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A Quarter Century of Changes in the Elementary and Secondary Teaching Force: From 1987 to 2012 - Statistical Analysis Report

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Abstract

This report utilizes the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) to examine changes in the elementary and secondary teaching force in the United States over the quarter century from 1987-88 to 2011-12. The report focuses on three key demographic characteristics: the size of the teaching force, the level of teaching experience of the teaching force, and the racial/ethnic composition of the teaching force.

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... Recent evidence from the SASS point to some notable changes in the composition of the teacher workforce (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017). For instance, fewer teachers identified as White in the 2011-2012 school year than in the 1987-1988 school year (82.7% vs. 87.6%), a change driven in large part by an increased share of Hispanic teachers. ...
... Existing evidence does not indicate, however, the degree to which these changes have been influenced primarily by changing demographics of new teachers or differential exit from teaching among certain groups-a limitation addressed in the current study's focus on beginning teachers. Ingersoll and Merrill's (2017) work also illustrates how the majority of teachers now begin their careers in schools with substantially different student bodies. For instance, in 1987, 60% of teachers worked in schools with less than a third of students living in poverty, compared with only 33% in 2012. ...
... One of the most marked differences in the characteristics of teachers in underserved schools is their racial diversity. In schools that enrolled fewer than one third low-income students in the 2011-2012 school year, only 9.2% of teachers identified as non-White or Hispanic; in contrast, 37.1% of teachers in schools with three-quarters or more low-income students identified as non-White or Hispanic (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017). These patterns may be changing, because the teacher workforce has become slightly more racially/ethnically diverse in the past decades. ...
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Background Over the past couple of decades, new teachers have become a pronounced focus of policy makers. This attention is a result of demographic shifts in the teacher labor market, increased attention to the quality of teachers assigned to historically underserved student populations, and high rates of new teacher turnover. Purpose Our goal is to understand how the characteristics of new teachers and the schools in which they teach have changed over time, including changes in the characteristics of teachers in schools that enroll a majority of economically disadvantaged and minority students. We examine how these broad changes relate to new teacher turnover, as well as the induction supports that may improve retention. Research Design We draw on nationally representative data from all seven waves of the Schools and Staffing Survey from the 1987–1988 to 2011–2012 school years to better understand the extent to which the characteristics of beginning teachers, the schools in which they teach, and their turnover rates have changed over time. We draw on data regarding teachers’ demographic characteristics, education and credentials, and school characteristics and working conditions, and turnover. Data Analysis We first describe how characteristics of new teachers and the schools in which they teach have changed. We then examine how these characteristics vary systematically across schools that enroll a majority of students who identify as racial/ethnic minorities and schools with fewer racial/ethnic minorities. We examine the extent to which new teachers are more likely than more experienced teachers to turn over from underserved schools and how organizational supports such as administrative support and induction programs predict lower rates of turnover. Findings Beginning teachers are now more likely to be certified, to have earned a graduate degree, and to have graduated from a selective college. They are also much more likely to begin their careers in schools that enroll more racially diverse students than in previous decades. Teachers are more likely to turn over from schools where the majority of students identify as racial/ethnic minorities, although the presence of supportive colleagues and administrators and induction supports are associated with lower turnover rates. Conclusions That the majority of new teachers now begin their careers in schools serving a majority of economically disadvantaged and minority students has implications for the preparation and induction of new teachers. Our results point to the continued importance of the provision of supports that integrate teachers into the social and professional culture of a school.
... The first report of our study, released in 2012, presented data up to 2007-2008-the most current data then available. Since then, we have released several updated reports of our study as newer cycles of the data became available [1][2][3]. This new 2021 article updates our prior work by presenting the results of our analyses of newly released national data, and also expands on our prior work by introducing new types of data relevant to several of the trends. ...
... Our data also show that the increase in the number of minority teachers has not been even across different types of schools. Most of the increase has been in higher-poverty public schools [1]. Minority teachers are two to three times more likely than white teachers to work in hard-to-staff schools serving high-poverty, high-minority, and urban communities. ...
Article
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This article summarizes the results of an exploratory research project that investigated what demographic trends and changes have, or have not, occurred in the elementary and secondary teaching force in the U.S. over the past three decades, from 1987 to 2018. Our main data source was the Schools and Staffing Survey and its successor, the National Teacher Principal Survey, collectively the largest and most comprehensive source of data on teachers available in the U.S. These surveys are conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the statistical arm of the U.S. Department of Education. The results show that the teaching force has been, and is, greatly changing; yet, even the most dramatic trends appear to have been little noticed or understood by researchers, policy makers, and the public. This article summarizes seven of the most prominent trends and changes that we found. The U.S. teaching force is: larger; older; less experienced; more female; more diverse, by race/ethnicity; consistent in academic ability; unstable. For each of the trends, we explore two broad questions: 1. What are the reasons for and sources of the trend? 2. What are the implications and consequences of the trend?
... This research study narrows in scope the focus of this group by looking at the experiences of Black educators in Grow Your Own (GYO) programs. Given the steady decline of Black educator representation over the past 25 years (Ingersoll and Merrill 2017), and the resurgence of interest in GYO programs as one possible remedy to the teacher shortage issue, this is a timely area of investigation. In particular, understanding Black educators' experiences along a teacher development continuum at the intersection of social and human development frameworks allows for a more complex and robust interpretation of their professional journeys. ...
Article
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This article examines Black educators’ experiences in Grow Your Own programs along a teacher development continuum at the intersection of social and human development constructs and frameworks, such as double binds and Phenomenological Variant Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST). More robust and nuanced interpretations of how Black educators grow and sustain their presence in the field of education are explored utilizing these analytical tools to determine how Black educators make their way along the teacher development continuum. Findings related to Black educators’ development as they transition as students to teachers, using double bind constructs at each stage of PVEST, are described, and research and praxis questions are extended for implications.
... While significantly more teachers of color have entered the workforce in recent years due in part to minority recruitment programs, just 20% of teachers are ethnic minorities compared with more than half of the student population (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Most of the increase in minority teachers has occurred in high-poverty, hard-to-staff schools (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017); however, the turnover rate among minority teachers has also increased by 45% in recent years (Ingersoll, May, & Collins, 2017) and exceeds that of White teachers in the most recent data available, shown in Figure 5 (Goldring et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Matching the availability of teachers to demand constantly evolves. During recessions schools are forced to layoff teachers. As economic times improve, schools acquire resources and rehire personnel. Currently, American schools are faced with the most severe shortages in special education; science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); and bilingual education. Shortages vary across the country and are most acute in areas with lower wages and in poor schools. Starting in the 1980’s schools began filling vacancies with under-qualified personnel hired on emergency or temporary credentials to meet needs. A 35% drop in pre-service enrollment and high teacher attrition currently impact the supply. Candidates and veteran teachers are influenced to leave teaching due to low compensation, stressful working conditions, and a perceived decline in respect. The demand side is influenced primarily by fluctuations in population, finances, and education policy. Matching supply to demand is a challenge but can be accomplished through better planning, procuring less volatile funding sources, and improving working conditions through improved pay and effective training.
... The relative low numbers of Teachers of Color, despite a steady increase in representation over the past 25 years (e.g., Teachers of Color in 1987-1988 were 12.4% of the teaching workforce, 327,200 in total; in 2011-2012, they were 17.3% of the teaching workforce, 666,200 in total representation), has persisted for quite some time (Ingersoll and Merrill 2017). This smaller proportional representation in the teacher populace often positions Teachers of Color at the margins and contributes to difficulty extending and integrating their shared knowledge within the field of education. ...
Article
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Centering the voices of Teachers of Color creates an opportunity to understand frequently overlooked ways in which they navigate racial hierarchies in their quest to teach and thrive in schools settings. This research study places aspiring and current Teachers of Color at the center by examining their teaching and learning experiences through the analysis of their written testimonies to identify common academic and professional interests and explore how they navigate challenges to these interests.
... The literature on student-teacher relationships emphasizes the value of assignment to a teacher of one's own race/ethnicity or gender, which is linked with higher scores on student achievement tests (Dee, 2004;Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, 2015;Yarnell & Bohrnstedt, 2018), higher ratings on subjective measures of academic performance (Dee, 2005;Fox, 2016;Gershenson, Holt, & Papageorge, 2016), receipt of other school services, such as assignment to the school's gifted program 2 (Grissom & Redding, 2016), and an increased likelihood of majoring in STEM or graduating with a STEM degree (Bottia, Stearns, Mickelson, Moller, & Valentino, 2015). However, STEM teachers have historically been more likely to identify as male and the racial composition generally mirrors that of the rest of the teaching workforce, with 83% of teachers identifying as White (Ingersoll & May, 2012;Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017). ...
Article
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Qualified science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers are critical in the provision of high-quality STEM education for all students. Through descriptive and regression analysis, we document how demographic characteristics, qualifications, and turnover rates of a nationally representative sample of public school STEM teachers have changed from 1988 to 2012. Over this time period, STEM teachers are more likely to be female, attend selective colleges, have graduate degrees, and have STEM qualifications. Although STEM teachers are no more likely to turn over than other teachers, this masks differential rates between high- and low-poverty schools. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of recruiting qualified STEM teachers to work in high-poverty schools and providing supports to help them thrive and remain in the classroom.
... For those students who are underrepresented in STEMwhether through sex, race, or ethnicity-exposure to role models is difficult (Hughes et al., 2013). National data continue to indicate that most classroom teachers are White, middle class, and female (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017;Rahman, Fox, Ikoma, & Gray, 2017). Given these trends, many culturally and linguistically diverse students are less likely to have ethnically matched instructors in their STEM content areas. ...
Article
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Gifted girls of color represent a potentially untapped resource for increasing and sustaining a diverse science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce. Girls of color possess unique mathematics and science gifts and talents that can remain unrealized if not addressed before middle school. Culturally responsive STEM out-of-school-time (OST) activities can be an effective means to develop STEM capacity in gifted girls of color. The researchers present three considerations to support the implementation of STEM OST. First, they offer a rationale for culturally relevant STEM enrichment activities for gifted girls of color. Next, the researchers consider how culturally relevant STEM OST activities can help to close the achievement gap. Finally, they explain how professional mentorship opportunities within OST activities can help gifted girls of color navigate the STEM pipeline.
... For instance, during the two-and-half-decade period between 1987 and 2012, the number of minority teachers in higher-poverty schools increased by 288%; the increase in the number of minority teachers in lower-poverty schools was only 1% for the same period. 27 It is also important to recognize that since minority teachers represented only 17.3% of the teaching force in 2011-12, in the same types of schools where minority teachers were disproportionately employed, the teaching staff overall was nevertheless predominantly nonminority. Figure 4 illustrates this continuing lack of demographic parity. ...
Article
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This study examines and compares the recruitment, employment, and retention of minority and nonminority school teachers over the past quarter century. Our objective is to empirically ground the debate over minority teacher shortages. The data we analyze are from the National Center for Education Statistics' nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS).1
... Elsewhere, we have examined trends over recent decades in the employment of minority teachers across different types of schools and have documented the persistence of this uneven distribution of teachers, by race ethnicity. For instance, during the two-and-half-decade period between 1987 and 2012, the number of minority teachers in higher-poverty schools increased by 288%; the increase in the number of minority teachers in lowerpoverty schools was only 1% for the same period (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017). ...
Article
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This study examines and compares the recruitment, employment, and retention of minority and nonminority school teachers over the quarter century from the late 1980s to 2013. Our objective is to empirically ground the ongoing debate regarding minority teacher shortages and changes in the minority teaching force. The data we analyze are from the National Center for Education Statistics’ nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS). Our data analyses document the persistence of a gap between the percentage of minority students and the percentage of minority teachers in the US. But the data also show that this gap is not due to a failure to recruit new minority teachers. In the two decades since the late 1980s, the number of minority teachers almost doubled, outpacing growth in both the number of White teachers and the number of minority students. Minority teachers are also overwhelmingly employed in public schools serving high-poverty, high-minority and urban communities. Hence, the data suggest that widespread efforts over the past several decades to recruit more minority teachers and employ them in disadvantaged schools have been very successful. But, these efforts have also been undermined because minority teachers have significantly higher turnover than White teachers and this is strongly tied to poor working conditions in their schools.
... Despite the importance of representation for underserved as well as other student populations (Grissom, Kern, & Rodriguez, 2015;Irvine, 1989;Quiocho & Rios, 2000;Villegas & Irvine, 2010;Zeichner, 2003), teaching remains a predominantly White and female profession (Guarino, Santibañez, & Daley, 2006). In the 2011-2012 school year, 82.7% of teachers identified as White, but only 51% of students identified as White (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017). While teachers who identify as Latinx or Asian now fill a larger share of the teacher workforce than in previous decades, data from the Schools and Staffing Survey indicate that the percentage of Black teachers has decreased from 7.5% in the 1987-1988 school year to 6.4% in the 2011-2012 school year. ...
Article
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The growing evidence on the importance of teacher representation points to the need to better understand the factors shaping the lack of racial/ethnic diversity in the teacher workforce. In this study, we examine the extent to which college major choice explains racial/ethnic gaps in teaching. Drawing on data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, we find that White college graduates are close to twice as likely to major in education compared to Black, Latinx, and other graduates of color. Even among college graduates, respondents who identify as White are 5 percentage points more likely to enter teaching than respondents who identify as Black and 2 percentage points more likely to enter teaching than graduates who identify as Latinx. Regression and decomposition analyses demonstrate that the observed racial/ethnic gaps in entry to teaching can largely be explained by whether a graduate studied education in college.
... Increasingly for the past ten years, research findings have shown that the nation's teaching force fails to reflect the cultural diversity represented among students [10][11][12]. The majority of teacher candidates are European American, at least middle-class, monolingual English speakers, and have had very few prior substantive experiences interacting with diverse populations, and, therefore, may, in some senses, view diversity in negative or inaccurate ways [13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Racial identity development in young children is influenced by interactions with teachers and curriculum in schools. This article, using the framework of critical race theory, critical literacy, and critical pedagogy, explores how three elementary-aged Black children view their own identity development. Specifically, observing how children interact with Movement-Oriented Civil Rights-Themed Children’s Literature (MO-CRiTLit) in the context of a non-traditional summer literacy program, Freedom Schools, to influence their Black identity. Professional development and preservice teacher preparation are needed to support teachers as they navigate through learning about pedagogical practices that increase student engagement.
... While significantly more ethnic/racial minority teachers have entered the workforce in recent years due in part to minority recruitment programs, just 20% of teachers are minorities compared with more than half of the student population (Ingersoll et al., 2018). Most of the increase in minority teachers has occurred in high-poverty, hard-to-staff schools (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017); however, the turnover rate among minority teachers has also increased by 45% in recent years (Ingersoll, May, & Collins, 2017) and exceeds that of white teachers (Goldring et al., 2014). Research by Ingersoll and colleagues (2017) found larger gaps between minority and white teacher movers than leavers, and the data suggested that the difficult working conditions in many hard-to-staff schools were responsible for the higher rates of minority teacher turnover. ...
Article
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Teacher turnover has been a persistent challenge; while the national rate has hovered at 16% in recent decades, more teachers are leaving the profession, contributing to teacher shortages in hard-to-staff subjects and schools. Higher attrition rates coupled with disproportionate teacher movement away from schools in economically disadvantaged communities has resulted in inequitable distributions of high-quality teachers across schools. Teacher turnover is quite costly, and primarily has negative consequences for school operations, staff collegiality, and student learning. Turnover rates are highest among minority teachers working in high-need schools, beginning teachers, and those who are alternatively certified; higher rates are also found for those teaching math, science, and English as a foreign language, and for special education teachers. Teachers are less likely to be retained in schools with poor working conditions, particularly those led by principals perceived to be less effective, and in schools where they are paid less. Teacher retention may be improved with combinations of targeted financial incentives and improved working conditions (e.g., better principal preparation), and through better supports for early career teachers through effective induction and mentoring programs. Linking financial incentives with enhanced leadership opportunities and career paths also offer potential for retaining effective teachers in classrooms where they are most needed.
... The race of the teaching population does not often accurately reflect the student population of the school, especially when it comes to teaching students of color. Whereas about half of the student population in the United States are students of color, educators of color only represent about 17% of the teaching workforce (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017). Meanwhile, racial congruence has been found to be related to teacher job satisfaction. ...
Chapter
The teacher shortage in the US is vast and growing. According to the report from Learning Policy Institute (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017), close to 8% of teachers were leaving teaching, with new teachers (<5 years), leaving at rates between 19% and 30%. Teacher shortages affect student motivation (Shen et al., 2015) and student academic success (Sutcher et al., 2019). With the new challenges teachers are facing during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is vital to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic and its subsequent new challenges may influence teacher’ wellbeing and the teacher workforce. The psychological reasons for teacher shortage are most often examined through a stress and burnout lens. Researchers showed that stress and burnout may significantly impair the working relationships that the teachers have with their students, the quality of teaching and commitment they are able to display (Kyriacou, 1987), and teacher retention (Christian-Brandt et al., 2020). One of the most important factors influencing teacher stress and burnout is compassion fatigue. In this chapter, we will discuss theories and empirical studies related to educators’ compassion fatigue particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and consequent distance learning. We will begin by defining compassion fatigue and reviewing some key demographic and psychological factors associated with educators’ compassion fatigue. Grounded in the job demands-resource (JD-R) model, we will then discuss some key quantitative and qualitative findings from the COVID-19 Educator Resilience Project to illustrate how educator perceived online teaching self-efficacy, educators’ social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies, and school connectedness factors concurrently and interactively influence educators’ compassion fatigue during the unique context of the COVID-19 pandemic and distance learning. This chapter concludes with a discussion of practical recommendations and strategies to promote educators’ online teaching self-efficacy, SEL competencies, and healthy connectedness, and to prevent compassion fatigue and racial trauma.
... According to A Quarter Century of Changes in the Elementary and Secondary Teaching Force: From 1987 to 2012, despite a growing diversity in the teaching profession, Black teachers remain underrepresented (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017). There remains a shortage of Black teachers within U.S. public schools, and Black teachers are disproportionately underrepresented in the U.S. teacher workforce when compared to their White counterparts (Farinde, Allen, & Lewis, 2016;Farinde-Wu, Allen, & Lewis, 2017;Shipp, 2000;Taie & Goldring, 2017). ...
Article
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Black teachers are disproportionately underrepresented in U.S. public schools. Over the past five decades, the percentage of Black teachers has not surpassed nine percent. Considering this trend, teacher education programs play a vital role in the retention of Black teachers. Hence, inadequate teacher preparation produces ineffective teachers, negatively influences teachers' efficacy and intentions to remain in classrooms, and subsequently hinders teaching and learning in classrooms. This qualitative study examines the teacher preparation experiences of twelve Black female teachers. Utilizing phenomenology as a theoretical lens, we identify four salient themes and engender recommendations for teacher preparation programs.
... 9 We expect that the legal changes governing public-sector collective bargaining rights may have greater effects on spending on teacher compensation in the high-SES districts than in the low-SES districts, because the low-SES districts are more likely to operate with greater constraints, Source: Local Education Agency Finance Survey microdata from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES 2008(NCES -2009(NCES to 2015(NCES -2016 which leaves less room for a change in teacher compensation. For instance, studies find that teacher average salaries are lower in high-poverty schools than in low-poverty schools, and that it is difficult to attract high-quality young applicants to the teaching sector and retain them, especially in low-SES districts (García and Weiss 2019;Goldhaber, Lavery, and Theobald 2015;Ingersoll and Merrill 2017). This is all occurring in a profession that has been subject to a growing total compensation penalty over time, which reached 10.2% in 2019 (Allegretto and Mishel 2020). ...
Technical Report
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What this paper finds: Legislative measures restricting public-sector collective bargaining rights enacted in Idaho, Indiana, Michigan, Tennessee, and Wisconsin in 2011 and 2012 significantly reduced school districts' spending on teacher compensation, including both teacher salaries and teacher benefits. The cuts in spending were sizable: In the years following the changes, average school district spending on teacher compensation decreased by about 6%, with spending on teacher salaries falling by about 5% and spending on teacher benefits declining by 9.7% in the five states relative to the rest of the states.
... It makes little sense to raise teacher pay for subjects for which there are hundreds of applicants, such as high school English (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2017), and this study should further the dialogue concerning differentiated pay for different grades and subjects. One potential loophole is that offering graduate credit bonuses could reward those who have earned advanced degrees in engineering and computer science without penalizing teachers with master's degrees in the humanities. ...
Article
Education reform rhetoric frequently pits the vested interests of teachers’ unions against those of students and families. To test whether union restrictions are related to student learning, I analyze a unique database of contractual items for the 2016-2017 school year across all 499 Pennsylvania school districts in order to examine a) variation, b) partisan political predictors, and c) relationships to student achievement and graduation rates. I also examine changes in 105 contracts that occurred during the 2015-2016 school year. I depict variation among items using GIS mapping. I use OLS regression, probit regression, and spatial autoregression to examine relationships between contract features and student proficiency and graduation rates. I also use propensity score weighting with generalized boosted models (GBM). After controlling for spatial dependence and district demographics, I find a significant negative relationship between the percentage of registered Republicans in a district and bonuses for teacher graduate credentials. I find a significant and positive relationship between Republican registered voters and math and science proficiency. This relationship diminishes in magnitude for ELA proficiency. I also find a significant positive relationship between average years of teaching experience and ELA proficiency in grades 3-8. Using GBM, I find significant positive estimates (+2%) of teacher qualification indicators on students’ math achievement in grades 3-8, and a significant positive estimate (+2%) between harsh consequences for ELA teachers and student proficiency. I also find a significant positive estimate between higher teacher pay and biology proficiency (+4% for historically disadvantaged students), as well as a significant negative estimate of graduate credential bonuses on graduation rates (-6%). These correlational results suggest that subject-area and grade-level differentiation in contracts – such as higher wages for STEM teachers – might be beneficial. The most effective STEM teachers might be seeking out positions in the best-paying districts with the strongest contracts.
... Findings pointed to teacher preparation, school culture and climate, working conditions, and teacher demographics as main categories contributing to SET attrition (Billingsley & Bettini, 2019). Specific workplace factors that lead to high attrition rates include lack of administrative support, poor teacher team efficacy, and lack of mentoring or support in the early years of teaching (Conley & You, 2017;Ingersoll et al., 2017b). Other factors that lead to high burnout and stress levels may include the amount of paperwork, large caseloads, emotional exhaustion, and lack of support and collaboration (Bettini et al., 2017;Billingsley & Bettini, 2019;Mehrenberg, 2013). ...
Article
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Researchers have yet to examine the association of Holland personality profiles as it relates to special education teachers. In response to this need, we report the personality and vocational profiles (Holland Codes) of 134 special education teachers across a special education training program. The purpose of this paper is to summarize findings from the Self-Directed Search measure commonly used to assess the personality of participants in an occupation and suggest implications for participants’ choice in becoming a special education teacher. Our focus was on personality match with vocational choice to include participants’ demographic (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, and geographical location) profile. Findings from the study reveal that while special educators’ overall personality profile is congruent with the Holland Codes associated with special education teachers, other features may explain participants’ choice to pursue a career as a special education teacher. Implications for teacher preparation programs and K-12 schools training are recommended based on the research findings.
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This article examines the relationship between teachers’ unions and teacher turnover in U.S. public schools. The trade‐off between teacher pay and employment predicts that unions raise the dismissal rate of underperforming teachers but reduce the attrition of high‐quality teachers, as the higher wages unions negotiate provide districts strong incentives to scrutinize teacher performance during a probationary period while encouraging high‐quality teachers to remain in teaching. Using the district–teacher matched data and a natural experiment, I find that, compared to less‐unionized districts, highly unionized districts dismiss more low‐quality teachers and retain more high‐quality teachers, raising average teacher quality and educational outcomes.
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Informal and institutional barriers may limit teacher movement between charter schools and traditional public schools (TPSs). However, we know little about how teachers choose schools in areas with a robust charter school sector. This study uses qualitative data from 123 teachers to examine teachers’ job decisions in three cities with varying charter densities: San Antonio, Detroit, and New Orleans. Our findings illuminate different types of segmentation and factors that facilitate and limit mobility between sectors. We find that structural policies within each sector can create barriers to mobility across charter schools and TPSs and that teachers’ ideological beliefs and values serve as informal, personal barriers that reinforce divides between sectors. This study offers implications for policy in districts with school choice.
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Considerable research has examined the positive educational experiences of students of color assigned to teachers of the same race or ethnicity. Underlying this research is the belief that the cultural fit between students and teachers has the potential to improve a child’s academic and nonacademic performance in school. This comprehensive review examines the extent to which Black and Latino/a students (1) receive more favorable ratings of classroom behavior and academic performance, (2) score higher on standardized tests, and (3) have more positive behavioral outcomes when assigned to a teacher of the same race/ethnicity. Assignment to a same-race teacher is associated with more favorable teacher ratings, although the relationship differs by school level. There is fairly strong evidence that Black students score higher on achievement tests when assigned to a Black teacher. Less consistent evidence is found for Latino/a students.
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Considering Black women’s historic contributions and enduring legacy in education, their continual disproportionate underrepresentation in US public schools is severely problematic. The absence of Black women in many public schools nationally is disconcerting given their potential to improve school outcomes for students of Color. Despite this finding, teacher education programs and school districts struggle to effectively recruit and retain Black women. Employing Black feminist epistemologies, this paper conceptualize a Black female teacher pipeline (from recruitment to retention to retirement) within a cultural-ecological framework to uncover deeper understandings of the systemic processes that hinder access of Black female teachers in K-12 classrooms. The paper then provides a discussion of specific practice and policy recommendations and concludes with implications for Black women educators and the diversification of the US teacher workforce.
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This study examined the job satisfaction level of teachers and the factors affecting job satisfaction in the public schools of Pakistan. The public-school teachers from the two districts were selected as the sample for this study. The questionnaire was used for the data collection. An online survey was conducted to collect data from the teachers at selected public schools in Pakistan. The respondent was approached individually through an online survey. A total of 119 responses were received through an online survey. Out of these 119, 58 were complete responses which were then used for analysis. The SPSS and AMOS software was used for the analysis purpose. The average score related to teacher satisfaction showed that teachers in Pakistan are generally satisfied with their jobs. The Structural Equation Modeling results showed that professional development opportunities at work and self-efficacy play a significant positive role in teacher job satisfaction. The teachers who were well skilled and had better planning related to the work and provided progress in their work tend to be more satisfied with their jobs compared to the teachers who have low self-efficacy and dispatch progress on their job. Only a few public schools in Pakistan are included in the study. As a result, a broad sample of schools is recommended for future research. This poll did not include private schools. As a result, private schools should be included in future polls to better understand the disparities in teacher conduct in various school environments. Due to the closure of schools in Pakistan, the online survey was the only choice, explaining why there were so few complete responses. To corroborate the findings of this study, it is suggested that future investigations use a large sample size.
Chapter
This research explores cultivation of civic generosity in elementary youth as a cultural, ecological, generational practice developing global-local connections and enhanced by arts-based pedagogies, including reading, creating, and sharing children's books. In this study, 2nd grade students across two public school contexts (rural middle-income and rural low-income) reflect on learning generosity from a grandparent/parent to create a children's book presented in a public library. This study draws upon perspectives of participating elementary school teachers, administrators, and librarians to understand how the curricula and their partnerships enhanced student understanding, appreciation, and expression of generosity as a glocal civic practice.
Article
The Problem The small representation of Teachers of Color in comparison with their White counterparts continues to trouble the teaching profession. Since Teachers of Color often have a vital impact on student engagement and academic outcomes, there is a pressing need to identify policies and practices that increase recruitment and retention. The Solution Given the current state of racial/ethnic teacher diversity in the United States, human resource development scholarship can be informative for addressing teacher retention. The Diversity Intelligence (DQ) and People as Technology (PT) Conceptual Model, as human resource development conceptual tools, are useful for understanding ways to support the academic and professional growth of Teachers of Color. These models are positioned to advance educational leaders’ and human resource professionals’ understandings of the ways in which the education field works to increase the number of Teachers of Color who enter and remain in the profession. The Stakeholders School leaders, policymakers, human resource development professionals and researchers, and reformers can better understand how school systems value (or do not value) Teachers of Color.
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This study examines and compares the recruitment, employment, and retention of minority and nonminority school teachers over the past quarter century. Our objective is to empirically ground the debate over minority teacher shortages. The data we analyze are from the National Center for Education Statistics' nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS).1
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Using nationally representative data, this study empirically grounds the debate over minority teacher shortages by examining trends in recruitment, employment and retention of minority teachers. The study’s findings reveal that a gap continues to persist between the percentage of minority students and the percentage of minority teachers in U.S. schools, but contrary to widespread belief this gap is not due to a failure to recruit new minority teachers. The data show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very successful. But, these efforts have also been undermined because minority teachers have lower retention — largely because of poor working conditions in their schools. The research presented in this report was co-sponsored by CPRE and the Center for Educational Research in the Interest of Underserved Students at the University of California-Santa Cruz.
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In the midst of discussions about improving education, teacher education, equity, and diversity, little has been done to make pedagogy a central area of investigation. This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macroanalytic perspectives. Rather, the article attempts to build on the work done in both of these areas and proposes a culturally relevant theory of education. By raising questions about the location of the researcher in pedagogical research, the article attempts to explicate the theoretical framework of the author in the nexus of collaborative and reflexive research. The pedagogical practices of eight exemplary teachers of African-American students serve as the investigative "site." Their practices and reflections on those practices provide a way to define and recognize culturally relevant pedagogy.
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Because of the current high proportion of novice high-school teachers, many students’ mastery of science and mathematics depends on the effectiveness of early-career teachers. In this study, which used value-added models to analyze high-school teachers’ effectiveness in raising test scores on 1.05 million end-of-course exams, we found that the effectiveness of high-school science and mathematics teachers increased substantially with experience but exhibited diminishing rates of return by their fourth year; that teachers of algebra 1, algebra 2, biology, and physical science who continued to teach for at least 5 years were more effective as novice teachers than those who left the profession earlier; and that novice teachers of physics, chemistry, physical science, geometry, and biology exhibited steeper growth in effectiveness than did novice non–science, technology, engineering, and mathematics teachers.
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This paper outlines an agenda of research on teachers and schools utilizing NCES' Schools and Staffing Survey. SASS is an unusual education survey. Unlike most major large-scale nationally representative surveys, SASS does not focus on students, nor on feature measures of student achievement and student outcomes. Instead, SASS focuses on teachers and schools. Indeed, it is probably the largest and most comprehensive survey of teachers in existence. SASS consists of linked surveys of schools, districts, principals, and teachers. It has obtained a wealth of information on teachers-their backgrounds, training, attitudes, behavior-and on schools-their principals, working conditions, contexts, characteristics, processes, and climate.
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Has the elementary and secondary teaching force changed in recent years? And, if so, how? Have the types and kinds of individuals going into teaching changed? Have the demographic characteristics of those working in classrooms altered? To answer these questions we embarked on an exploratory research project to try to discover what trends and changes have, or have not, occurred in the teaching force over the past three decades. We were surprised by what we found. We discovered that the teaching force has been, and is, greatly changing; yet, even the most dramatic trends appear to have been little noticed by researchers, policy makers, and the public. To explore these questions, we used the largest and most comprehensive source of data on teachers available—the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and its supplement, the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS). These data are collected by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the statistical arm of the U.S. Department of Education (for information on SASS, see NCES, 2013). NCES has administered eight cycles of this survey over a 29-year period—1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, 2011-12, and 2015-16. The most recent cycle, administered in 2015-16, was renamed the National Teacher Principal Survey (NTPS). In each cycle, NCES administers questionnaires to a nationally representative sample of 40,000 to 50,000 teachers, 9,000 to 11,000 school-level administrators, and about 5,000 district-level officials, collecting an unusually rich array of information on teachers, their students, and their schools. We decided to take advantage of both the depth and duration of these data to explore what changes have taken place in the teaching force and teaching occupation over the three decades from 1987 to 2016.
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Evidence suggests that teachers are a critical resource in realizing high-quality educational opportunities for all students. However, many school systems across the country continue to employ large numbers of teachers who, by most indicators, do not fit into the category of “high quality.” Although policy makers at various levels of government have responded to the teacher staffing problem, we know very little about the range of strategies being used or how these strategies are packaged together.
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Administrative data on fifth grade students in North Carolina shows that more highly qualified teachers tend to be matched with more advantaged students, both across schools and in many cases within them. This matching biases estimates of the relationship between teacher characteristics and achievement; we isolate this bias in part by focusing on schools where students are distributed relatively evenly across classrooms. Teacher experience is consistently associated with achievement; teacher licensure test scores associate with math achievement. These returns display a form of heterogeneity across students that may help explain why the observed form of teacher-student matching persists in equilibrium. © 2006 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.
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Single-equation regression models are employed to estimate the student-teacher race and gender interaction effects in high school economics courses. No evidence of a gender role-model effect is found, but there is evidence of effects for African-American students.
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There has been a significant decline in the number of minority teachers and principals, particularly blacks. The recent downturn has been so drastic that writers have referred to these groups as "endangered species." The dwindling black work force can be attributed to a variety of political, economic, demographic, and sociological factors affecting both black teachers and black principals: (1) the decline in the number of college students declaring teacher education majors; (2) the decline in black college students; (3) widening career options for blacks, especially black females; and (4) teacher competency tests. These decreasing numbers and the factors that have contributed to them should be addressed by policymakers, school systems, and teacher educators. Equally important will be the ability of all teachers and principals-black and white-to educate effectively an increasingly multiethnic school population.
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This article critically reviews the recent empirical literature on teacher recruitment and retention published in the United States. It examines the characteristics of individuals who enter and remain in the teaching profession, the characteristics of schools and districts that successfully recruit and retain teachers, and the types of policies that show evidence of efficacy in recruiting and retaining teachers. The goal of the article is to provide researchers and policymakers with a review that is comprehensive, evaluative, and up to date. The review of the empirical studies selected for discussion is intended to serve not only as a compendium of available recent research on teacher recruitment and retention but also as a guide to the merit and importance of these studies.
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The primary purpose of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from prekindergarten through graduate school. The "Digest" includes a selection of data from both government and private sources, and draws especially on the results of surveys and activities carried out by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). To qualify for inclusion, material must be nationwide in scope and of current interest and value. The publication contains information on a variety of subjects in the field of education statistics, including the number of schools and colleges, teachers, enrollments, and graduates, in addition to educational attainment, finances, federal funds for education, libraries, and international comparisons. Although the "Digest" contains information on federal education funding, more detailed information on federal activities is available from federal education program offices. In addition to updating many of the statistics that have appeared in previous years, this edition contains new material, including (1) Number and percentage of public school students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch; (2) Percentage distribution of children at about 2 and 4 years of age, by type of child care arrangement and selected child and family characteristics; (3) Percentage distribution of quality ratings of child care arrangements of children at about 4 years of age, by type of arrangement and selected child and family characteristics; (4) Children's specific language, literacy, mathematics, color knowledge, and fine motor skills at about 4 years of age, by age of child and selected characteristics; (5) Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale scores of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-graders, by selected student and school characteristics; (6) Average NAEP writing scale score and percentage of students attaining NAEP writing achievement levels, by selected student characteristics and grade level; (7) Average NAEP mathematics scale scores of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-graders, by selected student and school characteristics; (8) Average NAEP mathematics scale score of 8th-graders and percentage reporting various attitudes toward mathematics work, by frequency of attitude and selected student and school characteristics; (9) Average NAEP science scale score of 12th-graders and percentage reporting various attitudes toward science, by selected student and school characteristics; (10) Percentage of elementary and secondary school students who do homework outside of school, whose parents check that homework is done, and whose parents help with homework, by frequency and selected student and school characteristics; (11) Total full-year enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by control and type of institution and state or jurisdiction; (12) Degrees in Arabic, Chinese, Korean, and Russian conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree; (13) Full-time, first-time degree/certificate seeking undergraduate students enrolled in degree-granting institutions, by participation and average amount awarded in financial aid programs, and type and control of institution; and (14) Percentage of 18- to 25-year-olds reporting substance abuse during the past 30 days and the past year, by drug used and selected characteristics. Supplemental information on population trends, attitudes on education, education characteristics of the labor force, government finances, and economic trends provides background for evaluating education data. The document includes seven chapters: (1) All Levels of Education; (2) Elementary and Secondary Education; (3) Postsecondary Education; (4) Federal Programs for Education and Related Activities; (5) Outcomes of Education; (6) International Comparisons of Education; and (7) Libraries and Educational Technology. Preceding these chapters is an Introduction that provides a brief overview of current trends in American education, which supplements the tabular materials in chapters 1 through 7. Three appendixes conclude the document: (1) Guide to Sources; (2) Definitions; and (3) Index of Table Numbers. (Contains 29 figures and 438 tables.) [For the 2007 "Digest of Education Statistics," see ED500670.]
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In education, teacher experience is probably "the" key factor in personnel policies that affect current employees: it is a cornerstone of traditional single-salary schedules; it drives teacher transfer policies that prioritize seniority; and it is commonly considered a major source of inequity across schools and, therefore, a target for redistribution. The underlying assumption is that experience promotes effectiveness. Is this really the case? Do students attain higher levels of achievement when taught by more experienced teachers? What is the relationship between teacher experience and teacher productivity? Over 40 years of teacher productivity research suggests that the simple assumption that "more is better" requires greater nuance; experience effects are complex and depend on a number of factors. Recent evidence from CALDER (National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research) studies using rich state datasets provides new insight into the effects of teacher experience. Several key findings emerge, some confirming previous understandings and others raising new questions. These findings have important policy implications. This paper offers three recommendations: (1) Frontload experience-based compensation; (2) Implement evaluation, professional development, compensation, and dismissal policies that encourage ongoing effectiveness among veteran teachers; and (3) Look beyond policies to distribute inexperienced teachers evenly across high- and low-poverty schools, and identify retention strategies to increase returns to teacher experience in high-poverty schools. (Contains 10 notes and 4 figures.)
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This report examines the patterns of teacher attrition among full-time teachers in Indiana from 1965 to 1987. The study's objectives were to assess the current state of teacher supply and demand in Indiana, recommend policies to ensure an adequate supply of certified teachers, and provide the Indiana State Department of Education with the capability to monitor and perform future assessments of teacher supply and demand. The introduction outlines a rationale for the study and provides definitions of attrition. The report goes on to present and discuss a theory of teacher attrition, to examine trends in attrition in Indiana and patterns of attrition among new teacher cohorts, and to analyze attrition over the career and over the first four years after entry using multivariate analysis. Study findings include, among others: (1) both annual and permanent teacher attrition rates have fallen steadily over time with the exception of a period in the late 1970s characterized by involuntary reductions in staff; (2) attrition in entering cohorts of new teachers is at its lowest level in 25 years; and (3) lower attrition of women teachers during early to mid-career accounts for a significant portion of the overall attrition decline. An appendix provides regression estimates for Cox models of teacher attrition. The main report is preceded by a substantial summary of its contents. (Contains 28 references.) (JDD)
Article
When school systems began to desegregate after Brown v. Board of Education, 80 Per cent of the school population was white and 20 per cent was minority. By 1996, the number of minority students had risen to approximately 35 per cent of the student population, and today it stands at nearly 40 per cent and growing. These students continue to achieve well below white students in most subject areas and at virtually all grade levels (Williams, 1996).Test score results, schooling expenditure rates, dropout statistics, and related data indicate that many minority students are at risk of academic failure. Though quality teaching for diverse student populations depends on many factors, there are too few qualified teachers for diverse student populations and too few teachers with specific training in culturally responsive pedagogies.The Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University (LAB) has prepared this review with the understanding that, while there may be much knowledge in practice about minority teacher recruitment, retention, and development, there is still a need to gather and synthesize promising research in order to enable education practitioners and policymakers to identify the most effective programs and practices that encourage more minorities to choose teaching as a career, develop expertise as teachers, and remain in the profession. In addition, it is intended to provide researchers with provocative questions for further investigation. This report represents the third annual synthesis of research in a series of five proposed to the Institute of Education Sciences at the United States Department of Education. It is intended for a broad audience, including educators, policymakers, and researchers at the national, state, and local levels. Therefore, this review examines studies within a number of research traditions and with a variety of perspectives studies that do not frequently appear in the same bibliography. This approach embodies the belief expressed throughout a great deal of the research (e.g., Milem, in press; and McAllister & Irvine, 2002) that diversity of viewpoints will generate increased knowledge and creative ideas for further research. This knowledge and creativity will subsequently enhance student and teacher learning and enrich the national discourse on the significance of diversity in American public life.
Article
This report evaluates how good a job the states are doing when it comes to putting policies in place that will improve teacher quality. Forty-nine states are included; Oregon and the District of Columbia did not participate in the survey. States receive grades in whether: (1) they hold schools, principals, and teachers accountable for results; (2) they have empowered schools to make personnel decisions; (3) they have quality control systems to ensure that teachers know their subjects, but that do not involve needless regulation; and (4) they have opened the doors into teaching to talented candidates who have not attended schools of education. Grades are based on 29 indicators, each linked to a policy designed to boost the quality of the teaching force. Overall, the states earn a grade of "D+" for their teacher quality policies, although Texas and Florida both receive "A's." The report describes what these two states are doing to earn these grades. Across the United States, accountability is still more talk than action, as state-by-state reports demonstrate. (SLD)
Article
Contemporary educational thought holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate school performance is the inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers. It is widely believed that schools are plagued by shortages of teachers, primarily due to recent increases in teacher retirements and student enrollments. This report summarizes a series of analyses that have investigated the possibility that there are other factors - tied to the organizational characteristics and conditions of schools - that are behind school staffing problems. The data utilized in this investigation are from the Schools and Staffing Survey and its supplement, the Teacher Follow-up Survey conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. These data indicate that school staffing problems are not primarily due to teacher shortages, in the sense of an insufficient supply of qualified teachers. Rather, the data indicate that school staffing problems are primarily due to a "revolving door" - where large numbers of qualified teachers depart their jobs for reasons other than retirement. The data show that the amount of turnover accounted for by retirement is relatively minor when compared to that associated with other factors, such as teacher job dissatisfaction and teachers pursuing other jobs. This report concludes that teacher recruitment programs - traditionally dominant in the policy realm - will not solve the staffing problems of such schools if they do not also address the organizational sources of low teacher retention.
Article
A prominent class of explanations for the gender gaps in student outcomes focuses on the interactions between students and teachers. In this study, I examine whether assignment to a same-gender teacher influences student achievement, teacher perceptions of student performance, and student engagement. This study’s identification strategy exploits a unique matchedpairs feature of a major longitudinal study, which provides contemporaneous data on student outcomes in two different subjects. Within-student comparisons indicate that assignment to a same-gender teacher significantly improves the achievement of both girls and boys as well as teacher perceptions of student performance and student engagement with the teacher’s subject.
Article
We use six years of panel data on students and teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of recently hired teachers in the New York City public schools. On average, the initial certification status of a teacher has small impacts on student test performance. However, among those with the same experience and certification status, there are large and persistent differences in teacher effectiveness. Such evidence suggests that classroom performance during the first two years is a more reliable indicator of a teacher's future effectiveness. We also evaluate turnover among teachers by initial certification status, and the implied impact on student achievement of hiring teachers with predictably high turnover. Given modest estimates of the payoff to experience, even high turnover groups (such as Teach for America participants) would have to be only slightly more effective in each year to offset the negative effects of their high exit rates (I2, J24).
Article
Teacher quality is widely believed to be important for education, despite little evidence that teachers' credentials matter for student achievement. To accurately measure variation in achievement due to teachers' characteristics-both observable and unobservable-it is essential to identify teacher fixed effects. Unlike previous studies, I use panel data to estimate teacher fixed effects while controlling for fixed student characteristics and classroom specific variables. I find large and statistically significant differences among teachers: a one standard deviation increase in teacher quality raises reading and math test scores by approximately .20 and .24 standard deviations, respectively, on a nationally standardized scale. In addition, teaching experience has statistically significant positive effects on reading test scores, controlling for fixed teacher quality.
Qualifications of the Public School Teacher Workforce: 1988 and 1991 (NCES 95-665)
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Bobbitt, S., and McMillen, M. (1995). Qualifications of the Public School Teacher Workforce: 1988 and 1991 (NCES 95-665). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Survey Documentation for the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey
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Chambers, L., Graham, S., Parmer, R., Stern, S., Strizek, G., and Thomas, T. (forthcoming). Survey Documentation for the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (NCES 2013-314)
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Goldring, R., Gray, L., and Bitterman, A. (2013). Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (NCES 2013-314). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
User's Manual for the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey Volumes 1-6
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Goldring, R., Taie, S., Rizzo, L., Colby, D., and Fraser, A (2013). User's Manual for the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey Volumes 1-6. (NCES 2013-330 through 2013-335).
Teacher Attrition: The Uphill Climb to Staff the Nation's Schools
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Grissmer, D., and Kirby, S. (1987). Teacher Attrition: The Uphill Climb to Staff the Nation's Schools. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Assessing Teacher Supply and Demand
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Haggstrom, G.W., Darling-Hammond, L., and Grissmer, D. (1988). Assessing Teacher Supply and Demand. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Selected Characteristics of Public and Private School Teachers
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Hammer, C., and Gerald, E. (1990). Selected Characteristics of Public and Private School Teachers: 1987-88 (NCES 90-087). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Revisiting What States Are Doing to Improve the Quality of Teaching: An Update on Patterns and Trends
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Hirsch, E., Koppich, J., and Knapp, M. (2001). Revisiting What States Are Doing to Improve the Quality of Teaching: An Update on Patterns and Trends. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington.
How High is Teacher Turnover and Is It a Problem? Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education
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Ingersoll, R., and Perda, D. (forthcoming). How High is Teacher Turnover and Is It a Problem? Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.
Toward Understanding Teacher Supply and Demand
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Rising Above the Gathering Storm
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A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform
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Teacher Layoffs: Rethinking "Last Hired, First Fired" Policies
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2010). Teacher Layoffs: Rethinking "Last Hired, First Fired" Policies. Washington, DC: Author.
A Smarter Teacher Layoff System: How Quality-Based Layoffs Can Help Schools Keep Great Teachers in Tough Economic Times
New Teacher Project. (2010). A Smarter Teacher Layoff System: How Quality-Based Layoffs Can Help Schools Keep Great Teachers in Tough Economic Times. Brooklyn, NY: Author.
Arguments for Increasing the Racial/Ethnic Diversity of the Teaching Force: A Look at the Evidence
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  • J J Irvine
Villegas, A.M., and Irvine, J.J. (2009). Arguments for Increasing the Racial/Ethnic Diversity of the Teaching Force: A Look at the Evidence. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Conference, San Diego, CA.
Developing the Teacher Workforce (103rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education
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Villegas, A.M., and Lucas, T. (2004). Diversifying the Teacher Workforce: A Retrospective and Prospective Analysis. In M.A. Smylie and D. Miretzky (Eds.), Developing the Teacher Workforce (103rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part 1) (pp. 70-104). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Teachers' Characteristics: Research on the Indicators of Quality
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Zumwalt, K., and Craig, E. (2005b). Teachers' Characteristics: Research on the Indicators of Quality. In M. Cochran-Smith and K.M. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying Teacher Education: The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education (pp. 157-260).