Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The aims of this study were to evaluate body inclination and ground reaction force and to predict equations to estimate the training load distribution during suspension training (ST) static back-row at different lengths of the straps. Thirty volunteers (men = 16 and women = 14; age = 23.3 ± 1.7 years; body mass = 63.9 ± 13.3 kg; height = 167.9 ± 9.2 cm; body mass index [BMI] = 22.5 ± 3.4 kg·m−2) performed 14 static back-rows at 7 different lengths of the straps in 2 different elbow positions (flexed and extended). When the length of the straps increased, ground reaction force and body inclination decreased. Moreover, in the flexed elbow position, higher ground reaction force values were recorded with respect to the extended one. Two multilevel regression models (p < 0.05) were created. In the first one, ground reaction force was used as a dependent variable, whereas body inclination angle, body mass, height, BMI, and elbow position were used as independent variables. Significant (p < 0.05) effects were found for all variables included in the model, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.31. In the second model, the body inclination angle was replaced by the length of the ST device. Significant (p < 0.05) effects were found also in the second model for all variables included, with an ICC of 0.37. The proposed models could provide different methods to quantify the training load distribution, even if the use of the straps' length could result easier and faster than body inclination angle, helping practitioners and instructors to personalize the workout to reach specific purposes and provide load progression.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The principle of overload is essential to challenge the individual in order for occur training adaptation. Resistance in most suspension and unstable exercises is body weight and the intensity of training depends on degree of instability caused by the devices and angles of body [40]. However, in present study, the principle of overload was applied by increasing repetition and duration of muscle contraction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Information about comparing the effectiveness of exercise methods on management of disk herniation is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two programs of suspension and core stability exercises on some electromyography (EMG) coordinates, pain and range of motion of patients with disk herniation. Thirty-two men with disk herniation participated in this clinical trial study which was randomly divided into three groups of suspension exercises (n: 12, age: 34.25 ± 8.81, BMI: 24.01 ± 2.7), core stability exercises (n: 10, age: 35 ± 10.3, BMI: 25 ± 2.27) and control (n: 10, age: 34.4 ± 6.67, BMI: 23.76 ± 1.45). Electrical activity of rectus abdominis, internal and external oblique and erector spinae muscles was masured by superficial EMG, back pain by McGill Pain Questionnaire and range of motion by Modified Schober test, one day before and immediately after of intervention period. The experimental groups performed an 8-week training period while the control group was only followed up. Data were analyzed using paired sample t test and analysis of covariance test and statistical significance was set at 0.05. Suspension group showed significant improvement in EMG of rectus abdominis, internal and external oblique muscles (respectively, p = 0.030, p = 0.017, p = 0.022) and pain (p = 0.001) compared to core stability group; but there was no significant difference between two groups in EMG of erector spinae muscle and range of motion. Changes in both training groups were significant in all variables compared to control groups (p ˂ 0.05). Our findings showed that although both exercises were effective in patients with lumbar disk herniation, but the effectiveness of suspension exercises in increasing muscle activation and reducing pain was more pronounced than core stability exercises. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT): IRCT20191016045136N1.
... One proposal is to estimate the load based on the level of difficulty, taking as a reference the body's position on a mat on which levels are defined, ranging from easy to hard [17]. Other authors propose equations based on the recording of measurements of the different forces involved in the execution, considering the inclination of the body with respect to the ground and the point of support [7,[18][19][20]. Finally, others also provide angular references and their relation to the load in each phase of the exercise [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study describes the theoretical foundations of the development of an equation that allows for the estimation of the mobilized load when training with suspension devices (type TRX®) and presents a mobile application as a means for its use. Methods: Systems of equations are proposed of which the terms depend on the angulation of the device with respect to the vertical (angle α), the relationship between the height of grip, the height of the center of mass and the weight of the subject, which are recorded from a photo. Results: Based on the photo and the subject’s standing height, the application allows the user to measure the angle α, providing the values of applied force (in N) and mobilized load in relation to the percentage of body mass, applying the calculations described in our equations. The equation also provides the estimated value of the load mobilized during a push up on the floor (68% of the subject’s body mass) and the equation for the calculation of the mobilized load when the suspension device is fixed to the feet. Conclusions: It is possible to use equations to estimate the load mobilized in each repetition during training using suspension devices and to implement this algorithm in a mobile application.
... Also within the efforts to achieve guidelines to orient the process of determination of workloads, Giancotti et al. (2019) in a study conducted in adults applying the exercise of rowing in suspension and where they used different attack angles determined that the increase of the strap length generated a decrease in the reaction force of the ground and the inclination of the body, thus giving equations that could help the prediction of the workload. Under a similar line, Francesco et al. (2017), evaluated in the push-up exercise seven different positions of the elbow during isometric contractions and thus allow the assessment of the load between the upper and lower extremities, observing that as the length of the device in suspension increases the inclination of the body decreases, the reaction force on the body also decreases and the tension on the device tends to increase, with the main conclusion being that the distribution of the load between the upper and lower extremities it seems to change both when the inclination of the body is modified and the length of the belts of the device in suspension. ...
Article
Full-text available
The strap suspension training is a well-known and practiced resistance training methods. Despite its frequent use, there is lack of methods of control and prescription of the loads (e.g. intensity and volume) during exercising with this device and method. The aim of the present study was to propose a new practical approach in the control and prescription of physical load during resistance suspension strap training considering basic terminology. In suspension training with straps, setting the exercise using different subjection point height, rope length, distance from subjection point and attack angle could change both the intensity and the volume of the load. Considering the above, this information should be addressed by human science professionals, athletes and coaches in the designing and execution of conditioning and training programs using this method of suspension training, in order to make an optimal approach to a more individualized prescription. Likewise, the calculation and the use of attack angles and their variations together with the Suspension Training Total Resistance Load values give the possibility of making a more objective approach for the determination of an adequate training load, which based on the client's perception, could allow practitioners to generate a beneficial overload and obtain greater physical and physiological improvements.
... Based on the transfer of the training adaptations principle, the concurrent presence of resistance exercises and instability might provide a more effective transfer of functional adaptations needed during the activities of daily living [58]. Although unstable surfaces and unbalanced conditions (i.e., Swiss balls, inflated discs, wobble boards, and suspension slings) have been mainly used for dynamic balance assessment and training in healthy, injured, and old subjects [59][60][61][62][63][64], they have been recently used also for strength gains purposes [58,65]. Despite extensive literature existing on the impact of instability resistance training on balance, stability, and strength [64,65], no experimental data are available on the functional training adaptations associated with isoinertial resistance training under unstable conditions in older populations. ...
Article
Full-text available
We are glad to introduce the first Journal Club of volume five, the first issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last years in the field of eccentric training, chosen by our editorial board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport, seen also from a scientific point of view. The editorial board members wish you an inspiring lecture.
Article
Introduction: In modern gymnastics, there are high demands for the physical quality of Chinese athletes. Objectives: This paper mainly studies whether the workload of Chinese gymnasts can support the corresponding high-intensity training in the training process. Methods: Experimental scientific research methods and statistical analysis are used to conduct a long-term study on dozens of gymnasts in Chinese schools and draw the workload curves of these gymnasts during gymnastic exercises. We try to determine the effective correlation between the athlete's body load and physical training and body shape. Results: During the training of gymnasts, heart rates can briefly exceed 190 beats per minute. Conclusion: In the training process of different gymnasts, the gymnasts’ heart rates show obvious differences. Therefore, the use of scientific and reasonable training strategies can effectively improve the ability of athletes’ hearts to withstand high-intensity exercise loads and help improve the gymnast's performance. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.
Article
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of suspension training on functional movement and body composition, and to compare the effectiveness of home-based training to supervised training. Methods: Seventeen healthy subjects (8 male, 9 female, age=21.8±3.4 y) with no recent history of resistance training were randomly assigned to a home- based or supervised training group. Subjects performed an 8-week suspension training program consisting of 10 exercises targeting major muscle groups, twice per week for the duration of the study. Pre- and post-intervention testing included body composition using air displacement plethysmography, and a Functional Movement Screen (FMS) to measure functional movement abilities. Results: The 8-week training program, significantly improved total FMS scores across the whole sample of subjects (Pre=16.4; Post=17.5; p=0.004), with no differences in improvements between groups. When compared separately, only the supervised group significantly improved FMS scores. There was also a significant increase in lean mass across the total sample of subjects (Pre=52.4 kg; Post=53.3 kg; p=0.03) with no differences between groups. But when compared independently, neither group exhibited a significant increase in lean mass. Conclusions: When completed as a whole body exercise program over an 8-week period, suspension training can improve functional ability and increase lean mass in both a supervised and a home-based setting.
Article
Full-text available
Suspension Training (ST) workouts include a variety of movements requiring the individual to maintain balance while performing various resistance exercises in an interval fashion. Although ST is thought to elicit higher muscle activations than traditional exercises, only limited information is available on its acute effects on strength and power performances, especially in relation to gender. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the strength and power acute responses after ST, also in relation to gender. Eighty-eight (46 males, 42 females) participants were administered countermovement jumps (CMJ), squat jumps (SJ), lower limb Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) at 90° angle knee extension, and grip strength (handgrip) before (PRE) and after (POST) a 50 min ST session involving upper, lower body and core exercises. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to evaluate the differences (p < 0.05) in relation to gender and experimental session. After ST session, significantly higher values emerged in males, whereas no significant changes were found in females. Findings indicate that ST as a form of exercise is useful to maintain and improve acute strength and power performances, especially in male participants. Future studies should be carried out to explore the gender-related differences in response to acute bout of ST exercises.
Article
Full-text available
We employed a whole body magnetic resonance imaging protocol to examine the influence of age, gender, body weight, and height on skeletal muscle (SM) mass and distribution in a large and heterogeneous sample of 468 men and women. Men had significantly ( P < 0.001) more SM in comparison to women in both absolute terms (33.0 vs. 21.0 kg) and relative to body mass (38.4 vs. 30.6%). The gender differences were greater in the upper (40%) than lower (33%) body ( P < 0.01). We observed a reduction in relative SM mass starting in the third decade; however, a noticeable decrease in absolute SM mass was not observed until the end of the fifth decade. This decrease was primarily attributed to a decrease in lower body SM. Weight and height explained ∼50% of the variance in SM mass in men and women. Although a linear relationship existed between SM and height, the relationship between SM and body weight was curvilinear because the contribution of SM to weight gain decreased with increasing body weight. These findings indicate that men have more SM than women and that these gender differences are greater in the upper body. Independent of gender, aging is associated with a decrease in SM mass that is explained, in large measure, by a decrease in lower body SM occurring after the fifth decade.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to determine and compare the amount of loads on the TRX Suspension Trainer (TRX) straps and ground reaction forces at four different angles during TRX push-ups. Twenty-eight male (mean age, 24.1 ± 2.9 years; height, 179.4 ± 8.0 m; weight, 78.8 ± 9.8 kg) physical education and sports university students participated in this study. The subjects were tested at TRX angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°) during the TRX push-ups. Force data were recorded by a force platform and load cells integrated into the TRX straps. The results show that as the TRX angle was reduced, the load applied to the TRX straps increased and simultaneously the load measured by the force platform decreased. This was true for both the elbow joint changing from flexion to extension and vice versa. When the TRX angle was set at 0° and subjects' elbows were at extension during TRX push-up, 50.4 % of the subjects' body weight, and when the elbows were at flexion, 75.3 % of the body weight was registered by the sensors on the TRX straps. The results of this study can be used in the calculation of the training load and volume (resistance training programming) during TRX push-up exercises at varying angles.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The effectiveness of strength training on unstable surfaces (STU) versus stable surfaces (STS) or a control condition (CON; i.e. no training or regular training only) for strength, power and balance performance across the lifespan has not yet been investigated in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Objective: The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to determine the general effects of STU versus STS or CON on muscle strength, power and balance in healthy individuals across the lifespan and to investigate whether performance changes following STU are age specific. Data sources: A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science from January 1984 up to February 2015. Study eligibility criteria: Initially, 209 articles were identified for review. Only controlled trials were included if they investigated STU in healthy individuals and tested at least one measure of maximal strength, strength endurance, muscle power, or static/dynamic balance. In total, 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The included studies were coded for the following criteria: age, sex, training status, training modality, exercise and test modality. Effect size measures included within-subject standardized mean differences (SMDw) and weighted between-subject standardized mean differences (SMDb). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using I (2) and χ (2) statistics. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results: Our search failed to identify studies that examined the effects of STU versus STS or CON in children and middle-aged adults. However, four studies were identified that investigated the effects of STU versus CON or STS in adolescents, 15 studies were identified in young adults and three studies were identified in old adults. Compared with CON, STU produced medium effects on maximal strength in young adults and no effects to medium effects in old adults. In addition, large effects were detected on strength endurance in adolescents and in young adults; in old adults, a small effect was found. With regard to muscle power, medium effects were observed in young adults and small effects were observed in old adults. Further, large effects were found for static and dynamic balance in old adults, but only a small effect was found for dynamic balance in young adults. The comparison of STU and STS revealed inconsistent results as indicated by training-induced changes in favour of STU, as well as STS. Small to medium effects were found for maximal strength in adolescents in favour of STS, and small effects were found in young adults in favour of STU. With regard to strength endurance, large effects were found in adolescents in favour of STS and small effects were found in favour of STU. Additionally, we detected small effects in young adults in favour of STU. In terms of muscle power, no effects were observed in adolescents but medium effects were found in favour of STS in young adults. With regard to balance, small effects were detected in adolescents for static and dynamic balance in favour of STU. In young adults, small effects were found for static balance in favour of STS. With regard to dynamic balance, the analysis revealed small effects in young adults in favour of STU. Limitations: The quality of the included studies was rather low, with mean PEDro scores of 5.8, 4.0 and 5.0 for studies including adolescents, young adults and old adults, respectively. Further, trivial to considerable heterogeneity between studies (i.e. 0 % ≤ I (2) ≤ 96 %) was detected. Conclusions: Compared with CON, STU is effective in improving muscle strength, power and balance in adolescents, young adults and old adults. However, inconsistent results were particularly found in adolescents and young adults when the specific effects of STU were compared with those of STS. We conclude that the performance of STU compared with STS has limited extra effects on muscle strength, power and balance performance in healthy adolescents and young adults. Given that our systematic search did not identify studies that examined the effects of STU versus STS in children, middle-aged adults and old adults, further research of high methodological quality is needed to determine whether there are additive effects of STU as compared with STS in those age groups.
Research
Full-text available
The purpose of this research was to descriptively evaluate the percentages of body mass resistance experienced by users of the TRX™ suspension training system (STS) at different angles and distances from the hanging point. This information will be used to develop prediction equations and better prescribe resistance using this mode of exercise. Forty female and male college students were used as subjects. The TRX™ STS was connected to a dynamometer, suspended from a power rack. From the standing position, subjects leaned back and held the TRX™ handles at arm’s length at 30°, 45º, 60º, and 75º with their feet directly under the hanging point. Dynamometer readings were taken at each degree increment. Each angular measurement was repeated at 30.5 cm increments moving away from the hanging point. Prediction equations were calculated for each angle based on measurements taken at the hanging point. As the angle from standing increased, the amount of resistance encountered increased. On average, subjects experienced 37.44 ± 1.45% of their body mass at 30º, 52.88 ± 0.59% at 45º, 68.08 ± 1.95% at 60º, and 79.38 ± 2.14% at 75º from vertical. The effect of 30.5 cm increments moving away from the hanging point on resistance was somewhat variable. In conclusion, a decreased angle resulted in an increased body mass resistance during use. Increment changes produced progressive, linear variations in resistance. Prediction equations can allow more accurate predictions of resistance at the angles measured in this investigation..
Article
Full-text available
Suspension training is a combination of unique training movements aimed at improving strength, endurance, coordination, flexibility, power, and core stability within a single workout. Suspension training is marketed as a cardiovascular and resistance training exercise modality performed like a circuit-training workout, in which a series of exercises are performed in rotation with minimal rest time. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a suspension training workout on physiologic and metabolic markers of intensity and performance. Methods: Twelve male subjects (22.0 ± 0.7 years) participated in a 60-minute whole body interval-based suspension training workout while connected to a metabolic cart. Lactate was measured before, at mid point, and various times following exercise. Results: The average heart rate (HR) during the work out was 69±2 % of estimated max. Blood lactate levels rose to 8.0±0.5 mmol/L at mid point, and remained elevated during the work out. The caloric expenditure was 340.9±13.6 kcals, or 5.3±0.4 kcal/min with a respiratory exchange ratio1.03±0.01. Conclusions: These data indicate that a suspension training workout with a 30 sec: 60 sec work to rest ratio provides at least a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workout while some data suggest a higher intensity workout is achieved.
Article
Full-text available
While suspension devices have gained in popularity in the fitness industry, there is limited information on the effects of hand-grip orientations during pulling movements as compared to traditional methods. Objective: To investigate the electromyographical activity of the primary and secondary musculature during a pronated and supinated grip inverted row while using a suspension training device. Twenty individuals volunteered to participate in the current study. Electromyographical (EMG) values were obtained from the latissimus dorsi (LD), posterior deltoid (PD), middle trapezius (MT), and biceps brachii (BB). Subjects performed four variations of a traditional inverted row using two handgrips: pronated row (IR), pronated suspended-row (SR), supinated row (IRsup), and supinated suspended-row (SRsup). In terms of the LD, SR provided the highest activation. However the only difference was within IRsup, which was significantly lower than both pronated-grip rows (i.e., IR and SR). SRsup resulted in significantly greater (p < 0.05) activation of the BB when compared to the remaining exercises. SR provided significantly greater (p < 0.05) PD activity, while EMG activity of the MT was significantly lower in SRsup compared to all other movements. The results indicate that significant differences exist in muscular activity during hand-grip variations as well as with the use of an instability device. The major findings were the decreases seen in PD and MT when using a supinated grip. As a result, suspension devices may provide an acute suitable alternative to traditional bodyweight training.
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of Mass Moment of Inertia of human body and its segments are necessary for various problems in biomechanics and its applications. This paper focusses on the estimation of Moment of Inertia of a human body when bending forward, which is needed for designing a robotic self-transfer facility for elderly and disabled. This paper also covers a brief review on studies of different anthropometric data like mass of the body segments, Centre of Mass, radius of gyration, etc. Using these data and certain assumptions, Mass Moment of Inertia of human body bending forward is estimated by applying laws of basic mechanics. This estimated value is then validated using a solid modelling CAD software.
Article
Full-text available
This study determined the extent of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the latissimus dorsi (LD), middle trapezius (MT), posterior deltoid (PD), and biceps brachii (BB) while performing the inverted row (IR) with and without a suspension training (ST) device. Eleven men and 4 women participated in this study. Each subject performed 4 repetitions of the IR with and without a ST device while EMG activity was recorded for each of the studied musculature. There were no significant differences in EMG activity of the LD, MT, and PD between each exercise (P>0.05). However, EMG activity of the BB was significantly greater (P<0.05) with the IR compared to the suspension inverted row(SIR).The results of this study demonstrated no significant differences in the selected musculature of the posterior chain (i.e., LD, MT, and PD) between the IR and the SIR. Therefore, it appears that the ST device provided a suitable alternative to traditional equipment (e.g., a Smith machine) when targeting the posterior musculature analyzed in this study with the IR. However, BB activity was significantly lower when performing the IR with the ST device compared to the traditional approach.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the study was to compare the effect of a 7-week unstable and stable resistance training program on measures of strength, balance, and functional performance. Forty participants were divided into unstable or stable resistance training groups. Training was conducted twice a week for 7 weeks. Pre- and post-testing measures included leg extension strength, static and dynamic balance, sit-ups, long jump, hopping test for time, shuttle run, and sprint. Results showed that there was no overall difference between unstable and stable resistance training and the training effects were independent of gender. All measures except sprint time improved with training. Interaction effects demonstrated that unstable resistance training did provide an advantage for number of sit-ups performed (p = 0.03; 8.9%) and the right leg hopping test (6.2%; p = 0.0001). This study has demonstrated that instability resistance training may be considered as effective as traditional stable resistance training for inexperienced resistance trainers. Based on the present study and the literature, instability resistance training should be incorporated in conjunction with traditional stable training to provide a greater variety of training experiences without sacrificing training benefits.
Article
Full-text available
We employed a whole body magnetic resonance imaging protocol to examine the influence of age, gender, body weight, and height on skeletal muscle (SM) mass and distribution in a large and heterogeneous sample of 468 men and women. Men had significantly (P < 0.001) more SM in comparison to women in both absolute terms (33.0 vs. 21.0 kg) and relative to body mass (38.4 vs. 30.6%). The gender differences were greater in the upper (40%) than lower (33%) body (P < 0.01). We observed a reduction in relative SM mass starting in the third decade; however, a noticeable decrease in absolute SM mass was not observed until the end of the fifth decade. This decrease was primarily attributed to a decrease in lower body SM. Weight and height explained approximately 50% of the variance in SM mass in men and women. Although a linear relationship existed between SM and height, the relationship between SM and body weight was curvilinear because the contribution of SM to weight gain decreased with increasing body weight. These findings indicate that men have more SM than women and that these gender differences are greater in the upper body. Independent of gender, aging is associated with a decrease in SM mass that is explained, in large measure, by a decrease in lower body SM occurring after the fifth decade.
Article
Full-text available
Although there are well documented protective health benefits conferred by regular physical activity, most individuals of all ages are not physically active at a level for sufficient maintenance of health. Consequently, a major public health goal is to improve the collective health and fitness levels of all individuals. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and other international organisations have established guidelines for comprehensive exercise programmes composed of aerobic, flexibility and resistance-exercise training. Resistance training is the most effective method available for maintaining and increasing lean body mass and improving muscular strength and endurance. Furthermore, there is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting that resistance training may significantly improve many health factors associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. These health benefits can be safely obtained by most segments of the population when prescribed appropriate resistance-exercise programmes. Resistance-training programmes should be tailored to meet the needs and goals of the individual and should incorporate a variety of exercises performed at a sufficient intensity to enhance the development and maintenance of muscular strength and endurance, and lean body mass. A minimum of 1 set of 8 to 10 exercises (multi-joint and single joint) that involve the major muscle groups should be performed 2 to 3 times a week for healthy participants of all ages. More technical and advanced training including periodised multiple set regimens and/or advanced exercises may be more appropriate for individuals whose goals include maximum gains in strength and lean body mass. However, the existing literature supports the guidelines as outlined in this paper for children and adults of all ages seeking the health and fitness benefits associated with resistance training.
Article
Full-text available
There are many instances in daily life and sport in which force must be exerted when an individual performing the task is in an unstable condition. Instability can decrease the externally-measured force output of a muscle while maintaining high muscle activation. The high muscle activation of limbs and trunk when unstable can be attributed to the increased stabilization functions. The increased stress associated with instability has been postulated to promote greater neuromuscular adaptations, such as decreased co-contractions, improved coordination, and confidence in performing a skill. In addition, high muscle activation with less stress on joints and muscles could also be beneficial for general musculoskeletal health and rehabilitation. However, the lower force output may be detrimental to absolute strength gains when resistance training. Furthermore, other studies have reported increased co-contractions with unstable training. The positive effects of instability resistance training on sports performance have yet to be quantified. The examination of the literature suggests that when implementing a resistance training program for musculoskeletal health or rehabilitation, both stable and unstable exercises should be included to ensure an emphasis on both higher force (stable) and balance (unstable) stressors to the neuromuscular system.
Article
Suspension training is an adjunct to traditional strength and conditioning. The effect of added instability on muscle activation during traditional exercises is unclear and depends on the exercise and type of instability. The purpose of this review was to compare the activations of different muscles in suspension training exercises and their traditional counterparts. A search of the current literature was performed without language restrictions using the electronic databases PubMed (1969—12 January 2017), SPORTDiscus (1969—12 January 2017) and Scopus (1969—12 January 2017). The inclusion criteria were: (1) descriptive studies; (2) physically active participants; and (3) studies that analysed muscle activation using normalised electromyographic signals during different suspension training exercises. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. For the push-up, inverted row, prone bridge and hamstring curl in suspension, the activation of upper-body and core muscles ranged between moderate (21–40% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)) and very high (>60% MVIC). Muscle activation in these same muscle groups was greater with suspension exercises relative to comparable traditional exercises, except for the inverted row. Muscle activation in the upper extremity and core muscles varied greatly amongst studies.
Article
This study aimed to present a suspension exercise training program suitable for older adults and to verify the effect of 12 weeks of training on handgrip strength (HS) and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance parameters in older adults. Thirty older women (age 66.1±4.7 years, BMI 30.6±5.3 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a training group (TG, n=15) or a control group (CG, n=15). The TG participated in a 12-week suspension training program, while the CG maintained their normal physical activity habits for the duration of the study. Anthropometric, bioelectrical impedance and strength parameters were evaluated before and after the intervention period. There was a significant group by time interaction (p<0.05) for triceps, biceps, subscapular skinfold, percentage of fat mass, phase angle (PhA), resistance, reactance, specific resistance, specific reactance and HS, with significant improvements in the TG after the intervention period (p<0.05) even after adjusting for age and BMI. The results suggest that suspension training promotes increases in PhA and HS in older women.
Article
The present study aimed to compare two fitness-training methodologies, instability circuit resistance training (ICRT) versus traditional circuit resistance training (TCRT), applying an experimental model of exercise prescription controlling and modulating exercise load using the Borg rating of perceived exertion. Forty-four healthy young adults age (21.6±2.3 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: TCRT (n=14), ICRT (n=14) and a control group (n=16). Strength and cardiorespiratory tests were chosen to evaluate cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness before and after the training program. In cardiorespiratory data, a significant difference was observed for the time effect in VO2max, peak heart rate, peak velocity, and heart rate at anaerobic threshold intensity (p<0.05) in the experimental groups. In strength variables, a significant Group x Time interaction effect was detected in 1RM, in mean propulsive power, and in peak power (p≤0.01) in the back squat exercise. In the bench press exercise, a significant time effect was detected in 1RM, in mean propulsive power, and in peak power, and a Group x Time interaction in peak power (all p<0.05). We can conclude that applying an experimental model of exercise prescription using RPE improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy young adults in both experimental groups.
Article
The aims of this study were to evaluate the load distribution between upper and lower extremities during suspension training (ST) push-up at different length of ST device and to predict useful equations to estimate the training load. After giving their informed consent of participation, twenty-five subjects (male=17, female=8; age=28.1+/-5.2years; weight=69.4+/-14.3kg; height=171.6+/-11.3cm; BMI=23.4+/-3.3kg[middle dot]m-2) were involved in the study. Each subject performed 14 static push-ups at 7 different lengths of ST device in two different elbow positions. The load distribution between upper and lower extremities was evaluated through a load cell and a force platform, respectively. To evaluate body inclination all tests were recorded and analyzed through motion analysis software. To estimate the training load a multi-level model regression (P<0.05) was used. Results showed that when the length of ST device increased, the body inclination decreased, while the ground reaction force decreased and the load on the ST device increased. Moreover, when subjects moved from extended to flex elbow, the ground reaction force decreased and the load on the ST device increased. In the created regression model (ICC=0.24), the reaction force was the dependent variable, while length of ST device, BMI, and elbow position were the independent variables. The main findings were that the load distribution between upper and lower extremities changes both when modifying the body inclination and the length of the straps. The use of predicted equations could help practitioners to personalize the workouts according to different specific aims by modifying the length of the ST device to guarantee load progression.
Article
Background: Suspension training (ST) has been utilized over exercises performed on a stable surface to train multiple muscle groups simultaneously to increase muscle activation and joint stability. Hypothesis/purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether ST augments muscle activation compared to similar exercises performed on a stable surface. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Twenty-five healthy adults (male: 16; women: 9; BMI: 23.50 ± 2.48 kg/m(2)) had 16 pre-amplified wireless surface EMG electrodes placed bilaterally on: the pectoralis major (PM), middle deltoid (MD), serratus anterior (SA), obliques (OB), rectus abdominis (RA), gluteus maximus (GM), erector spinae (ES), and middle trapezius/rhomboids (MT). Each participant performed reference isometric exercises (Sorensen test, push-up, sit-up, and inverted row) to establish a baseline muscle contraction. Muscle activation was assessed during the following exercises: ST bridge, ST push-up, ST inverted row, ST plank, floor bridge, floor push-up, floor row, and floor plank. The root mean square (RMS) of each side for every muscle was averaged for data analysis. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for each exercise with post-hoc comparisons were performed to compare muscle activation between each ST exercise and its stable surface counterpart. Results: MANOVAs for all exercise comparisons showed statistically significant greater muscle activation in at least one muscle group during the ST condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in muscle activation for the following muscles during the plank: OB (p = 0.021); Push-up: PM (p = 0.002), RA (p<0.0001), OB (p = 0.019), MT (p<0.0001), and ES (p = 0.006); Row: MD (p = 0.016), RA (p = 0.059), and OB (p = 0.027); and Bridge: RA (p = 0.013) and ES (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Performing ST exercises increases muscle activation of selected muscles when compared to exercises performed on a stable surface. Level of evidence: 1b.
Article
THE SUSPENSION-INVERTED ROW IS A MULTIJOINT UPPER-BODY EXERCISE THAT CAN INCREASE SHOULDER GIRDLE AND LUMBAR SPINE STABILITY, UPPER-BODY STRENGTH, AND PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVITES REQUIRING HIGH LEVELS OF STRENGTH. IT IS A VARIATION OF THE INVERTED ROW WITH A BAR AND IT CAN BE PROGRESSED, REGRESSED, AND PERFORMED THROUGHOUT A TRAINING YEAR. THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES A DETAILED DESCRIPTION AND FIGURES OF THE PROPER EXERCISE TECHNIQUE FOR A SUSPENSION-INVERTED ROW. FOR A VIDEO OF THIS ARTICLE, SEE SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT 1 (SEE VIDEO, http://links.lww.com/SCJ/A191).
Article
Resistance Characteristics of the TRX™ Suspension Training System at Different Angles and Distances from the Hanging Point The purpose of this research was to descriptively evaluate the percentages of body mass resistance experienced by users of the TRX™ suspension training system (STS) at different angles and distances from the hanging point. This information will be used to develop prediction equations and better prescribe resistance using this mode of exercise. Forty female and male college students were used as subjects. The TRX™ STS was connected to a dynamometer, suspended from a power rack. From the standing position, subjects leaned back and held the TRX™ handles at arm’s length at 30°, 45o, 60o, and 75o with their feet directly under the hanging point. Dynamometer readings were taken at each degree increment. Each angular measurement was repeated at 30.5 cm increments moving away from the hanging point. Prediction equations were calculated for each angle based on measurements taken at the hanging point. As the angle from standing increased, the amount of resistance encountered increased. On average, subjects experienced 37.44 ± 1.45% of their body mass at 30o, 52.88 ± 0.59% at 45o, 68.08 ± 1.95% at 60o, and 79.38 ± 2.14% at 75o from vertical. The effect of 30.5 cm increments moving away from the hanging point on resistance was somewhat variable. In conclusion, a decreased angle resulted in an increased body mass resistance during use. Increment changes produced progressive, linear variations in resistance. Prediction equations can allow more accurate predictions of resistance at the angles measured in this investigation..
Article
Objective Suspension exercise has been advocated as an effective means to improve core stability among healthy individuals and those with musculoskeletal complaints. However, the activity of core muscles during suspension exercises has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the level of activation of core muscles during suspension exercises within young and healthy adults. Design The study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Methods Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of core muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique/transversus abdominis, and superficial lumbar multifidus) during four suspension workouts (hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, chest press, and 45° row) was investigated. Muscle activity during a 5-s hold period of the workouts was measured by sEMG and normalized to the individual's maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Results Different levels of muscle activation were observed during the hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, and chest press. Hip abduction in plank generated the highest activation of most abdominal muscles. The 45° row exercise generated the lowest muscle activation. Conclusions Among the four workouts investigated, the hip abduction in plank with suspension was found to have the strongest potential strengthening effect on core muscles. Also, suspension training was found to generate relatively high levels of core muscle activation when compared with that among previous studies of core exercises on stable and unstable support surfaces.
Article
SUMMARY In order to stimulate further adaptation toward specific training goals, progressive resistance training (RT) protocols are necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric muscle actions and the performance of bilateral and unilateral single- and multiple-joint exercises. In addition, it is recommended that strength programs sequence exercises to optimize the preservation of exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher-intensity before lower-intensity exercises). For novice (untrained individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several years) training, it is recommended that loads correspond to a repetition range of an 8-12 repetition maximum (RM). For intermediate (individuals with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience) to advanced (individuals with years of RT experience) training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized fashion with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using 3- to 5-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s CON; 1-2 s ECC). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 dIwkj1 for novice training, 3-4 dIwkj1 for intermediate training, and 4-5 dIwkj1 for advanced training. Similar program designs are recom- mended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training and 2) use of light loads (0-60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises; 30-60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 3-5 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise (three to five sets). It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (915) using short rest periods (G90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand as with prior ones, recommendations should be applied in context and should be contingent upon an individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training
Article
Throwing is a complex motion that involves the entire body and often puts an inordinate amount of stress on the shoulder and the arm. Warm-up prepares the body for work and can enhance performance. Sling-based exercise (SE) has been theorized to activate muscles, particularly the stabilizers, in a manner beneficial for preactivity warm-up, yet this hypothesis has not been tested. Our purpose was to determine if a warm-up using SE would increase throwing velocity and accuracy compared to a traditional, thrower's 10 warm-up program. Division I baseball players (nonpitchers) (16 men, age: 19.6 ± 1.3, height: 184.2 ± 6.2 cm, mass: 76.9 ± 19.2 kg) volunteered to participate in this crossover study. All subjects underwent both a warm-up routine using a traditional method (Thrower's 10 exercises) and a warm-up routine using closed kinetic chain SE methods (RedCord) on different days separated by 72 hours. Ball velocity and accuracy measures were obtained on 10 throws after either the traditional and SE warm-up regimens. Velocity was recorded using a standard Juggs radar gun (JUGS; Tualatin, OR, USA). Accuracy was recorded using a custom accuracy target. An Analysis of covariance was performed, with the number of throws recorded before the testing was used as a covariate and p < 0.05 was set a priori. There were no statistical differences between the SE warm-up and Thrower's 10 warm-up for throwing velocity (SE: 74.7 ± 7.5 mph, Thrower's 10: 74.6 ± 7.3 mph p = 0.874) or accuracy (SE: 115.6 ± 53.7 cm, Thrower's 10: 91.8 ± 55 cm, p = 0.136). Warming up with SE produced equivalent throwing velocity and accuracy compared to the Thrower's 10 warm-up method. Thus, SE provides an alternative to traditional warm-up.
Article
Strength training often combines closed-kinetic-chain exercises (CKCEs) and open kinetic-chain exercises (OKCEs). The CKCE may be more effective for improving performance in lower-body training. Recently, we reported upper-body CKCE (using a commercially available system of ropes and slings, Redcord AS, Staubo, Norway) was as effective as OKCE training for strength gains and that CKCE was more effective than OKCE for improving throwing performance. To our knowledge the effectiveness of a strength training program that uses exclusively CKCE is unknown. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of CKCE vs. OKCE strength training programs in women enrolled in an introductory strength training program. Twenty-six participants were randomized to OKCE (traditional exercises) or CKCE (sling-based exercises). Participants completed 6 sets per week for 13 weeks. Pre and posttraining evaluations included the following: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) leg and bench press; sling exercise push-ups; isokinetic dynamometry; lateral step-down test; and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Both groups significantly improved bench press (by an average of 4-6 kg) and leg press (by an average of 23-35 kg) (p < 0.001). There was a significant group × time interaction (p < 0.001) for sling exercise push-ups (OKCE pre = 5.5 ± 8.6, OKCE post = 6.1 ± 8.2, CKCE pre = 6.8 ± 6.0, CKCE post = 16.9 ± 6.6). Isokinetic measures of knee extension, knee flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and shoulder external rotation increased (improvements ranged from 2.7 to 27.7%), with no group differences. Both OKCE and CKCE strength training elicited similar changes in balance. We conclude that CKCE training is equally as effective as OKCE training during the initial phases of a strength training program in women. The fact that only CKCE improved sling exercise push-ups supports previous findings suggesting functional superiority of CKCE.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate 3 different rowing exercises and quantify the muscle activation of the torso and the hip musculature, together with the corresponding spinal loading and stiffness. Seven healthy male subjects from a university population were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles and to obtain spine position using an electromagnetic spine position sensor, together with video analysis to calculate joint moments. The 3 rowing exercises investigated are the inverted row, standing bent-over row, and the standing 1-armed cable row. The inverted row elicited the highest activation of the latissimus dorsi muscles, upper back, and hip extensor muscles. The lower activation of the lumbar erector spinae muscles during the inverted row corresponded to the lower-spine load measured. The standing bent-over row produced large activation symmetrically across the back but produced the largest lumbar spine load. The 1-armed cable row challenged the torsional capabilities of the trunk musculature. Some "core" exercises may be better for rehabilitation (e.g., having the training goals of modest muscle activation with low spine load), while other exercises may be better for athletic training (e.g., resulting in higher muscle activation and larger spine load). When prescribing "core" exercises, those wishing to spare the low back may choose the inverted row given the lowest spine load exercise. The standing bent-over row elicited large muscle activation symmetrically from the upper to lower back, however induced larger spine loads, but not surprisingly the highest spine stiffness. If torsional endurance or strength is the training goal, the 1-armed cable row might be considered.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate 3 different rowing exercises and quantify the muscle activation of the torso and the hip musculature, together with the corresponding spinal loading and stiffness. Seven healthy men from a university population were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles and to obtain spine position using an electromagnetic spine position sensor, together with video analysis to calculate joint moments. The 3 rowing exercises investigated were the inverted row, standing bent-over row, and standing 1-armed cable row. The inverted row elicited the highest activation of the latissimus dorsi muscles, upper-back, and hip extensor muscles. The lower activation of the lumbar erector spinae muscles during the inverted row corresponded to the lower spine load measured. The standing bent-over row produced large activation symmetrically across the back, but it produced the largest lumbar spine load. The 1-armed cable row challenged the torsional capabilities of the trunk musculature. Some core exercises may be better for rehabilitation (e.g., having the training goals of modest muscle activation with low spine load), whereas other exercises may be better for athletic training (e.g., resulting in higher muscle activation and larger spine load). When prescribing core exercises, those wishing to spare the low back may choose the inverted row, given the lowest spine load exercise. The standing bent-over row elicited large muscle activation symmetrically from the upper to lower back; it induced larger spine loads but also, not surprisingly, the highest spine stiffness. If torsional endurance or strength is the training goal, the 1-armed cable row might be considered.
Article
Closed-kinetic chain resistance training (CKCRT) of the lower body is superior to open-kinetic chain resistance training (OKCRT) to improve performance parameters (e.g., vertical jump), but the effects of upper-body CKCRT on throwing performance remain unknown. This study compared shoulder strength, power, and throwing velocity changes in athletes training the upper body exclusively with either CKCRT (using a system of ropes and slings) or OKCRT. Fourteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I softball player volunteers were blocked and randomly placed into two groups: CKCRT and OKCRT. Blocking ensured the same number of veteran players and rookies in each training group. Training occurred three times weekly for 12 weeks during the team's supervised off-season program. Olympic, lower-body, core training, and upper-body intensity and volume in OKCRT and CKCRT were equalized between groups. Criterion variables pre- and posttraining included throwing velocity, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), dynamic single-leg balance, and isokinetic peak torque and power (PWR) (at 180 degrees x s(-1)) for shoulder flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation (ER). The CKCRT group significantly improved throwing velocity by 2.0 mph (3.4%, p < 0.05), and the OKCRT group improved 0.3 mph (0.5%, NS). A significant interaction was observed (p < 0.05). The CKCRT group improved its 1RM bench press to the same degree (1.9 kg) as the OKCRT group (p < 0.05 within each group). The CKCRT group improved all measures of shoulder strength and power, whereas OKCRT conferred little change in shoulder torque and power scores. Although throwing is an open-chain movement, adaptations from CKCRT may confer benefits to subsequent performance. Strength coaches can incorporate upper-body CKCRT without sacrificing gains in maximal strength or performance criteria associated with an athletic open-chain movement such as throwing.
Strength Training System and Method Having Elastic Resistance and Suspension Devices
  • Allison K Cervantes
Allison K and Cervantes S. Strength Training System and Method Having Elastic Resistance and Suspension Devices. U.S. Patent No. 9,345,922. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and trademark office, 2016.
Position stand: Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults
American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand: Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41: 687-708, 2009.
Customizing Intensity with the TRX
  • B Bettendorf
Bettendorf B. Customizing Intensity with the TRX. In: TRX Suspension Training Bodyweight Exercises: Scientific Foundations and Practical Applications. San Francisco, CA: Fitness Anywhere Inc, 2010. pp. 6-7.
Exercise Device Grips and Accessories for Exercise Devices
  • R A Hetrick
Hetrick RA. Exercise Device Grips and Accessories for Exercise Devices. U.S. Patent No. 7,090,622. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 2006.