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Pornography and sexuality research papers at the 5th International Conference on Behavioral Addictions

Abstract

The 5th International Conference on Behavioral Addictions was held in Cologne, Germany, April 23–25, 2018. It featured one of the largest concentrations of papers on pornography and sexual research presented in a single venue to date. Several key themes emerged from the conference. The theoretical basis for developing pornography and sexuality studies as components within the behavioral addiction research landscape is beginning to mature. Core components are the I-PACE theory and the development, validation, and employment in field studies of a steadily growing set of assessment tools including the Problematic Pornography Use Scale, the Brief Pornography Screener, and the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory. The field also benefitted from a keynote speech and a formal pro/con debate. The other principal debate was around the imminent release of ICD-11 by the World Health Organization and the way that Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) would be handled. There was a selection of papers looking at the debate from a variety of theoretical and practical points of view. Fieldwork from Poland suggested that well over 80% of people seeking treatment for CSBD had a problem with pornography use, rather than issues from acting out with real sexual partners.
INTRODUCTION
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1#+ 
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1
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 77#
 /"
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:;.%6#
KEYNOTE LECTURE
<"/=>?"
9. !"!!!
"! !/
"
#
. #0%
"%
"%"/#9.-"/
  -
/#)" 
"#-""
2
 "%
"/#
/
" 1*"7;%#
$# '" 
!#0% %  
.""@9%+
"-"/"%"-""
/""%+
"@
<"/". 
/"#9.*
),/"%
-"%*
"#3  ."
9-"AB"9.%
/"/" /"#3!
=!"/%
."%" 
%+#3
" "#
3
9."/" .-
""/" */
"/"#3"/
""1
/""
" #  
%%"
/""%*""#
PRO/CON DEBATE ON BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS
  "/
""/#/""
-"/" /.
!% -"*
/""#
PRO:%&'(

A#2%
"!/2"
/"  C
4
)/)=%=1%"
-"/9"/"!/
//*"#3
""""
"#/"
 %/%"
#
0-%  
""/"#3
 1
""" 
#
3*// /"
" 
%-%*!D
131%/*"41#
3*/
/#
CON:(!(

6E"-%F"-/"
5
6E"-/  .G
)"

*H
 . /"
/ GHD"
# %"
%"/"
"//"#
"I>
/"% /
/""%"%
"%.!%!%/ %
"" !#
"->. #0%
!*/
"*/%-%*),
/"%7#9%
/" 
"% "
234& 
%#F%. 
6
+/ ""
#
PRESENTATIONS
Session: Hypersexual disorder: Relationships with transdiagnostic
measures and clinically relevant behaviors C92#<"
+

J1%3" #K%#L*<M=#4&
""3""/
N%88"%N#O#""
"/"
/""%
"-"#
 /"/K
"#
7
%!
))))

91#9.%(9 6#F#"/%A#P#)&%?##3+9#2#
<"
""N%
%"/"%-"
/""#2%7#:O-"
--%#9- 
/ "% 
#9- " "
#""
.-#9- !
."%"%.
.#" -
-"
-"%/" "+-"
#
,-
,')

8
MK%3" ?#L.%#L*<M%A#1=Q%J#
1=#4&
" /"/%"
3""6"8"/
1%/#  
/"7O*-"# NN#7%
91#*87#""
%'""3-""
3-"*'"#"
-""#"
3"%/""%
 "" "
!#,+"3
//#"
.-"/
*-"% *-"
.#" -" "%
**# /
"/K/#
-.!

6"#="//%(9 3#%F#A?##?
9
"N:(9
/O%N%91#
"-"/"91
"#"/  
91%""/"#
R //-"/"/-/
 '"% 
/*Q"#
!

?#?%(9
"""
-"#3-""3
/8"%",9#
3 /"/%*#
?""%%  
"-  -"#)
""*/
/<P+#"-%
-"  
 
10
#- 
"#1
""-""- 
"#
Session: The diversity of addictive behaviors C</
#!'))
!$

</% =#F%<##A#2
*""$N#8:
*7N%N#*7N#
" .!-"#
"/"-" 
/*"%
-#
#'
A9*A&&&%) A#F *9 &
11
)"/"
"S""/%  
-" "
"/#" 
-".""
;* 4/*"9%4/*"
S?%9*-#
"""/"
/-""*-"
#9!+ "
/*"-/ 
"#"""/
-/*"
" "#
/""/"
-#""//
/*""%"/
#
Session: Compulsive sexual behavior: Characteristics and
diagnostic considerations CAP#)&
12
&$
A"&=%)% ,#<  .%A#2%A#F *
9 &%9#2#<"A#P#)&
"-)!
"9-""1781*#
"%.9%
1*91 -%  "
"--"#9 
-% .9#
?""/T")"%
.% :NO/%7O/ 
%8O/ "/%O
"-O
-"#N#7:91U:#8#
%O8O9
1*91#/
/"" "/#9
"3-"%9-"
9%)9)9
 #2" 
91"1*%"
13
-%
#
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, <  .%) <#9V.A#=
0 "A"9-"
B"A9BW9%::N%/ "#
!"-/ A9B
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#8%91U#8%77#O-"
$N7#%91U7#%8:#O-"#
"")A9B%9-"9
99*)F)9# %
/"  -/"
-">%/ "/
>-".%
-" "#%
 !99*)F#
"/99*)F/ 
-"
/"#9" 99 
-"/#
14
"%"
".9#
"8
-"<.%  .9
"#""A9B%99
)9#
 !+/ "
"-"-%-"
-"99*?# !
/ )9-"-"
!/ )9
-"--"#
/!!
RR%(<
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/ /*/"%
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19A3-"1
<.?% ).
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15
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%-%"/*
"*"#%'" .*
9@-
-%
""#
-'"%R""*"%
" ./= .#9
 *.
/%" /"#
A 9 .-""
"9#9""
-""#A 9 
./""
-"%"%"#
/" -"#
0""
""-"""+
9*9"% 
/9"7#
16

.00
6"#="//%(9 9#)9#2#<"
""*
/
%# "%"/%
#"/T /
%%%(#9#"?#2%
%778O"#"
"/)()(*N%
%)9%A1)(%
"/'""%"
19A*"#
"/#O/ 
"/)9$#4%7O
"! %G
H#
*%*/ 
 %"%"
'""#  
/"#
17
1$
,'22
AP#)&%(9
"!91"
""'"#
/ 91-19A*
1*#"1
2."/"9"
1*#/!""%
"<" %
"/"#
4./""3)&
8)"8#
)&%"!% *
 !1*##
#1*"/. 
 G-H#
" ""91
1 """/%%%
#-
 /""/
#
18
Session: Hypersexual behavior in dierent contexts C;
<&
.$

;,% A#=
 *"9"
9"/*
"#!"%"$#NO/%
7#7%91U#$ .  "*/
"9-"*9,YA."%#F
)! "-+/ "
"C" '"W+W
+"#"!
" 9 %&9"9
#"*9 "
-"%/"%
-"--"
/" #
"% 7N$/%
7#7:%91U#7#"D
19
"D"*9%'""%4Z
-"/%-*%0%
(FF9F
",-?9#
"  
!"C9 %&9"9
#9""T
-"% -O9#
9"+"
" /
*9&"#!"/.
9#
 9//
-"%-"%%
'""-*
#99&" 
/*9"#%9
"+*-"-&9"%
"*9"#
,
6,%=% A#R%#9.%6#<%#F%(#
3%#3#3##<X
20
=%"%-"
N7#%91U#$8 3-"1<.
$"N8#:%91U#NN
'"% %
"A?#2. /
 " 8#N"91U##:N
"91U:##!
9 .% #-"
" " 
3-"*:
#"!
-"/"
 "#
"!"/
/"#
#4#5%6

6[*%9 ?#*%1#=*F%#=\&*
=]6#"-
" -"
"/"
-""/+"#"%
21
%""%*%7
$%$77#"O#
 -"
9-999#
4%""-""% 
-""9#
1+/   
$% %"-"
" '""$# 
"*+"
#
/%*""
'""/ #)
" "/ 7
$#/.
/"-""%"#
.
/-"" "/ 
7$#"NNO .#4%"
49 %
/#3 %

/-"#
22
7
;<&%9 & ,#09#?
9 T=/A
B"%/%"
"/-#""
#/-AB"8*'"
/"/#
!"/'"
" /-#"
8*'"  "/*C
%#
  -
":" "/-
!"$"#
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"N% $#$O
% /. ":#$O%$#$O
$#$O##NO
-"%N#O-"$#:O/-"#
23
"%%
 - .!#
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1<#A%(< A#9
?"/
"*/#3
/"/
/ "/+ @
/ ? 0"%A
9.Q"/"
  -#
+ #0%
. /"**/
 "-
#8%* .
 /
?=)F"
)1#1/
. / /"
 . 
-#""/"/-
24
$* T"
-"""
"A9%8#
9%? 0"%
 #98%
? 0""/> 
".+/
"-#% .
 /-
-*/#?""
""/"""5"
#3 %"*//"
.#1%/-
//*/"% 
%%
"#
Session: Problematic pornography use: Assessing characteristics
in a rapidly changing environment C6"#="//

=?#.%(9 9#2#<"%#K%#J%#L*<M%
=#4&%J#1A#P#)&
25
3. /"*
 " #/ 
"#"
"  -"%
"%-"/"#
1$%N8 8%$7 
"3" #"
)/)"9))9%3-"
%3-"'"9%
9-"/"3B"%(FF9
1319?9#" "())9*)#
&%:8O 8O
"#A-"%
-"*'"/
" #9"%
-"/" #
2 .131"
"%"-9*9.9"/*#
!"   /"
"-Q"#7#O
26
$#8O /"/)/
)(#
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-"%131  %
" /
"#"/ ))9
-"'" -
"-"
 #
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_`.A#=
" //-"
9#" --"
-" N#891U$## 
"#
"/""/ 
*&//"#
  .*
27
""" #1""
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"% '"
 .#
 % /
%"%%T#
0%/ 
 "/
"#4%/
" -"% 
G"+H.#/%"/T
-"/"
#0"/- " /C
*"% "%
/"-GH# /
28
"//2#
''

9%= A#
"!*),A
"#1"%
 % #
"Q"
!#""
"+
**"#.
+./ "
*"#
$-" "
U:#:#
)*".#
**" 
"'"#2/  
**"/%
"**"
#
29
  
  
  /
**"#!"
*.%T" +"
/%-**"
#?" "-"
#
,'!
A9*A&&&%) A#F *9 &
 -" 
AB""#
)9-"9#
- 77" "
"/% "  "G
"H-"   "/
#
9" "%%
"/"#)"  "
/"/""-  
30
"#F/!
""#)"-!
 "::%
"
/!"-"/"%
'""%""+#
!8998892:%

<F &".%) A#=
(9%=99"/.'"
G3"a*?@H
:7#"$OO  GH#
3 %"%/0/." 
/ """#
4/ "%"*"
#)"/ %="% 
"#) 
""*""
/#%//"
>/  
".#."
31
 /#9
%""4/ $
7# "
 /"*D/#
?/""
O4/$O4/7#
  "/"
""#
""%/#
=%%&%
5"// 
#-O
 #"" 
 "/  /
!-"/#!" "
"%// #"
'"%'"
"#
%

92#<"%(9 ?##3+%A#=%,#<  .A#P#
)&
32
!% 
"/"%"
"%)9
)9#!*""D/"
#
%'"%"""
#2. (9UN)U8N
-/"*+$%
/ "/T./
 "#$#$O!
#NO#
"" 
)9# N(9:D
  "%)?A,*
A1%(119*R%9-%)919.%)9%
))(9%3%())9*)1Q",?"9#
%8#NO/"*+)9#4:O
 
" #
," /"
*"#//"" -
33
#)
"" " 
/"#!  .
"/"-""/"
"-#
1 " /
"#)/"  
#
OTHER PRESENTATIONS ON PORNOGRAPHY AND SEXUALITY
 !  //#
?"//
"1#
Session: Cue-reactivity and craving in o"ine and online
behavioral disorders" C
-
''
6 ).%=% A#
+;
69%= 4#<"?#9.
34
Session: Binge behaviors: Conceptualization and underlying
psychological processes"C

AR%=% 6#,%#9.%6#<%#F%9#%
(#3%#3#3##<X
'$
''
!)6
F%=% 6#,%A#R%9#%A##
3##<X
2Minitalk  C
<,%
"0bc].M%&?"/% F#.%
<#b.d"M
DISCUSSION
-+"
"/""#%
</?"9."/"
35
"1* /
"" #F 
% 91 !/234
"1*#
 /
#%&/
'""!#
%"
 !#2-"
"/T"/%
"" 
" #< "3"%)
(9#T9""/T/
/%/" 
"#9-" 
" " 
"#9"""/"/T 
/ .% 
#
9-""/"/ / 
"  //
""#"
"#0
36
-%3-""/
/"%"
, 3"%)=#
,+."
"#)9 !
/
" -**"#
2..2349!"!"/
" " 
7O(9#2*.)"%7O*
/ 8O "/% /"
/"#
3""%7#O$#8O 
/"//"#
"*"/"-
""*
""#
REFERENCES
%)#%A%F#9#%A%9#%3%P##%)&%A#P#YR%
R#7#P%/-" #
37
/)R"8%:*%
#D#7DT#T###8#
K%#%L*<M%#%)&%A#P#%=Q%A#1#%4&%=#Y
1%J##??"
")/9-"%+
/%14C#D$$::##$8$$
K%#%<M%A#%L*<M%#%?%?##%=Q%A#1#%4&%=#Y
1%J#/#))3-"
(F*9P9%+
/%14C#D$$::##$:$7
%A#%9 .%6#%F%#YA %9#7#R
"  "
 #=%
:%$SN#C#7DT#"#7##NN
%)#6###!%.0
3&)"/#%(9#
%P#%3"%9#%"-%6#%<%1#%?"%3#6#% *6%
3#%/%9#%//%A#%?*A%#%2%3#%.%4##Y
=%##234&234/)T
191"
38
"C4 ##R#
8%*#
1%J#,##/
#0R#8%
9"#CDD.#DDD#7D6#8##9"#
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International Conference on Behavioral Addictions. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 24,
217–223. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/10720162.2017.1344167
39
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... This assessment is supported by the author's wide-ranging dialogues with professional, recovery and consumer communities. Since 2016 we have had face-to-face discussions on pornography consumption with over 9000 people in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, France, Germany, Croatia, Hungary, the Ukraine, Turkey, Japan, Australia and the United States [23,24]. ...
... It is apparent from our experience in meeting researchers from all parts of the world [23,24] that the therapists' own knowledge, attitudes and prejudices are very important issues in terms of delivering access to appropriate treatment services. While the Internet brings PUP to all parts of the world, different cultures have different taboos and even blind spots about what is PUP, what is unacceptable behaviour and what sorts of treatment might be considered appropriate. ...
... Similarly, conference reports [23,24] and our informal discussions with both individual problematic pornography users in the community [26] and among sex therapists [15,16], suggest that there are co-morbidities with other addictions, both to substances and behaviours. Developing new and/or improved strategies for treating complex webs of problematic usage are always of value. ...
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The Manifesto for a European research network into Problematic Usage of the Internet was published in May 2018. It was written from the perspective of the COST Action Network, a programme of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology CA16207 and is expected to have significant influence on research funding priorities over the next decade. The Manifesto identified nine key research priorities to advance understanding in the field. Our analysis shows that while at the most general level it identified problematic usage of pornography (PUP) as a key research priority, it then barely mentioned it again within the body of the report. This paper uses the Manifesto’s framework to suggest research areas into the problematic usage of pornography which are of particular relevance to clinicians and other professionals working in the field who want to develop approaches to assist individuals and target groups affected by PUP. It also looks at potential research opportunities inspired by the lived-experience of users withdrawing from PUP. A large number of opportunities are identified for new work on PUP across all nine key research areas of the Manifesto.
... Expanding on the dual control model and prior research (Mead & Sharpe, 2018), we hypothesized that adolescents high in trait impulsivity would have difficulties in delaying gratification (e.g., impulsively using pornography for immediate pleasure) and show higher deficits in response inhibition (e.g., continuation of pornography use despite its negative Table 2. Pornography use, religious faith, depression/anxiety, and impulsiveness as predictors of problematic pornography use at T6. Taken together, the observed role of impulsiveness in adolescents' PPU scores seems to support cross-sectional research among adults suggesting that impulsivity may not contribute as substantially to PPU as initially hypothesized by some scholars (Bőthe, Tóth-Király et al., 2019). However, considering that in longitudinal autoregressive models small regression weights are often of practical importance (Adachi & Willoughby, 2015), impulsivity might play a more influential role in adolescents' PPU than has been suggested in prior cross-sectional research among adults. ...
... As explained in the out of control model, impulsive individuals have a tendency to prefer and select smaller, more immediate rewards over larger, but delayed rewards. Thus, in line with mood management theory, when experiencing negative mood impulsive individuals may turn to pornography to distract themselves from the experienced stressor (i.e., negative reinforcement, Mead & Sharpe, 2018). Moreover, processes of distorted discount delaying, and negative mood suppression also explain why adolescents (showing high levels of impulsiveness and negative mood) continue consuming pornography despite having experienced negative consequences related to PU. ...
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Although considerable research has examined the antecedents of adolescents’ pornography use (PU), little data exist on the underlying mechanisms of problematic pornography use (PPU) in adolescence. To bridge this gap, the current longitudinal study examined the long-term associations between adolescent boys’ PU frequency, PPU, and theory-based predictors of PPU. Testing three conceptual models (the moral incongruence, out of control, and mood management models), we examined the relative contributions of impulsivity, depression/anxiety symptoms, and religiosity to PPU, controlling for PU over time. The analysis was conducted using a panel sample of 337 Croatian men (Mage = 15.9 years, SD = 0.52). Latent growth curve modeling showed that baseline levels of, and subsequent growth in PU predicted later higher levels of PPU, irrespective of participants’ religiosity, negative emotions, and impulsivity. Baseline higher levels of negative emotions and impulsivity predicted higher levels of PPU three years later, even after controlling for the growth in PU over time. Religiosity moderated the association between changes in PU and PPU. Growth in PU resulted in higher PPU among more religious adolescents, compared to their less religious peers. This study’s findings support all three conceptual models explaining PPU in adults and may guide clinical work with adolescents seeking help for PPU.
... On the one hand, due to the virtualization and platform characteristics of e-commerce, goods and services tend to be borderless, and the clear-cut boundary between goods and services in the traditional trade era no longer exists, and a series of fundamental issues such as whether e-commerce applies to GATT or GATS and whether e-commerce is provided across borders or consumed abroad are still outstanding, making it difficult to form a standardized and regulated framework for global digital trade rules [11]. On the other hand, due to the different levels of development, differences in interests, and divergent positions of countries around the world, different countries and regions have taken measures to compete for the right to speak on digital trade rules and the terms that are favorable to them, and the digital divide has further hindered the orderly negotiation of global digital trade rules [12]. ...
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In the process of global digital trade rules negotiation, game and cooperation coexist, and all parties are actively seeking cooperative relationship while negotiating game. Against this background, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of the negotiation process of global digital trade rules and analyzes the core issues of the negotiations and their implied political game. This paper firstly compares the core issues of global digital trade rules negotiations at multilateral and regional levels and quantitatively reflects the weighting relationship between core issues and keywords by means of a dynamic thematic model. In order to judge the potential partnership of each country, this paper constructs a theoretical model of partner selection for global digital trade rules negotiation from the perspective of political game and uses the data of 62 major digital trade countries for empirical testing. Compared with traditional trade agreements, the consensus reached in digital trade negotiations is less influenced by traditional economic geography factors and more influenced by the level of digital trade restrictions and political distance. When signing digital trade terms, a country tends to choose countries with similar levels of digital trade restrictions and high political similarity as partners. Financial restrictions and trade restrictions are the most important digital trade restriction factors that countries pay attention to when negotiating, and political stability is the most important political factor that countries pay attention to when negotiating. Compared with developed countries, developing countries pay more attention to market size, cultural differences, and digital infrastructure when negotiating. The formulation of global digital trade rules may follow a reconstructive path from bilateral to regional to multilateral, promoting regional digital trade rule systems at this stage and gradually expanding the scope of negotiations to the multilateral level. 1. Introduction In the era of digital economy, trade is undergoing the transformation and upgrading of “digitalization,” and, as a primary form and an important part of global digital trade, cross-border e-commerce is driving the rapid transformation and vigorous development of international trade [1]. Cross-border e-commerce emerged at the turn of the century, with Amazon and eBay hitting the European market at the end of the 20th century, marking the official arrival of cross-border e-commerce on the world stage. With the improvement of digital infrastructure and the laying of global logistics networks, more and more traditional enterprises have joined the cross-border e-commerce field, playing an increasingly important role in global trade activities [2]. Under the epidemic, the New Crown Pneumonia pandemic has affected normal international trade transactions, and the unique platform advantages of cross-border e-commerce are increasingly prominent, bucking the trend against the backdrop of a sluggish global economy and driving innovative growth in the global economy [3]. Under the influence of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the e-commerce of global trade has become a prominent feature of international trade, and digital trade will still maintain high growth and usher in new development opportunities. Global digital trade has emerged under the trend of digitization, networking, and platform and is an advanced trade form for the development of cross-border e-commerce, injecting fresh blood and development vitality into the digital economy [4]. Regarding the definition and connotation of digital trade, the World Trade Organization, OECD, EU, and other international organizations have made provisions, and, with the continuous development of digital trade, the definition and connotation of digital trade are constantly supplemented and expanded, becoming a dynamic concept [5]. Digital trade is a digital platform as a carrier, through the effective use of digital technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, and cloud computing, to achieve the accurate exchange of physical goods, digital products and services, and digital knowledge and information and then promote the transformation of the consumer Internet to the industrial Internet and ultimately realize the intelligent manufacturing industry of new trade activities, is the expansion, extension, and iteration of traditional trade in the digital economy era [6]. Cross-border e-commerce and digital trade closely connect the economies of various countries and regions in the world, which is conducive to deepening the international division of labor, promoting the intelligent transformation and upgrading of industries, accelerating the process of trade liberalization, and bringing new growth points and important development opportunities for the global economy. While the global digital trade is booming, due to its virtualization, networking, and platform characteristics, the clear-cut boundaries between goods and services in the traditional trade era no longer exist [7]. In response to the trend of borderless goods and services, the existing international trade rules find it difficult to solve a series of basic problems of digital trade such as regulatory principles and classification system. Digital trade forms a powerful impact and serious challenge to the existing international trade rules system and regulatory enforcement [8]. The establishment of reasonable and standardized digital trade rules globally is the general trend, which is conducive to providing a strong foundation and key support for the efficient and smooth development of digital trade, promoting the cooperation and mutual benefit of trade among countries, and promoting the construction of a new pattern of international trade with digitalization, networking, and intelligence [9]. Therefore, the negotiation of global digital trade rules is on the agenda, and the formulation and reconstruction of global digital trade rules have become the focus of a new round of international trade negotiations and rule competition. Throughout the negotiations on global digital trade rules, since 1997, the issue of e-commerce has received extensive attention at the multilateral and regional levels and has been discussed at WTO ministerial meetings for many times, but no substantive progress has been made; APEC, OECD, G20, and other regional economic organizations have actively contributed their ideas; TPP, TTIP, TiSA, and other mega free trade agreements have also made provisions and clarifications [10]. Despite the extensive attention and important efforts made by all parties, a unified and standardized digital trade rules system has not yet been formed. On the one hand, due to the virtualization and platform characteristics of e-commerce, goods and services tend to be borderless, and the clear-cut boundary between goods and services in the traditional trade era no longer exists, and a series of fundamental issues such as whether e-commerce applies to GATT or GATS and whether e-commerce is provided across borders or consumed abroad are still outstanding, making it difficult to form a standardized and regulated framework for global digital trade rules [11]. On the other hand, due to the different levels of development, differences in interests, and divergent positions of countries around the world, different countries and regions have taken measures to compete for the right to speak on digital trade rules and the terms that are favorable to them, and the digital divide has further hindered the orderly negotiation of global digital trade rules [12]. Based on the above research background, it is necessary to make a comprehensive review of global digital trade rules negotiation at multilateral, regional, and national levels. In the process of global digital trade rules negotiation, game and cooperation coexist, and all parties are actively seeking cooperative relationship while negotiating game. Therefore, this paper firstly compares the negotiation process of global digital trade rules, analyzes the core issues of the negotiations and their implied political games, then constructs a theoretical analysis model to judge the potential partnership and influencing factors of each country, and predicts the future pattern of global digital trade rules. In terms of the core issues of global digital trade rules negotiation, this paper focuses on the digital trade rules negotiation process of two major international organizations, WTO and APEC, introduces machine learning and text mining methods, uses dynamic topic modeling, performs multidimensional feature identification and information extraction, topic identification, and evolution analysis on digital trade texts, and composes the core issues and keywords of global digital trade rules negotiation. This paper describes the change trend and evolution law of global digital trade rules keywords over time and summarizes the core issues and evolution trend of global digital trade rules negotiation. On this basis, the interests and potential political games of major economies such as the US, EU, and China are analyzed in depth in terms of cross-border data flow, intellectual property protection, market access barriers, and digital trade regulation, as well as the possible cooperation relationships among countries on this basis. 2. Related Work The rise of cross-border e-commerce and digital trade has posed certain impact and challenges to the existing international trade rules system and regulatory enforcement. As the basic basis and code of conduct on which digital trade activities are conducted, the negotiation of global digital trade rules is on the agenda, which is of great significance to the healthy and orderly development of global digital trade [13]. The existing literature on global digital trade rules can be categorized into three levels: multilateral, regional, and national, which together constitute the existing global digital trade rules literature system. In recent years, cross-border e-commerce has been developed in full swing, and the advantages of cross-border transactions are increasingly highlighted in the new crown pneumonia epidemic, pulling the global economic innovation growth. In the context of the severe situation of world foreign trade, cross-border e-commerce still maintains a rapid growth trend and becomes a new engine of international trade growth. As an emerging product in the era of digital economy, cross-border e-commerce differs from traditional international trade in terms of trade costs, transaction patterns, and potential risks, and the traditional international trade regulatory principles present a certain degree of inapplicability [14]. The existing international trade rules have been impacted and challenged and are in urgent need of supplementary adjustment and improvement. In terms of trade costs, cross-border e-commerce can significantly reduce the trade costs brought about by geographical distance, which to a certain extent leads to the “death of distance” and also brings new trade costs such as express logistics, online payment, and language differences [15]. In terms of transaction mechanisms, cross-border e-commerce relies on a variety of online platform mechanisms and business models, such as paid search advertising, pricing mechanisms, feedback mechanisms, trust mechanisms, and consumer auction mechanisms [16]. The problem of seller reputation and information asymmetry is increasingly prominent. In terms of potential risks, the development of cross-border e-commerce is influenced by macro factors such as exchange rate changes and credit risks, while personal micro factors such as computer skills, education, nationality, and religion can also have an impact. International trade has entered the stage of “digital for trade,” and the important tasks at this stage are to accelerate the promotion of digital technology application, promote the construction of multilateral and regional digital trade rules, and speed up the construction of domestic rules for digital trade in three aspects. In order to ensure the healthy and sustainable development of cross-border e-commerce, governments and international organizations must make corresponding adjustments to solve the existing problems of international trade rules and regulatory systems, such as accelerating the creation of global digital customs, optimizing customs clearance, logistics and foreign exchange settlement, and other related service systems, and continuously strengthening the market supervision of cross-border e-commerce [17]. At the multilateral level, the negotiation of multilateral digital trade rules represented by the WTO is constrained by multiple factors and has not yet resulted in substantial progress. It is generally agreed that the e-commerce rules under the WTO framework lack progress and cannot meet the needs of the ever-changing digital trade development. Wójcik and Ciszewska-Mlinarič argue that international rule negotiations lack a global consensus to actively build cross-border e-commerce WTO rules [18]. Up to now, the WTO has not formed a comprehensive trade agreement on digital trade and only regulates the operation of digital trade through fragmented treaties. GATS, GATT, ITA, TRIPS, TBT, and other agreements under the WTO framework cover some aspects of digital trade, and many scholars have explored their applicability and analyzed them from the perspectives of cross-border data flow, regulatory measures, trade facilitation, and so forth. The reasons for the slow development of digital trade rules under the WTO framework are, firstly, the difficulty in solving the fundamental problems of e-commerce characterization, classification, and model and, secondly, the sharp opposition of the interests and views of the members. The global digital trade rule-making faces the problems of data monopoly, data localization, data sovereignty, and security which need to be solved. The two-layer game theory has gradually been accepted, and it has become another unique perspective for the study of international relations, and a number of scholars have further deepened and developed the theory on this basis one after another [19]. Although the theory has brought a new perspective to the study of international relations, it has still not been fully theorized, and its implications for international relations itself remain ambiguous. He therefore raises two central issues: What is the meaning of cooperation? And how should the possibility of cooperation be explained? By analyzing these two topics, the two-tier game is further conceptualized. The book argues that the decision-making power of the state is shared by different domestic actors, so the game between actors at the domestic level is based on three variables: differences in policy preferences of actors, domestic distribution of information, and the nature of the domestic political system, as well as the impact that both divided government and asymmetric information can have on cooperation [20]. On the other hand, some researchers have set out to examine the scope of two-tier game theory, whether it can be applied to games outside the economic sphere and whether it can be applied to non-Western democracies [21]. The book explores and demonstrates the breadth of application of two-layer game theory by collecting cases in different fields in different types of countries at different periods of time for study and comparison. 3. Two-Tier Game of International Negotiations 3.1. Static Negotiation Analysis Model of Bargaining Process The static analysis model of the two-layer game is based on Putnam’s two-layer game theory, which is a one-time game and is divided into two processes: domestic game and international game, in which the two processes occur and take place simultaneously. Specifically, the domestic game is played by domestic actors, such as the executive, legislature, and interest groups, who legitimize their policy preferences through formal or informal means based on their own interests and using their own domestic political system models. The international game process involves representatives from both sides of the negotiation table adopting certain negotiation strategies based on the policy preferences of domestic constituencies in order to bring about the intersection of the winning sets of both sides. The basic model framework of the static game can be found in Figure 1.
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