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The State of the Hybrid Operating Room: Technological Acceleration at the Pinnacle of Collaboration

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Purpose of Review As imaging technologies expand to include image-guided anatomical navigation and surgical techniques evolve to accommodate increasingly complex interventions with minimally invasive approaches, interventionalists and surgeons have convened in a novel area of hospitals around the world, the hybrid operating room. Although these assets have long been used for cardiovascular procedures, the integration of these tools in a designated surgery suite has given rise to a variety of novel interventions and multi-specialty collaborations. Recent Findings In this review, we highlight current international hybrid room experiences in many fields, spanning from neurosurgery to urology. We also comment on our institutional journey of surgery-interventional radiology collaborations in developing our image-guided surgery program for a pediatric population. Summary As the hybrid operating room continues to gain traction globally, surgeons and interventional radiologists’ creativity and collaborative problem-solving skills will continue to be pushed to improve patient care. Identifying practice gaps and collaborating with industry is vital for further refinement of these tools.
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The State of the Hybrid Operating Room: Technological
Acceleration at the Pinnacle of Collaboration
Alejandra M. Casar Berazaluce
Rachel E. Hanke
Daniel von Allmen
John M. Racadio
Published online: 18 March 2019
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019
Purpose of Review As imaging technologies expand to
include image-guided anatomical navigation and surgical
techniques evolve to accommodate increasingly complex
interventions with minimally invasive approaches, inter-
ventionalists and surgeons have convened in a novel area
of hospitals around the world, the hybrid operating room.
Although these assets have long been used for cardiovas-
cular procedures, the integration of these tools in a desig-
nated surgery suite has given rise to a variety of novel
interventions and multi-specialty collaborations.
Recent Findings In this review, we highlight current
international hybrid room experiences in many fields,
spanning from neurosurgery to urology. We also comment
on our institutional journey of surgery-interventional radi-
ology collaborations in developing our image-guided sur-
gery program for a pediatric population.
Summary As the hybrid operating room continues to gain
traction globally, surgeons and interventional radiologists’
creativity and collaborative problem-solving skills will
continue to be pushed to improve patient care. Identifying
practice gaps and collaborating with industry is vital for
further refinement of these tools.
Keywords Hybrid operating room Interventional
radiology Image-guided surgery Innovative operating
room Surgical navigation Computer-assisted surgery
Since the inception of the C-arm in the 1950s, physicians in
procedural specialties have sought to improve patient care
through image guidance. As imaging technologies evolved,
the breadth of modalities and techniques expanded,
enabling physicians to perform tasks that were previously
unattainable. As interventional radiologists gained
momentum and expertise, the complexity of their proce-
dures surpassed the capabilities of radiology departments
and thus began a transition to dedicated interventional
radiology (IR) suites. Parallel to this transformation, sur-
gical techniques shifted gears towards minimal-invasive-
ness and pre-, intra-, and post-operative image
visualization. Similarly, medical interventionalists made
strides with technical and technological improvements in
endoscopy and catheterization. Hybrid operating rooms
were developed in response to the increasing demand for
real-time image navigation and for simultaneous proce-
dures in a single sterile environment with multidisciplinary
collaboration. Now, as technology continues to accelerate,
interventionalists and surgeons rely on each other to bring
these new advances to patient care, shortening anesthesia
times and improving patient outcomes. This, in turn, has
created several management challenges in funding,
scheduling, and cross-training of technicians to meet the
needs of the changing tide.
This article is part of the Topical collection on Pediatric Surgery.
&Daniel von Allmen
Department of Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, 3333
Burnet Ave, MLC 3025, Cincinnati, OH 45229-7657, USA
Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital,
Cincinnati, OH, USA
Curr Surg Rep (2019) 7:7(0123456789().,-volV)(0123456789().,-volV)
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Hybrid operating rooms (OR) equipped with a motorized C-arm coupled with a radiolucent surgical table as well as with integrated navigation capabilities, have been recently used for spine surgery [10]. The C-arm provides intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. ...
... Hybrid ORs support multidisciplinary use of 2D and 3D imaging and navigation for open and minimal invasive procedures [10]. ...
... Hybrid operating rooms (OR) equipped with a motorized C-arm coupled with a radiolucent surgical table as well as with integrated navigation capabilities, have been recently used for spine surgery 10 . The C-arm provides intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. ...
... Hybrid ORs support multidisciplinary use of 2D and 3D imaging and navigation for open and minimal invasive procedures 10 . This cadaver study sought to assess the diagnostic performance of CBCT from a C-arm within a hybrid OR compared to diagnostic CT. ...
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Background CT is considered the gold standard for detecting pedicle breach. However, CBCT may be a viable and low radiation dose alternative, to provide intraoperative feedback to surgeons to permit in-room revisions of misplaced screws Methods To assess the ability and reliability of intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) from a robotic C-arm in a hybrid operating room (OR) two hundred forty-one pedicle screws were inserted in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine of 7 cadavers, followed by CBCT and CT imaging. The CT images served as the standard of reference. Agreement on screw placement between both imaging systems was assessed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient (κ). Sensitivity, Specificity, Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), area under the empirical and fitted ROC curves (AUC) were computed to assess CBCT as a diagnostic tool compared to CT. The patient effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated for comparison. A systematic literature review was performed to provide perspective to the obtained results. Results Almost perfect agreement in assessing pedicle screw grading between CBCT and CT was observed (κ = 0.84). The sensitivity and specificity of CBCT were 0.84 and 0.98, respectively. The AUC derived from the empirical and fitted ROC curves were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. Conclusion Intraoperative CBCT by C-arm in a hybrid OR is highly reliable in identification of screw placement at significant dose reduction.
... The increase in interest in minimally invasive surgery comes hand-to-hand with the introduction of navigation platforms in the operating room (OR), and thus, an increase in the use of intraoperative modalities. Furthermore, hybrid ORs bring together radiologists and surgeons as it allows the use of intraoperative CT scanners as well as MRI scanners in the surgical workflow [52]. This market is expected to grow in the next years, increasing the use of CT images in liver surgery, for examination and navigation, as well as laparoscopic US for navigation [50,51]. ...
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Deep learning-based methods, in particular, convolutional neural networks and fully convolutional networks are now widely used in the medical image analysis domain. The scope of this review focuses on the analysis using deep learning of focal liver lesions, with a special interest in hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic cancer; and structures like the parenchyma or the vascular system. Here, we address several neural network architectures used for analyzing the anatomical structures and lesions in the liver from various imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Image analysis tasks like segmentation, object detection and classification for the liver, liver vessels and liver lesions are discussed. Based on the qualitative search, 91 papers were filtered out for the survey, including journal publications and conference proceedings. The papers reviewed in this work are grouped into eight categories based on the methodologies used. By comparing the evaluation metrics, hybrid models performed better for both the liver and the lesion segmentation tasks, ensemble classifiers performed better for the vessel segmentation tasks and combined approach performed better for both the lesion classification and detection tasks. The performance was measured based on the Dice score for the segmentation, and accuracy for the classification and detection tasks, which are the most commonly used metrics.
... The system is based on a hybrid OR solution providing a number of benefits. 38 The integration of video cameras in the ceiling-mounted C-arm simplifies the registration process. Once the initial CBCT scan is performed, the patient is automatically coregistered. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy (deviation from the target or intended path) and efficacy (insertion time) of an augmented reality surgical navigation (ARSN) system for insertion of biopsy needles and external ventricular drains (EVDs), two common neurosurgical procedures that require high precision. Methods: The hybrid operating room-based ARSN system, comprising a robotic C-arm with intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) and integrated video tracking of the patient and instruments using nonobtrusive adhesive optical markers, was used. A 3D-printed skull phantom with a realistic gelatinous brain model containing air-filled ventricles and 2-mm spherical biopsy targets was obtained. After initial CBCT acquisition for target registration and planning, ARSN was used for 30 cranial biopsies and 10 EVD insertions. Needle positions were verified by CBCT. Results: The mean accuracy of the biopsy needle insertions (n = 30) was 0.8 mm ± 0.43 mm. The median path length was 39 mm (range 16-104 mm) and did not correlate to accuracy (p = 0.15). The median device insertion time was 149 seconds (range 87-233 seconds). The mean accuracy for the EVD insertions (n = 10) was 2.9 mm ± 0.8 mm at the tip with a 0.7° ± 0.5° angular deviation compared with the planned path, and the median insertion time was 188 seconds (range 135-400 seconds). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that ARSN can be used for navigation of percutaneous cranial biopsies and EVDs with high accuracy and efficacy.
... Our test statistics would therefore be expected to be valid for spine deformity cases at similar tertiary care institutions. A hybrid OR can improve facility utilization by covering many procedures-from endovascular to minimally invasive or open surgery-and enable exploration of new procedures that leverage intraoperative high-quality imaging and high level of device integration [41]. The results of this study indicate that the intraoperative CBCT imaging generated in a hybrid OR is of sufficient quality, comparable with that of conventional CT, to reliably identify pedicle screw misplacements. ...
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Objectives: To test the hypothesis that intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using the Allura augmented reality surgical navigation (ARSN) system in a dedicated hybrid operating room (OR) matches computed tomography (CT) for identification of pedicle screw breach during spine surgery. Methods: Twenty patients treated with spinal fixation surgery (260 screws) underwent intraoperative CBCT as well as conventional postoperative CT scans (median 12 months after surgery) to identify and grade the degree of pedicle screw breach on both scan types, according to the Gertzbein grading scale. Blinded assessments were performed by three independent spine surgeons and the CT served as the standard of reference. Screws graded as Gertzbein 0 or 1 were considered clinically accurate while grades 2 or 3 were considered inaccurate. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were the primary metrics of diagnostic performance. Results: For this patient group, the negative predictive value of an intraoperative CBCT to rule out pedicle screw breach was 99.6% (CI 97.75-99.99%). Among 10 screws graded as inaccurate on CT, 9 were graded as such on the CBCT, giving a sensitivity of 90.0% (CI 55.5-99.75%). Among the 250 screws graded as accurate on CT, 244 were graded as such on the CBCT, giving a specificity of 97.6% (CI 94.85-99.11%). Conclusions: CBCT, performed intraoperatively with the Allura ARSN system, is comparable and non-inferior to a conventional postoperative CT scan for ruling out misplaced pedicle screws in spinal deformity cases, eliminating the need for a postoperative CT. Key points: • Intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) using the Allura ARSN is comparable with conventional CT for ruling out pedicle screw breaches after spinal fixation surgery. • Intraoperative cone beam computed tomography can be used to assess need for revisions of pedicle screws making routine postoperative CT scans unnecessary. • Using cone beam computed tomography, the specificity was 97.6% and the sensitivity was 90% for detecting pedicle screw breaches and the negative predictive value for ruling out a pedicle screw breach was 99.6%.
... The standard imaging tool for gaging cerebrovascular flow is digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-an invasive fluoroscopic technique that is typically used preoperatively and may help surgeons assess the safety of sacrificing a major vein (Mizutani et al., 2016). More recently, the efficacy of DSA in intraoperative settings (e.g., hybrid operating room) has been documented (Casar Berazaluce et al., 2019). While this technique remains the standard, it carries various limitations, including the risk of vasospasm and other procedure-related complications such as groin hematoma and cerebral ischemia. ...
Approximately 7%–12% of all intracranial meningiomas are located in the posterior fossa (PF), a region which contains—among many other critical neurovascular structures—numerous major veins and sinuses draining blood away from the PF structures. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that venous sacrifice or injury during surgery are linked to serious postoperative complications—which may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance that clinicians charged with the preoperative, surgical, and postoperative care of patients undergoing treatment for meningioma are familiar with the general anatomy of the PF veins, as well as their structural nuances and drainage variations. The present chapter surveys the relevant anatomy in a manner that aims to be useful for an interdisciplinary team of clinicians and concludes with a discussion of emerging imaging technologies that may assist them in their clinical decision-making.
Background and objective: The hybrid operating room has been widely applied in surgery, including neurology, general surgery, gynecology, and obstetrics. By reviewing application of the hybrid operating room in different categories of surgery, we aim to summarize both advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid operating room and discuss what to do for further improving the application of it. Methods: We searched related literature in websites including Pubmed, MEDLINE, Web of science, using the keywords "hybrid operating room", "surgery", "technique", "intervention", and "radiology". All the searched papers were screened and underwent quality evaluation. The eventually selected papers were carefully read, with related information extracted and summarized. Results: After screening and assessment, a total of 29 literature was collected. Application of the hybrid operating room in general surgery, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, urology, gynecologic and obstetrics surgery, and cardiovascular surgery was summarized. Both advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid operating room were discussed in order to improve application of the hybrid operating room in surgery. Conclusions: Surgeries performed in the hybrid operating room take advantages over those conventional operating rooms mainly in terms of higher procedure accuracy, less operative time, and less risk of hemorrhage during the transportation between radiology departments and operating suites. Further efforts should be made to reduce radiation exposure from imaging systems equipped in the hybrid operating room and increase cost-effectiveness ratio of the hybrid operating room.
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Background: Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is a promising novel imaging technique that can aid in intraoperative demarcation of pancreatic cancer (PDAC) and thus increase radical resection rates. This study investigated SGM-101, a novel, fluorescent-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody. The phase 1 study aimed to assess the tolerability and feasibility of intraoperative fluorescence tumor imaging using SGM-101 in patients undergoing a surgical exploration for PDAC. Methods: At least 48 h before undergoing surgery for PDAC, 12 patients were injected intravenously with 5, 7.5, or 10 mg of SGM-101. Tolerability assessments were performed at regular intervals after dosing. The surgical field was imaged using the Quest NIR imaging system. Concordance between fluorescence and tumor presence on histopathology was studied. Results: In this study, SGM-101 specifically accumulated in CEA-expressing primary tumors and peritoneal and liver metastases, allowing real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging. The mean tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) was 1.6 for primary tumors and 1.7 for metastatic lesions. One false-positive lesion was detected (CEA-expressing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm). False-negativity was seen twice as a consequence of overlying blood or tissue that blocked the fluorescent signal. Conclusion: The use of a fluorescent-labeled anti-CEA antibody was safe and feasible for the intraoperative detection of both primary PDAC and metastases. These results warrant further research to determine the impact of this technique on clinical decision making and overall survival.
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In recent years, the use of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) to treat benign and malignant visceral, hepatobiliary and pancreatic neoplasms has significantly increased. FGS relies on the fluorescence signal emitted by injected substances (fluorophores) after being illuminated by ad hoc laser sources to help guide the surgical procedure and provide the surgeon with real-time visualization of the fluorescent structures of interest that would be otherwise invisible. This review surveys and discusses the most common and emerging clinical applications of indocyanine green (ICG)-based fluorescence in visceral, hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery. The analysis, findings, and discussion presented here rely on the authors’ significant experience with this technique in their medical institutions, an up-to-date review of the most relevant articles published on this topic between 2014 and 2018, and lengthy discussions with key opinion leaders in the field during recent conferences and congresses. For each application, the benefits and limitations of this technique, as well as applicable future directions, are described. The imaging of fluorescence emitted by ICG is a simple, fast, relatively inexpensive, and harmless tool with numerous different applications in surgery for both neoplasms and benign pathologies of the visceral and hepatobiliary systems. The ever-increasing availability of visual systems that can utilize this tool will transform some of these applications into the standard of care in the near future. Further studies are needed to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each application of ICG-based fluorescence imaging in abdominal surgery.
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Background: The advent of image-guided video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (iVATS) has allowed the simultaneous localization and removal of small lung nodules. The aim of this study is to detail, in a retrospective review, one institution's experience using iVATS in this clinical setting, with a special attention to efficacy, safety, and procedural details. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Between October 2016 and January 2018, a total of 95 patients with 100 small lung nodules underwent iVATS. All procedures were performed in a hybrid operating room (HOR) in which a cone-beam computed tomography (CT) apparatus and a laser navigation system were present. Results: The mean size of the 100 lung nodules was 7.94 mm, with their mean depth from the visceral pleura being 10 mm. A total of 98 nodules were successfully localized; of them, 94 were resected through a marker-guided procedure. There were four resection failures [wire dislodgement (n=2) or dye spillage (n=2)]). A significant inverse association was found between localization time (mean: 21.19 min) and the surgeon's experience (Pearson's r=-0.632; P<0.001). The mean length of hospital stay was 4.87 days and there were no perioperative deaths. Conclusions: In the current context of an increase in early diagnosis of lung cancer by screening programs, iVATS performed in a HOR offers a safe and efficient option for simultaneous localization and removal of small pulmonary nodules.
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Background and objectives: Image-guided navigation is an effective intra-operative technology in select surgical sub-specialties. Laparoscopic and open lymph node biopsy are frequently undertaken to obtain adequate tissue of difficult lesions. Image-guided navigation may positively augment the precision and success of surgical lymph node biopsies. Methods: In this prospective pilot study, pre-operative imaging was uploaded into the navigation platform software, which superimposed the imaging and the subject's real-time anatomy. This required anatomical landmarks on the subject's body to be spatially registered with the platform using an infrared camera. This was then used to guide dissection and biopsy in laparoscopic and subcutaneous biopsies. Results: Image-guided lymph node biopsy was undertaken in 15 cases. Successful biopsy locations included: retroperitoneum, porta hepatis, mesentery, iliac region, para-aortic, axilla, and inguinal region. There was an 87% total absolute success rate in biopsies (89% in laparoscopic image-guided navigation [LIGN] and 83% in subcutaneous image-guided navigation [SIGN]). There was a 92% absolute success rate in lesions with fixed locations. There was a 67% absolute success rate in lesions with mobile locations. Conclusion: The investigators successfully incorporated image-guidance into surgical biopsy of lymph nodes in a diverse variety of locations. This image-guided technique for surgical biopsy can accurately and safely localize target lesions minimizing unnecessary dissection, conversion to open procedure, and re-operation for further tissue characterization. This technique was useful in the morbidly obese, instances of limited foci of disease, PET-active lesions, identifying areas of highest PET-avidity, and lesions with critical surrounding anatomy.
Objective: To examine the impact of integrated hybrid operating rooms for endoscope-assisted microsurgery using the presigmoid retrolabyrinthine (RL) approach, and to determine the value of simultaneous supervision of skull base endoscopic procedures by microscope. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed endoscope-assisted surgery using the RL approach at our institution between September 2013 and January 2017. The simultaneous supervision of endoscopic procedures by microscope was realized using the integrated hybrid system. Intra- or postoperative complications and surgical outcomes were analyzed. All patients were followed for at least 1 year. Results: In total, 32 patients were studied: 4 vestibular schwannomas, 5 cholesteatomas, 8 hemifacial spasms, 5 glossopharyngeal neuralgias, and 10 Ménière's disease. In patients with vestibular schwannoma or cholesteatoma, complete removal was performed in all patients. In patients with Ménière's disease, hemifacial spasm or glossopharyngeal neuralgia, satisfactory symptom relief was achieved in all patients. Two (6.3%) patients had hearing loss after surgery which did not recover. One (3.1%) patient with vestibular schwannoma had mild facial palsy (HB III) at 2 weeks after the operation and recovered to near normal facial nerve function (HB II) at 1 year after surgery. No permanent or transient dysfunction of the trigeminal nerve or the lower cranial nerves was observed during follow-up. No complications such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage or meningitis were observed. Conclusion: The endoscope provided a clearer and larger view, which solved the limitations of surgery using the RL approach. Endoscopic surgery under simultaneous supervision by microscope was safe and efficient in hearing preservation as well as in preservation of facial nerve function. An integrated operation room provided better support and the ability to switch quickly between these various complex devices.
Background: Although emerging evidence has suggested that computer-assisted navigation allows surgeons to plan the optimal level of resection without compromising the surgical margins, the precise accuracy of the procedures has been unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and safety of the musculoskeletal tumor resection using O-arm/Stealth intraoperative navigation assistance. Methods: A retrospective study of six patients with bone and soft tissue tumors who underwent surgical resection using O-arm/Stealth navigation system was performed. The histological diagnosis was osteosarcoma, metastatic bone tumor, leiomyosarcoma, undifferentiated sarcoma, and synovial sarcoma, respectively. Tumor resection was performed according to planned osteotomy planes determined on O-arm/Stealth three-dimensional intraoperative images. The resection accuracy, length of time for the procedures, surgical margins, and perioperative complications were evaluated. Results: The distances between the entry and exit points for the planned and actual cuts were 1.5 ± 0.3 mm and 2.3 ± 0.3 mm, respectively, and the mean discrepancy of the osteotomy angle was 2.8 ± 1.2°. The mean length of time required for navigation was 14 min. A histological examination revealed clear margins in all patients. There were no complications related to navigation, and no patients developed local recurrence during a mean follow-up of 30.6 months. Conclusions: The O-arm/Stealth intraoperative CT navigation system provides safe and accurate osteotomy in musculoskeletal tumor resections. However, surgeons should keep in mind and be careful of minimal errors during osteotomy, which are around 2 mm from the planned line.
Augmented reality (AR) has been successfully providing surgeons an extensive visual information of surgical anatomy to assist them throughout the procedure. AR allows surgeons to view surgical field through the superimposed 3D virtual model of anatomical details. However, open surgery presents new challenges. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the available literature regarding the use of AR in open surgery, both in clinical and simulated settings. In this way, we aim to analyze the current trends and solutions to help developers and end/users discuss and understand benefits and shortcomings of these systems in open surgery. We performed a PubMed search of the available literature updated to January 2018 using the terms (1) "augmented reality" AND "open surgery", (2) "augmented reality" AND "surgery" NOT "laparoscopic" NOT "laparoscope" NOT "robotic", (3) "mixed reality" AND "open surgery", (4) "mixed reality" AND "surgery" NOT "laparoscopic" NOT "laparoscope" NOT "robotic". The aspects evaluated were the following: real data source, virtual data source, visualization processing modality, tracking modality, registration technique, and AR display type. The initial search yielded 502 studies. After removing the duplicates and by reading abstracts, a total of 13 relevant studies were chosen. In 1 out of 13 studies, in vitro experiments were performed, while the rest of the studies were carried out in a clinical setting including pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and urogenital surgeries. AR system in open surgery appears as a versatile and reliable tool in the operating room. However, some technological limitations need to be addressed before implementing it into the routine practice.
Objective: During the last decade, improvements in real-time, high-resolution imaging of surgically exposed cerebral vasculature have been realized with the successful introduction of intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICGVA) and technical advances in intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA). With the availability of 3D intraoperative DSA (3D-iDSA) in hybrid operating rooms, the present study offers a contemporary comparison for rates of accuracy and discordance. Methods: In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, 140 consecutive patients underwent microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in a hybrid operating room. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, aneurysm-specific characteristics, intraoperative ICGVA and 3D-iDSA findings, and the need for intraoperative clip readjustment. The authors defined the discordance rate of the two modalities as a false-negative finding that necessitated clip repositioning after 3D-iDSA. Results: In 120 patients, ICGVA and 3D-iDSA were used to evaluate 134 IA obliterations. Of 215 clips used, 29 (14%) were repositioned intraoperatively, improving the surgical result in all 29 patients (24%). Repositioning was prompted by visual inspection and microvascular Doppler ultrasonography in 8 (28%), ICGVA in 13 (45%), and 3D-iDSA in 7 (24%) patients. Clip repositioning was needed in 7 patients (6%) based on 3D-iDSA, yielding an ICGVA accuracy rate of 94%. Five (71%) of the ICGVA-3D-iDSA discordances that prompted clip repositioning occurred at the anterior communicating artery complex. Conclusions: A combination of vascular monitoring techniques most often achieved correct intraoperative interpretation of complete IA occlusion and parent artery integrity. Compared with 3D-iDSA imaging, ICGVA demonstrated high accuracy. Despite the relatively low discordance rate, iDSA was confirmed to be the gold standard. Improved imaging quality, including 3D-iDSA, supports its routine use in IA surgery, obviating the need for postoperative DSA.
Proficiency-based training has become essential in the training of surgeons such that on completion they can execute complex operations with novel surgical approaches including direct manual laparoscopic surgery (DMLS) and robotically assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS). To this effect, several virtual reality (VR) simulators have been developed. The objective of the present study was to assess and establish proficiency gain curves for medical students on VR simulators for DMLS and RALS. Five medical students participated in training course consisting of didactic teaching and practical hands-on training with VR simulators for DMLS and RALS. Evaluation of didactic component was by questionnaire completed by participating students, who also were required to undertake selected exercises to reach proficiency at each VR simulator: (1) 12 tasks on LapSim VR (Surgical Science, Gothenburg, Sweden) for DMLS, and (2) six selected exercises on the dV-Trainer Mimic (Seattle, WA, United States). The five medical students reached the 60% threshold on the questionnaire-based didactic component. During selected hands-on simulation on VR simulators, students with previous experience with simulators (n = 3) outperformed those without (n = 2) in ten out of twelve LapSim tasks and all six at dV-Trainer, by requiring fewer attempts to reach proficiency although the difference was not significant (p < 0.05). In this work, we developed a proficiency-based training program for medical undergraduates based on surgical simulation for DMLS and RALS.z. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of this program in stimulating interest for surgical career amongst medical students after the qualify.
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a new liquid fiducial marker for use in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for oesophageal cancer. Methods: Liquid fiducial markers were implanted in patients with metastatic or inoperable locally advanced oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer receiving radiotherapy. Markers were implanted using a conventional gastroscope equipped with a 22 G Wang needle. Marker visibility was evaluated on fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI) and conebeam CT (CBCT) scans. Results: Liquid markers (n = 16) were injected in four patients. No grade 2 or worse adverse events were observed in relation to the implantation procedure, during treatment or in the follow-up period. 12/16 (75%) markers were available at the planning CT-scan and throughout the treatment- and follow-up period. The implanted markers were adequately visible in CT and CBCT but were difficult to distinguish in fluoroscopy and MRI without information from the corresponding CT image. Conclusion: Liquid fiducial marker placement in the oesophagus proved safe and clinically feasible. Advances in knowledge: This paper presents the first clinical use of a new liquid fiducial marker in patients with oesophageal cancer and demonstrates that marker implantation using standard gastroscopic equipment and subsequent use in three-dimensional image guided radiation therapy (3D-IGRT) is safe and clinically feasible.