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Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus ) and chicory ( Cichorium intybus ) are valuable pharmaceutical raw materials on account of their high content of inulin, a natural prebiotic. Inulin-rich plants are also increasingly employed in the formulation of cosmetic products. The paper presents the biological properties of aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. The extracts have been found to have a high free radical scavenging ability, with the most beneficial antioxidant properties being observed for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin isolated from both plant types is a safe and non-toxic raw material. Inulin added to model body wash gel formulations markedly reduces their potential to cause skin irritation and sensitization.
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44 Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019
Inulin as an effectiveness and safe ingredient in cosmetics
Zo a Nizioł-Łukaszewska1, Tomasz Bujak1*, Tomasz Wasilewski2, Edyta Szmuc1
1Departmet of Cosmetics and Pharmaceutical Products Technology, University of Information Technology and Management
in Rzeszow, Kielnarowa 386a, Tyczyn 36-020, Poland
2Department of Chemistry, University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Chrobrego 27, Radom 26-600, Poland
*Corresponding author: e-mail: tomaszsbujak@gmail.com
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) are valuable pharmaceutical raw materi-
als on account of their high content of inulin, a natural prebiotic. Inulin-rich plants are also increasingly employed
in the formulation of cosmetic products. The paper presents the biological properties of aqueous and aqueous-
ethanolic extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. The extracts have been found to have a high free radical
scavenging ability, with the most bene cial antioxidant properties being observed for the aqueous-ethanolic extract
of Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin isolated from both plant types is a safe and non-toxic raw material. Inulin added
to model body wash gel formulations markedly reduces their potential to cause skin irritation and sensitization.
Keywords: Inulin, Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, chicory, Cichorium intybus.
INTRODUCTION
Cosmetic industry is currently one of the most rapidly
growing sectors both in Poland and across the world.
Plant-based cosmetic raw materials play a very important
role on account of their content of biologically active
ingredients with a broad spectrum of action, safety of
use and easy availability. Consequently, they have a wide
range of bene ts. Plant-based raw materials have rich
chemical compositions, which makes them appropriate
for a variety of applications. For example, they are suit-
able for consumers of different age and with various
skin types, and for the primary or adjunctive treatment
of dermatological diseases1, 2.
One of the plant-based raw materials with applications
in cosmetology is inulin. The ingredient can be obta-
ined, among other sources, from Jerusalem artichoke
(also called topinambour, Helianthus tuberosus L.) and
common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)3.
Chemically, inulin is an unbranched polysaccharide
belonging to the class of fructans. It is composed of
30–35 fructose units linked by β-1,2-glycosidic bonds4–8.
The bene ts of inulin in the cosmetic industry include
its antimicrobial protective effect on the skin and mucous
membranes due to prebiotic properties, i.e. promotion
of healthy bacterial ora6–9. Inulin and its surfactant
derivatives can be used for the production of antibacte-
rial soaps which are effective in removing gram-positive
and gram-negative bacteria and viruses10–13. Fructans,
including inulin, have also found cosmetic applications
in hair shampoo production. An advantage of fructans
and their derivatives used as shampoo ingredients is that
they make it possible to eliminate ionic surface-active
agents from shampoo formulations, which has a bene cial
impact on the natural environment6–8, 14–17.
Furthermore, inulin is used as a stabilizer in cosmetic
emulsions and detergents. It is suitable as a base for
powders and sprinkles, and as a nutritious ingredient in
cosmetics3–9, 14–16. According to18 nanoemulsions produced
with inulin-based systems are described. In combination
with fatty acids, inulin forms safe surface-active ingre-
dients which do not cause any skin irritation. For the
purpose of producing stable O/W emulsions, inulin is
usually used at low concentrations, ranging from 0.2 to
1 wt%. In the formulation of nanoemulsions, on the
other hand, the concentrations of this surface-active
agent should preferably be higher, i.e. 8 wt% of the
weight of the oil phase used.
The present paper is an attempt to assess the antioxi-
dant properties of aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts
of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. Inulin isolated from
the two plants was used as a body wash gels ingredient.
It was applied in the cosmetic formulations at varying
concentrations: 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt%. The skin ir-
ritation potential of the formulated body wash gels and
the effect of isolated inulin on broblasts were evaluated.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Chemicals
Antioxidant activity tests were conducted
using: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Sig-
ma Aldrich), ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-
thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, Sigma Aldrich),
4-(dimetyloamino)benzaldehyde (Sigma Aldrich), ethyl
alcohol (Heneywell), di-potassium hydrogen phosphate
pure p.a. (Chempur), potassium dihydrogen phosphate
pure p.a. (POCH Gliwice). Resazurin R7017 (Sigma
Aldrich),Human skin broblasts BJ (ATCC®CRL-2522)
and Eagle’s Essential Minimum Medium (EMEM) with
L-glutamine were purchased from ATCC.Foetal bovine
serum (FBS) was purchased from Invitrogen. Measu-
rements of the irritant potential were carried out with:
zein from corn (Sigma Aldrich), sulfuric acid (98%,
Chempur), copper sulphate penthahydrate (Chempur),
potassium sulphate (Chempur), sodium hydroxide
(Chempur), Tashiro indicator (Chempur). All reagents
were analytical grade.
Model washing systems were prepared from: sodium
dodecyl sulphate (SLS, Sigma Aldrich), cocamido-
propylbetaine (Dehyton PK, Basf), lauryl glucoside
(Plantacare 1200, Basf), sodiumchloride (Chempur),
citric acid (Chempur), sodium benzoate and potassium
sorbate (Chempur).
Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, 21, 1, 44—49, 10.2478/pjct-2019-0008
Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019 45
Extract production
Jerusalem artichoke and common chicory extracts
were obtained using the method of continuous solvent
extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. The extract was prepa-
red from 10 g of ground common chicory root and 10 g
of ground Jerusalem artichoke tuber. As the extraction
solvents, istilled water with ethanol and pure distilled
water were used. In the aqueous-ethanolic extract the
weight ratio of ethanol to water was 70:30. The process
of extraction was conducted for 2 hours from the start
of boiling of the solvent contained in a ask. Next, the
extract thus obtained was passed through lters made
of Whatman lter paper No. 1. The nished extract
was stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of 4oC.
Isolation of inulin
Inulin extraction was performed using 50 g of Jerusalem
artichoke tuber and 50 g of commonchicory root. The
raw materials were blended and extracted with use of 300
mL of distilled water and 0.45 g of salt at 80oC for 45
minutes. Following ltration, the ltrates were extracted
with ethyl alcohol overnight and centrifuged for about
30 minutes (5000 rpm). The precipitate was washed
with ethyl alcohol and dried at a temperature of 50oC.
DPPH radical scavenging activity
DPPH radical scavenging by extracts was performed
according to19 with23 modi cation. 1 mL of extract or
appropriate solvent was mixed with1 mL 25 mM DPPH
solution in 96 wt% ethanol. Following 40 min incubation
at room temperature the absorbance of the sample was
measured at λ = 515 nm using AquaMate spectrophoto-
meter (Thermo Scienti c). 96 wt% ethanol was used as
a blank sample. All samples were analyzed in triplicates.
The percentage of DPPHscavenging was calculated for
each sample based on the equation:
% of DPPH scavenging = [1 – (As/Ac)] x 100%
where: As – absorbance of the sample; Ac – absorbance
of the control sample (DPPH solution).
ABTS•+ radical scavenging activity
Scavenging of ABTS•+ free radical was evaluated ac-
cording to20 with21 modi cation. The scavenging reaction
is based on decolourisation of the green ABTS radical
cation (ABTS•+). To prepare the ABTS•+ solution 19.5
mg ABTS and 3.3 mg potassium persulphate was mixed
with 7 mL of phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 and dissolved
for 16 hours in darkness. The solution was diluted to
reach the absorbance at λ = 414 nm around 1.0. 20 μL
of extracts or appropriate solvent was mixed with 980
μL diluted ABTS•+ solution and incubated for 10 min.
The decrease in ABTS•+ absorbance was measured at λ
= 414 nm using AquaMate spectrophotometer (Thermo
Scienti c), using distilled water as a blank. All samples
were analyzed in triplicates The percentage of ABTS•+
scavenging was calculated based on the equation:
% of ABTS•+scavenging = [(1 – (As/Ac)] x 100
where: As – absorbance of the sample; Ac – absorbance
of the control sample (ABTS•+ solution).
Formulations of the model body cleaning gels
On the basis of literature reports and our own experi-
ments prototype formulation of the body cleaning gels
were developed. The model formula are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Model body wash gel formulation
The formulations of model body wash cosmetics
contained a total of 11.3 wt% of surfactants. Three
surfactants, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (8.0 wt%), Lauryl
Glucoside (1.5 wt%) and Cocamidopropyl Betaine (1.8
wt%), were selected on the basis of their most wide-
spread use in body wash cosmetics. In addition, the
formulation also contained citric acid (pH regulator),
potassium sorbate (preservative, 0.4 wt%) and sodium
chloride (NaCl, viscosity regulator). The variable para-
meter in the composition of analyzed samples was the
type of isolated inulin. An additive-free sample was also
used in the study as a reference (baseline) sample. The
technology of formulating model cosmetics involved dis-
solution in water ingredients in the sequence speci ed in
the formulation, and mixed using the mechanical stirrer
(mechanical stirrer ChemLand O20).
Zein test
Irritant potential of the model washing gels was measu-
red using zein test. In the surfactants solution zein protein
is denatured and then is solubilized in the solution. This
process simulates the behavior of surfactants in relation
to the skin proteins. To 40 mL of the samples solution
(10 wt%) was added 2 ± 0.05 g of zein from corn. The
solutions with zein were shaken on a shaker with water
bath (60 min at 35oC). The solutions were ltered on
Whatman No. 1 lters and then centrifuged at 5000 rpm
for 10 min. The nitrogen content in the solutions was
determined by Kjeldahl method. 1 mL of the ltrate
was mineralized in sulphuric acid (98 wt%) containing
copper sulphate pentahydrate and potassium sulphate.
After mineralization the solution was transferred (with
50 mL of MiliQ water) into the ask of the Wagner–Par-
nas apparatus. 20 mL of sodium hydroxide solution (25
wt%) was added. The released ammonia was distilled
with steam. Ammonia was bound by sulfuric acid (5 mL
of 0.05 M H2SO4) in the receiver of the Wagner–Parnas
apparatus. The unbound sulfuric acid was titrated with
0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Tashiro solution was used as
an indicator. The zein number (ZN) was calculated from
the equation:
ZN = (10 V1) · 100 · 0.7 (mg N/100 mL)
where V1 is the volume (mL) of sodium hydroxide used
for titration of the sample.
The nal result was the arithmetic mean of ve inde-
pendent measurements.
46 Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019
Resazurin assay
Cell proliferation/metabolism was assessed by resazurin
assay. The assay was performed using a model of BJ
human skin broblasts (ATCC CRL-2522). The cells
were cultured in EMEM (Eagle’s Minimum Essential
Medium) with an addition of 10 wt% FBS (Foetal Bo-
vine Serum). Resazurin R7017 – 1 g (Sigma Aldrich)
was used in the assay. The cells were seeded into 96-
well plates. Isolated inulin were diluted in the range of
1 mg mL–1 to 5 mg mL–1. Next, the culture medium
was substituted for the isolated inulin at appropriate
dilutions. The control cells were cultured in EMEM with
1 wt% FBS. Absorbance was measured after 24 hours
at the wavelength of λ = 570 nm, using the microplate
reader FilterMax F5 (Molecular Devices).
DISCUSSION
Plant substances are an abundant source of primary
and secondary metabolites. A large proportion of these
compounds have antioxidant properties and are used
both as carriers and active ingredients in cosmetic for-
mulations. In addition, these compounds play a very
important role in preventing cell damage induced by
free radicals22–25. Reactive oxygen species may contribute
to the development of oxidative stress which ultimately
leads to cell metabolism disorders and peroxidation of
cell membrane lipids23, 26. Free radicals also afect amino
acids and proteins by changing their chemical structure,
leading to mitochondrial DNA damage, elastin degrada-
tion or changes in collagen structure. As a result, modi-
ed proteins become inactivated and accumulate in cells,
accelerating their ageing. The effects of free radicals in
carbohydrates include, among others, depolymerisation
of hyaluronic acid which is responsible for proper skin
hydration23–28.
Oxidative stress, and an increased number of free
radicals which is associated with it, play a part in accel-
erating the ageing process, but they may also contribute
signi cantly to the development of diseases including
atopic dermatitis28, acne29 or psoriasis30.
Cosmetics enriched with antioxidant substances are
more readily absorbed by the human skin and less liable
to cause skin allergy and sensitization than products based
on synthetic ingredients31. In addition, they restrict the
processes of oxidation of substances contained in cos-
metics, e.g. fragrances. In this way, they may potentially
extend the stability of cosmetic products33.
The group of plants that are rich in active substances
and have potential applications in the cosmetic in-
dustry includes, among others, Jerusalem artichoke
(topinambour) (Helianthus tuberosus L.) or common
chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The plants are rich in phe-
nolic compounds including phenolic acids or avonoids.
Common chicory root contains chicoric acid, and chlo-
rogenic or isocholorogenic acid33–36. Jerusalem artichoke
tubers contain primarily derivatives of hydroxybenzoic and
hydroxycinnamic acids, which constitute approximately
16% of their dry matter content8. Moreover, the two
plants are valuable sources of vitamins, among others
C and E and B-group vitamins including thiamine and
ribo avin. According to36, the average content of vitamin
C in Jerusalem artichoke tubers is 7.6 mg 100 g–1, and
in chicory root it is 5.2 mg 100 g–1.
However, the most abundant dry matter components of
the two plants are carbohydrates, particularly polysaccha-
ride fructans, chie y inulin3–6. As37 claim, the antioxidant
activity can also be attributed to polysaccharides which
scavenge the superoxide radical anion, hydroxyl radical
or hydrogen peroxide.
The present study has assessed the antioxidant activ-
ity of ethanol-aqueous and aqueous extracts obtained
from common chicory and Jerusalem artichoke. The
antioxidant activity of the extracts under study was as-
sessed using the DPPH• and ABTS•+ methods. The
analyses were carried out within the concentration range
of 0.3–10 mg mL–1 and showed all the extracts under
study to have an ability to neutralize reactive oxygen
species depending on their concentration. According on
the DPPH method, the highest antioxidant activity was
determined for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jeru-
salem artichoke. At the concentration of 10 mg mL–1,
the free radical scavenging ability was equal to 80%.
The values noted for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of
common chicory were lower at all measurement points.
At the concentration of 10 mg mL–1, the free radical
neutralizing ability was 71%. The values determined for
the aqueous extracts were lower than those obtained
for the aqueous-ethanolic extracts – both in the case
of common chicory and Jerusalem artichoke. The low-
est values were observed for the aqueous solution of
Jerusalem artichoke at the concentrations of 5 and 10
mg mL–1. At the remaining concentrations, the lowest
ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species was found for
the aqueous extract of common chicory (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. % of DPPH scavenging (E-ethanol, W+E+H –
water+ethanol+Helianthus tuberosus, W+H – wa-
ter+Helianthus tuberosus, W+E+C – water+etha-
nol+Cichorium intybus, W+C – water+Cichorium
intybus
The extracts obtained from common chicory and Jeru-
salem artichoke were characterized by a lower ability to
neutralize the ABTS•+ radical than the DPPH radical.
Similarly to DPPH scavenging, the highest antioxidant ac-
tivity was shown for the aqueous-ethanolic extract derived
from Jerusalem artichoke. At the highest concentration
studied (10 mg mL–1), the free radical scavenging ability
was 64% and decreased gradually along with increasing
dilutions. The aqueous-ethanolic solution obtained from
common chicory had a free radical scavenging ability that
was lower comparing to the aqueous-ethanolic extract
derived from Jerusalem artichoke. The lowest values
Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019 47
were noted for the aqueous extract of common chicory
at all measurement points (Fig. 2).
samples tested, the highest increase in cell metabolism
was found for inulin isolated from Helianthus tuberosus
L. at a concentration of 5 mg mL–1. The highest de-
crease in relation to the control sample was shown after
the addition of inulin derived from common chicory at
a concentration of 2.5 mg mL–1. Based on the studies
it can be concluded that inulin added to a cosmetic for-
mulation at a concentration of 5 mg mL–1 should not
exhibit any skin irritation activity, and should bene cially
affect the proliferation of broblasts. Similar conclusions
were drawn by34–35, who demonstrated that an addition of
fructans had a bene cial effect on broblast stimulation
and keratinocyte proliferation.
Figure 2. % of ABTS scavenging (E-ethanol, W+E+H – wate-
r+ethanol+Helianthus tuberosus, W+H – water+He-
lianthus tuberosus, W+E+C – water+ethanol+Ci-
chorium intybus, W+C -water+Cichorium intybus
Figure 3. Inulin content isolated from Cichorium intybus L.
and Helianthus tuberosus L
Figure 5. Irritant potential of model body wash gels conta-
ining inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus L. and
Helianthus tuberosus L.
Figure 4. In uence of inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus
L. and Helianthus tuberosus L. on cell viability
The tests evaluating the ability of aqueous-ethanolic
extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and common chicory to
scavenge the DPPH and ABTS•+ radicals also involved
inulin isolation from the extracts. The compound was
then added to a cosmetic formulation. The content of
inulin in plants usually ranges from 5 to 12%, which
remains in agreement to the literature. The content
of inulin isolated from Helianthus tuberosus. has been
found to vary from 3 to 15%38. According to3 Jerusalem
artichoke contains about 52% of inulin in its tubers, and
from common chicory (Cichorium intybus) containing
approximately 44% of inulin. The present study found
the percentage content of inulin in Cichorium intybus
to be 12%, and in Helianthus tuberosus – 18% (Fig. 3).
The next stage of the study involved evaluating the
effect of inulin isolated from Jerusalem artichoke and
common chicory on the metabolism of human dermal
broblasts. The analysis was based on the resazurin
assay which is a quick and sensitive method for asses-
sing proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro. In response
to the reduction of culture medium by living cells, the
dye was observed to change colour from blue to red39–40.
The analyses were carried out within the concentration
range of 1–5 mg mL–1 (Fig. 4). The study demonstra-
ted that inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus L. and
Helianthus tuberosus L. at the highest test concentration
(5 mg mL–1) had a bene cial effect on increasing cell
proliferation compared to the control sample. Out of all
As the next stage of the reported study, an attempt
was made to apply isolated inulin in the formulations of
model body wash gels. The gels thus obtained, enriched
with inulin, were subjected to skin interaction tests aimed
at evaluating their potential to cause skin irritation (zein
value), allergy and sensitization (patch test). The gure
presents results of skin irritation potential measurements
performed for the gels containing inulin derived from
Jerusalem artichoke and chicory.
The risk of skin irritations is one of the greatest di-
sadvantages associated with using body wash cosmetics.
Their skin irritation potential is due to the presence of
surfactants in the formulation. Surfactants may interact
with the skin surface proteins, cause their denaturation
and ultimately wash them away from the skin. The skin
irritation potential of body wash gels depends primarily
on the type of washing agents used in the formulation.
The most severe skin irritation effect is attributable to
48 Pol. J. Chem. Tech., Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019
anionic surfactants (e.g. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Sodium
Laureth Sulfate) which can interact with proteins via
strong ionic bonds. Consequently, anionic surfactants
have a relatively strong ability to elute and denatura-
te the skin surface proteins, which may result in skin
irritation and impairment of skin function as a barrier
preventing water loss (increase of transepidermal water
loss, TEWL) or penetration of pathogens. A markedly
lower skin irritation potential is found for nonionic sur-
factants which are linked to proteins by weak hydrogen
bonds. Another factor impacting on the skin irritation
potential of body wash gels is the concentration of
surfactants which determines the form in which surfac-
tants are found in solutions. Before reaching the critical
micelle concentration (CMC) surfactants in the form of
individual molecules (monomers) demonstrate the most
pronounced skin irritation ability, which is due to the
small size of individual molecules, their high mobility and
markedly higher capacity to penetrate through the epi-
dermal barrier into the skin. Lower skin irritation ability
is associated with micelles arising in solutions after the
CMC is exceeded. This is caused by the fact that they
are larger in size, which prevents them from permeating
deeply into the skin. Surfactant concentrations used in
body wash gels exceed the CMC, however on account
of the possibility of releasing monomeric molecules due
to ongoing disintegration of thermodynamically unstable
micelles, the presence of micelles does not completely
eliminate the possibility of skin irritations. The litera-
ture data show that the skin irritation potential can be
reduced for example by introducing into the system
substances having an ability to reduce the CMC, increase
the number of aggregations (amount of micelle-building
monomers) or enhance the size and stability of micelles.
Such compounds include polymers, hydrolyzed proteins,
proteins, some plant extracts and electrolytes. A reduction
in the skin irritation potential can also be achieved by
using mixtures of different types of surfactants in the
formulations of body wash cosmetics41–48. As the results of
zein value measurements (Fig. 5 ) indicate, the addition
of inulin to the formulations of body wash gels (based
on a mixture of anionic and nonionic surfactants) con-
tributes to a signi cant decrease in their skin irritation
potential. Compared to the inulin-free baseline sample
(zein value approximately 300 mgN/100 mL), inulin-
-containing gels are characterized by an approximately
40% lower skin irritation potential. However, the studies
did not demonstrate a signi cant in uence of inulin
concentration on the zein value (which is equal to ap-
proximately 180 mgN/100 mL within the concentration
range of 1–10%) or any impact of the plant type from
which inulin was isolated. A review of the literature
shows that surfactant systems with an addition of sugar
substances have not been thoroughly studied to date.
What follows from scanty literature reports44–47 is that
an addition of carbohydrates, such as glucose, fructose,
saccharose or maltose, has an effect on increasing the
number of aggregations in the micelles of both ionic
(Sodium Lauryl Sulphate) and nonionic surfactants (oxy-
ethylated derivatives), and lowers their CMC, which can
also be the cause of the drop in zein value associated
with inulin, which is a polysaccharide.
CONCLUSION
The aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Helianthus
tuberosus and Cichoriumintybus show a high free radical
scavenging ability. More bene cial antioxidant properties,
both with respect to the ABTS and DPPH radicals, were
shown in both cases for the aqueous-ethanolic extracts.
A comparison of both plants revealed that a more potent
antioxidant capacity was associated with the Jerusalem
artichoke extract. At the highest concentration studied (10
mg/mL), the DPPH radical scavenging ability determined
for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jerusalem artichoke
was about 80%, and the ABTS radical scavenging ability
was approximately 60%. For the corresponding chicory
extract the values were about 75 and 50%, respectively. In
aqueous extracts the values were approximately 20–30%
lower. The plants under analysis are characterized by
a high content of inulin. Using extraction processes, 18
and 12%aof inulin was obtained from Helianthus tuberosus
and Cichorium intybus, respectively. Cytotoxicity tests sho-
wed that both inulin isolated from Cichorium intybus and
Helianthus tuberosus, at a concentration of 5 mg/mL, had
a bene cial effect on increasing cell proliferation compared
to the control sample. Inulin isolated from both plants
under analysis can be applied in body wash formulations
without any problems, as it becomes completely dissolved,
producing clear and stable solutions. Tests determining the
skin irritation potential of model body wash gels showed
inulin to contribute to a marked decrease in that parameter.
Following the addition of inulin, the zein value decreases
by approximately 40% compared to the baseline sample,
however the concentration of inulin was not found to have
a signi cant effect on the ndings. What is more, there was
no signi cant difference with respect to the skin irritation
potential between the gels containing inulin derived from
Cichorium intybus and Helianthus tuberosus. The ndings
of the study show that both extracts of Cichorium intybus
and Helianthus tuberosus, and inulin isolated from them,
can be used as a valuable multifunctional ingredient of
body wash cosmetics.
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Synopsis Use was made of radiotagged SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (SLS) to determine its sorption by skin and hair. In the initial stages uptake is linear in square root of time, indicative of a diffusion process. The uptakes determined by radiotagged SLS were successfully correlated with data from a simple gravimetric method and showed that the latter procedure can be used satisfactorily under certain conditions when radiotagged com- pounds are not available. The influence of some additives on the SORPTION of SLS was studied. Salt increases the sorption, while nonionic SURFACTANTS (which are not themselves sorbed) substantially depress it. Finally, the relation of the sorbed SLS to water of hydration of KERATIN is examined. It is con- cluded that most, if not all, the sorbed material is bound to keratin, rather than existing in an "internal" solu- tion.
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The large-deformation rheology of inulin gels was investigated and interpreted in terms of solubility, crystallisation, and aggregation data. The gels are characterised by a strong overshoot peak in the stress–strain curve, characteristic for (non-plastic) work softening behaviour. More concentrated inulin gels tend to be firmer but are also less plastic. It is hypothesised that inulin molecules depositing during the later stages of the crystallisation/gelation process contribute most to the overshoot peak in the stress–strain curve.