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Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus ) and chicory ( Cichorium intybus ) are valuable pharmaceutical raw materials on account of their high content of inulin, a natural prebiotic. Inulin-rich plants are also increasingly employed in the formulation of cosmetic products. The paper presents the biological properties of aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. The extracts have been found to have a high free radical scavenging ability, with the most beneficial antioxidant properties being observed for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin isolated from both plant types is a safe and non-toxic raw material. Inulin added to model body wash gel formulations markedly reduces their potential to cause skin irritation and sensitization.
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44 Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019
Inulin as an effectiveness and safe ingredient in cosmetics
Zo a Nizioł-Łukaszewska1, Tomasz Bujak1*, Tomasz Wasilewski2, Edyta Szmuc1
1Departmet of Cosmetics and Pharmaceutical Products Technology, University of Information Technology and Management
in Rzeszow, Kielnarowa 386a, Tyczyn 36-020, Poland
2Department of Chemistry, University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Chrobrego 27, Radom 26-600, Poland
*Corresponding author: e-mail:
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) are valuable pharmaceutical raw materi-
als on account of their high content of inulin, a natural prebiotic. Inulin-rich plants are also increasingly employed
in the formulation of cosmetic products. The paper presents the biological properties of aqueous and aqueous-
ethanolic extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. The extracts have been found to have a high free radical
scavenging ability, with the most bene cial antioxidant properties being observed for the aqueous-ethanolic extract
of Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin isolated from both plant types is a safe and non-toxic raw material. Inulin added
to model body wash gel formulations markedly reduces their potential to cause skin irritation and sensitization.
Keywords: Inulin, Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, chicory, Cichorium intybus.
Cosmetic industry is currently one of the most rapidly
growing sectors both in Poland and across the world.
Plant-based cosmetic raw materials play a very important
role on account of their content of biologically active
ingredients with a broad spectrum of action, safety of
use and easy availability. Consequently, they have a wide
range of bene ts. Plant-based raw materials have rich
chemical compositions, which makes them appropriate
for a variety of applications. For example, they are suit-
able for consumers of different age and with various
skin types, and for the primary or adjunctive treatment
of dermatological diseases1, 2.
One of the plant-based raw materials with applications
in cosmetology is inulin. The ingredient can be obta-
ined, among other sources, from Jerusalem artichoke
(also called topinambour, Helianthus tuberosus L.) and
common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)3.
Chemically, inulin is an unbranched polysaccharide
belonging to the class of fructans. It is composed of
30–35 fructose units linked by β-1,2-glycosidic bonds4–8.
The bene ts of inulin in the cosmetic industry include
its antimicrobial protective effect on the skin and mucous
membranes due to prebiotic properties, i.e. promotion
of healthy bacterial ora6–9. Inulin and its surfactant
derivatives can be used for the production of antibacte-
rial soaps which are effective in removing gram-positive
and gram-negative bacteria and viruses10–13. Fructans,
including inulin, have also found cosmetic applications
in hair shampoo production. An advantage of fructans
and their derivatives used as shampoo ingredients is that
they make it possible to eliminate ionic surface-active
agents from shampoo formulations, which has a bene cial
impact on the natural environment6–8, 14–17.
Furthermore, inulin is used as a stabilizer in cosmetic
emulsions and detergents. It is suitable as a base for
powders and sprinkles, and as a nutritious ingredient in
cosmetics3–9, 14–16. According to18 nanoemulsions produced
with inulin-based systems are described. In combination
with fatty acids, inulin forms safe surface-active ingre-
dients which do not cause any skin irritation. For the
purpose of producing stable O/W emulsions, inulin is
usually used at low concentrations, ranging from 0.2 to
1 wt%. In the formulation of nanoemulsions, on the
other hand, the concentrations of this surface-active
agent should preferably be higher, i.e. 8 wt% of the
weight of the oil phase used.
The present paper is an attempt to assess the antioxi-
dant properties of aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts
of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. Inulin isolated from
the two plants was used as a body wash gels ingredient.
It was applied in the cosmetic formulations at varying
concentrations: 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt%. The skin ir-
ritation potential of the formulated body wash gels and
the effect of isolated inulin on broblasts were evaluated.
Antioxidant activity tests were conducted
using: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Sig-
ma Aldrich), ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-
thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, Sigma Aldrich),
4-(dimetyloamino)benzaldehyde (Sigma Aldrich), ethyl
alcohol (Heneywell), di-potassium hydrogen phosphate
pure p.a. (Chempur), potassium dihydrogen phosphate
pure p.a. (POCH Gliwice). Resazurin R7017 (Sigma
Aldrich),Human skin broblasts BJ (ATCC®CRL-2522)
and Eagle’s Essential Minimum Medium (EMEM) with
L-glutamine were purchased from ATCC.Foetal bovine
serum (FBS) was purchased from Invitrogen. Measu-
rements of the irritant potential were carried out with:
zein from corn (Sigma Aldrich), sulfuric acid (98%,
Chempur), copper sulphate penthahydrate (Chempur),
potassium sulphate (Chempur), sodium hydroxide
(Chempur), Tashiro indicator (Chempur). All reagents
were analytical grade.
Model washing systems were prepared from: sodium
dodecyl sulphate (SLS, Sigma Aldrich), cocamido-
propylbetaine (Dehyton PK, Basf), lauryl glucoside
(Plantacare 1200, Basf), sodiumchloride (Chempur),
citric acid (Chempur), sodium benzoate and potassium
sorbate (Chempur).
Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, 21, 1, 44—49, 10.2478/pjct-2019-0008
Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019 45
Extract production
Jerusalem artichoke and common chicory extracts
were obtained using the method of continuous solvent
extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. The extract was prepa-
red from 10 g of ground common chicory root and 10 g
of ground Jerusalem artichoke tuber. As the extraction
solvents, istilled water with ethanol and pure distilled
water were used. In the aqueous-ethanolic extract the
weight ratio of ethanol to water was 70:30. The process
of extraction was conducted for 2 hours from the start
of boiling of the solvent contained in a ask. Next, the
extract thus obtained was passed through lters made
of Whatman lter paper No. 1. The nished extract
was stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 4oC.
Isolation of inulin
Inulin extraction was performed using 50 g of Jerusalem
artichoke tuber and 50 g of commonchicory root. The
raw materials were blended and extracted with use of 300
mL of distilled water and 0.45 g of salt at 80oC for 45
minutes. Following ltration, the ltrates were extracted
with ethyl alcohol overnight and centrifuged for about
30 minutes (5000 rpm). The precipitate was washed
with ethyl alcohol and dried at a temperature of 50oC.
DPPH radical scavenging activity
DPPH radical scavenging by extracts was performed
according to19 with23 modi cation. 1 mL of extract or
appropriate solvent was mixed with1 mL 25 mM DPPH
solution in 96 wt% ethanol. Following 40 min incubation
at room temperature the absorbance of the sample was
measured at λ = 515 nm using AquaMate spectrophoto-
meter (Thermo Scienti c). 96 wt% ethanol was used as
a blank sample. All samples were analyzed in triplicates.
The percentage of DPPHscavenging was calculated for
each sample based on the equation:
% of DPPH scavenging = [1 – (As/Ac)] x 100%
where: As – absorbance of the sample; Ac – absorbance
of the control sample (DPPH solution).
ABTS•+ radical scavenging activity
Scavenging of ABTS•+ free radical was evaluated ac-
cording to20 with21 modi cation. The scavenging reaction
is based on decolourisation of the green ABTS radical
cation (ABTS•+). To prepare the ABTS•+ solution 19.5
mg ABTS and 3.3 mg potassium persulphate was mixed
with 7 mL of phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 and dissolved
for 16 hours in darkness. The solution was diluted to
reach the absorbance at λ = 414 nm around 1.0. 20 μL
of extracts or appropriate solvent was mixed with 980
μL diluted ABTS•+ solution and incubated for 10 min.
The decrease in ABTS•+ absorbance was measured at λ
= 414 nm using AquaMate spectrophotometer (Thermo
Scienti c), using distilled water as a blank. All samples
were analyzed in triplicates The percentage of ABTS•+
scavenging was calculated based on the equation:
% of ABTS•+scavenging = [(1 – (As/Ac)] x 100
where: As – absorbance of the sample; Ac – absorbance
of the control sample (ABTS•+ solution).
Formulations of the model body cleaning gels
On the basis of literature reports and our own experi-
ments prototype formulation of the body cleaning gels
were developed. The model formula are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Model body wash gel formulation
The formulations of model body wash cosmetics
contained a total of 11.3 wt% of surfactants. Three
surfactants, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (8.0 wt%), Lauryl
Glucoside (1.5 wt%) and Cocamidopropyl Betaine (1.8
wt%), were selected on the basis of their most wide-
spread use in body wash cosmetics. In addition, the
formulation also contained citric acid (pH regulator),
potassium sorbate (preservative, 0.4 wt%) and sodium
chloride (NaCl, viscosity regulator). The variable para-
meter in the composition of analyzed samples was the
type of isolated inulin. An additive-free sample was also
used in the study as a reference (baseline) sample. The
technology of formulating model cosmetics involved dis-
solution in water ingredients in the sequence speci ed in
the formulation, and mixed using the mechanical stirrer
(mechanical stirrer ChemLand O20).
Zein test
Irritant potential of the model washing gels was measu-
red using zein test. In the surfactants solution zein protein
is denatured and then is solubilized in the solution. This
process simulates the behavior of surfactants in relation
to the skin proteins. To 40 mL of the samples solution
(10 wt%) was added 2 ± 0.05 g of zein from corn. The
solutions with zein were shaken on a shaker with water
bath (60 min at 35oC). The solutions were ltered on
Whatman No. 1 lters and then centrifuged at 5000 rpm
for 10 min. The nitrogen content in the solutions was
determined by Kjeldahl method. 1 mL of the ltrate
was mineralized in sulphuric acid (98 wt%) containing
copper sulphate pentahydrate and potassium sulphate.
After mineralization the solution was transferred (with
50 mL of MiliQ water) into the ask of the Wagner–Par-
nas apparatus. 20 mL of sodium hydroxide solution (25
wt%) was added. The released ammonia was distilled
with steam. Ammonia was bound by sulfuric acid (5 mL
of 0.05 M H2SO4) in the receiver of the Wagner–Parnas
apparatus. The unbound sulfuric acid was titrated with
0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Tashiro solution was used as
an indicator. The zein number (ZN) was calculated from
the equation:
ZN = (10 V1) · 100 · 0.7 (mg N/100 mL)
where V1 is the volume (mL) of sodium hydroxide used
for titration of the sample.
The nal result was the arithmetic mean of ve inde-
pendent measurements.
46 Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019
Resazurin assay
Cell proliferation/metabolism was assessed by resazurin
assay. The assay was performed using a model of BJ
human skin broblasts (ATCC CRL-2522). The cells
were cultured in EMEM (Eagle’s Minimum Essential
Medium) with an addition of 10 wt% FBS (Foetal Bo-
vine Serum). Resazurin R7017 – 1 g (Sigma Aldrich)
was used in the assay. The cells were seeded into 96-
well plates. Isolated inulin were diluted in the range of
1 mg mL–1 to 5 mg mL–1. Next, the culture medium
was substituted for the isolated inulin at appropriate
dilutions. The control cells were cultured in EMEM with
1 wt% FBS. Absorbance was measured after 24 hours
at the wavelength of λ = 570 nm, using the microplate
reader FilterMax F5 (Molecular Devices).
Plant substances are an abundant source of primary
and secondary metabolites. A large proportion of these
compounds have antioxidant properties and are used
both as carriers and active ingredients in cosmetic for-
mulations. In addition, these compounds play a very
important role in preventing cell damage induced by
free radicals22–25. Reactive oxygen species may contribute
to the development of oxidative stress which ultimately
leads to cell metabolism disorders and peroxidation of
cell membrane lipids23, 26. Free radicals also afect amino
acids and proteins by changing their chemical structure,
leading to mitochondrial DNA damage, elastin degrada-
tion or changes in collagen structure. As a result, modi-
ed proteins become inactivated and accumulate in cells,
accelerating their ageing. The effects of free radicals in
carbohydrates include, among others, depolymerisation
of hyaluronic acid which is responsible for proper skin
Oxidative stress, and an increased number of free
radicals which is associated with it, play a part in accel-
erating the ageing process, but they may also contribute
signi cantly to the development of diseases including
atopic dermatitis28, acne29 or psoriasis30.
Cosmetics enriched with antioxidant substances are
more readily absorbed by the human skin and less liable
to cause skin allergy and sensitization than products based
on synthetic ingredients31. In addition, they restrict the
processes of oxidation of substances contained in cos-
metics, e.g. fragrances. In this way, they may potentially
extend the stability of cosmetic products33.
The group of plants that are rich in active substances
and have potential applications in the cosmetic in-
dustry includes, among others, Jerusalem artichoke
(topinambour) (Helianthus tuberosus L.) or common
chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The plants are rich in phe-
nolic compounds including phenolic acids or avonoids.
Common chicory root contains chicoric acid, and chlo-
rogenic or isocholorogenic acid33–36. Jerusalem artichoke
tubers contain primarily derivatives of hydroxybenzoic and
hydroxycinnamic acids, which constitute approximately
16% of their dry matter content8. Moreover, the two
plants are valuable sources of vitamins, among others
C and E and B-group vitamins including thiamine and
ribo avin. According to36, the average content of vitamin
C in Jerusalem artichoke tubers is 7.6 mg 100 g–1, and
in chicory root it is 5.2 mg 100 g–1.
However, the most abundant dry matter components of
the two plants are carbohydrates, particularly polysaccha-
ride fructans, chie y inulin3–6. As37 claim, the antioxidant
activity can also be attributed to polysaccharides which
scavenge the superoxide radical anion, hydroxyl radical
or hydrogen peroxide.
The present study has assessed the antioxidant activ-
ity of ethanol-aqueous and aqueous extracts obtained
from common chicory and Jerusalem artichoke. The
antioxidant activity of the extracts under study was as-
sessed using the DPPH• and ABTS•+ methods. The
analyses were carried out within the concentration range
of 0.3–10 mg mL–1 and showed all the extracts under
study to have an ability to neutralize reactive oxygen
species depending on their concentration. According on
the DPPH method, the highest antioxidant activity was
determined for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jeru-
salem artichoke. At the concentration of 10 mg mL–1,
the free radical scavenging ability was equal to 80%.
The values noted for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of
common chicory were lower at all measurement points.
At the concentration of 10 mg mL–1, the free radical
neutralizing ability was 71%. The values determined for
the aqueous extracts were lower than those obtained
for the aqueous-ethanolic extracts – both in the case
of common chicory and Jerusalem artichoke. The low-
est values were observed for the aqueous solution of
Jerusalem artichoke at the concentrations of 5 and 10
mg mL–1. At the remaining concentrations, the lowest
ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species was found for
the aqueous extract of common chicory (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. % of DPPH scavenging (E-ethanol, W+E+H –
water+ethanol+Helianthus tuberosus, W+H – wa-
ter+Helianthus tuberosus, W+E+C – water+etha-
nol+Cichorium intybus, W+C – water+Cichorium
The extracts obtained from common chicory and Jeru-
salem artichoke were characterized by a lower ability to
neutralize the ABTS•+ radical than the DPPH radical.
Similarly to DPPH scavenging, the highest antioxidant ac-
tivity was shown for the aqueous-ethanolic extract derived
from Jerusalem artichoke. At the highest concentration
studied (10 mg mL–1), the free radical scavenging ability
was 64% and decreased gradually along with increasing
dilutions. The aqueous-ethanolic solution obtained from
common chicory had a free radical scavenging ability that
was lower comparing to the aqueous-ethanolic extract
derived from Jerusalem artichoke. The lowest values
Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019 47
were noted for the aqueous extract of common chicory
at all measurement points (Fig. 2).
samples tested, the highest increase in cell metabolism
was found for inulin isolated from Helianthus tuberosus
L. at a concentration of 5 mg mL–1. The highest de-
crease in relation to the control sample was shown after
the addition of inulin derived from common chicory at
a concentration of 2.5 mg mL–1. Based on the studies
it can be concluded that inulin added to a cosmetic for-
mulation at a concentration of 5 mg mL–1 should not
exhibit any skin irritation activity, and should bene cially
affect the proliferation of broblasts. Similar conclusions
were drawn by34–35, who demonstrated that an addition of
fructans had a bene cial effect on broblast stimulation
and keratinocyte proliferation.
Figure 2. % of ABTS scavenging (E-ethanol, W+E+H – wate-
r+ethanol+Helianthus tuberosus, W+H – water+He-
lianthus tuberosus, W+E+C – water+ethanol+Ci-
chorium intybus, W+C -water+Cichorium intybus
Figure 3. Inulin content isolated from Cichorium intybus L.
and Helianthus tuberosus L
Figure 5. Irritant potential of model body wash gels conta-
ining inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus L. and
Helianthus tuberosus L.
Figure 4. In uence of inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus
L. and Helianthus tuberosus L. on cell viability
The tests evaluating the ability of aqueous-ethanolic
extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and common chicory to
scavenge the DPPH and ABTS•+ radicals also involved
inulin isolation from the extracts. The compound was
then added to a cosmetic formulation. The content of
inulin in plants usually ranges from 5 to 12%, which
remains in agreement to the literature. The content
of inulin isolated from Helianthus tuberosus. has been
found to vary from 3 to 15%38. According to3 Jerusalem
artichoke contains about 52% of inulin in its tubers, and
from common chicory (Cichorium intybus) containing
approximately 44% of inulin. The present study found
the percentage content of inulin in Cichorium intybus
to be 12%, and in Helianthus tuberosus – 18% (Fig. 3).
The next stage of the study involved evaluating the
effect of inulin isolated from Jerusalem artichoke and
common chicory on the metabolism of human dermal
broblasts. The analysis was based on the resazurin
assay which is a quick and sensitive method for asses-
sing proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro. In response
to the reduction of culture medium by living cells, the
dye was observed to change colour from blue to red39–40.
The analyses were carried out within the concentration
range of 1–5 mg mL–1 (Fig. 4). The study demonstra-
ted that inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus L. and
Helianthus tuberosus L. at the highest test concentration
(5 mg mL–1) had a bene cial effect on increasing cell
proliferation compared to the control sample. Out of all
As the next stage of the reported study, an attempt
was made to apply isolated inulin in the formulations of
model body wash gels. The gels thus obtained, enriched
with inulin, were subjected to skin interaction tests aimed
at evaluating their potential to cause skin irritation (zein
value), allergy and sensitization (patch test). The gure
presents results of skin irritation potential measurements
performed for the gels containing inulin derived from
Jerusalem artichoke and chicory.
The risk of skin irritations is one of the greatest di-
sadvantages associated with using body wash cosmetics.
Their skin irritation potential is due to the presence of
surfactants in the formulation. Surfactants may interact
with the skin surface proteins, cause their denaturation
and ultimately wash them away from the skin. The skin
irritation potential of body wash gels depends primarily
on the type of washing agents used in the formulation.
The most severe skin irritation effect is attributable to
48 Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019
anionic surfactants (e.g. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium
Laureth Sulfate) which can interact with proteins via
strong ionic bonds. Consequently, anionic surfactants
have a relatively strong ability to elute and denatura-
te the skin surface proteins, which may result in skin
irritation and impairment of skin function as a barrier
preventing water loss (increase of transepidermal water
loss, TEWL) or penetration of pathogens. A markedly
lower skin irritation potential is found for nonionic sur-
factants which are linked to proteins by weak hydrogen
bonds. Another factor impacting on the skin irritation
potential of body wash gels is the concentration of
surfactants which determines the form in which surfac-
tants are found in solutions. Before reaching the critical
micelle concentration (CMC) surfactants in the form of
individual molecules (monomers) demonstrate the most
pronounced skin irritation ability, which is due to the
small size of individual molecules, their high mobility and
markedly higher capacity to penetrate through the epi-
dermal barrier into the skin. Lower skin irritation ability
is associated with micelles arising in solutions after the
CMC is exceeded. This is caused by the fact that they
are larger in size, which prevents them from permeating
deeply into the skin. Surfactant concentrations used in
body wash gels exceed the CMC, however on account
of the possibility of releasing monomeric molecules due
to ongoing disintegration of thermodynamically unstable
micelles, the presence of micelles does not completely
eliminate the possibility of skin irritations. The litera-
ture data show that the skin irritation potential can be
reduced for example by introducing into the system
substances having an ability to reduce the CMC, increase
the number of aggregations (amount of micelle-building
monomers) or enhance the size and stability of micelles.
Such compounds include polymers, hydrolyzed proteins,
proteins, some plant extracts and electrolytes. A reduction
in the skin irritation potential can also be achieved by
using mixtures of different types of surfactants in the
formulations of body wash cosmetics41–48. As the results of
zein value measurements (Fig. 5 ) indicate, the addition
of inulin to the formulations of body wash gels (based
on a mixture of anionic and nonionic surfactants) con-
tributes to a signi cant decrease in their skin irritation
potential. Compared to the inulin-free baseline sample
(zein value approximately 300 mgN/100 mL), inulin-
-containing gels are characterized by an approximately
40% lower skin irritation potential. However, the studies
did not demonstrate a signi cant in uence of inulin
concentration on the zein value (which is equal to ap-
proximately 180 mgN/100 mL within the concentration
range of 1–10%) or any impact of the plant type from
which inulin was isolated. A review of the literature
shows that surfactant systems with an addition of sugar
substances have not been thoroughly studied to date.
What follows from scanty literature reports44–47 is that
an addition of carbohydrates, such as glucose, fructose,
saccharose or maltose, has an effect on increasing the
number of aggregations in the micelles of both ionic
(Sodium Lauryl Sulphate) and nonionic surfactants (oxy-
ethylated derivatives), and lowers their CMC, which can
also be the cause of the drop in zein value associated
with inulin, which is a polysaccharide.
The aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Helianthus
tuberosus and Cichoriumintybus show a high free radical
scavenging ability. More bene cial antioxidant properties,
both with respect to the ABTS and DPPH radicals, were
shown in both cases for the aqueous-ethanolic extracts.
A comparison of both plants revealed that a more potent
antioxidant capacity was associated with the Jerusalem
artichoke extract. At the highest concentration studied (10
mg/mL), the DPPH radical scavenging ability determined
for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jerusalem artichoke
was about 80%, and the ABTS radical scavenging ability
was approximately 60%. For the corresponding chicory
extract the values were about 75 and 50%, respectively. In
aqueous extracts the values were approximately 20–30%
lower. The plants under analysis are characterized by
a high content of inulin. Using extraction processes, 18
and 12%aof inulin was obtained from Helianthus tuberosus
and Cichorium intybus, respectively. Cytotoxicity tests sho-
wed that both inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus and
Helianthus tuberosus, at a concentration of 5 mg/mL, had
a bene cial effect on increasing cell proliferation compared
to the control sample. Inulin isolated from both plants
under analysis can be applied in body wash formulations
without any problems, as it becomes completely dissolved,
producing clear and stable solutions. Tests determining the
skin irritation potential of model body wash gels showed
inulin to contribute to a marked decrease in that parameter.
Following the addition of inulin, the zein value decreases
by approximately 40% compared to the baseline sample,
however the concentration of inulin was not found to have
a signi cant effect on the ndings. What is more, there was
no signi cant difference with respect to the skin irritation
potential between the gels containing inulin derived from
Cichorium intybus and Helianthus tuberosus. The ndings
of the study show that both extracts of Cichorium intybus
and Helianthus tuberosus, and inulin isolated from them,
can be used as a valuable multifunctional ingredient of
body wash cosmetics.
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... Plant-based ingredients are commonly used in cosmetics and personal care products. One such ingredient, inulin, is safe and effective [8]. Inulin and inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides have demonstrated prebiotic effects in a number of ways, but little is known about its prebiotic effect on skin health when applied topically [9] [10] [11]. ...
... The presence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups provides inulin with surfactant properties, making it a biodegradable alternative to ionic surfactants in cosmetics such as shampoos, conditioners and gels. Saccharide can also be used in soaps and antibacterial gels [24][25][26]. ...
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Inulin is described in this work: its structure, sources, process in which the saccharide is obtained, physical and chemical properties and inulin's applications in food industry, medicine, cosmetics and technology. Inulin acetate, one of inulin's esters, is described: syntheses proposed in literature (with conditions such as solvents, catalysts, temperature , duration). Ester physicochemical properties and applications in medicine and technology are reviewed. Potential applications in cosmetics and food industry are also mentioned.
... AD patients after daily synbiotic and prebiotic baths had a significantly decreased SCORAD and clearly visible improvement of their skin complexion and all QoL parameters (Table 1). Therefore, the application of the prebiotic components such as maltodextrin, inulin and apple pectin were beneficial for skin appearance, which has been shown for inulin also recently in another study [49]. However, the other prebiotic components were so far not studied in detail but may serve as nutrient for the beneficial skin microbiome. ...
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widespread chronic inflammatory dermatologic disorder. This randomized, double-blind study aims to evaluate the effect of synbiotic baths with a defined mixture of six viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics, without bacteria and prebiotics and placebo baths without prebiotics and bacteria to treat AD patients over a period of 14 days. Therefore, AD patients were randomly assigned into three groups using synbiotic (n = 7), prebiotics (n = 8) or placebo baths (n = 7). Severity of AD was evaluated over time by using severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) and by patient questionnaires. In addition, microbiome on eczematous skin surface was sampled by swaps from each patient before the bath treatment, and after 9, 11 and 14 days of bath treatment. Thereafter, nucleic acids were extracted and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified via PCR for subsequent amplicon sequencing. Results showed a significantly reduced SCORAD over time of AD patients after daily synbiotic or prebiotic baths. Moreover, AD patients after daily synbiotic baths had a significantly improved pruritus and skin dryness and their bacterial microbiome was enriched by LAB. Taken together, a synbiotic bath is a promising topical skin application to alleviate AD.
... The widespread use of extracts in many industries is due to their multifunctionality. In addition to antioxidant activity, they contain a number of active substances that have a soothing, regenerating, or anti-inflammatory effect [4][5][6][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
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Plant materials play a very significant role as components of products being used both for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Due to the high content of active substances, they can play an important role as extracts with antioxidant, regenerative, and antiaging properties. The skin aging process depends on various pathological and physiological processes, among which the degradation of extracellular matrix biomolecules such as collagen and elastin, which significantly affect the maintenance of good skin condition, is very important. The secondary metabolites and plant extracts may have collagenase and elastase inhibitory activity. This activity is mainly due to the high content of a wide range of various biologically active compounds, such as polyphenols, which include, among others, flavonoids, phenolic acids, tocopherols, and tannins. The work involved a comprehensive assessment of the plant from Apiaceae family such as Meum athamanticum L., Centella asiatica L., and Aegopodium podagraria L. extract as a multifunctional raw material. During study antioxidant properties, phenolic compounds and flavonoids content, effect on collagenase and elastase enzyme activity (antiaging effect), cytotoxic properties on skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and cell migration capacity were analyzed. It has been shown that the highest antioxidant capacity can be observed for the extract of herb of Aegopodium podagraria L. When the concentration reached 5% all tested extracts had a positive effect on the cell proliferation of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. It turned out that the most promising inhibitor of collagenase and elastase enzymes was the extract from Aegopodium podagraria, which inhibits the activity of both enzymes by over 70% in the concentration of 5% positively affecting the condition of skin cells.
... Our previous research indicates that plant extracts may reduce the irritation potential of cleansing cosmetics and surfactants. It has been shown that the addition of dogwood extracts [13], natural saponins [11], blackcurrant [8], or chicory [54] reduces the irritation potential of cleansing cosmetics and anionic surfactants. ...
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The work attempts to obtain a multifunctional plant extract derived from Moringa tree leaves. Obtained results indicate a strong antioxidant potential of the tested extracts. It was shown that Moringa oleifera leaf extract is a rich source of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Furthermore, it shows a strong antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals. In vitro toxicity studies showed that the tested extracts in concentrations up to 5% showed a positive effect on cell proliferation and metabolism and may contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress in cells. It was noted that the tested model formulation of cosmetic (1% SCS) with the addition of different types of extracts might contribute to the reduction of skin irritation and improve the safety of the product.
... The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a perennial plant (Mehmood et al., 2019) that belongs to the Asteraceae family (Jantaharn et al., 2018;Zhong et al., 2019). Its tubers are rich in inulin, natural prebiotic (Nizioł-Łukaszewska et al., 2010;Lv et al., 2019) and phenolic compounds (Díaz et al., 2019); besides, being good sources of low energy diet (Knudsen and Hessov, 1995). Thus, these tubers are recommended as substitutes for potatoes (Mehmood et al., 2019), because their characteristic flavor and functional ingredients are acceptable for food consumption (Takeuchi and Nagashima, 2011). ...
Chemical fungicides are effective tools in controlling plant pathogens; however, these chemicals can, on the other hand, distress the ecosystem. Accordingly, the current research investigates the potentiality of substituting traditional chemical fungicides by inducing plant resistance against infection with soil-born pathogens i.e. Sclerotium rolfsii in the presence of mycorrhizae (AMF) as plant inoculants and one of the following amendments: humic acid, sulphex (a mixture of canola oil and diluted sulphuric acid) and paclobutrazol (ABZ). To attain the abovementioned objective, a field (mildly infected with S. rolfsii) was cultivated with Helianthus tuberosus (a perennial plant belongs to the Asteraceae family) for two successive seasons (2014 and 2015) and the above-mentioned treatments were tested for their feasibilities in controlling S. rolfsii infection against the chemical fungicide "Vitavax-200" either solely or in combinations in a complete randomized block design. Inoculating plants with AMF or amending soils with either humic acid, Sulphex or ABZ solely increased significantly the activities of plant defense enzymes by approximately 1.5-2.1 folds higher than the control treatment. These treatments also improved NPK availability in soil and; hence, increased their contents within plant tubers. Consequently, these treatments decreased the disease incidence and severity caused by S. rolfsii while improved shoot biomass and tuber yield. In spite of that, these results stood below the prospective of the fungicide treatment. The integrated treatments i.e. "humic acid + AMF", "Sulphex + AMF" and "ABZ + AMF" caused further significant improvements in both NPK availabilities in soil and plant areal bio-masses. This probably induced further plant resistance against the investigated soil-borne pathogen while recorded insignificant variations in disease incidence and severity when compared with the fungicide treatment. Moreover, the integrated treatments increased the tuber yields beyond those attained for the fungicide treatment. Accordingly, such integrated strategies can completely substitute the chemical fungicides; thus, minimize their negative impacts on the ecosystem.
... Our previous research indicates that plant extracts may reduce the irritation potential of cleansing cosmetics and surfactants. It has been shown that the addition of dogwood extracts [13], natural saponins [11], blackcurrant [8], or chicory [54] reduces the irritation potential of cleansing cosmetics and anionic surfactants. ...
Full-text available
Extracts obtained from leaves of Moringa tree (Moringa oleifera) are a rich source of many bioactive compounds: flavonoids, phenolic acids or carotenoids. It also contains such components as, vitamins (A, C, niacin, pantothenic acid), alkaloids, tannins or saponins. Extracts and plant substances derived from the leaves of Moringa oleifera L. have a strong antioxidant, toning and anti-inflammatory effect. The work attempts to obtain a multifunctional plant extract derived from Moringa tree leaves. Obtained extracts was analyzed for their biochemical and physicochemical properties. The obtained results indicate on a strong antioxidative potential of the tested extracts. The further step was an attempt to apply the extracts in the model body wash cosmetic. The biological activity of extracts and model cosmetic formulation were assayed by in vitro analysis on two human cell lines: keratinocytes (HaCat,) and fibroblasts (BJ). The results showed that the tested extracts may affect on increasing of cell proliferation and reduce oxidative stress in cells. The addition of the tested extracts to the model cosmetic formulation, were contributed to the reduction of their ability to irritate the skin and improve the safety of use of the product.
The soil is influenced by the roots of plants because the exudate radicals affect its physical, chemical, and biological processes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the microbial activity of soils cultivated with yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poep. & Endl) H. Robinson and inoculated with microorganisms which promote plant growth. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three repetitions per treatment. Each repetition corresponded to a 3m x 3m plot with 25 plants, in 5 cultivation lines with a distance of 70 cm apart. Four treatments were applied at the time of plantation. These consisted of yacón propagules inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (T1) and native mycorrhizal fungi (T2) inoculated with the microbial consortium (T3). In the control treatments, the propagules were not inoculated with these microorganisms (T0). Soil samples were collected in lots cultivated with yacón located in the Province of Catamarca, in the northwest of Argentina. The samples were collected at the time of implantation and harvest during three agricultural cycles. The total Biological Activity (TBA) of the collected samples was determined by Fluorescein Diacetate Hydrolysis. The TBA of the soil was affected by the different crop treatments, which rose in the analyzed soils and was statistically different from the control treatments. Significant differences were also observed between the TBA of the soils at the beginning of the crops in comparison with the recorded values of the crop at the time of harvest. The inoculation of yacón propagules with A. brasilense and native mycorrhizal fungi affects the TBA of the cultivated soils marking a significant increase.
Polysaccharides are macromolecules with important inherent properties and potential biotechnological applications. These complex carbohydrates exist throughout nature, especially in plants, from which they can be obtained with high yields. Different extraction and purification methods may affect the structure of polysaccharides and, due to the close relationship between structure and function, modify their biological activities. One of the possible applications of these polysaccharides is acting on the skin, which is the largest organ in the human body and can be aged by intrinsic and extrinsic processes. Skincare has been gaining worldwide attention not only to prevent diseases but also to promote rejuvenation in aesthetic treatments. In this review, we discussed the polysaccharides obtained from plants and their innovative potential for skin applications, for example as wound-healing, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and anti-aging compounds.
Objective The human axilla is colonized by a wide array of microorganisms that contribute to the generation of body odor. Traditional antiperspirant/deodorant products are used to reduce perspiration in the axillary region and to treat or prevent the growth of bacteria in this region, thereby reducing or eliminating body odor. However, they may also compromise the axillary microbiome balance. The personal care industry has been seeking new ingredients, such as prebiotics or probiotics, to maintain a healthy balance of the skin microbiome by inhibiting odor-causing bacteria while maintaining and promoting the growth of good bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the prebiotic effect of a skin care ingredient, 2-butyloctanol, on the human axillary microbiome. Methods An in vitro growth inhibition/promotion assay was performed to test whether 2-butyloctanol inhibited or promoted skin bacterial growth. The impact of 2-butyloctanol on the axillary microbiome was also investigated in a human clinical study using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results In vitro testing showed that 2-butyloctanol significantly inhibited the growth of corynebacteria at concentrations of 0.64%, 2.56%, and 5.12%, while the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis was maintained at the same concentrations. The impact of 2-butyloctanol on the axillary microbiome was also validated in a human clinical study. A deodorant roll-on product containing 3% 2-butyloctanol significantly reduced the relative abundance of corynebacteria while increasing the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and the ratio of Staphylococcus to corynebacteria after four weeks of application, while the placebo showed no significant change. Conclusion For the first time, it was demonstrated that 2-butyloctanol had a potential prebiotic effect on the human underarm microbiome in inhibiting odor-causing Corynebacterium while maintaining and promoting skin-friendly Staphylococcus in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, 2-butyloctanol could be used as a potential prebiotic ingredient in personal care products for underarm microbiome protection.
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Natural resources, to which include extracts from tubers, leaves and stems of Jerusalem artichoke as well inulin, used as a stabilizer of emulsion forms of cosmetics and detergents and as a substrate for dustings and powders are an invaluable source of cosmetic active substances. Vitamin C, which are rich in tubers of H. tuberosus, stimulates the penetration of nutrients from the skin into the bloodstream, facilitates regeneration and collagen production. Also accelerates the formation of collagen and proteoglycans tissue, that is: proteins, acting as scaffolding, which is responsible for skin elasticity and so is considered to be anti-aging factor. In the case of dry skin vitamin C contained in tubers promotes the synthesis of lipids are responsible for skin hydration and in the case of oily skin reduces the production of sebum. The richness and variety of biologically active compounds determines their valuable and highly desirable cosmetic properties. These components also enrich the skin with biologically active substances, acting cleansing and tending, protective and curative, and consequently - beautifying and revitalizing. Thus, the addition of components to the cosmetics artichoke is a response to the growing needs of consumers.
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The industrial production of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulooligosaccharides is expanding rapidly due to the pharmaceutical importance of these compounds. These compounds, concisely termed prebiotics, have biofunctional properties and hence health benefits if consumed in recommended dosages. Prebiotics can be produced enzymatically from sucrose elongation or via enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin by exoinulinases and endoinulinases acting alone or synergistically. Exoinulinases cleave the non-reducing β-(2, 1) end of inulin-releasing fructose while endoinulinases act on the internal linkages randomly to release inulotrioses (F3), inulotetraoses (F4) and inulopentaoses (F5) as major products. Fructosyltransferases act by cleaving a sucrose molecule and then transferring the liberated fructose molecule to an acceptor molecule such as sucrose or another oligosaccharide to elongate the short-chain fructooligosaccharide. The FOS produced by the action of fructosyltransferases are 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4). The production of high yields of oligosaccharides of specific chain length from simple raw materials such as inulin and sucrose is a technical challenge. This paper critically explores recent research trends in the production and application of short-chain oligosaccharides. Inulin and enzyme sources for the production of prebiotics are discussed. The mechanism of FOS chain elongation and also the health benefits associated with prebiotics consumption are discussed in detail.
A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
One of the most challenging problems related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their potential to cause skin irritations. Surfactants can bind with proteins, remove lipids from the epidermal surface, contribute to the disorganization of liquid crystal structures in the intercellular lipids, and interact with living skin cells. These processes can lead to skin irritations and allergic reactions, and impair the epidermal barrier function. The present study is an attempt to assess the effect of polymers and hydrolysed proteins present in the formulations of model body wash cosmetics on product properties. Special attention was given to the safety of use of this product type. The study examined three macromolecules: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydrolysed wheat protein (HWP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydrolysed wheat protein crosspolymer (PVP/HWP). The addition of the substances under study was found to improve the foaming properties of body wash cosmetics, increase their stability during storage, and contribute significantly to an improvement in the safety of product use by reducing the irritant potential. The strongest ability to reduce the skin irritation potential was determined for the formula enriched with the PVP/HWP crosspolymer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Synopsis Use was made of radiotagged SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (SLS) to determine its sorption by skin and hair. In the initial stages uptake is linear in square root of time, indicative of a diffusion process. The uptakes determined by radiotagged SLS were successfully correlated with data from a simple gravimetric method and showed that the latter procedure can be used satisfactorily under certain conditions when radiotagged com- pounds are not available. The influence of some additives on the SORPTION of SLS was studied. Salt increases the sorption, while nonionic SURFACTANTS (which are not themselves sorbed) substantially depress it. Finally, the relation of the sorbed SLS to water of hydration of KERATIN is examined. It is con- cluded that most, if not all, the sorbed material is bound to keratin, rather than existing in an "internal" solu- tion.
The large-deformation rheology of inulin gels was investigated and interpreted in terms of solubility, crystallisation, and aggregation data. The gels are characterised by a strong overshoot peak in the stress–strain curve, characteristic for (non-plastic) work softening behaviour. More concentrated inulin gels tend to be firmer but are also less plastic. It is hypothesised that inulin molecules depositing during the later stages of the crystallisation/gelation process contribute most to the overshoot peak in the stress–strain curve.