alt-right’ movement is an anti-Semitic narrative that positions Jewish people as a ‘global elite’ that seeks to oppress and eliminate white populations. Central to this belief is that Jewish people actively manipulate populations of colour, Black people in particular, to overtake white populations in a process known as ‘white genocide’ or ‘the great replacement’. Based on a digital ethnography of alt-right communities on Voat, Twitter and Reddit, this article demonstrates how the memeified word ‘cuck’, a pejorative term for ‘weak’ men on the US political right wing, draws from and reproduces this white nationalist conspiracy theory through allusions to interracial cuckold pornography. While disguised as innocuous, expressions like ‘cuck’ provide insight into how the alt-right weaponises misogynist and racist humour in its radicalisation efforts.
... On the other end, a limited number of abstract, meaningless syntactic rules are posited which combine words into grammatical sentences. In stark contrast to this, Construction Grammar (Goldberg 2006;Hilpert 2019;Hoffmann and Trousdale 2013;Hoffmann 2017a,b) rejects this lexicon-syntax dichotomy. Instead, Construction Grammar maintains that there is 'a uniform representation of all grammatical knowledge in the speaker's mind, in the form of … constructions' (Croft and Cruse 2004: 255). ...
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Edgar Schneider's Dynamic Model is currently the most influential sociolinguistic model for the evolution of Post-Colonial Englishes around the world. In this paper, we outline how Construction Grammar, the most prominent cognitive syntactic theory, can provide a cognitive foundation for the assumptions made by the Dynamic Model.
... All linguistic theories agree that symbols, i.e., arbitrary and conventional pairings of form and meaning (e.g., words such as English child, German Kind, or Hungarian gyerek), are a central unit of all human languages. Construction Grammar approaches (Goldberg 2006(Goldberg , 2019Hilpert 2019;Hoffmann and Trousdale 2013;Hoffmann 2017aHoffmann ,b, 2022, go one step further by claiming that arbitrary form-meaning pairings are not only a useful concept for the description of words but that all levels of grammatical description involve such conventionalized formmeaning pairings. This extended notion of the Saussurean sign is known as 'construction' and encompasses morphemes, words, idioms, as well as abstract phrasal patterns. ...
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Humans are an incredibly creative species – our minds have evolved to a degree that has enabled us to think original thoughts and come up with novel solutions to a great number of problems. One domain of human cognition that has recently received considerable attention is linguistic creativity. The present contribution will take a closer look at how Construction Grammar can account for various types of verbal creativity. In addition to this, it will also explore the implications of creative utterances for Construction Grammar as a mental theory of language.
... The article defends the complementarity of two functionalist theoretical assumptions for the study of linguistic change that derives from the formation of verbally based discourse markers ver (see) in Portuguese, as in vejamos and veja lá. We assume that grammaticalization (GIVÓN, 1979; HOPPER, 1991) and grammatical constructionalization (TRAUGOTT and TROUSDALE, 2013;HILPERT, 2014) can be made compatible for the description and analysis of these constituents, as proposed in Traugott (2021), from the contexts of use of these elements (DIEWALD and SMIRNOVA, 2012). ...
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O artigo defende a complementaridade de dois pressupostos teóricos funcionalistas para o estudo da mudança linguística que deriva na formação de marcadores discursivos de base verbal ver no português, como em vejamos e veja lá. Assumimos que gramaticalização (GIVÓN, 1979; HOPPER, 1991) e construcionalização gramatical (TRAUGOTT e TROUSDALE, 2013; HILPERT, 2014) podem ser compatibilizados para a descrição e a análise desses constituintes, como proposto em Traugott (2021), a partir dos contextos de uso desses constituintes (DIEWALD e SMIRNOVA, 2021).
... The theoretical framework of construction grammar (CxG) allows for such a combined quantitative-qualitative analytic description and is the framework used in the study. Notably, CxG allows a move from frequencies/distributions to potential explanations of how such frequencies might reflect certain cognitive abilities and/or constraints of the speakers (see Hilpert 2014, Divjak 2019, Akinlotan 2021. Hoffmann & Graeme (2013) provide comprehensive descriptions of central theoretical aspects of CxG. ...
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Works showing the extent to which structural complexity characterizes syntactic structures in contemporary Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE) are underrepresented in recent studies on structural complexity, especially in creoles and pidgins.For instance no works have shown the extent to which noun phrase (NP), an important syntactic measure of variability and complexity, exhibits variability and complexity, and the extent to which pattern found converges with /diverges from similar linguistic varieties. The present study provides the basic description of corpus-driven structures of simple-complex NP alternation in contemporary NPE, including how factors such as syntactic function and weight explain contexts where simple or complex NPs might be realised. Our results, though preliminary, show that NPs in NPE exhibit considerable complexity, which is against simplification hypothesis exemplified in standard Nigerian English. Keywords: noun phrase, Nigerian Pidgin English, variability, simplicity, complexity, syntactic function
... These (and other) correlations led some scholars (cf. , Bonvino et al. 2018, Masini & Arcodia 2018, Mauri et al. 2019, Goria & Masini 2021 to analyse some list patterns as 'constructions' in the sense of Construction Grammar (Goldberg 1995, 2006, Hoffmann & Trousdale 2013, Hilpert 2014 and Construction Morphology (Booij 2010). ...
... After describing the main formal and functional characteristics of the SDRA in Italian, we now attempt at giving a theoretical account of this structure. Framing our analysis within Construction Grammar (Fillmore et al. 1988;Goldberg 1995Goldberg , 2006Hilpert 2014; Hoffmann and Trousdale 2013), we may obviously ask: is SDRA a construction? Following Goldberg (2006), a construction is generally defined as follows: ...
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This article aims at giving a comprehensive account of a so far undescribed reduplicative pattern in Italian named syntactic discontinuous reduplication with antonymic pairs (SDRA). This pattern, characterized by the non-contiguous repetition of the same element within a larger fixed configuration defined by two spatial antonyms, can be schematized as <X i Adv 1 X i Adv 2 >, where Adv 1 and Adv 2 are antonyms (e.g., di qua ‘here’ ∼ di là ‘there’). After describing its formal and functional properties, based on naturally occurring data extracted from the Italian Web 2016 corpus, the SDRA is analyzed as an independent ‘construction’ in the Construction Grammar sense. This construction is claimed to convey a general value of ‘plurality’ and to have developed a polysemy network of daughter constructions expressing more specific functions such as ‘distributivity,’ ‘related variety,’ and ‘dispersion.’ In addition, we propose considering the SDRA a ‘multiple source construction,’ originating from the blending of two independent constructions: syntactic reduplication and irreversible binomials with antonymic adverbs. Finally, we discuss SDRA-like patterns in other typologically different languages (Russian, Modern Hebrew, Mandarin Chinese, German), pointing out similarities and differences, and paving the way to a more systematic study of discontinuous reduplication in a crosslinguistic perspective.
... Double object constructions and the so-called dative alternation, i.e. the variation between double object constructions and semantically equivalent prepositional object constructions, has become such a widely studied topic in linguistics that it is often compared to studies on the fruit fly in biology (e.g. Hilpert 2019:187, Goldberg 2019. It is well known that the semantics of the double object construction in English and other languages is principally associated with the notion of transfer (see e.g. ...
Thesis
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This thesis examines the use of the Swedish double object construction (the DOC) and compares this with the use of three semantically equivalent prepositional object constructions (POCs): the till-POC, the åt-POC and the för-POC. The thesis has a diachronic perspective, investigating changes in the use of these four constructions between 1800 and 2016. The theoretical framework employed is usage-based construction grammar. The overall aim of the thesis is to shed light on the use of the DOC and the three POCs in Swedish during the selected period and to incorporate these findings into the general theoretical discussion in usage-based construction grammar on double object constructions and dative alternations. In addition, the thesis aims to determine the theoretical status of the double object construction in present-day Swedish. Ditransitives are an extensively studied topic in construction grammar. However, ditransitives in Swedish have not previously been the subject of any major study. The present study is corpus-based, drawing on prose fiction data from 1800–1999 and blog data from 2016. The data were collected from the National Language Bank of Sweden, using the search interface Korp (Borin et al. 2012). The study shows that the DOC has decreased in text frequency. The DOC has also undergone a decrease in the lexical richness of the verb slot, which means that the construction is used with fewer verbs in present-day Swedish compared to nineteenth-century Swedish. Furthermore, the semantic range of the DOC has decreased. An analysis of a number of selected verb-specific and verb-class-specific constructions also revealed that some verbs undergo a decrease in the lexical richness of the direct object slot, when used in the DOC. The relations between the DOC and the three POCs have also changed considerably since the early nineteenth century. In present-day Swedish, verbs that are attested in the till-POC and the för-POC make up a larger proportion of the verbs found in the DOC compared to the nineteenth century. Thus, the overlap between the constructions has increased. This is the consequence of an increased use of both the till-POC and the för-POC, combined with the decreased use of the DOC. Both the till-POC and the för-POC are used with a wider range of verbs in present-day Swedish compared to nineteenth-century Swedish. The proportion of åt-POC verbs attested in the DOC remains stable over time. However, the semantic range of the åt-POC has decreased during the investigated period. The analysis of selected verb-specific and verb-class-specific constructions revealed that the till-POC appears to be taking over functions from the åt-POC. The results are discussed in the light of different models drawn from usage-based construction grammar, including semantic maps, taxonomic networks and horizontal links. I argue that the DOC and the åt-POC have become less schematic, whereas the till-POC has become more schematic. The för-POC, I argue, has retained its level of schematicity but appears to be used more liberally in present-day Swedish. The fact that there is an increased overlap between, on the one hand, the DOC and the till-POC and, on the other, the DOC and the för-POC, indicates strengthened horizontal links between the DOC and these two POCs. Finally, I argue that the decreased use of the DOC might to some extent be the consequence of a change in stylistic norms in the prose fiction genre.
... On the other hand, a limited number of abstract, meaningless syntactic rules are posited which combine words into grammatical sentences. In stark contrast to this, Construction Grammar (Goldberg 2006;Hilpert 2019;Hoffmann and Trousdale 2013;Hoffmann 2017a,b, fc.) rejects this lexicon-syntax dichotomy. ...
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Varieties of English are spoken all over the world from Africa to Asia, from Europe to America. In addition to its use as a foreign language, English in many of these countries is a first or second language variety that initially arose in a colonial setting. Currently, the most influential sociolinguistic model for the evolution of these 'Post-Colonial Englishes' is the Dynamic Model. In this Element, I outline how Construction Grammar, the most prominent cognitive syntactic theory, can provide a cognitive foundation for the assumptions made by the Dynamic Model. As I shall argue, Construction Grammar naturally complements the Dynamic Model and, in addition to that, a 'Constructionist Grammar Approach to the Dynamic Model' approach generates new research questions concerning the productivity of syntactic patterns across Dynamic Model phases.
... Within the usage-based approach, constructions gained prominence (cf. Bybee 2010;Goldberg 2006;Hilpert 2014;Langacker 2008;Tomasello 2003), so much that a family of construction grammar theories was developed, e.g. Cognitive Grammar (Langacker 2008) or Radical Construction Grammar (Croft 2001). ...
Book
Grammaticalization research looks back on a rich history, but recent empirical findings, as well as new insights from cognitive science and psycholinguistics, entice researchers to reassess and review what we know about the process. This book presents a detailed study of the grammaticalization of motion verbs in the Mayan languages. The focus lies on variation in the parallel grammaticalization of motion verbs into auxiliaries and directionals. It is demonstrated that the genetically related and areally close languages do not always grammaticalize source items in the same way - both from a formal and meaning perspective. The empirical findings suggest that traditional theories on grammaticalization do not capture the complex nature of the phenomenon entirely. Therefore, a Network Approach to grammaticalization is introduced which emphasizes a 'meaning-first' account. The approach seeks to combine the conceptual with the discourse-pragmatic while being firmly grounded in cognitive and psychological facts. New insights into the grammaticalization behavior of the world's languages are offered, while well-established notions and assumptions within the grammaticalization research paradigm are reviewed and challenged.
... Different versions of CxG have extensively been applied to different linguistic data sets (see for example , Divjak 2019;Hoffmann 2008;Goldberg 2013;Jach 2018;Hilper 2014). Martin (2014) shows different applications of CxG to structures in the English language, while Hoffmann (2008) analysed the structure of relative clause within central arguments of CxG. Goldberg (2013) provides a broader theoretical operationalisation of CxG to language which shows that CxG can be applied to almost all linguistic varieties such as English-based pidgin and creoles. ...
Article
S Relativisation, a process by which relative clauses are formed, exhibits variability in its internal structure, meaning and interpretation. One form of relativisation is that sort of relative clause in which we directly relate one concept through another concept. The present study identifies and classifies such relativisation as BE-relativisations, and shows the extent to which this sort of relativisation significantly draws on the cognitive abilities of both the speakers and the listeners. Framed within broad theoretical tools in cognitive construction grammar, the study argues that noun phrases (NPs) in BE-relativisation cognitively function as NP1 & NP2. It is shown that these NPs, though lexically independent, are cognitively interdependent for processing purposes. The study further shows that listeners often unconsciously cooperate with speakers in processing different concepts in BE-relativisation. For instance, it is shown that conceptualising NP1 the guys is conceptually the same as NP2 my students in ‘The guys who were my students won the competition’. Drawing on corpus evidence from interference-driven Nigerian and syntactically developed Canadian Englishes, the study shows that BE-relativisations are essentially cognitive-driven, regardless of sociolinguistic background of the speakers/listerners. Among other observations, the study attests scarcity of BE-relativisation and a similar pattern of cognitive activation and cooperation in BE-relativisations found in both varieties of English.
... According to cognitive construction grammar (e.g., Boas 2013;Croft 2001;Croft and Cruse 2004;Goldberg 1995Goldberg , 2006Goldberg , 2019 and usage-based approaches (e.g., Bybee 2010;Diessel 2019;Fischer 2013;Hilpert 2014), our knowledge of language is captured by a structured inventory of constructions, which is referred to as the 'constructicon'. The constructicon has often been described in terms of an associative network (e.g., Boas 2013;Diessel 2019;Goldberg 1995: 67-100;Hilpert 2014: 50-71;Van de Velde 2014: 143-149;) in which constructions and words are not only stored, but also linked to one another by their form and meaning. ...
Article
This paper presents a case study conducted on 17th and 18th century German corpora, confirming that both attraction and differentiation are important mechanisms of change, which interact with socio-symbolic properties of constructions. The paper looks at the frequencies and semantics of wo ‘where’ clauses at the beginning of the New High German period, which are compared to the frequencies and semantics of the connector da ‘there, since’ in the same period. The study reveals that the subordinating connectors wo and da overlapped in their functions and were highly polysemous (or semantically vague), establishing spatial, temporal, causal, conditional, and contrast links between clauses. This suggests that the connectors had become functionally similar by means of mutual attraction; however, they differed in that they belonged to different registers. Over the course of the 18th century, the polysemy of wo and da clauses reduced. Being gradually confined to one single meaning, the connectors became less similar. This differentiation occurs because the connectors aligned to distinct high-level schemas in the associative network. The study confirms that analogy is crucial to both attraction and differentiation of functionally overlapping constructions. While attraction involves analogy of specific instances of constructions, differentiation occurs in analogy to high-level abstract constructions in the associative network.
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There are now so-called constructiCons in development for several different languages. Hence, there are also possibilities for multilingual application of these linguistic resources. Due to the complexity of comparing grammatical constructions in different languages, an approach of trying to establish direct construction equivalents in different languages is not practically feasible on a large scale. Instead, constructions may be connected in terms of shared properties, preferably defined in a language-neutral way. To this end, we propose a linking system based on comparative concepts (CCs) of the sort employed in language typology, enriched with semantic frames. Through this set of CCs, (partial) correspondences may be established between constructions in terms of (combinations of) semantic, functional and morphosyntactic similarities.
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Ord beskrivs i ordböcker och grammatik i grammatikböcker, men var beskrivs samspelet mellan de två? Dels påverkar lexikon och grammatik varandra; meningsbyggnad beror i stor utsträckning på egenskaper hos enskilda ord, och tvärtom. Dels finns det många språkliga mönster med delvis grammatiska, delvis lexikala egenskaper. När grammatik och lexikon behandlas var för sig blir sådana fenomen alltför ensidigt beskrivna - eller hamnar i värsta fall mellan stolarna.
Article
This paper offers a Spanish-English contrastive corpus-based study of the possible transitive uses of the verbs dormir and sleep in Peninsular Spanish and the American and British varieties of English, respectively. The results obtained will show that their transitivity cannot be reduced, as usually pointed out in the bibliography, to the cognate object construction (sleep the sleep of the just/dormir el sueño de los justos), since, in addition to this pattern, both intransitive verbs undergo a transitivization process in other structures which have gone almost unnoticed in the literature: namely, (i) lexical causative constructions (dormir al niño/sleep the baby); (ii) transitive patterns with other non-subcategorised objects, different from cognates (dormir la borrachera/sleep the meal); (iii) constructions with direct objects promoted from adverbial prepositional phrases (dormir la mañana/sleep the morning); (iv) and finally, the way construction (sleep your way to the top), only attested in English. Our main objective will be to highlight the syntactico-semantic similarities and differences which these constructions exhibit in Spanish and English, as well as those concerning their frequency of occurence.
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The paper points out that in Czech linguistics, recent developments in word-formation are not reflected sufficiently, which holds true as well for empirically based criticisms of the core concept of morpheme. The paper introduces very briefly the framework of Construction Grammar, and goes on to argue on empirical grounds for a constructionist account of Czech word-formation. The arguments are based on a) derivation-inflection interactions in Czech, b) the positional boundness of word-formation units, c) the non-compositional meaning (and yet the productivity) of certain morphological constructions, d) the impossibility of describing certain productive processes (e.g. those in the realm of prosodic morphology) purely with reference to morphemes, and e) various instances of complex constructions (zooming in especially on prefixation-valency interactions) which show that it is not sufficient to describe only the behavior of morphemes that are part of these more complex constructions. The paper calls for the reevaluation of Czech word-formation and attempts to illustrate that the above-mentioned phenomena cannot be adequately explained on a morpheme-based account, while the constructionist approach does not suffer from this deficiency.
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In this paper, we seek to describe and defend a corpus-based approach for analysing texts and discourses. To this aim, we use a data analysis infrastructure developed at the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme in Dijon. The collected data is transformed into a corpus that is analysed from a construction grammar perspective in order to highlight the textual significance of constructions (function-form pairings) in a specialized discourse. We then introduce the notion of textual function for some constructions, like the <[X] + [être enregistr*] + [Y] + [Z]> construction in the French Finance Discourse. The contribution aims at pleading for the existence of such constructions and showing how they can contribute to a usage-based semantic text analysis.
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Structural priming is a promising tool for testing similarity relations between constructions, but its applicability to larger-scale models of constructional networks is still limited. This article outlines the following two limitations of previous priming studies: first, they largely focus on priming between alternating constructions; and second, they often test the relations between instances of the same construction rather than between instances of different constructions. Three strategies are suggested for how future priming research could overcome these limitations. Concrete ideas for experimental setups are presented, and their benefits and limitations are addressed.
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This study first aims to identify all the senses (meanings) associated with the Vietnamese lexeme thời gian (time) and how they are structured in the semantic network before attempting to explain the differences between the network of Vietnamese thời gian and that of English time. The dataset comprises over 1900 instances of the lexeme in different contexts, taken from 500 random news articles from VnExpress, one of the most popular news sites in Vietnam. The articles were retrieved using #Lancsbox, and all the instances of thời gian in those articles were extracted by a Python script. After the extraction, they were part-of-speech tagged by vnTagger script. The framework of analysis is the extended model of Principled Polysemy by Vyvyan Evans. The analysis demonstrates that there are seven distinct senses associated with thời gian, namely the Duration Sense, the Moment Sense, the Feature Sense, the Commodity Sense, the Matrix Sense, the Agentive Sense, the Measurement-system Sense, and that these senses can be organised in a semantic network, with the Duration Sense as the Sanctioning Sense and other senses were derived from it. The differences between the network of thời gian and that of time are due to the grammatical differences between Vietnamese and English.
Article
This article identifies just so as a newly emerging purpose subordinator. Using data from the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the Corpus of Historical American English , it traces its development and steady increase in frequency from its first attestation in the mid nineteenth century to the present day. Just so is shown to represent a case of semantic specialization where the purpose meaning wins out over the conditional meaning, thus filling the niche of an informal purpose subordinator and providing an alternative to its multifunctional and semantically ambiguous competitors so that and so . With increasing grammaticalization the just so purpose subordinator also exhibits signs of intersubjectification, being coopted for syntactically independent, interpersonal uses (e.g. just so we're clear ) and culminating in the emergence of a new discourse marker in the form of just so you know in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century. To account for the emergence of purpose just so , a constructional network approach is adopted, which considers the network links to other purpose subordinators, notably so that and so .
Article
This paper traces the history of the English dative alternation by means of a quantitative analysis of instances of both the nominal and the prepositional construction in a corpus of Middle English ( PPCME 2), and compares the results to Wolk et al.’s (2013) data set from ARCHER . I show that the factors impacting the choice of one pattern over the other are subject to change over time: construction choice in Middle English is not straightforwardly predictable by the same factors at play in today’s alternation, but a clearer division based on syntactic semantic-pragmatic variables gradually emerges in the course to Late Modern English. I interpret this development as a prime case of competition, with a focus on (a) the initial emergence of functional overlap and thus competition, and (b) the subsequent creation of “functional niches” of the competing constructions.
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Ecosystems around the world are becoming engulfed in single-use plastics, the majority of which come from plastic packaging. Reusable plastic packaging systems have been proposed in response to this plastic waste crisis, but uptake of such systems in the UK is still very low. This article draws on a thematic corpus of 5.6 million words of UK English around plastics, packaging, reuse, and recycling to examine consumer attitudes towards plastic (re)use. Utilizing methods and insights from ecolinguistics, corpus linguistics, and cognitive linguistics, this article assesses to what degree consumer language differs from that of public-facing bodies such as supermarkets and government entities. A predefined ecosophy, prioritizing protection, rights, systems thinking, and fairness, is used to not only critically evaluate narratives in plastics discourse but also to recommend strategies for more effective and ecologically beneficial communications around plastics and reuse. This article recommends the adoption of ecosophy in multidisciplinary project teams, and argues that ecosophies are conducive to transparent and reproducible discourse analysis. The analysis also suggests that in order to make meaningful change in packaging reuse behaviors, it is highly likely that deeply ingrained cultural stories around power, rights, and responsibilities will need to be directly challenged.
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Phraseology and Construction Grammar have many interests in common, which is not surprising since first construction-based studies focused on idiomatic expressions (cf. Fillmore, Kay and O’Connor 1988; Kay and Fillmore 1999). The main aim is to analyse variation and creativity of intensifying comparative constructions of ugliness in Catalan, Spanish, English, and French adopting an inductive methodology based on corpora from the Sketch Engine software. Following a usage-based constructionist approach, we conduct an intra- and interlinguistic analysis on the entrenchment of constructions, semantic variants of meaning, as well as productivity by means of type frequency and those occurrences with low token frequency (hapax legomena) and creativity according to analogical extensions and constructional contamination.
Article
The notion of simplex networks refers to a type of conceptual blending, by means of which empty roles of a frame (such as the frame of human kinship) are combined with values from the other semantic field (such as individuals who may be conceived of as kin). The current paper argues that there are two main ways in which simplex networks can be constructed: top-down and bottom-up. The construction of top-down simplex networks is prompted by linguistic cues, and in line with those, structure from the roles is projected onto the values in the blended space. The construction of bottom-up simplex networks, on the other hand, is not prompted by linguistic cues but by pattern recognition, and the perceived structure of the values determines which frames and roles may be chosen for the purposes of blending.
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RESUMO O artigo investiga a estrutura da informação em construções interrogativas, em uma perspectiva construcionista Para isso, avalia o referencial teórico da Gramática de Construções para o estudo do fenômeno, apresenta uma breve tipologia de construções interrogativas polares em línguas naturais e, com base em dados extraídos do Corpus Nacional da Língua Russa (ruscorpora.ru), propõe uma análise preliminar da configuração pragmática de interrogativas polares com a partícula li em russo, sugerindo padrões mais especificados de forma e significado que sinalizam a possibilidade de desdobramento da construção em ao menos dois tipos: um tipo marcado para foco argumental, caso em que o elemento focalizado codifica um argumento da sentença interrogativa, e um tipo não marcado, o qual parece se adaptar à estrutura focal da construção com a qual a interrogativa se combina. Palavras-chave: Gramática de Construções. Estrutura da Informação. Construções interrogativas. Russo.
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Com base nos pressupostos teórico-metodológicos da Linguística Funcional Centrada no Uso (TRAUGOTT; TROUSDALE, 2013; FURTADO DA CUNHA; COSTA; CEZARIO, 2015; ROSÁRIO, OLIVEIRA, 2016), este trabalho tem como objetivo geral traçar as tendências de uso da construção correlata aditiva em língua portuguesa, do século XVI ao XXI. Objetiva-se também propor uma interpretação para a variação construcional atestada ao longo do tempo e, de uma forma mais ampla, contribuir para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas funcionalistas centradas no uso. Trata-se de uma pesquisa diacrônica de cunho qualiquantitativo que toma como base os trabalhos de Rosário (2012), Gervásio (2016) e Souza (2020), que constituem uma agenda comum de pesquisa em torno da correlação aditiva. A investigação baseia-se em diferentes corpora, especialmente formados de linguagem argumentativa. Os resultados evidenciam que a correlação aditiva, ao longo dos séculos, apresenta grande profusão de microconstruções em um real quadro de variação, ou seja, são aloconstruções (cf. CAPELLE, 2006; PEREK, 2015). Essas unidades simbólicas foram se formando ao longo do tempo por meio de mudanças pós-construcionais no campo da forma.
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This paper aims to identify and analyze the formal and functional properties of the X does it construction in English from a Construction Grammar approach. In particular, this paper collects and categorizes the corpus data to compare the constructional properties to those of the imperative: it contains the non-plain verbal form does; The directive speech act expressed by the X does it construction cannot be obtained from the sum of lexical meanings of each component, neither with general syntactic rules. This paper elaborates that the X does it construction is not a mere idiomatic expression but an independent construction that has its idiosyncratic formal and functional properties. Furthermore, the construction is defined as the English INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL construction, which appears in a specific genre, instruction manuals. This paper accounts for another type of the genre-based constructions by Ruppenhofer and Michaelis (2010).
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One essential feature of voice alternation is that active and passive clauses centred around a given verb express the same meaning: the “meaning-preserving” hypothesis. One effect of the alternation is the different linking of grammatical relations and semantic roles, which affects the identity of the subject. This paper investigates the meaning-preserving hypothesis in voice alternation in Indonesian from a quantitative usage-based perspective by combining corpus-based data with sentence-production experiment data. It analysed Indonesian caused forward/backward motion verbs and the distribution of their (non-)metaphoric senses in active and passive. The findings demonstrate the frequency effects and sense-sensitivity of voice alternation, such that a given voice type of a verb is strongly associated with certain senses. This finding provides initial support for a previous study on voice alternation in an Austronesian language, predicting that the verb’s semantic properties may condition the statistical bias of the verb towards a particular voice. Some convergence between experimental and corpus findings indicates that participants demonstrate some representation of the strong association between a given voice form of the verb and the sense predominantly expressed in that form, highlighting the notion of item-specific representations of linguistic knowledge as found in construction grammar.
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The volume discusses the breadth of applications for an extended notion of paradigm. Paradigms in this sense are not only tools of morphological description but constitute the inherent structure of grammar. Grammatical paradigms are structural sets forming holistic, semiotic structures with an informational value of their own. We argue that as such, paradigms are a part of speaker knowledge and provide necessary structuring for grammaticalization processes. The papers discuss theoretical as well as conceptual questions and explore different domains of grammatical phenomena, ranging from grammaticalization, morphology, and cognitive semantics to modality, aiming to illustrate what the concept of grammatical paradigms can and cannot (yet) explain.
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The meaning and import of epäillä: The polar ambiguity of the Finnish verb epäillä ‘doubt, suspect, suppose’ and its nominal derivatives as a reflection of the semantics of negation and negativity This study examines the auto-antonymy of the Finnish verb epäillä and its nominal derivatives epäily and epäilys. This is referred to as polar ambiguity in the study, meaning that the assessment expressed with the examined lexemes may incline either to negation (e.g. epäile-n projekti-n onnistumis-ta, epäillä-1SG project-GEN success-PAR ‘I doubt the success of the project’) or to affirmation (e.g. epäile-n vilppi-ä, epäillä-1SG deceit-PAR, ‘I suspect that deceit has taken place’). Furthermore, the interpretation of the lexemes under study often involves evaluative negativity (e.g. the unfavorableness of the complement proposition). This meaning aspect is examined and shown to be linked to the polar variation, that is, whether an epäillä expression is affirmation-inclining or negation-inclining. Moreover, evaluative negativity receives a prominent role in tokens lacking a clear polar inclination. This phenomenon becomes evident especially in the analysis of the nouns. The study draws on a usage-based theoretical framework and utilizes the ideas of meaning construal developed in Cognitive Linguistics. Following the methodological interpretation of the usage-based model, the analysis is based on corpus data. The examination of the verb epäillä relies on a data set compiled from several corpora and divided into three periods: Old Finnish data (263 tokens, approx. 16th to 18th c.), Early Modern Finnish data (1231, approx. 19th c.), and Modern Finnish data (500, approx. 20th c. to present). The analysis of the nouns draws from the HS.fi News Comment Corpus illustrating Modern Finnish use (epäily: 603, epäilys: 173). The methodological core of the study lies in a qualitative contextual meaning analysis. In addition, quantitative collocational analysis is applied in the examination of the nouns. In the study, the synchronic variation in the usage of the verb epäillä as well as the diachronic changes in its polar meaning are examined. The main analytic units are complement constructions, i.e. combinations of the verb and its complement (e.g. an että ‘that’ clause or a NP object). The diachronic analysis shows that especially in the constructions with an että clause and the corresponding non-finite complement, the typical interpretation has changed from negation-inclining to affirmation-inclining during the history of written Finnish. In addition to the change and variation analysis, the usage patterns of epäillä are set in proportion to the syntagmatic behavior of inherently negative verbs in general. This analysis shows how a double negative (epäillä että ei ‘doubt that not’) can develop as a functionally motivated construction. Finally, the division of labor of the two nominal derivatives is under examination: although in a suitable context they are both capable of affirmation- and negation-inclining meanings, the data show specialized tendencies for both epäily and epäilys. The analysis of the polar ambiguity is based on two schemata indicating the role of the complement: target and content schema. In the target schema, the complement is in the scope of negation deriving from the inherently negative epäillä lexeme (verb or noun), whereas in the content schema no scope relation exists, as the complement verbalizes the thought or words of the one who doubts/suspects. The construction receives then an affirmation-inclining interpretation, in case the content complement itself contains no indication of negation. In this study, the two schemata serve mainly as a tool for analyzing the polar ambiguity of epäillä lexemes. They are, however, shown to be applicable also more broadly to the analysis of varying syntagmatic behaviors of different predicates. Finally, as the epäillä lexemes may receive the interpretation of both negation and evaluative negativity, the semantics of these words sheds light on the mutual relation of the named meaning concepts: the meaning variation both illustrates the intertwined nature of negation and e-negativity in language use and shows the importance of their conceptual differentiation. Keywords: cognitive semantics, auto-antonymy, polarity, negation, evaluative negativity, semantics of complementation
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Construction grammar organizes its basic elements of description, its constructions, into networks that range from concrete, lexically-filled constructions to fully schematic ones, with several levels of partially schematic constructions in between. However, only few corpus studies with a constructionist background take this multi-level nature fully into account. In this paper, we argue that understanding language variation can be advanced considerably by systematically formulating and testing hypotheses at various levels in the constructional network. To illustrate the approach, we present a corpus study of the Dutch naar -alternation. It is found that this alternation primarily functions at an intermediate level in the constructional network.
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The paper presents the first quantitative investigation of the causative use of four Italian prototypically path-encoding verbs: entrare, uscire, salire, scendere, (‘to enter’, ‘to exit’, ‘to ascend’, ‘to descend’) (Talmy 1985; Ricca 1993). These uses are gradually expanding from generally southern varieties to substandard Italian as well, as part of the general re-emergence of Umgangssprache features. We use Construction Grammar as a reference framework and interpret the phenomenon as the gradual standardization (via lexicalization) of a coercion phenomenon. Specifically, we investigate the role of both linguistic (i.e. animacy of the referent of the second argument) and sociolinguistic (i.e. dialectal competence) factors on the standardization of the analysed verbs. The study consists of 2 acceptability ratings tasks on 3 datasets, tested on two different groups of subjects. Main findings are consistent with our hypotheses: the 4 verbs show different degrees of acceptability, and dialectal proficiency is shown to significantly influence CCMC use. Animacy is also shown to significantly affect acceptability. Moreover, Salire and scendere uses in CCMCs is found to be likely influenced by their standard transitive use.
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As is well-known, code-mixing is particularly frequent at clause boundaries and with elements expressing pragmatic meaning. However, most of the literature has focussed on switching of simple elements such as conjunctions and discourse markers. This paper, in contrast, analyses clause peripheral switching involving two complex constructions: left dislocations and pseudo-clefts. The data are from English-Spanish bilingual conversations recorded in Gibraltar. A great majority of the bilingual constructions in the corpus belong to a few types occurring with a restricted set of lexical items. A vast amount of such highly recurrent strings in the data confirm the hypothesis that complex multi word strings that are switched together constitute units in code-mixing, i.e. they are processed as single lexical items.
Thesis
Ce travail porte sur les interprétations que reçoivent les formes verbales préfixées par it- et ista- en arabe du Caire, et sur les caractéristiques syntaxiques et sémantiques qui participent à la construction de ces interprétations, en interrogeant le rapport entre procédé de dérivation, que sont ces préfixes, et organisation syntaxique des actants. Nous avons observé le rapport que ces formes verbales préfixées entretiennent avec leur base de dérivation, et comparé les valeurs associées aux différentes formes préfixées dans leur organisation en système, visible à travers la distribution des valeurs sur les formes existantes pour une racine. Les interprétations reçues par les formes verbales dérivées dépendent également des constructions dans lesquelles elles sont utilisées, décrites selon les principes de la Construction Grammar. Cette description a permis de mettre en avant des similitudes d’interprétation des formes verbales qui sont utilisées dans les mêmes constructions, ainsi que le rôle de la construction dans cette interprétation.
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