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Assessment of Rose Water and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of a Rose Water Based Cream Formulation

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International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2019; 11(1): 43-48
ISSN- 0975 1556
Research Article
*Author for Correspondence:
Assessment of Rose Water and Evaluation of Antioxidant and
Anti-inflammatory Properties of a Rose Water Based Cream
Abidi Safia, Zaidi Aamir, Azhar Iqbal, Sultan Rafi, Mahmood Zafar*
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi
Available Online:25th January, 2019
Photo-aging is a universal dilemma that occurs in our population due to constant contact with ultraviolet radiation. The
utilization of antioxidants is a successful approach to avoid symptoms associated to the photo-induced aging of the skin.
In view of this, present study was designed to prepare and evaluate the antioxidant & anti-inflammatory activity of cream
comprising the aqueous petals extract of Rosa damascena for its radical scavenging and protein denaturation activity.
Antioxidant activity assessed using standard ascorbic acid (ferric reducing power assay), and anti-inflammatory activity
assessed using standard diclofenac sodium measuring of the %age inhibition of protein denaturation. The rose water
contains the major phytoconstituents which are polyphenolic compounds flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins which
are mainly responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Out of three cream formulations (F1, F2, and
F3). F1 cream formulation showed the highest antioxidant (81.55%) and anti-inflammatory activity (80.6%) at 1000µg/ml.
the result noted to be concentration dependent. The IC 50 value of F1 formulation cream was 257.39 while for F2 cream
formulation 374.41. The present results indicate that the Rosa damascena petals extract (Rose water) has a good potential
for cosmetic product development.
Keywords: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, rose water
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation which directly comes from the
sun divided into three types UVA (320-400nm), UVB
(290-320nm) and UVC (200-290nm)1. Skin is the body
organ that mainly uncovered and bears an extensive
exposure to the ultraviolet radiation. Individual skin
persistently and frequently exposed to potentially unsafe
compounds and rays for the reason that it serves as a
defensive wall between the atmosphere and its in-house
organs, thus making it prone to aging2.Photoaging is a
protracted tenure procedure that fallout as of continual
contact of the skin to solar radiation. Ultraviolet (UV)
radiation has been revealed to cause a variety of lesions in
DNA including pyrimidine dimmers of cyclobutane type
and other photo products of the nucleic acid base. These
photo products are concerned in cellular lethality,
alteration, and further biological effects3. Thickening,
unevenness, coarse wrinkles characterize photoaging,
spotted pigmentation and histological changes together
with injuring to collagen fibers, unnecessary deposition of
abnormal elastic fibers, an increase in
glycosaminoglycans4-6. Ultraviolet radiations aid the aging
procedure and become the reason for the reduction in skin
elasticity. For this cause, the formulation investigations for
the free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory
activities to know the ability of the formulation to combat
or delay the photoaging process7.
Rosa damascena which furthermore recognized as gul-e-
surkh is one of the mainly immediate sweet-smelling and
therapeutic plants customarily used for various strength
needs. It is an erect shrub up to 2 meters in height.Rose
plant is cultivated all over the world for a reason that of its
attractiveness and scent. It is the most well-known than any
other flower all over the world. It has referred to as a king
of flowers. There are over 200 rose species, and more than
180000 cultivars variety of the plant has been known,
among them the Rosa damascena is one of the most
significant generals of Rosaceae family. Apart from its
uses as a decorative plant in recreational greenhouse and
gardens. They predominantly cultivated for use in
perfume, medicine, and food industry. The plant has
revealed diverse biological and pharmacological actions.It
has used in Unani medicine (Tibb-e-Unani)since ancient
era 8.
Rose plant used for the management of many complains
and described in the ethnobotanical texts, and a range of
uses have been reported such as in aching throat, puffy
tonsillitis, slimming to women and old people, uterine
hemorrhages and urticaria. Locally they are useful to heal
aphthae9. The most beneficial consequence of Rosa
damascena in ancient medicine are together with the
healing of abdominal chest pain, strengthening the heart,
cure of menstrual bleeding and digestive disorders and
decrease inflammation particularly of the neck. This plant
Abidi et al. / Assessment of Rose…
IJPCR, Volume 11, Issue 1: January-February, 2019 Page 44
Table 1: Phytochemical Analysis of Rose Petal Extract
(Rose Water).
Fixed oil
(+) indicates the presence of components in a low
(++) indicates the presence of components in a moderate
Table 2: Percentage of Ferric Reducing Power Capacity
of Cream Formulation F1, F2, and F3.
n µg/ml
% of reduction power capacity
Equivalent to Ascorbic Acid
also used as a mild laxative10. Flowers of the plant are
for eyes. Relieve a pain, toothache, stomatitis,
reimbursement the lungs, kidney and liver. It is also used
in reheat of the body, chronic fever, inflammation and
intestinal affection and to decrease too much
perspiration11. Rose water forms a satisfying vehicle for
the grounding of lotions and collyrium12.
All chemicals and solvents used in the study were of
analytical grade and they were purchased locally
Collection and Identification
10 kilogram of Rosa damascena flowers purchased from
the local market care was taken to select healthy flowers
and identified by the expert, and its herbarium No.
deposited in the Department of Pharmacognosy.The petals
were separated from other parts of the plant and washed
carefully with water to remove dust and foreign material
and dried under shade.
Extraction of rose water was carried out by the method
reported by Verma et al .,201113. 60 g of dried rose petals
were hydrodistilled with 1.5 liters of distilled water for 4
hours and obtained 800 ml of rose water.The collected
extract was stored in airtight container in the refrigerator at
4 oC for further study.
Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis
The extract subjected to preliminary phytochemical
screening of saponin, tannins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and
fixed oils.
Formulation of Rosewater cream
Rosa damascena petals extract (rose water),50 g and 30 g
were used for the preparation of cream formulation F1 and
F2 respectively; the F3 formulation was of placebo cream.
The procedure for the rose water cream formulation was as
follow. The oil part of the cream formulation that is
cetostearyl alcohol, cetomacrogol-100, lanolin, stearic
acid, glycerin was collectively uniform at 75 OC ± 2 with
continuous stirring using the hot plate. While for the
grounding of aqueous part purify water was heated
separately in 2000 ml volume beaker at 80 OC ± 2. Upon
constant mixing put in methylparaben, propylparaben and
borax and the heat brought to 75 OC ± 2. The two phases
mixed with continuous stirring for about 1-2 minutes
finally rose water was added with constant stirring till
cream produced. The temperature was additionally
reduced to 45 OC using cold water bathtub.The cream
stored in an airtight amber colored bottle at room
temperature for further studies14.
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Cream Formulation
In vitro antioxidant activity of cream formulations F1, F2,
and F3 performed by the method described as ferric
reducing power assay used by Henneberger et al. (2006)15.
Preparation of Extract Solutions
Accurately weighed 200 mg of extract and dissolved in 50
ml ethanol to obtain solutions of 2000 µg/ml
concentration. This solution was serially diluted separately
to achieve the lower concentrations25 .100, 500, 1000
µg/ml. The same procedure is adopted for the preparation
of standard ascorbic acid dilutions 25,100, 500, 1000µg/ml
in distilled water.
Used as
Amount ( gram)
Cetostearyl alcohol
Emulsifying agent
Emulsifying agent
Stearic acid
Liquid paraffin
Emulsifier / Preservative
Buffering agent
Active (rose water)
Sun protecting agent
30 g and 50 g
Distill water
q.s to make 500 g
Total weight
500 gram
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IJPCR, Volume 11, Issue 1: January-February, 2019 Page 45
Table 3: Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cream Formulations F1, F2, F3 and Standard Drug Diclofenac Sodium.
% Inhibition of Protein Denaturation
F1 Formulation
F2 Formulation
F3 Formulation
Standard Drug
± 0.06
Figure-1: Ferric Reducing Power of F1, F2, F3 Cream Formulation Equivalent to Ascorbic Acid.
Figure-2: percentage inhibition of diclofenac sodium and formulated creams against denaturation of the protein.
25 100 500 1000
% of reduction power
Concentration µg/ml
50 150 300 750 1000
% inhibition of protein denaturation
Concentration µg/ml
Abidi et al. / Assessment of Rose…
IJPCR, Volume 11, Issue 1: January-February, 2019 Page 46
Ferric reducing power assay
2.5 ml of the F1 cream formulation (ranges 25- 1000
µg/ml) were individually assorted using 2.5 ml of 0.2 M
phosphate buffer pH 6.6 and 2.5 ml of (1%,w/v) potassium
ferricyanide. The combination incubated at 50 OC for 20
minutes.At the ending of incubation, 2.5 ml of (10 %,
W/V) trichloroacetic acid (TCA) added to the mixture then
centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. Afterward, 2.5 ml
of supernatant mixed with 2.5 ml of distilled water and 0.5
ml of FeCl3 (0.1 %, W/V), the absorbance was recorded at
700 nm using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid
used as a reference standard. The percentage reduction
calculated by using the following formula16.
Percentage of reduction power (%) =1- [1- As/Ac] x 100
Where: Ac absorbance of the standard at the different
concentration tested
As: absorbance of the sample
The similar procedure was adopted to calculate the
reduction power of F2 and F3 formulations.
In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of cream formulations
Inhibition of albumin denaturation method as described by
Gautam et al., 201317. Moreover, previously reported by
Mizushima and Kobayashi 196818. was adopted to confirm
the anti-inflammatory activity of cream formulations
Preparation of stock solution
250 mg of extract was weighed and transferred into 100 ml
volumetric flask to make 2500µg/ml stock solution further
dilution (50,150,300,750, 1000 µg/ml) prepared from that
Antiinflammatory activity method
2ml of egg albumin from the fresh hen egg, 28ml
phosphate buffer pH 6.4 and 20ml
(50ug/ml,150ug/ml,300ug/ml,750ug/ml and 1000ug/ml)
dilutions of F1 ,F2 ,F3 and Standard) .Incubated the
Figure-3: Relationship between Ferric Reducing Power Antioxidant Activity and Percentage Inhibition of Protein
Denaturation of Cream Formulation F1.
Figure 4: Relationship between Ferric Reducing Power Antioxidant Activity and Percentage Inhibition of Protein
Denaturation of Cream Formulation F2.
y = 0.023x + 55.92
R² = 0.856
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Concentration µg/ml
% age of
reduction power
% Inhibition of
y = 0.024x + 40.99
R² = 0.923
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Concentration µg/ml
% age of
% inhibition
of protein
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IJPCR, Volume 11, Issue 1: January-February, 2019 Page 47
mixture at 37oc for about 30min and then heated at 70oC
for about 15 min, cooled the mixture and observed their
absorbance at 517, 660 and 700 nm using the vehicle as
blank. The percentage inhibition of protein denaturation
was calculated from the control using the following
formula 19.
% inhibition =Abs control- Abs test x 100
Abs control
Whereas, Abs: absorbance
Qualitative Phytochemical Studies
The qualitative phytochemical analysis of rose petals
extract (rose water) showed the presence of flavonoids,
tannins, saponin, fixed oil, and triterpenoids.Represented
in Table-1
Ferric Reducing Power Ability (FRPA)
Antioxidant activity of cream formulation F1, F2, and
F3(placebo) calculated by using ferric reducing power
assay, and the result shown in Table-2.The highest
reducing power ability seen at 1000µg/ml F1 (81.55%)
and F2(72.82%) formulations.It is seen that by increasing
the amount of rose water and concentration of the solution
reducing the power of the cream also increases as shown
in Figure-1
% inhibition of protein denaturation
In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of cream formulations.
F1, F2, and F3 calculated by using in-vitro protein
denaturation method.The result is shown in Table-3.It
noticed that anti-inflammatory activity was concentration
dependent as we increase the concentration the inhibitory
effect also increased the highest value recorded at
1000µg/ml F1 (80.6%), F2 (65.2%) and F3
(43.67%).Moreover, when compared with standard drug
diclofenac sodium, diclofenac sodium had higher anti-
inflammatory activity as compared to F1, F2, and F3 with
(86.32%) at 1000µg/ml.The extracts were found to be less
active compared to the standard diclofenac sodium, as
shown in Figure-2. Thus the result can conclude that the
present study proposed that the rose water cream
formulation F1 and F2 possess the high potential of
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The
observed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects can be
attributed majorly to the presence of polyphenolic
compounds in the rose water. A comparison graph of % of
reducing power and % inhibition of protein denaturation is
presented in the Figure-3 for F1 and Figure-4 for F2. The
50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of cream formulation
F1 was 257.39 and for F2 375.41.
The Rosa damascena petal extract commonly known as
rose water widely used for its medicinal value in the
traditional system of medicine. The rose water contained
four major polyphenolic compounds which are flavonoids,
tannins, saponin and triterpenoids which are responsible
for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties4. The
antioxidant creams are extensively used nowadays as they
appear to be an attractive way to defend the skin in
opposition to oxidative stress caused by a variety of
extrinsic sources. A numeral of therapeutic plants used in
emergent countries for the management of some disease
condition together with pain and inflammatory condition.
The validation of folkloric claims of these medicinal plants
will present a scientific foundation for the conservation of
tropical medicinal resources. The use of rose water as an
anti-inflammatory agent also reported (Maleev et
al.,1972). As rose water contains a polyphenolic
compound which is helpful in reducing inflammation. To
sustain the efficiency of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
activity of cream formulation against free radicals and
inflammation, it is vital to stabilizing the final formulation
on its properties. As a part of synergistic effects, the
current practice moves towards in the formulation of
different combinations of active ingredient instead of
single products. The present study revealed that by
increasing the concentration of rose water its antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory activities were also increased.
Moreover, our study presented that formulation of F1
(50g) is more efficient as compared to F2 (30g). The
research work suggests that to ensure the quality and purity
of the cream, it must have the consistency and uniformity
in the ingredients of the herbal antioxidant cream. The
trend of using herbal skin cream is becoming in demand
since it is proven that topical application of anti-oxidant
cream will be effective against UV radiation and protect
the skin from the major consequence of UV damage. In
conclusion, the topical application of the formulated cream
rose water will help in reducing oxidative damage and give
the antioxidant effect to our skin due to its high antioxidant
The authors are thankful to the entire staff of the
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi for the
technical assistance.
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... In order to trace and determine the stability of phenolic compounds and other essential ingredients (vitamin C, vitamin E, and anti-tyrosinase inhibitor agents) in cosmetic creams after the products have been formulated, many analytical methods, including solid-liquid extraction using ultrasound [70], hot water extraction and sonication [71], liquid-liquid extraction [72], solid phase extraction [73], microwave-assisted extraction [74], and high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, have been developed to determine the amount of total phenolic compounds, synthetic antioxidants, or active ingredients in the cosmetic creams [70,71,75]. Cosmetic scientists are now paying specific attention to the presence of phenolic compounds (resveratrol, benzoic acid and its derivatives, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and EGCG) [70,76,77] in skincare products with the hopes of satisfying the cosmetic consumers with regard to the maintenance of functional cosmetic cream properties (whitening and anti-hyperpigmentation effects) in relation to what the products have claimed in their cosmeceutical research and marketing materials [23,78]. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and tyrosinase inhibitory effects, of some of the commercial cosmetic creams that are available on the Thai market. ...
... The 70% ethanol, hexane, and water have also been used as extracting agents to de-emulsify the phenolic compounds obtained from the creams and similar emulsions [70]. Another study used absolute ethanol extracting agent to determine the polyphenol compounds (tannins and flavonoids) in cosmetic creams as well [72,77]. ...
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Recently, the global trend toward the use of natural extracts and antioxidant agents in the cosmetic cream industry to produce whitening effects has been increasing. This has also been a persistent trend in Thailand. In this study, samples of commercial cosmetic creams on the Thai market were assessed for a functional evaluation of their antioxidant activity, tyrosinase inhibitory effects, and phenolic contents. Samples were extracted using hot water and sonication extraction method to obtain the functional cream extracts. Total phenolic contents in all samples were within the range of 0.46–47.92 mg GAE/30 g cream. Antioxidant activities of the cream extracts were within the range of 3.61–43.98 mg Trolox equivalent/30 g cream, while tyrosinase inhibition activities were within the range of 2.58–97.94% of inhibition. With regard to the relationship between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of the cosmetic creams, Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed a moderately positive relationship with an r value of 0.6108. Furthermore, the relationship between the antioxidant activity and the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the cosmetic creams was highly positive with an r value of 0.7238. Overall, this study demonstrated that the total phenolic contents in the functional cosmetic creams could play a role in antioxidant activity and anti-tyrosinase activities. The findings indicate how the whitening and antioxidant effects of cosmetic creams could be maintained after the products have been formulated, as this concern can affect the consumer’s decision when purchasing cosmetic products.
... This technique yielded a 40% increase in rosewater production. Safia et al. (2019), presented the assessment of rose water and evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a rose water-based cream formulation. They used the petals of Rosa damascene for rosewater extraction. ...
Rose oil is the most popular essential oil among the many essential oils since its numerous and varied benefits. As a result, rose oil is extracted all over the globe. Calculating the best sample mass and corresponding solvent volume for maximum rose oil output from petals is vital. In addition, estimating the least amount of electricity required to operate a hydrodistillation facility is critical. The current research is being conducted to evaluate these characteristics. According to this investigation, the greatest yield of 0.069% was found for a sample size of 0.25 kg and a solvent volume of 0.75 L. For these working circumstances, the power consumption was 300 W, and the distillation time was 1.5 h. The equation given by the regression analysis as ‘Distillation yield (%) = 0.1078 - 0.0321 Sample size (kg) + 0.01377 Solvent quantity (L) - 0.000108 Power (W) - 0.00745 Distillation time (hr)’. The error data demonstrate that the yield predicted by the regression equation is pretty accurate, making it useful for researchers and industry personnel to anticipate the yield value of their operating conditions. Rose essential oil and rose water are in high demand; as a result, the production of rose essential oil and rose water is a lucrative source of revenue for rural communities. The distillation technology used to obtain rose oil is energy-intensive and has a considerable environmental impact. Consequently, a renewable energy-powered essential oil extraction system must be designed and deployed to protect the environment.
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The world is moving towards a healthier lifestyle where people are changing their eating habits, which influenced edible rose flowers to emerge as a pioneer in the field of nutraceutical and food industries. Roses are a good source of dietary phytochemicals viz., flavonoids (anthocyanin, flavonols, and flavonols), carotenoids, and phenolic acids. The presence of such phytochemicals makes rose as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, anti-aging, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, and neurogenic agent. Historically edible rose flowers have been used in the preparation of traditional food products and delicacies such as gulkand, punkhuri, and rose petal tea and have found application in traditional medicine such as Ayurveda to treat hyperacidity, vata, pitta, constipation, abdominal pains, and various other illnesses. Over a period of time, concept of edible flowers has gotten more recognition and now roses are used in the preparation of many food products such as jams, jellies, cookies, salads, ice-creams, juices, and wines. In this review, we established a connection between phytochemicals and their biological activity, nutritional composition, traditional usage, and functional food aspects of edible rose flowers. Overall, these concepts help to set a new trend in culinary science and further research on the nutraceutical composition, and health benefits of edible rose flowers.
There has been increased global interest in Herbal Formulations, herbal remedies are more acceptable in the belief that they are safer with few side effects than the synthetic ones. Herbal face toner does not have any side effects and make face alluring. In herbal face toner main ingredients are, sugar cane juice, pomegranate juice and tomato juice, and other ingredients are mint, lemon juice, rose water. This herbal face toner is in liquid form for applied on skin. Their organoleptic property was evaluated and rheological properties were also evaluated and result is good. The flowing property of face pack is good. The objectives of this herbal toner is rehydrating skin, balancing skin pH, tightening skin pores, relieving irritation, and also germ- free. Herbal face toner is used to stimulate blood circulation, rejuvenates and helps to maintain the elasticity of the skin. The advantage of herbal cosmetics is their non-toxic in nature; reduce the allergic conditions and time-tested usefulness of many ingredients. Thus, in the present work, we found good properties of the face toner.
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Gul-e-Surkh (rose) is the flower of the plant Rosa damascena Mill that is one of the most important aromatic and medicinal plants traditionally used for various health needs. It is an erect shrub, up to 2 m in height. This plant is cultivated throughout the world because of its beauty and fragrance. It is the most famous than any other flower throughout the world. It has been referred to as the king of flowers. At present time, over 200 rose species and more than 18000 cultivars form of the plant has been identified, among them Rosa damascena is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family. Apart from its use as ornamental plants in parks, gardens, and houses, they are principally cultivated for use in perfume, medicine, and food industry. Rose oil or otto or attar of roses is freely used as perfumes by rich classes. Otto is seldom used medicinally except for perfuming emollients and medicinal soap. The plant has shown diverse biological and pharmacological activities. It has been used in Unani Medicine (Tibb-e-Unani) since ancient era. Keeping in view the high medicinal importance of the plant in Unani Medicine, this review provides available information on its therapeutic uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.
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Objective: The present study was carried out to compare the anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Pongamia pinnata (linn.) pierre (EEPP) and methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum linn. (MEPG) by in-vitro techniques. Methods: Two in-vitro models i.e. inhibition of protein denaturation and Human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were selected for the study. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug. Results: The results of both models exhibited that EEPP, MEPG and standard drug (diclofenac sodium) showed concentration dependent inhibition of protein (egg albumin) denaturation as well as stabilization towards HRBC membrane. Conclusion: By comparing the present findings, it can be concluded that MEPG has more potent anti-arthritic activity than EEPP. The activity may be due to the presence of phytocompounds such as flavonoids, steroids etc.
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Objectives: Use of phytoconstituents, especially obtained from fruits extract with high content of flavonoids has gained considerable importance in personal care products such as creams and lotions. Finding new results and data through experiments will be helpful for both researchers and industry on the subject. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in-vitro sunscreen activity of a cream formulation containing the fruit extract of Musa accuminata, Psidium gujava and Pyrus communis based on their flavonoid contents. Methods: Extraction of fruits to include maximum quantity of flavonoids was carried out using solvent system comprising of methanol (35%), ethanol (35%), and distilled water (30%). The cream was formulated and tested for the physicochemical parameters such as color, odor, pH and spreadability. While total flavonoid content was determined by aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The in-vitro sun protection factor (SPF) of cream formulation and commercially Available sunscreen was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometric method. Results: The total flavonoid content of cream formulation was found to be 45.81±8.49 and expressed in terms of standard quercetin equivalent μg/g. The SPF value for the cream formulation was recorded as 3.90, whereas commercially Available sunscreen it was 12.26, indicating that cream formulation has photoprotective activity and may be used to develop a good cosmetic formulation and to explore its commercial viability. Conclusion: Use of phytoconstituents, especially those obtained from fruits extract with high content of flavonoids has gained considerable importance in personal care products such as creams and lotions. Finding new results and data through experiments will be helpful for both researchers and industry on the subject. The proposed spectrophotometric method is simple and rapid for SPF determination. Due to the high cost and time consumption relating to in vivo SPF determination andsome ethical issues for the volunteers, the in vitro method is gaining more importance. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.
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Background The present study was aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the Curcuma zedoaria (family Zingiberaceae) ethanolic rhizome extract in laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods so as to justify its traditional use in the above mentioned pathological conditions. Methods Phytochemical screening was done to find the presence of various secondary metabolites of the plant. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed employing the hot plate method, acidic acid induced writhing test and formalin induced writhing test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory activity test was done on Long Evans rats at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) by using carrageenan induced paw edema test. Finally in vitro anti-inflammatory test by protein-denaturation method was followed. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett’s t-test was used as the test of significance. P value <0.05 was considered as the minimum level of significance. Results Phytochemical screening revealed presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums & carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars and terpenoids in the extract. In the hot plate method, the extract increased the reaction time of heat sensation significantly to 61.99% and 78.22% at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the percent inhibition of writhing response by the extract was 48.28% and 54.02% at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses respectively (p < 0.001). The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (64.49%, p < 0.01) and the late phase (62.37%, p < 0.01) in formalin induced writhing test. The extract significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) inhibited carrageenan induced inflammatory response in rats in a dose related manner. In in-vitro anti-inflammatory test, the extract significantly inhibited protein denaturation of 77.15, 64.43, 53.04, 36.78 and 23.70% for doses of 500, 400, 300, 200 and 100 μg/mL respectively. Conclusions The results obtained from the tests indicate that the plant might have one or more secondary metabolite(s) having central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.
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Roses are always appreciated because of their inimitable aroma, many uses and of course their beauty. In addition to the different damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) products (oil, water, concrete, absolute, gulkand etc.), its dried petals are also used for various health purposes. The hydrodistilled volatile oil and water of shade-dried damask rose petals were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The predominant components of tThe essential oil and rose water were aliphatic hydrocarbons (56.4 and 46.3%), followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (14.7 and 8.7%). The main aliphatic hydrocarbons of the essential oil and rose water were heneicosane (19.7 and 15.7%), nonadecane (13.0 and 8.4%), tricosane (11.3 and 9.3%) and pentacosane (5.3 and 5.1%) while the content of 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol was 0.4% and 7.1% in the essential oil and rose water, respectively. The chemical composition of the dried rose petal volatiles is quite different from fresh flower volatiles.
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The aged appearance of skin following repeated exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation stems largely from damage to cutaneous connective tissue, which is composed primarily of type I and type III collagens. We report here that a single exposure to UV irradiation causes significant loss of procollagen synthesis in human skin. Expression of type I and type III procollagens is substantially reduced within 24 hours after a single UV exposure, even at UV doses that cause only minimal skin reddening. Daily UV exposures over 4 days result in sustained reductions of both type I and type III procollagen protein levels for at least 24 hours after the final UV exposure. UV inhibition of type I procollagen synthesis is mediated in part by c-Jun, which is induced by UV irradiation and interferes with procollagen transcription. Pretreatment of human skin in vivo with all-trans retinoic acid inhibits UV induction of c-Jun and protects skin against loss of procollagen synthesis. We have reported previously that UV irradiation induces matrix-degrading metalloproteinases in human skin and that pretreatment of skin with all-trans retinoic acid inhibits this induction. UV irradiation, therefore, damages human skin connective tissue by simultaneously inhibiting procollagen synthesis and stimulating collagen breakdown. All-trans retinoic acid protects against both of these deleterious effects and may thereby retard premature skin aging.
Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam) is one of the fruits commonly consumed as diet by societies, especially in Papua, Indonesia. Preliminary research revealed that among three extracts of red fruit evaluated, ethyl acetate extract had the highest antiradical activities; therefore, this research was directed to fractionate ethyl acetate extract, evaluate antioxidant activities using in vitro methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, and metal chelating activity, and to determine the phenolics and flavonoid contents of ethyl acetate extract and its fractions. Ethyl acetate extract and its fractions can strongly scavenge DPPH radical with IC50 value ranged from 5.25 to 53.47μg/ml. Its antiradical scavenging activity revealed a moderate relationship with the total phenolics content (r2 = 0.645) and with flavonoid content (r2 = 0.709). Ethyl acetate extract and its fractions also had a capability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ with reduction activity ranged 91.26 - 682.18 μg ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract or fraction. These extract and its fractions had metal chelating activity lower than that of EDTA (IC50 18.19 μg/ml). Red fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent diseases associated with free radical.
Recently, interest in plant-derived food additives has grown, mainly because synthetic antioxidants suffer from several drawbacks. Furthermore, plant extracts have been shown to possess health-promoting properties. In the present study, hydrodistilled extracts from basil, laurel, parsley, juniper, aniseed, fennel, cumin, cardamom, and ginger were assessed for their total phenol content, and antioxidant (iron(III) reduction, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, iron(II) chelation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and inhibition of hydroxyl radical-mediated 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation, site and nonsite-specific) activities. The extracts from basil and laurel possessed the highest antioxidant activities except for iron chelation. Although parsley showed the best performance in the iron chelation assay, it was less effective at retarding the oxidation of linoleic acid. In the linoleic acid peroxidation assay, 1 g of the basil and laurel extracts were as effective as 177 and 212 mg of trolox, respectively. Thus, both extracts are promising alternatives to synthetic substances as food ingredients with antioxidant activity.
The interaction of clinically established anti-inflammatory drugs with some proteins has shown these drugs to strongly inhibit heat coagulation of whole serum at a concentration attainable in the sera of patients. Phenylbutazone and sodium salicylate do not inhibit the biological activity of three biologically active and labile serum proteins, namely, necrotizing factor, heterogenous serum and complement. However, they do influence the effect of heat on these proteins. The relation between this drug action in vitro and the possible mode of action of the proteins in vivo is discussed.
A number of studies indicate that matrix metalloproteinase might be involved in photoaging, but little is known about their direct contribution to ultraviolet-induced histologic and morphologic changes in the skin in vivo. This study reports the relationship between changes of matrix metalloproteinase activities and ultraviolet B-induced skin changes in hairless mouse. The role of matrix metalloproteinase in the skin changes was studied by topical application of a specific matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. The backs of mice were exposed to ultraviolet B three times a week for 10 wk. Histologic studies showed that the basement membrane structure was damaged, with epidermal hyperplasia, in the first 2 wk of ultraviolet B irradiation, followed by the appearance of wrinkles, which gradually extended in the latter half of the ultraviolet B irradiation period. We observed enhancement of type IV collagen degradation activity, but not collagenase or matrix metalloproteinase-3 activity, in extracts of ultraviolet B-irradiated, wrinkle-bearing skin. Gelatin zymographic analysis revealed that gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2, were significantly increased in the extract. In situ zymographic study clarified that the activity was specifically localized in whole epidermis of ultraviolet B-irradiated, wrinkled skin in comparison with normal skin. The activity was induced around the basal layer of the epidermis by a single ultraviolet exposure of at least one minimal erythema dose. Furthermore, topical application of a specific matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, CGS27023A, inhibited ultraviolet B-induced gelatinase activity in the epidermis, and its repeated application prevented ultraviolet B-induced damage to the basement membrane, as well as epidermal hyperplasia and dermal collagen degradation. Ultraviolet B-induced wrinkles were also prevented by administration of the inhibitor. These results, taken together, suggest that ultraviolet B-induced enhancement of gelatinase activity in the skin contributes to wrinkle formation through the destruction of basement membrane structure and dermal collagen in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse, and thus topical application of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors may be an effective way to prevent ultraviolet B-induced wrinkle formation.