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Mineral nutrient content of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) for nutritional security in Nepal



Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is grown primarily to produce grains for human consumption because of its nutritive and health promoting value. Buckwheat is the sixth staple food after rice, wheat, maize, finger millet and barley in Nepal. This study principally focuses on the mineral nutrient content of buckwheat and their role in human health and nutrition. Buckwheat is used as basic food, animal feed, vegetable, soup, beverage and medicine. It is rich source of proteins, starch, antioxidants, dietary fibre and trace elements. It is rich in minerals like Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, K, Na, Ca and Mg. It is rich in fats, flavonoid and vitamin especially B groups. Buckwheat proteins contain amino acid which is well balanced and is of a high biological value. Buckwheat is rich source of rutin. The high level of rutin is extracted from the leaves for medicine to treat high blood pressure. This review serves as a useful tool to researchers and nutritionist who are working in food and nutritional security in Nepal.
Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA) 3(1) (2019) 01-04
ISSN: 2521-2931 (Print)
ISSN: 2521-294X (Online)
Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA)
Fagopyrum esculentum
Bikram Nepali1*, Devashish Bhandari1, Jiban Shrestha2
Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal.
National Commercial Agriculture Research Program, NARC, Pakhribas, Dhankuta, Nepal
*Corresponding author email:
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction
in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Article History:
Received 15 November 2018
Accepted 17 December 2018
Available online 2 January 2019
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is grown primarily to produce grains for human consumption because of
its nutritive and health promoting value. Buckwheat is the sixth staple food after rice, wheat, maize, finger millet
and barley in Nepal. This study principally focuses on the mineral nutrient content of buckwheat and their role in
human health and nutrition. Buckwheat is used as basic food, animal feed, vegetable, soup, beverage and medicine. It
is rich source of proteins, starch, antioxidants, dietary fibre and trace elements. It is rich in minerals like Zn, Cu, Fe,
Mn, Se, K, Na, Ca and Mg. It is rich in fats, flavonoid and vitamin especially B groups. Buckwheat proteins contain amino
acid which is well balanced and is of a high biological value. Buckwheat is rich source of rutin. The high level of rutin
is extracted from the leaves for medicine to treat high blood pressure. This review serves as a useful tool to
researchers and nutritionist who are working in food and nutritional security in Nepal.
Common Buckwheat, Nutrient value, Food security, Nepal
In Nepal, buckwheat is a sixth staple food crop after rice, wheat, maize,
finger millet, and barley. It is considered as poor man’s crop and is an
alternate cereal that represents an important food supply in remote places
of Himalayas. Both species of buckwheat species namely Fagopyrum
esculentum Moench
F. tataricum Geartn
are grown in Nepal. It is
food crop in high hills where it is grown as the major summer
crop. In colder areas Tataricum type is more common where common
buckwheat cannot be cultivated [1]. Common Buckwheat (fagopyrum
esculentum) is grown throughout the country, whereas bitter
Buckwheat (fagopyrum tatricum) is grown in the hilly area of Nepal. Hill
Crops Research Program (HCRP), Dolakha, Nepal has 495 accessions of
buckwheat that includes common and tataricum type from local and
exotic sources [1]. Relatively wide adaptability has been observed in
tataricum type than in common buckwheat.
It is the best crop in higher altitude in terms of adaptation to different
climatic variables and easily fitted to different cropping patterns due to
short duration. It is cultivated on marginal land in 61 out of 75 districts of
Nepal from some 60 m to 4500 m above sea level, especially hilly and
mountain districts like Rukum, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Dolpa, Humla, Jumla,
Kalikot, Kavre, Dolakha, and Okhaldhunga, Mustang, Solukhumbu, and
Taplejung districts regularly since time immemorial [2]. Recently it has
been grown in some Terai districts like Chitwan, Jhapa, and Nawalparasi
for commercial purposes especially for green vegetable which has very
high demand due to rutin contents. Every family grows Tartary buckwheat
in upper Mustang and Dolpa districts and diversity of buckwheat is very
high in Manang, Dolpa, Mustang, Jumla, and Solukhumbu [2,3].
Grain and other tissues of buckwheat contain many nutraceutical
components and rich in vitamins, especially B groups [4,5]. The amino acid
composition of buckwheat proteins is well balanced and has a high
biological value, although protein digestibility is relatively low [6]. The
microelements, such as Zn, Cu, Mn, Se can be achieved from buckwheat
grains and and microelements: K, Na, Ca, Mg [7,8]. Rutin, catechins and
other polyphenols and their significant antioxidant effects the dietary
value [9,10]. Buckwheat grain is a rich source of TDF (total dietary fiber),
soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and is used in the prevention of obesity and
diabetes [11].
Rational of study
Human daily basis consumption of food were Rice, Maize, and wheat in
Nepal. The ratio of cultivation and consumption of those food crop was
increasing annually, whereas these crop does not provide ample nutrition
for pregnant women and children. However, underutilized crop like:
Buckwheat, finger millet, prosomillet, and amaranthus which contain
high nutrition value are in the looming stage. If such production trend of
major crops spike, it would threat the food basket of Nepal. This review
assesses the nutrition value of Buckwheat, so that it can be an informative
paper to every viewer.
2. Growth value of buckwheat
Cite The Article: Bikram Nepali, Devashish Bhandari, Jiban Shrestha (2019). Mineral Nutrient Content of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) For
Nutritional Security In Nepal. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(1): 01-04.
Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA) 3(1) (2019) 01-04
Cite The Article: Bi kram Nepali, Devashish Bhandari, Jiban Shrestha (2019). Mineral Nutri ent C ontent Of Buc kwheat (Fagop yrum esculentum Moench) For Nutritional
Security In Nepal. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(1): 01-04.
Buckwheat is a multipurpose crop and is grown for use as basic food,
animal feed, vegetable, soup, beverage and medicine [2,12]. All parts of
buckwheat plants are used in various ways. The rutin produced by leaf is
an important pharmaceutical product used to brew tea for the treatment
of hypertonia. About a month, blooming flowers produce high-quality
nectar for honey; grains are the basic food; hulls of grains are used to make
pillows; straw is a good source for livestock; green plants are used as green
fertilizers [2, 13].
In Nepal there is a list of 34 dishes prepared with buckwheat, such as such
as dhindo (thick porridge), roti (bread), momo (Chinese pancake), lagar
(very thick bread), dheshu (thicker than lagar), fresh vegetables, dried
vegetables, Kancho pitho (raw flour), chhyang or jaand (local beer), raksi
(alcohol), salad (leaves), pickle (fresh and dry leaves), soup, ryale roti,
Noodle, sel roti, bhat (rice), sausage, dorpa dal, tea, vinegar, jam, macaroni,
biscuit, cakes, mithai (sweet), haluwa, puri, puwa, bhuteko Phapar
(roasted grain), satu, phuraula, porridge, and pakauda. Nepalese people
from mountain region prefer dhindo than other items due to their specific
taste [2,3].
3. Health benefits of buckwheat
Buckwheat is a very nutrient-rich, gluten-free plant source for a wealth of
health benefits, including a boost in heart health, reduction in blood
pressure, aid in weight loss, prevention of certain cancers, management of
diabetes, improved digestion and cholesterol levels, and stronger immune
system. Buckwheat gives higher calories and carbohydrates than the
widely consumed wheat. It can easily serve as an excellent alternative to
the traditional wheat [14]. Buckwheat is a great source of dietary fibre,
with 10g per 100g [15]. It is another gluten-free food source. The grains
compose of several polyphenolic antioxidant compounds such as rutin,
tannins, and catechin. The rutin (extracted from the buckwheat leaves) is
used as medicine to treat high blood pressure. Buckwheat is a good source
of protein with 13.2g per 100g [15]. The protein it contains is of a very high
quality, the amino acids are well balanced. It is particularly high in lysine
and arginine [16]. It is a very good source of the mineral magnesium
(231mg per 100g) [15]. Buckwheat is a great source of manganese,
phosphorous, copper [17]. For the production of red blood cells copper is
necessary. Magnesium make relaxes blood vessels leading to brain and
found to have healing effects on depression, and headache. Buckwheat is
rich in Folate, it helps your body produce and maintain new cells,
especially red blood cells. It is particularly important for pregnant women
to have enough folate. They must start having folate rich foods like
Buckwheat even while they are planning to conceive. Consuming enough
folate before and during pregnancy helps to prevent major birth defects
concerning the baby's brain. Buckwheat grains have more B-complex
group of vitamins, especially riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacin (vitamin
Nutritional and chemical components of buckwheat grains
Buckwheat protein is rich in arginine and lysine, which constituent about
(13.36%) [10,18]. The amino acid composition of buckwheat proteins is of
a high biological value and is well balanced [19]. Buckwheat products is an
important source of retrograded starch [18]. It also contains some healing
component and biologically active properties, such as flavonoids and
flavon, condensed thanins, phenolic acid, phytosterols and fagopyrins in
grain and hulls. Flavonoids are phytonutrients which act as antioxidants
and having chelating properties [20]. Flavonoid compound is effective for
the reduction of blood cholesterol and helping the reduction of blood
Rutin was the essential and beneficial component from health point of
view especially found in the Buckwheat. It was a flavonol glycoside
composed of flavonol quercetin and disaccharide rutinose. It has a ability
to generate reactive oxygen due to antioxidant power. Rutin was found to
possess highest antioxidant activity of all the identified phenolics in
Table 1: Amount of proteins contents in buckwheat grains [18]
N (% d.m.) × 6.5
12.0 13.0
13.30 15.55
8.51 18.87
Table 2: Amino acid content of buckwheat grain (%w/w) [18]
Glutamic acid
Aspartic acid
Table 3: Nutrient content in Buckwheat.
Content of phytosterols
250 mg/day
Cite The Article: Bi kram Nepali, Devashish Bhandari, Jiban Shrestha (2019). Mineral Nutri ent C ontent Of Buc kwheat (Fagop yrum esculentum Moench) For Nutritional
Security In Nepal. Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(1): 01-04.
Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture (MJSA) 3(1) (2019) 01-04
Protein content
Lipid content
Carbohydrate content
Vitamin B6 content
Buckwheat was used for making bread, chapati, biscuits, cakes, dhindo,
wine, buckwheat tea etc. Thus, it can be used as staple diet in our country.
Consumption of bread with 30% added buckwheat increases antioxidant
capacity of serum [2]. Buckwheat kernel was rich in soluble protein, but it
has leucine as a first limited amino acid [8]. Flavonoids biosynthesis in
buckwheat makes it a health promoter food [30]. Buckwheat kernel was
rich in K, Fe and Zn in albumin, Ca, Mg and Mn in globulin and Na in
prolamin and glutelin [8]. Buckwheat protein has one of the highest amino
acid scores of protein in plant food stuffs [31]. Buckwheat products have
high level of resistant starch [32]. Buckwheat is rich source of phytosterol
mainly sitosterol and campesterol [27]. Plant sterols have positive
correlation with lowering blood cholesterol level [22]. Cycloartanol was
identified as unique sterol in raw and roasted buckwheat products [27].
5. Role of buckwheat in nutritional security in Nepal
Buckwheat can be used as a staple diet in Nepal by substituting highly
polished rice. Buckwheat higher nutritional value and medicinal value acts
as a food guard in the food security of Nepal. It has a multiple use thus
providing hub for agrobased industry. It is grown in marginal lands with
harsh environmental conditions thus being friendlier with farmers. But its
cultivation is decreasing, and its landraces are deteriorated due to various
factors. Preserving germplasm and planting local landraces helps for long
term sustainable agriculture in Nepal. It has an allelopathy effect thus we
do not have to deal with weed problems like in other crops. It can easily
cope with changing climate. Buckwheat flowers are very fragrant and are
attractive to bees thus they can be used to produce special, strong, dark
honey (Up2018). Buckwheat can be served as an alternative to rice
(Up2018). Buckwheat should be introduced in our daily diet to overcome
various health problems. Raw buckwheat groats are rich source of lipid,
protein and sterol in comparison to roasted buckwheat groats [27].
Buckwheat contains high level of starch similar to many cereal grains [31].
Components responsible for technological products may be concentrated
or regulated to obtain a desired product [32]. It grows well in areas with
less fertile soil and little rainfall. Leaves and shoot of common buckwheat
is used as leafy vegetable in Himalayan region [33]. Emphasis has to be
given on conservation and utilization of various genetic resources of this
multipurpose crop for economic and food security [33,34].
Increased production of major cereals undermined the production of
highly nutritious crop like Buckwheat. Lack of Proper extension and
knowledge regarding the nutrition value of underutilized crops has caused
increased obsession with major crops. Buckwheat is rich in retrograded
starch, well balanced proteins, fats and vitamin especially B groups. Rutin
acts as a good antioxidant and sterols are positively associated with health
benefits. It is rich in minerals like Ca, Mg, Zn, K and Na. Buckwheat can be
used as nutritious and energizing food which contribute food and
nutritional security in Nepal.
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... Chemical contamination (toxic elements, mycotoxins, etc.) in food has become a global concern (Nepali et al. 2019;Rezaei et al. 2020;He et al. 2021;Hou et al. 2021;Hu et al. 2021;Aranega and Oliveira 2022;Beegum et al. 2022;Chowdary et al. 2022;Hwang and Kwon 2022;Kiran et al. 2022;. Cocoa powder is one of the favorably worldwide consumed products, originating from the processing of cocoa beans from Theobroma cacao tree (Maddela et al. 2020;Lewis et al. 2021). ...
... Hence, chronic exposure with even low quantities, may cause critical health implications (Salama 2018;Abt and Robin 2020;Maddela et al. 2020). These toxic elements can be in a competition with some essential elements and decrease their levels in the body inducing many serious health problems (Kataoka et al. 2018;Salama 2018;Nepali et al. 2019;Madanayake et al. 2021). For instance, alteration in thiamine, proteins, and potassium and calcium metabolism can appear via Cd contamination (Amjad et al. 2021;Shokri et al. 2022b). ...
Full-text available
The concentrations of toxic elements were analyzed by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Moreover, the human health risk was estimated by Total Target Hazard Quotient (TTHQ) and Cancer Risk (CR) in Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Cd (0.08 ± 0.08), Pb (0.23 ± 0.46), and As (0.06 ± 0.04), were in a good compliance with ISO (Iranian standard organization). TTHQ for adults and children was equal to 0.009 and 0.042, respectively and also mean CR in adults and children consumers was equal to 9.73E–7 and 9.08E–7, respectively. Consequently, the concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Pb, and As) in cocoa powder did not pose any safety concerns. Moreover, probabilistic health risk assessment revealed that both adults and children were not at considerable non-carcinogenic (THQ and/or TTHQ ≤ 1) and carcinogenic risk (CR ≤ 1E–6). Even though, seeking for mitigating solutions and applying them to suppress the dangers of food containing toxic elements is a critical subject.
... The pseudocereal Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is attracting increasing interest as a raw material for functional food production. Due to its unique nutritional value comprising high concentrations of phytosterols, flavonols, vitamin binding proteins, a desirable fatty acid profile, and an advantageous amino acid composition, buckwheat may be used in gluten-free diets, as an ingredient in bread production [1][2][3][4][5][6], and for manufacturing of gluten-free beer. The first tests carried out on buckwheat beer, including biochemical characterization and sensory analyses, confirmed that after process optimization it could have potential for marketing [7]. ...
... Compared to raw buckwheat seeds, the process of steeping, malting, and mashing affected the redistribution of the profile towards higher concentrations of lower inositol phosphates, and resulted in a 75% reduction in the InsP6. In the group of intermediate inositol phosphates, Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins (1,5,6)P3 were identified in the wort mashed using the Congress method, which agrees well with the specificity of 3-phytase A (Figure 2). It is worth noting that the addition of acid phosphatase did not significantly influence the decrease in phytic acid content (Table 2), most probably due to higher affinity of the enzyme to lower myo-inositol esters. ...
Full-text available
A relatively high concentration of phytate in buckwheat malt, and the low activity of endogenous buckwheat phytases, both of which limit the effective use of substrates (starch, proteins, minerals) for fermentation and yeast metabolism, gives rise to the potential for application of phytases in beer production. This study aims at obtaining a 100% buckwheat wort with high bioactive cyclitols (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol) concentrations released by exogenous phytases and acid phosphatases. Two mashing programs were used in the study, i.e., (1) typical for basic raw materials, namely the well-established Congress method, and (2) optimized for phytase activity. The results indicated a nearly 50% increase in the level of bioactive myo-inositol and an 80% degradation of phytate in the wort as a result of simultaneous application of phytase and phosphatase enzymes in the mashing of buckwheat malt. In addition, high D-chiro-inositol concentrations were released from malt to the buckwheat wort. The concerted action of the two phytases significantly increased (19-44%) Zn 2+ concentrations in wort. This may be of great importance during mash fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. There is a potential to develop technology for buckwheat beer production, which, in addition to being free from gluten, comprises high levels of bioactive myo-and D-chiro-inositols.
... These components have an antioxidant property [12,13]. Phytonutrients present in the buckwheat are effective substances which are helpful in reducing the blood cholesterol and blood pressure [14]. ...
Full-text available
The perception of food and nutrition security is multi-dimensional. Food security happens when all individuals have physical and economic access to enough and nutritious food which meets their dietary requirements and food choice for an active and healthy life. Limited quantity and supply of nutritious food is a big threat for food security. Because of huge population and high level of malnutrition in India, it is a very big challenge to make sure the supply of sufficient food and nutrition. Buckwheat has become a functional food because of its nutrient content and positive effects on human health. It can be consumed as a food and also used in the treatment of many diseases. The major impacts of buckwheat on human health are its hypotensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. Hence, it is used in the treatment for chronic and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and celiac disease. Buckwheat flour was incorporated in sesame laddu at four different proportions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) and the formulated samples along with the standard were standardized. After standardization, it was subjected to sensory analysis and most acceptable proportion was selected and subjected for nutrient analysis. The cost of the product was also estimated. The selected product was popularized among adults. The sensory analysis proved that the sensory characteristics are acceptable with the addition of buck wheat flour. The carbohydrate content was high and the fat content was low in the selected product than in the standard product. The selected product costs little higher than the standard product.
... Concerns about chemical contamination of food are growing (Kamarubahrin et al. 2019;Nepali et al. 2019;C et al. 2020;Yan et al. 2020;Pandey 2021;Wang et al. 2021;Aranega and Oliveira 2022;Bangar et al. 2022;Gao et al. 2022;Zoghi et al. 2022;Ke et al. 2022;Li et al. 2022;Chowdary et al. 2022). Olive oils have been used for centuries because of their healing properties and nutritional value (Calabriso et al. 2015). ...
One hundred and sixteen samples of extra virgin olive oils (VOOs) from markets of Tehran were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect the amount of benzo (a)pyrene. The values of LOD and LOQ were calculated as 0.03 and 0.05 µg/kg, respectively. The concentration of benzo (a) pyrene was from 0.03 to 0.95 µg/kg. The results indicate that the levels of benzo (a) pyrene are lower than the limits approved. Target Hazard quotient (THQ) and Margin of Exposure (MOE) were estimated. The mean of THQ for adults and children was 0.0006 and 0.0028 and also mean of MOE for adults and children was 43,503 and 9438, respectively. The probabilistic health risk shows that THQ is less than 1 value; hence consumers are not at non-cancer risk. The mean of MOE value for adults was more than 10,000 but for children was less than 10,000. Hence, children are at health risk borderline.
... Numerous authors have recently studied the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of alternative grains, including buckwheat [e.g., [15][16][17][18]. For instance, some authors [15] looked into the chemical composition of buckwheat grains from a nutritional aspect. ...
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This study analyzes the possibility of sustainable production of high biological value food, qui-noa and buckwheat, on a fertile agricultural and moderately degraded land-in an area outside their native range. The research was conducted during three consecutive years on two locations and two types of soil in Vojvodina, the Republic of Serbia, and included one variety of quinoa (KVL 52.2) and one variety of buckwheat (Novosadska). The trial was set up in the city of Nova Pazova (on fertile meadow black soil) and the village of Ilandža (on degraded marshy black soil). The aim of the research was to determine the impact of pedological conditions on the sustainable production of quinoa and buckwheat in different locations in Vojvodina. It was found that moderately degraded land can be used for sustainable production of high-value food without the prior application of agro-ameliorative measures. The yield of buckwheat was significantly higher and less influenced by pedological conditions than the yield of quinoa, suggesting the use of this alternative crop species for the production of high-quality food on moderately degraded land in Vojvodina.
... Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a herbaceous plant of the Polygonaceae family, of annual cycle, upright habit and with cordate-triangular or sagittate leaves, originating in Central Asia and cultivated in Europe, Asia and America (Accame & Ortega, 2019). The grains produced are intended for human food and are a source of proteins, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants (Nepali, Bhandari, & Shrestha, 2019). The plant can be used as fodder for animal feed (Bhardwaj & Hamama, 2020;Mariotti, Masoni, & Arduini, 2016) and as soil cover and nutrient recycler (Gonçalves et al., 2016). ...
The objective of this work was to model and identify the best models for estimating the leaf area, determined by digital photos, of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) of the cultivars IPR91-Baili and IPR92-Altar, as a function of length (L), width (W) or length x width product (LW) of the leaf blade. Ten uniformity trials (blank experiments) were carried out, five with IPR91-Baili cultivar and five with IPR92-Altar cultivar. The trials were performed on five sowing dates. In each trial and cultivar, expanded leaves were collected at random from the lower, middle and upper segments of the plants, totaling 1,815 leaves. In these 1,815 leaves, L and W were measured and the LW of the leaf blade was calculated, which were used as independent variables in the model. The leaf area of each leaf was determined using the digital photo method (Y), which was used as a dependent variable of the model. For each sowing date, cultivar and thirds of the plant, 80% of the leaves (1,452 leaves) were randomly separated for the generation of the models and 20% of the leaves (363 leaves) for the validation of the models of leaf area estimation as a function of linear dimensions. For buckwheat, IPR91-Baili and IPR92-Altar cultivars, the quadratic model (Ŷ = 0.5217 + 0.6581LW + 0.0004LW2, R2 = 0.9590), power model (Ŷ = 0.6809LW1.0037, R2 = 0.9587), linear model (Ŷ = 0.0653 + 0.6892LW, R2 = 0.9587) and linear model without intercept (Ŷ = 0.6907LW, R2 = 0.9587) are indicated for the estimation of leaf area determined by digital photos (Y) based on the LW of the leaf blade (x), and, preferably, the linear model without intercept can be used, due to its greater simplicity.
... The dietary fibre content in buckwheat constitutes about 10 g/100g and the grains of buckwheat is a rich source of B-complex group of vitamins especially riboflavin (Vit-B2) and niacin (Vit-B3). Nepali et al. (2019) reported that buckwheat has a massive potential role in pharmacology due to presence of beneficial bioactive compounds which includes flavonoids and flavon, condensed tannins, phenolic acid, phytosterols and fagopyrins in grain and hulls. The health benefits include boosting heart health, reduction in blood pressure, aid in weight loss, prevention of certain cancers, management of diabetes, improved digestion and cholesterol levels and stronger immune system. ...
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Underutilized wild plants are important sources of nutrition and medicine since ancient times and have contributed to food security, enriching diet diversity and preventing malnutrition. These plants have been used in ancient Chinese and Indian medicine such as Ayurvedic, Unani and Sidhi to treat various ailments. Ladakh, the cold-desert of India, is home to many such wild underutilized plants which have played a crucial role in supplementing diet to the indigenous people. Phytochemical investigation of these plants have revealed the presence of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds like vitamins, minerals, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, capparisine, caftaric acid, chicoric acid, salidrosides, rosavins, emodin and anthraquinones that are responsible for their pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive response, antiageing, antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective. Moreover, fortification of staple food with these plants have ability to improve the micronutrients and bioactive constituents. Identification of these compounds using a metabolomic approach could enable development of safer and affordable novel drugs. These underutilized plants, though having tremendous potential for commercial exploitation, still remain largely ignored. The paper highlights some of the underutilized plants of Ladakh and their potentials as food and nutraceuticals and future commercial exploitation for nutritional security and good health.
... The widespread distribution of these bacteria in the aquatic environment and the stress induced by intensive culture practices predisposes fish to infections. Involvement of bacteria is very vital in producing diseases in the farmed fishes in Bangladesh (Chowdhury 1998, Bikram et al. 2019). Channel catfish virus (CCV) disease is an acute infection of cultured fry and fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) which occurs mainly during summer and is often in fish less than four months old but with a few exceptions (Plumb 1986, Jing et al. 2018). ...
Pangasius hypophthalmus or famously known by local Malaysians as Patin Hitam is one of the most important sources of food in Malaysia. It is widely cultured in the Peninsular Malaysia especially in Pahang as Patin and is a popularly consumed freshwater fish. Global economic interest in the fish has increased its demand in the USA and Europe. However, high mortality due to bacterial and viral infections is the main problem that needs to be solved. Therefore, bacteria in P. hypophthalmus in Pahang is being focused with the factors connected to the prevalence of bacteria and virus in P. hypophthalmus. This research was conducted for two cycles (
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Stability analysis is an important step in developing cultivars. Seven buckwheat genotypes were evaluated at hilly regions of Nepal namely Dolakha, Ramechhap, Solukhumbu, Kaski, Dailekh, Surkhet, Jumla and Doti districts during winter seasons of 2017 and 2018 using randomized complete block design with three replications to identify stable and high yielding genotypes. The genotype × environment interaction for grain yield was significant (P≤0.05). The genotypes ACC#2227-1 (1.62 t/ha) and ACC#2223-1 (1.52 t/ha) were found higher sensitive to environment and produced higher mean grain yield across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that genotypes ACC#2227-1 and ACC# 2223-1 had regression coefficient of 1.41 and 1.33, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R 2) for genotypes, ACC#2227-1 and ACC#2223-1 were higher. The GGE biplot analysis showed that ACC#2227-1 and ACC#2223-1 were more stable and adaptive across the locations; therefore, they can be taken for general cultivation.
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The goal of this study is the evaluation of enriched bread prepared with an addition of buckwheat as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Experimental pastry was baked using buckwheat wholegrain flour blended with wheat flour in different portions (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) in order to observe the influence of buckwheat addition on dough processing and the quality of the final baked products. Taking into account the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that bread with an addition of up to 30% of buckwheat could be baked with satisfactory evaluation results. The content of rutin in loaves in a consumable form prepared with a buckwheat addition varied between 7.76 mg/kg and 26.90 mg/kg. The clinical study which followed the baking experiment was based on the consumption of enriched bread (30% buckwheat, between 34.7 mg/kg and 38.2 mg/kg rutin content in dry matter) by a group of volunteers during a period of four weeks. The results approved the increase of the total antioxidant status thanks to the buckwheat enriched bread consumption from the value of 1.135 ± 0.066 mmol/dm<sup>3</sup> at the beginning of the study to 1.46 ± 0.083 mmol/dm<sup>3</sup> at the end of the study, i.e. significant differences.
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Buckwheat is a sixth staple food crop after rice, wheat, maize, finger millet, and barley in Nepal. It is considered as an alternate cereal and poor man’s crop, representing an important food supply in remote places of Himalayas. It is the best crop in higher altitude in terms of adaptation to different climatic variables and easily fitted to different cropping patterns due to short duration. It is cultivated on marginal land in 61 out of 75 districts of Nepal from some 60 m to 4500 m asl, especially hilly and mountain districts like Rukum, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Dolpa, Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, Kavre, Dolakha, and Okhaldhunga. Sweet buckwheat varieties are generally grown in midhill and Terai but Tartary buckwheat varieties are grown in higher altitude. There are altogether 19 local landraces of sweat buckwheat and 37 for Tartary buckwheat listed from Nepal. The largest producers are China, USA, and Russia and Japan is principal user of global buckwheat grown in the world. In Nepal, it is cultivated in 10510 ha area with production of 10355 t/yr and yield of 0.983 t/ha. It has also medicinal value used in different forms including all its parts so the demand of buckwheat is increasing.
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The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43) indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. The magnitude of regression coefficients of mustard implied that use of human labor, tractor, nutrient and irrigation and pesticides costs had significant positive effect on gross return with estimated increasing return to scale (1.03). According to estimated allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to increase use of tractor labor, seed, nutrient and irrigation plus pesticides cost by about 47%, 82%, 84% and 94%, respectively. Extension of modern technologies with adjustment on resource use is to be encouraged for increase in productivity and profit from mustard production which indirectly promotes and ensure forage for pollinators. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 604-608
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Dielectric properties (dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor) of static buckwheat seed were determined in the ranges of 1 to 1000 kHz for frequency of the electric field, 11.1% to 17.1% wet basis for moisture content, 722.1 to 800.6 kg m-3 for bulk density, and 5°C to 40°C for temperature using a coaxial cylindrical capacitor. The influences of frequency, moisture content, bulk density, and temperature on the dielectric properties were investigated. Polynomials were developed describing the relationships between permittivities and moisture content, temperature, and bulk density at selected frequencies. The significance of each factor on the regression models was analyzed, and the accuracy of the models for calculating permittivites and for sensing moisture content was evaluated. The results showed that dielectric constant and loss factor both decreased with increasing frequency and increased with increasing moisture content, bulk density, and temperature. The second-order and third-order polynomials could be used to describe the relationships between permittivities and affecting factors at selected frequencies. Moisture content and temperature were significant factors influencing the dielectric properties of buckwheat. The regression models were verified to be accurate for calculating the dielectric constant and loss factor and for sensing moisture content from the obtained dielectric properties. This study offers useful information on dielectric properties of buckwheat and suggests that dielectric measurement can be used in sensing moisture content of buckwheat. © 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
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We determined the content of phytosterols in buckwheat products. Additionally, the influence of technological processing applied during buckwheat groats production on the content of some phytosterols was investigated. The highest level of phytosterols was observed in lipids extracted from roasted buckwheat hulls and raw buckwheat hulls (51.7 mg/g of lipids and 40.9 mg/g of lipids, respectively). Sitosterol and campesterol were found in the largest quantities in each sample. Technological process affected the total content of phytosterols. An increase of phytosterol content in buckwheat grains (by 107.5%) was observed, while a reduction in phytosterol content in buckwheat groats (by 75.5%) was noted.
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Summary Thirty nine buckwheat cultivars were collected from China, of which twenty one were tartary buckwheat and others were common buckwheat. Flour samples from these cultivars were analysed for colour properties, nutritional composition and flavonoid content. Buckwheat cultivars exhibited high variations for each of these parameters. The flour of common buckwheat showed a higher whiteness index than that of tartary buckwheat and contained very low levels of flavonoids. On average, the tartary buckwheat flour contained a higher level of ash (2.38%) and lower levels of total starch (70.22%), amylose (22.32%), resistant starch (17.66%) than the common buckwheat flour (2.17%, 73.69%, 23.01%, 18.69% respectively) (P −1 and 2.38 mg g−1, respectively).
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp.) is cultivated worldwide as a pseudocereal. It accumulates large amounts of biologically active rutin and related flavonoids and therefore is receiving increasing attention as a food with health-promoting benefits. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) accumulates rutin mainly in the flowers, leaves, and cotyledons and C-glucosylflavones in the cotyledons. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) accumulates rutin in the same organs as common buckwheat, but it also accumulates rutin and quercetin in the seeds. The biosynthesis of rutin in buckwheat has been well characterized, except for the genes coding for the enzymes involved in the final glycosylation. This biosynthesis is induced during germination and flowering and by light irradiation. In contrast, the biosynthesis of C-glucosylflavones is yet to be described; 2-hydroxyflavanone C-glucosyltransferase genes were identified recently from common buckwheat. Further studies on unidentified biosynthetic genes and regulation systems of flavonoid biosynthesis are warranted to elucidate flavonoid accumulation in buckwheat.