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Ergonomic Impact on Employees' Work Performance

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Abstract

Employees performance is based on various financial and nonfinancial factors out of which, workplace convenience and facilities are important particularly for manufacturing-related employees. This research article attempts to study the impact of ergonomics on the performance of employees. The research was conducted among 80 employees selected using convenience sampling method, in TUBE PRODUCTS OF INDIA, Chennai to identify the factors of ergonomics that support the employees to work efficiently and effectively in TUBE PRODUCTS OF INDIA Chennai.
International Journal of Advance and Innovative Research
Volume 6, Issue 1 (XI): January - March, 2019
231
ISSN
2394
-
7780
ERGONOMIC IMPACT ON EMPLOYEES' WORK PERFORMANCE
Dr. D. Ravindran
Assistant Professor, Kristu Jayanti School of Management, Kristu Jayanti College (Autonomous), Bangalore
ABSTRACT
Session: Economic Policies- Business Management
Employees performance is based on various financial and nonfinancial factors out of which, workplace
convenience and facilities are important particularly for manufacturing-related employees. This research
article attempts to study the impact of ergonomics on the performance of employees. The research was
conducted among 80 employees selected using convenience sampling method, in TUBE PRODUCTS OF
INDIA, Chennai to identify the factors of ergonomics that support the employees to work efficiently and
effectively in TUBE PRODUCTS OF INDIA Chennai.
Keywords: Ergonomics, Employee Performance
INTRODUCTION
Ergonomics is the subject of science which is centered towards human behavior and response with respect to
their sitting, standing, and movement. Ergonomics is considered to be a philosophical concept and human way
of thinking. It is utilized in various areas like aviation, sports, transportation, education, entertainment
equipment and facilities in home, public and workplace. Entire human community benefits from ergonomics
design.
Ergonomics is considered to be a scientific concept with common sense but at the same time, the utilization and
application may not be easy as it needs to be designed and used by the complex people with different
perspectives and preference making the system more complicated to design based on how it can be
accommodated.
The demographic combination with a variety of people in gender, qualification, physical abilities and fitness
and inbuilt qualities with different cultural and social values. Each individual with varying skills, work
experience and knowledge to express reasonable facts.
The workplace may have not required and potentially damaging structural design and arrangements with errors
and institutional obstacles. These challenges can lead to a situation where the employees' health and safety are
questionable. For most of the employees, it is unaware that the ergonomic impact in their workplace is affecting
their mental and physical ability in performing their responsible tasks.
NEED OF THE STUDY
The study is intended to evaluate the effectiveness of ergonomics in the organization.
This research study would help the organization to know the improvisation areas, modification requirements
necessary to provide a suitable workplace for the employees in the organization to get effective results.
This research would help the organization to examine the impact of ergonomics on the performance of the
employees and helps the employer to understand and design appropriate workplace thereby providing
employees additional energy to work effectively and improve productivity.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To study the ergonomic impact on employees performance at Tube Products of India, Chennai.
To identify the factors creating inconvenience among employees to work with respect ergonomic setup.
To suggest valuable suggestions, recommendations to improve the workplace ergonomics at Tube Products
of India.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research design
The Research Design considered for the Study is descriptive research design.
Population Size
The universe chooses for the research study is the employees of TUBE PRODUCTS OF INDIA, (Murugappa
Group of Company, Chennai) population size is 1057.
International Journal of Advance and Innovative Research
Volume 6, Issue 1 (XI): January - March, 2019
232
ISSN
2394
-
7780
Sampling Area
The sampling area was taken from the production plant of TUBE PRODUCTS OF INDIA, (Murugappa Group
of Company, Chennai).
Sample Size: 80
Sampling design: Convenience sampling method
Methods of Data Collection
The study is mainly based on both primary and secondary data.
Primary data: Primary data was collected using an interview schedule by survey method.
Secondary data: The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company
websites, discussion with the management of the organization and also collected from journals, magazines, and
books.
Tools and Techniques for analysis
The following are the various tools applied for analyzing the primary data.
Percentage method
Weighted average method
Chi-square analysis
Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA)
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The sample size is only 80. So the findings may not represent the opinion of the entire population.
The respondent’s opinions may not be accurate because of the chance of misunderstanding, less interest and
involvement to respond properly.
As the research covers the only sample from Chennai, the overall opinion of employees in all branches may
vary.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
According to Smith (1997) stated ergonomics of the workforce is important for the better performance of labors
in the workplace. While Wilson (1995) said the management program considering ergonomic factors will
involve working people in planning and controlling in the work area to reach the desired results in the work.
More et.al(1996) program for ergonomics with employee participation in the packing industry of red meat
resulted in good satisfaction ratings among team members in every aspect of work process implementation.
Narayan et.al(1993) described that the improvements in an assembly plant involving medical devices recorded
reduction in accidents and employee dissatisfaction when tools and machines were designed to avoid awkward
postures, wrists pains, more standing positions etc with appropriate lighting and ventilation set up.
Riel and Imbeau (1997) felt that helicopter manufacturing plant should have arrangements to handle heavy dies,
overexertion and reaction on the body resulting in injuries
Saari (1992) discussed the participatory approach in monitoring waste collection and management and to
improve the safety culture in company with ergonomic considerations. Lanoie and Tavenas (1997) in his
research concluded that participatory ergonomics program reduces employee health disorders in packers
warehouse handling liquor boxes. Ergonomic training and employee safety solutions were essential in
improving workforce efficiency.
Table-1: Showing Opinion Towards the Present Work Postures
Feel about present work postures
Number of Respondents
Highly comfortable
6
7.5
Comfortable
67
83.75
Neutral
6
7.5
Constrained
0
0
Highly constrained
1
1.25
Total
80
100
(Source: Primary Data)
International Journal of Advance and Innovative Research
Volume 6, Issue 1 (XI): January - March, 2019
233
ISSN
2394
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7780
Table-2: Showing Part of Body Movement Frequently of Employees
Part of body
Number of Respondents
Hands
29
36.25
Legs
6
7.5
Neck
1
1.25
Shoulder
1
1.25
Eyes
43
53.75
Total
80
100
(Source: Primary Data)
Inference: From the above table, it shows that most of the respondents require frequent eyes movement while
doing task followed by hands.
Table-3: Showing Factors that Affecting Work Performance of Respondents
Factors
Percentage
Rep
etitive task
56
Performing actions with hands raised above shoulder height
47
Possible of occasional changes
51
Vibration
47.4
Noise distraction
47.6
Impact of room lighting on work productivity
54.2
Influence of room temperature on performance
71.4
Comfortable of furniture setup
71.2
Figure-1: Showing Factors that Affecting Work Performance of Respondents
Inference: From the above table, it shows that the most important factor affecting the work performance of
respondents are room temperature, furniture setup, and repetitive task. The least factor affecting work
performance of respondents are noise, vibration and hands raised above the shoulder.
WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD – Table-4: Level of Satisfaction – Ergonomics
Factors Highly
Satisfied (5) Satisfied
(4) Neutral(
3) Dissatisfied
(2) Highly
Dissatisfied (1) Total Avg
Score Rank
Comfortable
office design &
infrastructure
at work for
work postures
135 196 9 2 - 342 22.80 1
International Journal of Advance and Innovative Research
Volume 6, Issue 1 (XI): January - March, 2019
234
ISSN
2394
-
7780
Fixtures &
furniture in
workplace 65 240 21 - - 326 21.73 2
Comfortable
provision for
relaxing during
leisure time
30 176 84 4 - 294 19.60 10
Easy to
communicate
with other
employees
35 192 75 - - 302 20.13 7
Equipment, tools
& machines for
working 60 236 27 - - 323 21.53 3
Suitable room
temperature 45 204 60 - - 309 20.60 9
Ventilation
facilities 60 196 57 - - 313 20.87 6
Quality of light
for visibility 55 224 39 - - 318 21.20 4
Level of noise
from machines,
equipment, etc 50 184 60 6 1 301 20.07 8
Seating/standing
postures for easy
body movements
at work
65 200 45 4 - 314 20.93 5
Inference: From the above table it is inferred that the level of satisfaction of ergonomics at rank1 is office
design,rank2 is fixtures,rank3 is equipment, rank 4 is light, rank 5 is easy body movements, rank 6 is
ventilation, rank 7 is easy communication, rank 8 is noise, rank 9 is room temperature and rank 10 is provided
for relaxing.
CHI-SQUARE TESTS
The significant difference between Gender of Respondents and Satisfaction level of ergonomics on Office
design
H0 (Null hypothesis) = There is no significant difference between Gender of Respondents and Satisfaction level
of ergonomics on Office design.
Table Shows Significant difference between Gender of Respondents and Satisfaction level of ergonomics
on Office design
Table-5: Chi-Square Test
Te
sts
Value
Df
asymp.sig (2
-
sided)
Pearson Chi
-
square
0.464
3
0.927
Likelihood ratio
0.699
3
0.874
Linear
-
by
-
Linear association
0.047
1
0.828
Calculated Value
Tabulated Value
Significance of Difference
0.464
0.927
5%
Calculated value< Table value. Therefore, H0is Accepted.
Inference: There is no significant difference between Gender of Respondents and Satisfaction level of
ergonomics on Office design.
The significant difference between Age of Respondents and Satisfaction level of ergonomics on Provision
for relaxing
H0 (Null hypothesis) = There is no significant difference between Age of Respondents and Satisfaction level of
ergonomics on Provision for relaxing.
International Journal of Advance and Innovative Research
Volume 6, Issue 1 (XI): January - March, 2019
235
ISSN
2394
-
7780
Table Shows Significant difference between Age of Respondents and Satisfaction level of ergonomics on
Provision for relaxing
Table-6: Chi-Square Test
Tests
Value
df
asymp.sig (2
-
sided)
Pearson Chi
square
13.437
9
0.144
Likelihood ratio
11.176
9
0.264
Linear
-
by
-
Linea
r association
4.362
1
0.037
Calculated Value
Tabulated Value
Significance of Difference
13.437
0.144
5%
Calculated value>Table value. Therefore, H0is rejected.
Inference: There is a significant difference between Age of Respondents and Satisfaction level of ergonomics
on Provision for relaxing.
ANOVA TEST
H0 (Null hypothesis) = There is no significant difference between the Causes of Work-related Musculoskeletal
Disorders of Respondents on Awkward postures and frequent health effects due to wrong workplace
ergonomics.
Table-7: Significant difference between the Causes of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders of
Respondents on Awkward postures and Frequent health effects due to wrong workplace ergonomics.
Calculated value> Table value. Therefore, H0is rejected.
Inference: There is no relation between the causes of MSD and health effects (Fatigue, Headache, Neck &
muscle pain, and High blood pressure). But, there is a relation between the causes of MSD and frequent health
effect due to getting tension.
FINDINGS
The respondents among the employees are mostly male compared to female employees.
Most of the respondents are in the qualification of UG and PG level, very fewer respondents have the
qualification of Diploma and HSC.
Most of the respondents are earning an average salary in rupees between 21000 to 30000 and 30000 to
50000.
From the study, it was found that most of the respondents spend 6-8 hours at their work desk and
respondents spending more than 8 hours is 8.75%.
The study reveals that most of the respondents feel comfortable about their present work postures.
Effects
Sum of
Squares Df
Mean
Square F Sig. Findings
Fatigue
Between Groups
4.65
2
2.33
9.87
0.00
H0 is accepted
Within Groups
18.15
77
0.24
Total
22.80
79
Headache
Between Groups
1.28
2
0.64
2.00
0.14
H0 is accepted
Within Groups
24.67
77
0.32
Total
25.95
79
Neck & muscle
pain
Between Groups
1.54
2
0.77
1.00
0.37
H0 is accepted
Within Groups
59.26
77
0.77
Total
60.80
79
Get tensed more
often
Between Groups
0.12
2
0.06
0.11
0.90
H0 is rejected
Within Groups
43.57
77
0.57
Total
43.69
79
High blood
pressure
Between Groups
4.79
2
2.40
3.77
0.03
H0 is accepted
Within Groups
48.89
77
0.63
Total
53.69
79
International Journal of Advance and Innovative Research
Volume 6, Issue 1 (XI): January - March, 2019
236
ISSN
2394
-
7780
Most of the respondents feel that their eyes require frequent movements to perform their task, followed by
hands.
From the study, it is found that there is no significant difference between Gender of Respondents and
Satisfaction level of ergonomics on office design.
From the study, it is observed that there is a significant difference between Age of Respondents and
Satisfaction level of ergonomics on provision for relaxing.
From the study, it is found that there is a relation between the causes of MSD and frequent health effect due
to getting tension.
From the study, it is observed that the satisfaction level of respondents on workplace ergonomics is highly
satisfied with office design.
SUGGESTIONS
The suggestions for the findings from the study are the following
For the employees, the comfortable provision for relaxing during leisure time can be improved. So that, the
efficiency increases.
The arrangement of the tool, equipment, and machines for working can be enhanced for the better
performance of employees.
The level of noise from machines and equipment can be reduced by using appropriate methods else
replacement of old noisy machines can be made.
As most of the employees are regular, the employees can be given periodically training regarding better
work postures and to handle machines and equipment without having health hazards.
The employees can be advised to have a few minutes of relaxation for the eyes, hands, legs etc with exercise
or meditation.
CONCLUSION
In today’s competitive scenario, the limited resources available to the firm must be rationally utilized to enhance
the performance and efficiency of the firm and provide better value to consumers with satisfied employees. This
study had made an effort to study the impact of ergonomic factors influencing employees work performance in
production areas and it can be utilized by all manufacturing enterprise throughout the country to assess the
impact of ergonomic arrangements with their employee performance levels and to make necessary changes
accordingly to reduce the mental and physical problems due to work stress and movements and thereby to
increase their workforce efficiency.
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of the Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, 1-3 April
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Gutnick, L. (2007). A workplace design that reduces employee stress and increases employee productivity
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Hameed, A. (2009). Impact of Office Design on Employees’ Productivity: a case study of Banking
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... People are an essential component of every business process and are critical to the delivery of highquality goods and services. Ergonomics is the subject of science centered on human behavior and response concerning their sitting, standing, and movement (Ravindran, 2019 ). Workplace ergonomics has the greatest impact on employee performance. ...
... Ergonomics is the subject of science which is centered towards human behavior and response with respect to their sitting, standing, and movement. Ergonomics is considered to be a philosophical concept and human way of thinking (Ravindran, 2019). Ergonomics is also concerned with enhancing work performance, by removing the barriers that exist in many work places that prevent employees from performing to the best of their abilities (Isaac & Akpan, 2016). ...
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