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Within the last few years the intake of dietary fiber in our diet is decreasing, particularly in the population of developed nations like Japan, United States, United Kingdom, France, etc. The main reason for this decrease in dietary fiber consumption is dependence on processed food items. Dietary fiber is basically non-digestible and non absorptive parts of plants which are discarded out by alimentary canal. Plants are the only source of dietary fiber in our diets. The major health benefits of dietary are proper and regular bowel movement, prevention of constipation, diarrhea, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, cardiac diseases and cancer. Now food products are being fortified with dietary fiber to provide its adequate amount in the diet. Bamboo shoot, a delicacy and medicinal food of East and SouthEast Asian countries is one the best and cheapest source for dietary fiber. Bamboo shoots are nutrient rich, possess several bioactive compounds and have less calories and fat and are considered as one of the best health food. The total dietary fiber in bamboo shoots ranges from 2.23 to 4.20 g/100 g fresh weight of shoots. Bamboo shoots are consumed as fresh, dried, canned, fermented and provide dietary fiber in all forms. Dietary fiber from bamboo shoots in the form of powder and paste is also being used for the fortification of various food products as it increases food quality as well as organoleptic properties. In the present study, young shoots of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii were processed and used as a fiber source for the preparation of two fortified products namely sweet biscuits and salty snacks (namkeen). The addition of bamboo shoots in the products, biscuits and salty snacks increased the dietary fiber content. In the fortified biscuit, the increase in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was 36.97% (63.21g/100g) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) was 82.11% (3.46g/100g) as compared to control biscuit content of NDF (46.15g/100g) and ADF (1.90g/100g). Similarly lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose contents also increased in the fortified products. Bamboo shoot dietary fiber is now even available in pure powder, pills and capsules forms as nutraceuticals.
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Theme: 3.2. Food and Pharmaceuticals
Bamboo Shoot as a Potential Source of Dietary Fiber for
Food fortification
Madho Singh Bishta*, Chongtham Nirmalab Oinam Santoshb
aCenter for Science Education, NEHU, Shillong, India-793022
bDepartment of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India-160014
*Corresponding and presenting author : Madho Singh Bisht
Within the last few years the intake of dietary fiber in our diet is decreasing, particularly in the
population of developed nations like Japan, United States, United Kingdom, France, etc. The main
reason for this decrease in dietary fiber consumption is dependence on processed food items. Dietary
fiber is basically non-digestible and non absorptive parts of plants which are discarded out by
alimentary canal. Plants are the only source of dietary fiber in our diets. The major health benefits of
dietary are proper and regular bowel movement, prevention of constipation, diarrhea, diverticulitis,
hemorrhoids, cardiac diseases and cancer. Now food products are being fortified with dietary fiber to
provide its adequate amount in the diet. Bamboo shoot, a delicacy and medicinal food of East and
South-East Asian countries is one the best and cheapest source for dietary fiber. Bamboo shoots are
nutrient rich, possess several bioactive compounds and have less calories and fat and are considered
as one of the best health food. The total dietary fiber in bamboo shoots ranges from 2.23 to 4.20 g/100
g fresh weight of shoots. Bamboo shoots are consumed as fresh, dried, canned, fermented and provide
dietary fiber in all forms. Dietary fiber from bamboo shoots in the form of powder and paste is also
being used for the fortification of various food products as it increases food quality as well as
organoleptic properties. In the present study, young shoots of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii were
processed and used as a fiber source for the preparation of two fortified products namely sweet
biscuits and salty snacks (namkeen). The addition of bamboo shoots in the products, biscuits and salty
snacks increased the dietary fiber content. In the fortified biscuit, the increase in neutral detergent
fiber (NDF) was 36.97% (63.21g/100g) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) was 82.11% (3.46g/100g) as
compared to control biscuit content of NDF (46.15g/100g) and ADF (1.90g/100g). Similarly lignin,
hemicellulose and cellulose contents also increased in the fortified products. Bamboo shoot dietary
fiber is now even available in pure powder, pills and capsules forms as nutraceuticals.
Keyword: Dietary fiber, bamboo shoot dietary fiber, fortification, health benefits
Dietary fiber, also referred as roughage, bulk or blast, is the edible parts of plants that our digestive
system cannot break or digest and absorb it while passing through digestive track and almost remains
undigested. However, in the process of digestion of food, dietary fiber keep our digestive system
clean and healthy, make bowel movement easy and absorbs cholesterol and other harmful carcinogens
and flushes out those. The term dietary fiber (DF) was first coined by Hipsley (1953) for non-
digestible plants and later it was defined in many ways. As for botanists dietary fiber is plant part, for
chemical analysts it is a group of chemical compounds and for consumers it is a material of health
benefits. Kay (1982) defined dietary fiber as ubiquitous components of plant foods resistant to the
action of human alimentary enzymes. Now the accepted definition of dietary fiber is, remnants of
plant cells resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man (Trowell et al. 1985). The
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) broadened this definition a bit (AACC 2001).
According to their definition, dietary fiber is, “edible parts of plant or analogous carbohydrates that
are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial
fermentation in the large intestine. Over the past decades, dietary fibre (DF) has been well studied
with abundant evidence on its health benefits. Advances in nutritional studies always lead the way
followed by the food applications. Food scientists and technologists then explored the applications of
dietary fibers in a variety of food products through examination and utilization of fibres from various
conventional and uncommon sources including agro-food processing by-products. Although the
dietary fiber research was initiated by human nutritionists and physicians, with the early work
focusing more on its biomedical aspect, the topic has quickly attracted the attention from a wider
range of scientific fields, including plant chemistry, food chemistry, food processing technology,
nutritional biochemistry and pharmaceuticals.
Dietary fiber constituents and Health benefits
The constituents of dietary fibers are non-starch polysaccharides, carbohydrates, lignin etc (Table 1).
Dietary fibers based on solubility in water are divided as soluble and insoluble fibers (Dhingra et al.
2012; Hoy and Goldman 2014). Soluble dietary fibers form gum or mucilage type structure in water.
It is found in the pulps of fruits, legumes greens, etc. (Singh and Singh 2015). Soluble dietary fibers
are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine and fermented partially or fully in large
intestine or colon (Singh and Singh 2015). Soluble dietary fiber lowers total and LDL cholesterol and
regulates bold sugar levels in diabetes (Singh and Singh 2015). Insoluble dietary fiber is made up of
structural material of cell walls of plant foods which add bulk to the stool, softens the stool and
increase the transit time through the intestinal tract (Singh and Singh 2015). The main function of
insoluble dietary fiber is regulation of bowel movement and prevention of constipation, removal of
toxins and prevention of long stay of microbes in the colon (Singh and Singh 2015; Dhingra et al.
2012). The components of dietary fibers are cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as
hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and non-carbohydrate components like lignin and
waxes, cutin and suberin (Dhingra et al 2012). Cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are not soluble in
water, whereas pectins, gums and mucilages are soluble and become gummy in water (Dhingra et al.
2012; Singh and Singh 2015).
Table 1. Constituents of dietary fiber (AACC Report 2001)
Non-starch polysaccharides and resistant oligosaccharides
1. Cellulose
2. Hemicellulose: Arbinoxylans, Arabinogalactans
3. Polyfructoses: Inulin, Oligofuctans
4. Galactooligosaccharides
5. Gums
6. Mucilage
7. Pectins
Analogous carbohydrates
1. Indigestible dextrins: Resistant maltodestrins (from corn), resistant potato
2. Synthesized carbohydrate compounds: Polydextrose, methyl cellulose,
hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose
3. Indigestible starches
Substances associated with the non-starch polysaccharide and lignin complex in plants
1. Waxes
2. Phytate
3. Cutin
4. Saponins
5. Suberin
6. Tannins
Though dietary fiber is considered inert, non-digestible and non-absorptive in the digestive system but
it has many health benefits (Table 2). There are three clear physiological impacts of insufficient
dietary fiber, constipation, increased risk of coronary and heart disease and increased fluctuation of
blood glucose and insulin level (AACC 2001). Regular and timely passing of bowel without any
problem is the first sign of healthy life style. Proper and regular bowel movements prevent both
constipation and diarrhea. Eating plenty of fibers can also reduce the risk of diverticulitis
(inflammation of the intestine), hemorrhoids, gallstones, kidney stones and provide some relief for
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Dietary fiber lowers serum cholesterol by reducing the absorption of
dietary cholesterol and inhibiting cholesterol synthesis by hepatocytes. These dietary fibers also make
complexes with the bile acids which are compounds manufactured by the liver from cholesterol that
are necessary for the proper digestion of fat. After complexing with bile acids, the compounds are
removed from circulation and do not make it back to the liver. As a result the liver must use additional
cholesterol to manufacture new bile acids, thereby reducing the serum cholesterol level. Bile acids are
necessary for normal digestion of fat (Chen and Anderson 1979; Fernandez 2001). Due to this
cholesterol lowering properties, dietary fibers have been linked with prevention of various
cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke and hypertension (Liu et al. 2000;
Merchant et al. 2003; Anderson 2004). Dietary fibers greatly help in maintaining proper body weight
by promoting a sense of fullness and satiety after meal which helps to prevent overeating and weight
gain (Dhingra et al. 2012; Nirmala et al. 2017). Dietary fiber also helps in normalizing the blood sugar
level and prevents or help in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (Zhao et al. 2002; Anderson and Conley
2007; Anderson 2008).
Table 2: Physiological effects and health benefits of dietary fiber (Dhingra et al.
2012;Nirmala et al. 2017; AACC 2001)
Positive nutrition-improved body function and
increased overall body comfort
Reduce appetite and weight
Absorbs lot of water and turns to gel and mucilage.
Traps carbohydrates, LDL cholesterols and
Reduces the risk of heart diseases and
Increase in fecal bulk, reduce transit time, of fecal
material through colon, increased frequency of
defecation, reduced hardness of stool
Regulates proper bowel movement and
prevents constipation and diarrhea, prevents
diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome and
Balances intestinal pH and stimulates intestinal
fermentation, stimulates the proliferation of
intestinal flora, production of short chain fatty
An increase and change in intestinal
microflora populations and distributions
Dietary fiber slowing the breakdown of
carbohydrates and absorption of sugars
Control of blood sugar level and type
Plants as a source of dietary fiber include beans, whole grains, brown rice, nuts, fruits, lentils,
vegetables, isphagula husks, guar gum etc. (Table 3). However, there are many plant food items
which are good source of dietary fibers but not recognized by many people. One such plant food item
is bamboo shoot. Bamboo shoot is a delicacy in countries like China, Japan, Korea, India and other
many East and South-East Asian countries and consumed as fresh, dried and fermented (Bao 2006;
Nirmala et al. 2011; Tamang and Tamang 2009; Jeyaram et al. 2009). Besides other nutrient elements
bamboo shoots are also reported as a rich source of dietary fiber (Nirmala et al. 2009, 2011).
Table 3: Amount of dietary fibers in various food items (Singh and Singh 2015)
Food items
Dietary fiber (g/100 g)
Rice (unpolished)
Wheat flour (whole)
Rye flour
Potato with peals
Japanese radish
Lotus roots
Green soya bean
Bell pepper (green)
Dried Japanese persimmon
Dried fig
Dried prune
Water melon
Straw berry
Dried pea
Dried soya beans
Dried kidney beans
Bamboo shoots
Bamboo shoots as source of dietary fiber
There are more than 1250 species of bamboo around the world and 100 to 120 species are preferred
for shoots as food, particularly in East and South-East Asian countries (Nirmala et al. 2017; Midmore
1998; Collins and Keilar 2005). Species like Phyllostachys pubescence, Bambusa balcooa,
Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Thyrsostachys siamensis, etc are the most preferred for shoots. Bamboo
shoots are low in calories but rich in dietary fiber and in various mineral nutrient elements (Nirmala et
al. 2009, 2011, 2017). In bamboo shoots the amount of dietary fiber ranges from 2.23 to 4.23 g/100 g
of fresh weight of shoots. Nirmala et al (2009) analyzed dietary fiber in more than sixteen species of
bamboos from North-East of India and reported very high amount of fiber content (Table 4). It was
observed that dietary fiber in bamboo species was much than many of the common vegetables that
people consume daily (Nirmala et al. 2011). The fiber content in bamboo shoots can be classified
accordingly as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which determines the indigestible component of the
plant material consisting of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin and acid detergent fiber (ADF)
primarily representing cellulose and lignin (Table 1). Young tender shoots have low dietary fiber
content which increases according to age and finally shoots become fibrous and very hard unfit for
consumption after 3 to 4 days of their emergence above ground. The dietary fiber in bamboo is also
affected by processing of shoots with is essential for making the shoots fit for consumption. In case of
Dendrocalamus giganteus, it has been reported that fermentation and canning both enhanced the fiber
content in the shoots (Nirmala et al. 2008).
The dietary fibers of bamboo shoots also have various health benefits which are totally ignored. The
bamboo shoot fibers have the property to absorb very high amount of water (nearly more than six
times than the original weight) and oil, so when consumed will absorb lot of water and fats in
alimentary canal and swell, make fecal heavier and flush out. Park and Jhon (2009) have shown
experimentally that diet with bamboo shoots was able to lower the cholesterol levels and improve the
bowel movement in healthy young women. Bamboo shoots also have the antibacterial, antiviral and
antifungal properties due to the presence of lignans, which is an important component of dietary fiber
in shoots (Shi and Yang 1992). Bamboo shoots also have high content of hemicelluloses (Table 4). It
is reported that the hemicelluloses exists in the form of polyxylose in shoots and on hydrolysis forms
xylose that is hydrogenated to produce xylitol which is extensively used in the food and chemical
industry (Nirmala et al. 2011). Eating bamboo shoots also make skin and hairs smooth and shiny due
to the presence of high amount of silica in shoots.
Table 4: Dietary fiber in the shoots of some edible bamboo species (Nirmala et al. 2009)
Bamboo species
Dietary fiber (g/100 g
fresh weight of shoot)
Bambusa bambos
3.54 ± 0.02
B. kingiana
4.5 ± 0.06
B. nutans
2.28 ± 0.01
B. polymorpha
3.82 ± 0.06
B. tulda
3.97 ± 0.02
B. vulgaris
4.24 ± 0.01
Dendrocalamus asper
3.54 ± 0.07
D. brandisii
4.03 ± 0.09
D. giganteus
2.65 ± 0.03
D. hamiltonii
3.90 ± 0.03
D. membranaceus
2.91 ± 0.06
D. strictus
2.26 ± 0.01
Gigantochloa albociliata
4.15 ± 0.11
G. rostrata
4.20 ± 0.09
Bamboo shoot dietary fiber as functional food
Bamboo is one such food item which is more for health benefits than for providing energy and
nutrition for making a stronger and muscular body. Traditionally bamboo, particularly young juvenile
shoots are consumed since centuries in many Asian cultures like Chinese, Japanese, Korean and
Indian, however more as a medicine for good health and for curing some diseases rather than as food
(Bao 2006; Midmore 1998; Collins and Keilar 2005; Bisht et al. 2012, 2015). According to old
Chinese medicinal books such as, “Ben Chao Qui zheng”, “Ben Jing Feng Yuan”, “Yao Pin Hua Yi”
and “Jing Yue”, bamboo shoots are claimed to be beneficial for human health by promoting motion
and peristalsis of the intestine, by helping digestion and by preventing and curing cardiovascular
diseases and cancers (Nirmala et al. 2011). Similarly in old medical literature of India like Ayurveda,
bamboo is also mentioned as “laxative, frigid seminal curative, palatable, bladder purifier full of
astringent juice. It splits cough, subsides bile, and cures leprosy, bloody flux, wounds and swellings”
(Tewari 1992; Shastri 2015). Banslochan, an amorphous substance collected in the internodes of some
bamboo species is being used for making a health tonic called Chyawanprash in India for more than
5000 years.
On comparison with other food items, bamboo shoots are not so rich in calories and nutrients like
proteins, carbohydrates and fats, rather it is richer in amino acids, vitamins, minerals, bioactive
compounds like phenols and phytosterols and dietary fibers, which make it a natural health food or
functional food (Table 5 ). Functional foods basically are those food items when consumed regularly
provide a specific health effect beyond their nutritional properties (Diplock et al. 1999; Nirmala et al.
2017). Table 5 shows calories, protein, carbohydrates and fats in bamboo shoots and in some common
daily food items. Due to properties like low calories, rich in bioactive compounds, minerals and
dietary fiber bamboo shoots are projected as perfect health food or functional food for the modern
society. In fact bamboo shoots are organic, one of the cheapest natural functional foods providing
better health and curing various diseases even related to cancer and heart (Nirmala et al. 2017).
Table 5: Comparison of nutrients in bamboo with other food items
In this age of very efficient processing and purification technique of food, dietary fiber is totally
missing from our daily diet. During processing most of the non-digestible parts from food which
includes dietary fibers also are removed. Like in fine wheat flour and polished rice, all dietary fibers
present on the surface of the seeds are removed. Food items like bread, pizzas, noodles and fruit juices
Food items (100 g)
Fat (g)
fiber g
Bamboo shoots
are in purest form are kept on the shelves of departmental stores, may be rich in nutrients and proteins
but lack in dietary fibers. The changing life style is compelling people to have well processed and
cooked ready to eat food items. In developed countries like Japan United States, United Kingdom and
France people are now taking very less dietary fiber in their daily diet (Nakaji et al. 2002; Fukuda et
al. 2007). With the result general population in these countries are suffering with various health
problems associated with insufficient dietary fiber intake in the diet (Table 6). Looking into the
problems of insufficient dietary fiber in the daily diet, food items are being now fortified with dietary
fibers. To compensate the dietary fiber deficiency even people are going for pure form of it in the
form capsules, tablets and pills.
Table 6: Present intake of dietary fibre per day by the population (25 g/day or more is the
recommended dietary fiber in general for the population, Nakaji et al. 2002)
Daily dietary fiber intake at
11.4 g
United States
15 g
16 g
22.1 g
16.7 g
21 g
20 25 g
30 33 g
United Kingdom
14.2 g
39 43 g
Though bamboo shoots are the best source of dietary fiber, shoot remains as an underutilized
seasonable vegetable in many countries including in India. Due to reasons like non-availability of
shoots, difficulty in processing and cooking or old traditional food, new generation in Indian and
many other parts of the region are avoiding bamboo shoots in their daily diet. It is countries like
China, Taiwan and Thailand which have exploited bamboo shoots as food. China is having around 75
per cent of the bamboo shoot market of the world followed by Taiwan and Thailand. It is time to
develop new ways of processing bamboo shoots to make it a popular food. Bamboo shoots are now
available in the form of paste and powder as well.
Bamboo shoots in food fortification
Food fortification is used to enrich food products by incorporating nutritionally rich entities. It is
known that bamboo shoots are rich in various mineral elements, bioactive compounds and dietary
fibers and at the same time are less in calories, fats and protein. Fortification of food with bamboo
shoots is the best way of enriching food with bioactive compounds, mineral elements and dietary fiber
present in bamboo shoots. Another reason of processing and keeping bamboo shoots in usable form is
very short harvesting period and post harvesting time. Bamboo shoots grow very fast and within short
time of two to three days of appearing on the ground shoots become hard and unfit for food. After
harvesting also bamboo shoots need immediate processing otherwise spoiled. Bamboo shoots are
either vacuum packed, stored in water or brine solution, dried or fermented. Now bamboo shoots are
being converted into chunks, powder and paste for long term usage also (Fig. 1). Fortification of food
products with bamboo shoots is another best option of using it immediately and then transporting it
long distances for consumption. But during fortification, it should also strictly be kept in mind that the
sensorial characteristics of the food are not hampered much (Akhtar et al. 2008). In recent years,
attention is being paid to the foods that have valuable amounts of minerals, vitamins, micronutrients,
and other bioactive compounds such as fiber and antioxidants. Bamboo shoots, with their high
nutritive and therapeutic value hold a great promise for utilization as a health food. Recipes such as
chutney, pulao, halwa, curry, and bhaji with bamboo shoots have been standardized by Engineering
Resource Group, Bangalore (NMBA, 2009). Bamboo shoot-based products commercially available in
China, Japan, Thailand, and Malaysia include canned bamboo shoots, fermented bamboo shoots,
bamboo shoot pickle, bamboo shoot powder, and bamboo shoot juice. Several other value-added
products such as candies, nuggets, crackers, chutney, chips, cookies, chappaties, and buns have now
been prepared from bamboo shoots (Bisht et al. 2012; Sood et al. 2013; Das et al. 2013). These novel
products have also been analyzed for their sensory and nutritional qualities. Farris, and Piergiovanni
(2008) prepared a popular Italian food namely, ‘Amaretti cookies’ using bamboo fiber as an
ingredient. Incorporation of bamboo fiber imparted a characteristic flavor, texture and taste to the
cookies. Sood et al. (2013) also prepared some edible products such as candy, chutney, nuggets,
cracker and chukh using juvenile shoots of D. hamiltonii. Using of paste from bamboo shoots for the
fortification of food products is very convenient and can be stored in the refrigerator (Bisht et al.
2015). Fortification with bamboo shoot paste and powder led to improved nutritional and
organoleptic qualities of the food products. Similarly, other products such as, pork nuggets, chicken
nuggets, pork pickle, chips, and cookies have been prepared, using fresh or fermented shoots of
different bamboo species. These products when analyzed for their nutritional and organoleptic
qualities, revealed significantly higher mean sensory scores in terms of flavor, texture, juiciness and
overall acceptability. Dietary fiber from bamboo shoots also improved the functional properties of
many food products including water-holding, oil holding capacity, foaming capacity, emulsification
and gel formation (Zhang et al. 2017).
Dietary fiber content of bamboo shoot and wheat flour
Wheat is one of the staple food of the world population and eaten in various forms including bakery
items like biscuits. Though total dietary fiber in wheat is quite high 12.48 g/ 100 g (Singh and Singh
2015) but during milling all dietary fiber is removed. Before fortification of biscuits with bamboo
shoot powder the wheat flour in the market was analyzed for nutrient detergent fiber (NDF) which
determines the indigestible component of the plant material consisting of hemicelluloses, cellulose,
lignin and acid detergent fiber (ADF) primarily representing cellulose and lignin. Harvested shoots
were washed, peeled and cut into small chunks. Shoots were then boiled for 20 minutes in order to
remove the anti-nutrients present in the shoots. Boiled shoots were dried in an oven at 600C for 24
hour, grounded to powder and used for dietary fiber analysis. Wheat flour for the analysis was
procured from the local market of sector 14, Chandigarh, India. The analysis of neutral detergent fiber
(NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose was done by using the method
given by Goering and Van Soest (1970). The results (Table 7) show that 20 minute boiled oven dried
bamboo shoot flour has higher content of NDF (58.98g/100g), ADF (14.68g/100g) compared to the
wheat flour NDF (53.43g/100g), ADF (0.46g/100gm). Similarly bamboo shoot flour also showed
higher content of lignin (3.66g/100g), hemicellulose (44.30g/100g) and cellulose (8.92g/100gm).
Table 7. Dietary fiber (g/100g) comparison for wheat flour and 20 min boiled oven dried D.
hamiltonii shoot flour.
Wheat flour
20 min boiled oven dried
bamboo shoot flour
53.43 ± 0.04
58.98 ± 0.05
14.68 ± 0.01
3.66 ± 0.01
Values reported are measurement replication means ± standard deviation (n = 03 replicates).
Figure 1. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn. ex Munro, (A) Young shoots,
(B) Peeled shoots, (C) 20 min boiled Chunks, (D) 20 min boiled oven dried bamboo shoot flour.
Dietary fiber content of bamboo shoot fortified sweet biscuits and
salty snack (namkeen)
In India biscuits and salty snacks (namkeen) are very common ready to eat products enjoyed by
people of all age groups (Fig 2). Both are prepared from well processed flour of wheat with very less
or no dietary fibers (Gandhi et al. 2001). Most of the biscuits and salty namkeen are prepared from
fine wheat flour where most of dietary fiber is removed while milling wheat into flour. We added
bamboo shoot dietary fiber in these products in the form of powder to enrich the final product with
dietary fiber. In the present study, biscuits and namkeen were fortified with 20% of 20 minute boiled
oven dried bamboo shoot flour. Nutritional analysis for control and fortified products was performed
using the established method given by Goering and Van Soest (1970). Both the products showed
increment in NDF, ADF as well in the amount of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses by the
fortification with bamboo shoot powder (Table 8). In biscuits, the NDF increased by 37 per cent
whereas in namkeen increment was by 9 per cent only. The ADF increment was very high in namkeen
(around 257 per cent) than in biscuits (82 per cent). Similarly lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses also
increased in bamboo shoot dietary fiber fortified biscuits and salty namkeen (Table 8).
Table 8. Dietary fiber content of products fortified with 20 min boiled oven dried bamboo
shoot flour (g/100g).
Control biscuits
46.15 ± 0.23
63.21 ± 0.01
65.25 ± 0.02
71.25 ± 0.02
3.46 ± 0.01
1.47 ± 0.01
5.25 ± 0.01
59.76 ± 0.01
63.77 ± 0.02
66.01 ± 0.02
Values reported are measurement replication means ± standard deviation (n = 03 replicates).
Figure. 2 A. Control biscuits, B. Bamboo shoot fortified biscuits
Figure. 3 A. Control namkeen, B. Bamboo shoot fortified namkeen
Organoleptic (Sensory) analysis of bamboo shoot dietary fiber
fortified biscuits and namkeen
Biscuits and salty namkeen fortified with dietary bamboo shoot powder were subjected to sensory
analysis (Fig. 2). Five parameters, colour, aroma, texture, taste and overall were selected to assess the
sensory quality of both the products. It was interesting to observe that biscuits have better scores than
salty namkeen in all the select sensory parameters (Table 10). Biscuits fortified with bamboo shoot
powder even out performed than the control biscuits (Table 10). Overall, the bamboo shoot dietary
fiber fortified biscuits were having 6.55 whereas control biscuits were having 6.20. In case of salty
namkeen fortified with bamboo shoot powder having 4.90 (for aroma) to 5.80 (for taste) on the
hedonic scale (Table 9). Both the products were having overall liking slightly (salty namkeen) to
moderately (biscuits).
Table 9. Sensory analysis data of control and bamboo shoot fortifiedproductsusing 9-point
Hedonic scale (1-Extremely dislike to 9- Extremely like).
Control biscuits
Control Namkeen
5.45 ± 1.19
Values reported are measurement replication means ± standard deviation (n = 20 replicates).
Dietary fibers have very important role in our health particularly in this modern age of high
dependence on processed food. Regular and proper bowel movement is the first sign of a healthy life
style which is possible only due to intake of sufficient amount of roughage in our daily food. In well
processed ready to eat food, the dietary fiber is lost. Insufficient dietary fiber in our diet leads to
various problems like constipation, diarrhea, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, cardio vascular diseases and
cancer. Now in developed countries within last 50 years there is fifty to sixty per cent decrease in the
intake of dietary fiber in the daily diet of the population. To overcome the problem of dietary fiber
deficiency in the daily diet, food products like bakery, dairy and meat products are being fortified
with dietary fiber from other sources, like oat, barley and other various vegetables and fruits. Bamboo
shoots are rich and cheap source of dietary fiber, which are consumed a lot in East and South-East
Asian countries. Bamboo shoots are also less in fats, calories, rich mineral elements and various
bioactive compounds. Though bamboo shoots are consumed as fresh, dried, fermented and processed
forms, but now various food products are being fortified with bamboo shoot dietary fiber or also
consumed as medicine in the form pills, tablets and capsules. It is proven that bamboo shoot dietary
fiber has same health benefits as dietary fibers from other sources have.
The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Food Processing Industries and Department of
Biotechnology, New Delhi, Govt. of India, American Bamboo Society and Ned Jaquith Foundation,
USA for providing financial assistance to conduct this research work.
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Conference Paper
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North-East India is endowed with abundance of natural resources and bamboo is one such resource. The region is rich in diversity as well as stock of bamboo, not only in India but by extension in the entire South-East Asian region. Bamboo is a way of life and culture in the region and used for almost all purposes like surgical blades for cutting the umbilical cord of new born babies to food and medicines. Bamboo was wood for all types of construction; it was a material for making all types of household utensils, agricultural and fishing implements to fuel for cooking and warming up the homes. One extensive use of bamboo in this region is the usage of young shoots as food. Young bamboo shoots of almost all species are eaten in various forms in the region and people have developed their own techniques and methods of preserving and processing of bamboo shoots for long term usage as well. They are also aware about the nutritional value of the young bamboo shoots which has now been substantiated by scientific studies. Bamboo being a promising natural resource, the contemporary usage of bamboo shoots shall help in the socio-economic and food security of the region and accordingly people are trying to use bamboo in various new and innovative ways for the well being, good health and prosperity.
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In this paper, the effects of Bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF) on the mechanical properties, moisture distribution, and microstructure of frozen dough were investigated. The state and distribution of water in frozen dough was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LNMR) spectroscopy. The microstructure of frozen dough was studied. The structure of the gluten protein network found in wheat flour dough was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result showed that the BSDF could significantly improve the viscoelasticity and extensibility of frozen dough after thawing in a dose-dependent manner. It was significantly improved with the increase in the addition amount of BSDF ( P<0.05 ). DSC analysis showed that the freezable water content and thermal stability of frozen dough were increased after the addition of BSDF. LNMR analysis showed that the appropriate ( < 0.1%) addition amount of BSDF could significantly ( P<0.05 ) decline the contents of bound water. Meanwhile, the loose bound water and free water were raised significantly ( P<0.05 ) after the addition of BSDF. Moreover, the addition of BSDF induces arrangement of starch granule and gluten network in frozen dough. BSDF can be used as a novel quality improver of frozen dough.
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The fiber rich diets have a positive effect on health as their ingestion has been related to decreased prevalence of several diseases. It is speculated that Indian diets have the potential to reduce the prevalence of a variety of risk diseases; however there are limited studies available on the dietary fiber (DF) composition of foods available in India. High-fiber foods have a far lower energy density as compared with high-fat foods. Thus, high-fiber foods can displace energy (calories). The satiation and fullness of stomach are predominantly influenced by the bulking and viscosity properties of DF. Persons who consume generous amounts of DF, compared to those who have minimal fiber intake, are at lower risk for developing coronary artery diseases, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and certain gastrointestinal diseases. Increasing the intake of high fiber foods or fiber supplements improves serum lipoprotein values, lowers blood pressure, improves blood glucose control for diabetic individuals, and aids weight loss. Emerging research indicates that intake of soluble fibers enhances immune function in humans.
Bamboo is a multi-utility plant being used as a building material, for industrial purposes, as a food source and a versatile raw material for various products. In recent times, it is gaining importance for its health benefits and is emerging as a potential ingredient for modern functional foods and nutraceuticals. The leaves possess antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic compounds and have been used for enhancing immunity, preventing degenerative diseases and also in the food industry. The young shoots in addition to being used as a vegetable in the conventional form in various cuisines are now being used as an ingredient in functional foods. The shoots have anti-hypertensive, anti-tumour and anti-oxidant properties and have also been proven to possess cholesterol-lowering activity. Bamboo salt is used as a medicinal food in many Asian countries and provides a wide range of health benefits and has attracted many pharmaceutical scientists worldwide. Thus, bamboo is an ideal plant and has great promise for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmoceutical and the food industry.
Whole Grains and Health presents a science-based discussion of whole grains and their expanding role in health and disease. An international collection of authors presents current perspectives on grains, the many opportunities for further research into whole grains and the remarkable growth potential for product development. Coverage includes discussions on the health benefits of a diet rich in whole grains, the functional components of whole grains and the regulatory nuances of labeling grain products. A unique feature is a section devoted to communicating with consumers. Barriers exist which affect consumer acceptance and use of whole-grain foods. Whole Grains and Health addresses those concerns and offers strategies for furthering research, product development and educational outreach.
1. The Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) project was introduced, evaluated and accepted by the EU DG XII FAIR Programme as a Concerted Action. Its aim was to develop and establish a science-based approach for the emerging concepts in functional food development. Over the last three years of this EU Concerted Action co-ordinated by ILSI Europe, scientific data have been evaluated and new concepts have been elaborated. This Consensus Document is the culmination of the EU Concerted Action and its key points and recommendations are summarized here. It is by no means the end of the process, but, rather, an important starting point and the stimulus for functional food development. 2. Considerable progress has been made in scientific knowledge leading to the identification of functional food components which might eventually lead to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Consumers are becoming more aware of this development as they seek a better-quality, as well as a longer, life. The food industry has an opportunity to provide products that are not only safe and tasty, but also functional. The originality of the approach in this EU Concerted Action is that it is function-based, rather than product-based. The latter approach would have to be influenced by local considerations of different cultural as well as dietary traditions, whereas the function-based approach starts from the biologically based science that is universal. Furthermore, and most importantly, the function-based approach in this EU Concerted Action has allowed the development of ideas that suggest a unique way in which to link this scientific basis of functional foods with the communication about their possible benefits to consumers. 3. This EU Concerted Action has adopted the following working definition, rather than a firm definition, for functional foods: A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects in a way that is relevant to either an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. 4. Functional foods must remain foods and they must demonstrate their effects in amounts that can normally be expected to be consumed in the diet. They are not pills or capsules, but part of a normal food pattern. A functional food can be a natural food, a food to which a component has been added, or a food from which a component has been removed by technological or biotechnological means. It can also be a food where the nature of one or more components has been modified, or a food in which the bioavailability of one or more components has been modified; or any combination of these possibilities. A functional food might be functional for all members of a population or for particular groups of the population, which might be defined, for example, by age or by genetic constitution. 5. The development of functional foods must rely on basic scientific knowledge of target functions in the body that are relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or the reduction of risk of diseases, the identification of validated markers for these target functions and the evaluation of sound scientific data from human studies for their possible modulation by foods and food components. This EU Concerted Action has proposed that markers can be classified according to whether they are markers of exposure to the functional food component whether they are markers that relate to target function or biological response or whether they are intermediate markers of the actual disease endpoint or health outcome. 6. Consumers must be made aware of the scientific benefits of functional foods and this requires clear and informative communication through messages (claims) on products and in accompanying materials. This EU Concerted Action has identified two types of claims that are vital to functional food development and has provided a scientific basis for them to help those who have to formulate and regulate the claims. Claims for 'Enhanced Function Claims' (Type A) should require that evidence for the effects of the functional food is based on establishment and acceptance of validated markers of Improved Target Function or Biological Response, while claims for the Reduced Risk Of A Disease (Type B) should require that evidence is based on the establishment and acceptance of Markers of Intermediate Endpoints of Disease. These markers must be shown to be significantly and consistently modulated by the functional food or the functional food component for either type of claim to be made. This EU Concerted Action has therefore proposed a scheme whereby the scientific basis of functional food development can be linked to the communication of their benefits to the public. If the principles of such a scheme can be universally adopted then this should ultimately improve communication to consumers and minimize their confusion. 7. Functional foods must be safe according to all standards of assessing food risk and new approaches to safety might need to be established. This EU Concerted Action proposes that the development of validated markers as described above should, if possible, be used and integrated in the safety assessment with particular attention being paid to long-term consequences and interactions between components. 8. The development of functional foods, with their accompanying claims, will proceed hand in hand with progress in food regulation, which is the means to guarantee the validity of the claims as well as the safety of the food. Science in itself cannot be regulated and functional food science provides only the scientific basis for these regulations. 9. The Individual Theme Group papers, which are the science base for this Concerted Action, represent the critical assessment of the literature by European experts.
Dendrocalamus hamiltonii is a locally available variety of multipurpose bamboo which is mainly cultivated as wood substitute, fodder and edible shoots used for making pickles. As this is a predominant species of bamboo popular with the masses, therefore, an effort was made to evaluate its shoots for quality parameters. Results showed that it contained 91.06 % moisture, 0.81% ash, 0.29% fat and 1.50% fiber. Edible bamboo shoots need to be processed and utilized immediately due to their seasonal availability and short shelf life. Some edible products such as preserve, candy, chutney, nuggets, cracker (papad) and chukh were prepared which were then analyzed for nutritional and organoleptic evaluation. The results revealed that prepared formulations were nutritionally rich and acceptable by sensory scores. Such an activities are bound to provide livelihood opportunities to the local population thereby, exploring the value of bamboo resource as underutilized health food.