ChapterPDF Available
Non-alcoholic Beverages.
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sania Arif*, Aamina Batool, Wahab Nazir, Rao Sanaullah
Khan,§, Nauman Khalid
Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen,
Germany School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University
of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan School of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore,
Pakistan §Institute for Community (Health) Development, Universiti Sultan
Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia
8.1 Introduction
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.), pertaining to the
Poaceae family, has been harvested worldwide for its economical
and medicinal valued products such as drinking cane juice, paper,
pulp, alcohol, xylitol, chemicals, feed, electricity, and biomanure (Li
and Yang, 2015; Xiao etal., 2017). The species stands indigenous to
Southeast Asia as well as tropical South Asian regions. It exhibits a
robust growth in tropical and subtropical regions provided high or-
ganic matter and well-drained soil conditions (pH 7.5–8.5), under hot
and humid environment (Koh, 2009). Sugarcane contains fructose
and glucose and remains the cheapest energy giving crop (Yadav and
Solomon, 2006). The presence of the flavonoids, phenolic acids, and
several other phenolic compounds in sugarcane, allows for an antiox-
idant activity of its syrup and juices (Payet etal., 2006). A total of 70%
of the world’s table sugar utilizes sugarcane as predominant raw ma-
terial for production. Prior to the manufacturing procedures of sugar,
the sugarcane leaves are removed by agro-industries for utilization as
fertilizer and fodder (Srinivasa Rao etal., 2012). During its processing,
various other products like brown sugar and molasses are obtained.
Brown sugar and jaggery are considered healthier than the white sugar
(Fraser-Reid, 2012). Molasses is consumed in the biogas and ethanol
production. The sugarcane wax has shown potential, owing to its cos-
metic and pharmaceutical properties, as a substitute for the expen-
sive carnauba wax. The roots and stems of sugarcane have medicinal
use against many skin and urinary tract infections, cough, bronchitis,
heart conditions, jaundice, anemia, blood pressure, and constipation
(Akber etal., 2011). Raw cane is a popular consumer item in the trop-
ics and subtropics, for curing various diseases and as a delicious drink.
The fresh sugarcane culms are ground to obtain the refreshing
sugarcane juice (ScJ). It is highly nutritious, containing natural sug-
ars, several minerals, vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, starch,
phosphatides, and gums (Nishad etal., 2017; Qudsieh et al., 2001).
Consuming 100 mL ScJ releases, 40 kcal energy, 10 mg calcium, 1.1 mg
iron, and 6 μg carotene in the body. In addition to its cooling effects
(Parvathy, 1983), the juice has been believed to aid in the recovery from
hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, jaundice, cancer, cardiovascular, and uri-
nary diseases (Karthikeyan and Samipillai, 2010; Cáceres etal., 1987).
In the ancient Indian Ayurveda (Ayurvedic medicine), the sugarcane is
employed as a singular drug as well as a combination drug with other
herbs and plants (Anis and Iqbal, 1986; Vedavathy et al., 1991). The
sugarcane exhibits diuretic properties, owing to which it aids in uri-
nary flow and immune stimulatory effects in chickens (Hikosaka etal.,
2007; Akram etal., 2014). Thus, the regular use of ScJ helps the urinary
system, as well as kidneys in performing their optimum function. The
juice is also consumed in combination with ginger or lime juice for
added benefits. Other benefits of ScJ include its uses as a cooling agent,
antiseptic tonic, a laxative as well as an aphrodisiac (Khare, 2008; Singh
etal., 2015). The exceptional potential for food/beverage industry not-
withstanding, ScJ commercialization remains hampered due to imme-
diate quality change shortly after extraction. Fresh ScJ cannot be stored
normally for more than 6 h and commercially it has short shelf life. The
quick fermentation and consequential dark-brown appearance are
caused by large amounts of sugar coupled with trace amounts of poly-
phenols and organic acids. The polyphenol oxidase activity results in
fermentation, rendering the juice unmarketable (Qudsieh etal., 2002;
Özoğlu and Bayındırlı, 2002). Various techniques in the market are
aimed at ScJ preservation through hot water blanching of raw mate-
rials, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agents (Taylor etal., 2005), spray-
drying technology (Nishad etal., 2017), enzyme inactivation through
heat (Yusof et al., 2000), utilization of gamma radiation (2–10 kGy)
(Alcarde et al., 2001), and low-temperature storage and freeze con-
centration (Songsermpong and Jittanit, 2010). These techniques are
directed at minimizing quality changes to increase sugarcane shelf life.
Apart from sugar production, the ScJ is also utilized for the syn-
thesis of other noteworthy products like molasses, jaggery, and
brown sugar. A detailed study of the phytochemical profile of ScJ
allows for comprehending the phytochemistry of non-centrifugal
sugar (jaggery), molasses, and brown sugar. Moreover, the phys-
iochemical characteristics of the sugarcane are also influenced by
variations in cane variety, agroclimatic conditions, and process
parameters (Alves etal., 2014). It is very important to analyze the
quality of ScJ for commercialization, refining sugarcane, breed-
ing, cultivation, and production management (Thilagavathi and
Hemalatha, 2016). Thus, the theme of this chapter is to highlight the
physiochemical characteristics, nutritional, and medical properties
of the ScJ.
8.2 Physiochemical Characteristics
The reducing and nonreducing sugars, organic acids, amino ac-
ids, proteins, and salts constitute the soluble components of juice
while the suspended particles constitute the non-soluble part (Kuma r,
2009; Doherty and Rackemann, 2008). The chemical profile shows
(Table8.1) that it contains 10%–21% nonreducing sugar, 13%–15% su-
crose, 0.3%–3% reducing sugars, 10%–15% fiber, 0.5%–1% organic sub-
stances, 0.2%–0.6% inorganic substances, and 0.5%–1% nitrogenous
bodies (McKaig and Hurst, 1941; Walford, 1996). The relative compo-
sition of the constituents in suspended and soluble phases depends
on the condition, variety, and sugarcane plant maturity, condition of
the soil, and the methods of harvest. The weather situation signifi-
cantly influences dirt level in the juice. The centrifugation has shown
that the particle size of the suspended matter in the juice ranges from
<0.5 μm to approximately 2 mm (Bennett, 1957).
The clarification of juice leaves only a fraction of the originally sus-
pended particles remaining in it, thus allowing for an analysis of the
separated mud. This analysis helps to attain a thorough understanding
of the particle composition. The analysis depicts inorganic materials
in scarce concentrations. The inorganic materials, usually comprising
of silica and other silicates, have particle sizes ranging from 5 to 6 μm.
A considerably high concentration (10%–20% on dry mass) of the fil-
ter cake is comprised of waxy substances, although the proportion of
waxes in juice is very low (Bennett, 1959). This can be attributed to
the specific gravity of waxy particles, which is greater than the sur-
rounding medium, suggesting the inculcation of oil-soluble, nonpolar
substances that are not true waxes. The juice sediments also contain
a sizeable proportion of proteins and polysaccharides (Doherty and
Rackemann, 2008).
8.2.1 Colorants
The characteristic color is imparted to the cane juice by organic
compounds, comprising of carotene, polyphenols, flavonoids, and
chlorophylls. The double-bond unsaturation is a common factor in all
the mentioned classes of compounds. It imparts the color and leads to
complex reactions with other constituent compounds (Honig, 2013).
The plant pigments were incorrectly assumed to be the only reason
for the color of juice before 1971. Several sugarcane-juice components
were identified in 1971, important ones including cinnamic acid,
chlorogenic acid as well as flavones (Farber et al., 1971). After this
development, the juice components were classified into four classes.
These classes inculcate caramels, polyphenolic compounds, plant
pigments, and degradation products of sugars condensed with amino
8.2.2 Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids
Following an extensive research directed at the flavonoid content
in sugarcane, a plethora of old and new flavonoids were identified
and then individually isolated (de Armas etal., 1999; McGhie, 1993;
Table8.1 Sugarcane Juice Composition
(McKaig and Hurst, 1941)
Composition % Content
Sugars Sucrose
Reducing sugars
Inorganic salts 1.5–3.7
Organics Organic acids
Amino acids
Waxes, fats, phospholipids
Insolubles Sand, bagasse, etc. 0.15–1
Smith, 1985). The sugarcane leaves contain a flavonoid, luteolin-
8-C- ( rhamnosyl glucoside) that imparts a radical scavenging ac-
tivity (Vila et al., 2008). The juice, however, had a total content of
160 mg/L of flavonoids, containing luteolin, apigenin, tricin deriv-
atives and among phenolics, sinapic, caffeic, and hydroxycinnamic
acid (Duarte-Almeida etal., 2006). The phenolic compounds in the
ScJ were analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatog-
raphy with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). The analysis de-
picted the presence of phenolic acids such as hydroxycinnamic acid,
sinapic acid, and caffeic acid, along with flavones such as apigenin,
luteolin, and tricin (Fig.8.1). The tricin derivatives amounted to the
highest concentration among all flavones (Duarte-Almeida et al.,
2006). The identified flavones (Fig. 8.2) underwent spectroscopic
and chromatographic analyses. Thus, 3947 O- and C-glycosides
present within the flavones were identified (Vila etal., 2008). Since
then, four new flavones have been recognized and isolated from
the ScJ, comprising of swertisin, tricin-7-O-neohesperoside-4-
O- rhamnoside, tricin-7-O-methylglucuronate-4-O-rhamnoside,
and tricin-7-O-methylglucuronide (Colombo et al., 2009). Among
some identified novel acylated flavones glycosides (Fig.8.3) include
Fig.8.1 Phenolic compounds identified from sugarcane juice. (A) Phenolic acids (31–35) and (B) flavones (36–38)
(Singh etal., 2015).
Fig.8.2 Flavone glycosides identified from sugarcane juice (39–47) (Singh etal., 2015).
orientin, tricin-7-O-β-(6-methoxycinnamic)-glucoside, luteolin-
8-C- rhamnosyl glucoside, and tricin-4-O-(erthroguaicylglyceryl)-
ether (Duarte-Almeida etal., 2007).
Duarte-Almeida etal. reported the relatively high total polyphe-
nolic content of 160 mg CAE/L in the sugarcane juice as measured by
the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure. The report depicted that process of
ingesting 250 mL (approximately one glass) of ScJ, releases 40 mg of
phenolics in the body. Thus, ScJ is a stipulated source of antioxidant
compounds in the human diet. The current soy-based commercial
beverages amount to 18–83 mg of isoflavones/L and provide 32 mg/L
of flavones (Genovese and Lajolo, 2002). In comparison, ScJ is an
established cheaper and better alternative for increased consump-
tion of polyphenolics. The phenolic compounds in sugarcane were
identified through HPLC-DAD, thus proving the presence of phe-
nolic acids (sinnapic, caffeic, and isomers of chlorogenic acid) and
Fig.8.3 New flavone glycosides identified from sugarcane juice (48–52) and from sugarcane leaves
(53) (Singh etal., 2015).
flavonoids (tricin, apigenin, and luteolin derivatives) (Fig.8.4). The
tricin derivative was reportedly present in highest quantity among all
flavonoids, amounting to about 10% of the total polyphenolic con-
tent. The studies carried out by Paton and Duong also showed these
three flavones (tricin, apigenin, and luteolin) in sugarcane extracts,
coupled with chlorogenic acid isomers and chlorogenic acid (Paton
and Dung, 1993).
8.3 Thermophysical Characteristics
Astolfi-Filho et al. (2009) studied the thermophysical charac-
teristics exhibited by industrial-scale sugarcane juice for potential
bioethanol production. The thermophysical properties under con-
sidering included heat capacity (denoted by Cp), thermal conductiv-
ity (denoted by k), and density (denoted by F) of untreated ScJ. The
experiments were carried out in triplicate at the temperature ranging
from 277.4 to 373.4 K. The density of untreated ScJ was determined
to vary from 1044.5 to 1189.5 kg m3, the heat capacity values varied
from 3601.8 to 3802.9 J kg1 K1, whereas the thermal conductivity val-
ues varied from 0.475 to 0.493 W m1 K 1. The average uncertainty of
all the obtained parameters (Cp, k, and F) was obtained. The average
uncertainty of heat capacity (Cp) was 15.4 J kg1 °C1, of density (F)
was 12.8 kg m3, and of thermal conductivity (k) was 0.004 W m1 K1.
Thus, the study showed the heat capacity and thermal conductivity to
increase linearly with temperature, whilst density decreased with in-
creasing temperature (Astolfi-Filho etal., 2009).
Fig.8.4 Concentration of the phenolic compounds (mmol L1) (Duarte-Almeida
etal., 2006).
8.3.1 Microbial Contamination
The ScJ, nutritious as it is, is susceptible to Escherichia coli, en-
terococci, and coliform contaminations. These contaminations arise
from interactions with fecal matter and pose a grave risk of infection
with ingesting the juice (Subbannayya etal., 2007). Food poisoning
can be caused via sugarcane consumption when it is contaminated
by an enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Karmakar etal.
(2011) observed contamination of all the cane juice samples with the
microbes possessing a potential health hazard. The contamination of
the ScJ can occur at various stages of processing, for instance through
improper personnel handling, contaminated sugarcanes or collecting
vessels, roller drum crushers, the filter, and ice addition to the juice.
The cane juice exhibits a short shelf life owing to increased microbial
growth with the passage of time. At room temperature, the microbial
growth increases exponentially as compared to the storage at 4°C
where it increases slowly. It was found that the pasteurization of juice
at 90°C (for a period of 5 min), followed by preservation at 4°C effec-
tively not only reduced the microbial growth but also significantly pre-
vented the growth of microbes. The process of pasteurization reduces
the pH of the juice to 3–4 and this pH range is inapt for the progression
of microbes related to most foodborne diseases (Soccol etal., 1990).
Thus, pasteurization is an effective preservation method for the ScJ,
known to minimize contamination and spoilage. Moreover, the acidity
of the juice slightly alters when stored at 4°C following pasteurization
at 90°C. If the juice is not stored at 4°C, the acidity tends to decrease
with time, from an initial value of 0.11 mol/L. These results indicate
that the pasteurization of the ScJ at 90°C (for a period of 5 min), fol-
lowed by storage at 4°C keeps the required juice characteristics intact
for an optimum duration and significantly increases its shelf life. After
pasteurization, the juice is biologically safe for consumption with in-
tact food value and can be processed and packaged as an acceptable
quality beverage of ScJ (Karmakar etal., 2011).
8.4 Nutritional Value of ScJ
The title of “noble cane” has been popularly attributed to sugar-
cane, and rightly so. For it is highly abundant in sucrose content and
exhibits low fiber content, making it one of the most significant indus-
trial crops of the world. Consuming 100 mL ScJ releases 40 kcal energy,
10 mg calcium, 1.1 mg iron, and 6 μg carotene in the body. Snwalford
etal. identified the composition of juice extracted from cane, espe-
cially the South African variety (Walford, 1996). Table8.2 shows the
detailed composition of the studied mixed juices. Among the carbohy-
drates, the most commonly found monosaccharides were glucose and
fructose, whilst the common disaccharide was sucrose. Polysaccharide
and oligosaccharide concentration depended on the age of cane, time
of harvest, and deterioration during cane delays. These two groups
may influence the process efficiency adversely, as they sustain sucrose
crystallization (Morel du Boil, 1995; Ravelo etal., 1991).
Table 8.3 exhibits the inorganic compounds present in mixed juice
(consisting of water and dissolved ions) as well as the organic compo-
nents. During processing, the phosphates, magnesium, and silica are
removed while other ions remain in solution. The cane variety and soil
condition determine the mineral content of juice (McKaig and Fort,
1938). Ash values (in literature) must be compared with care, as obtained
values are altered with ashing techniques and temperatures employed.
The mixed juice is a concoction containing organic acids, com-
prising of amino acids (nitrogenous kind), and nonnitrogenous
acids. They have been elicited in Tables 8.4 and 8.5. Albeit in small
proportion, the organic acids impart the juice its natural pH (5.2–5.4).
Moreover, they allow the juice the absorbance of sizeable quantities of
base (for instance, lime) with negligible change in pH. This phenom-
enon is referred to as buffering capacity and is attributed to the pres-
ence of aconitic acid (two to three times exceeding in concentration
than all acids combined). The recorded levels of acetic and lactic ac-
ids pertain to juice prior to its degeneration. Under liming conditions,
the acetic acids are enhanced three- to fourfolds within the sample
of diffuser juices (Munsamy and Bachan, 2006; Beckett and Graham,
1989). The liming environment and high pH catalyzes the hydrolysis
of acetyl groups of hemicellulose within bagasse, thus forming acetic
acids. Lactic acid levels serve as hygiene/sanitation sensors at juice
mills, as the said acid is a metabolite for thermophilic bacteria (for
Table8.2 Carbohydrates Composition
in Sugarcane Juice
Carbohydrates Concentration
Monosaccharides Glucose
Disaccharides Sucrose 9.6–10.9
Oligosaccharides 1-Kestone
Polysaccharides 0.3–1.3
Table8.4 Nonnitrogenous Organic Acids
Compositions of the Sugarcane Juice
Acids Concentration (ppm/Bx)
Natural Oxalic
Formed during processing Lactic
Table8.3 Mineral Concentration
of the Sugarcane Juice
Constituents Concentration (Bx%)
Cations Potassium (K2O)
Sodium (Na2O)
Calcium (CaO)
Magnesium (MgO)
Iron (Fe2O3)
Aluminum (Al2O3)
Copper (CuO)
Zinc (ZnO)
Manganese (MnO)
Cobalt (CoO)
Silicon (SiO2)
Anions Chloride (Cl)
Phosphate (P2O4)
Shulfate (SO4)
instance, Bacillus). The juices, once contaminated indicate a level of
over 1500 ppm/Bx of lactic acids, in contrast to accepted normal levels
of 300 ppm/Bx (McMaster and Ravno, 1975). Lactic acid production
indicates loss of sucrose to an extent that for one part of lactic acid pro-
duction, about —one to four parts sucrose is deteriorated. The juice
extraction from the noble cane leads to the presence of free amino ac-
ids in juice. The juice also encompasses trace levels of fats, waxes, and
phosphatides. These trace constituents appear by interaction from
cane leaves and rind (forming 0.1% of brix). Clarification methods al-
low for removal of all unwanted materials (Honig, 2013).
8.4.1 Vitamins
This chapter addresses some studies directed toward vitamin con-
tent of ScJ and resultant commercial beverages. The vitamin B and
D potency determining experiments showed a lack of antiscorbutic
value of ScJ. Research carried out by Delf indicated a low quantity of
antineuritic vitamin. Interestingly, the said vitamin exceeds in value at
upper sections of cane stalks compared to lower portions. Moreover,
the juice obtained by subjecting bagasse to high pressure contains a
higher value of antineuritic vitamin, in contrast with ordinary juice
(Sherman etal., 1922). The juice also encompasses small portions of
vitamin A, and trace levels of vitamin D. The studies carried out by
Nelson and Jones (1930) on ScJs showed that the vitamin C content
suffers a drop with time. The decrease in vitamin C level corresponds
to the storage method employed. At higher temperatures (25°C), the
vitamin showed a steep decrease, but at optimum temperature storage
Table8.5 Amino Acids Composition
of the Sugarcane Juice
Compounds % Dry Solid Protein
Amino acids Aspartic
All others
(4°C), the decrease was slow. The storage method that allowed for
longest vitamin C retention was pasteurization at 90°C (for 5 min) fol-
lowed by storage at 4°C. Increasing the pasteurization time from 5 to
7 min burns the juice. The normal vitamin C quantity reported prior to
degeneration is 4.8 mg/mL (Nelson and Jones, 1930).
8.4.2 Nutrients
Studies directed at nutrient retention with time in ScJ were carried
out by Watanabe etal. (2016). Following a lapse of 3years, the most
abundant retaining ions were potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl). The
anion and cation increase was negatively correlated with sucrose pro-
portion in juice. The two ions collectively accounted for more than
70% of ion concentration in juice. The most dominant cation K+ was
present in the range of 58.1–65.7 mM concentration, while most dom-
inant anion Cl was present in the range of 35.2–39.7 mM. Following
these ions, the third most abundant quantity was of SO42, indicating a
mean range of 13.8–16.1 mM. All ions apart from these were present in
concentrations lower than 10 mM.
Further studies, aimed at understanding ion concentrations and
electrical conductivity correlated with sucrose concentration were
carried out in 2013. A significant (1% level) negative correlation was
observed between concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl and electrical
conductivity stipulated against sucrose concentration. Similar stud-
ies, carried out in 2015 indicated negative correlations for ions K+, Cl,
and EC but not Na+, when stipulated against sucrose concentration.
Interestingly, other ions exhibit a positive correlation against sucrose
concentration. The correlation varies for different ions at each year.
In all, 5% concentration was observed for PO43 in 2013, for Mg2+ in
2014 and 2015. 1% concentration was observed for Ca2+, PO43, and
SO42 in 2015. In 2013, the strongest correlation with sucrose concen-
tration was observed for Cl while in 2014 and 2015, this closest cor-
relation was replaced by EC. A low sucrose concentration was coupled
with high K+ and Cl concentrations that were invariably dependent
on production areas. The EC showed strong positive correlation with
both these ions, and thus was employed as means of nutrient diagno-
sis. The studies recommended that potassium chloride fertilizer (rich
in K+ and Cl ions) used to augment sugarcane production in Japan,
should be supplied in limited amounts following the period when EC
of ScJ during harvest is measured to be high (Watanabe etal., 2016).
Research aimed at observing the correlation between sodium levels
and other nutrients present in sugarcane clones during different stages
of growth was carried out by Thangavelu etal. (2003). A total of 30 sug-
arcane clones of Saccharum cultivars were employed. These clones
were studied during the growth stages from 6 to 13months at monthly
intervals. The analysis of sodium content was made at both immature
and mature crop phases. A low quantity of sodium was observed for
a high sucrose concentration. Thus, a good juice quality was found to
necessitate low sodium levels (consequently high sugars). A low so-
dium quantity in clones also exhibited greater purity and CCS% in the
juice. Nutrients like nitrogen, chloride, magnesium, potassium, sulfate,
calcium, as well as ash, colloids, EC, and reducing sugars exhibited a
negative correlation with sodium content too. All these factors taken into
consideration simultaneously prove that low sodium levels account
for better sugar production. The sodium levels vary greatly for differ-
ing varieties of clones as well as during varying stages of growth. The
sodium content ranged between 22 and 55 mg per 100 mL for different
varieties of clones. A decrease in sodium levels with increase in cane
growth was reported. At 6months, the cane sodium was observed to be
45 mg, and at 22months, only 27 mg sodium content remained. The
mature juice thus exhibited a lower concentration of sodium in contrast
with the immature juice (Rakkiyappan etal., 2003).
Further investigation of nutrient variation within ScJ was done by
Rakkiyappan et al. They employed 13 sugarcane clones at mid-late
stage, and studied obtained juice for chemical composition and tech-
nological aspects. An examination of mud volume, ash, phosphorus,
reducing sugars, and settling time for the juice was made. Significant
differences were observed in these parameters among different clones.
The pol percentage of cane, fiber percentage of cane, and juice volume
per kg of cane showed significant variations too. In contrast, the juice
mud volume, ash content, and settling time remained more or less
constant within clones. The clones that exhibited higher pol percent-
age of cane, phosphorus content, and juice volume were regarded as
better clones. A low content of potassium, fiber percentage of cane,
and reducing sugars was also an indicator of a better clone. Among
these, a high fiber clone 85 R 186 was identified as a promising candi-
date for cogeneration studies (Rakkiyappan etal., 2003).
8.4.3 Health Benefits
The juice of S. officinarum L, or sugarcane is a favored drink for
inhabitants of tropics and subtropics. It exhibits a plethora of health
benefits, owing to which, it is widely utilized in Ayurveda for curing
liver disorders and jaundice (Khan etal., 2015). The tropical sugarcane
is reportedly the richest in juice and the sweetest. The juice is a nutri-
tious product that is a healthy source for energy boost in body, as it
contains iron and carbohydrates (Walford, 1996). Rich in minerals and
organic acids, the juice strengthens the vital organs like kidney, stom-
ach, brain, eyes as well as sex organs. It is consumed during fevers
as it recovers protein loss (Singh etal., 2015). The febrile disorder is
treated with ScJ to curb the loss of protein and other food elements in
the body. The liberal intake of juice also aids in urination. The urinary
flow remains clear and kidney functions are augmented. The juice is
also valuable for treatments of acidity, complex ailments like nephri-
tis, cystitis, gonorrhea, and enlarged prostate. For augmented results,
it is consumed in combination with ginger juice, lime juice as well as
coconut water. The mixture of lime juice and ScJ is a home remedy that
fastens the jaundice recovery.
To obtain all desired health benefits of ScJ, it is imperative that it
is freshly obtained, clean, and prepared at a hygienic spot. In case of
contamination, the supporting effect of ScJ can be reversed (Soccol
etal., 1990), as the immune resistance is already suppressed during
diseases. Apart from ailments, the juice is also consumed directly from
cane to strengthen teeth and jaw muscles. The teeth are cleaned in the
process and vigorously used. In cases of low body nutrition, the ScJ
poses an effective remedy. Effective weight gain is attained through its
regular use (Kalpana etal., 2013).
8.4.4 Antioxidant Activity
Modern medicine has increasingly proposed phenolic compounds
in general and flavonoids in specific as an alternative treatment of
pathologies. Oxidative stresses are relieved through routine usage of
flavonoids such as apigenin and luteolin. A potent antioxidant agent
is present in the cinnamic acids such as caffeic acids. These effects
have been proven in different model systems. Lee etal. analyzed 700
plant extracts and investigates their antioxidant activity. Among these
samples, 28 extracts showed promising activity. The most potent of
the identified agents was apigenin from flavonoid constituents (Lee
etal., 2012). Cholbi etal. (1991) employed 35 phenolic compounds
to observe and analyze their inhibitory action against free radical-
induced microsomal lipid peroxidation. Among all studied agents, lu-
teolin and apigenin showed most promising activity. In light of these
investigations, sugarcane (being a rich reservoir of the polyphenolic
compounds) can be allocated as a natural antioxidant (Cholbi etal.,
1991). The phenolic composition and consequent antioxidant activ-
ity of sugarcane was observed by Abbas. Thirteen different varieties of
sugarcane were evaluated and compared for their inhibition of DNA
damage and anti-oxidation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical
(DPPH) assay was employed to study radical scavenging activities
in leaves and juices. The ScJ and leaves showed remarkable antioxi-
dant properties. The leaves exhibited IC50 values between 20.82 and
27.47 lg/mL whereas the juice gave values ranging from 63.95 to higher
than 200 lg/mL. Thus, it was proven that leaves and juice, inhibit DNA
damage induced by hydroxyl radical generated in Fenton reaction.
HPLC showed the presence of aglycone and glycosides within sug-
arcane leaves. The sugarcane infusion predominantly encompassed
of ferulic acid (14.63 ± 0.03 mg/g), cumaric acid (11.65 ± 0.03 mg/g),
quercetrin (10.96 ± 0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (9.16 ± 0.01 mg/g), and
ellagic acid (9.03 ± 0.02 mg/g). Thus, this thorough evaluation of pro-
tective activity against DNA damage, phenolic, and flavonoid contents
establishes sugarcane as an ingredient of functional food. The sugar-
cane cultivars are a readily available natural antioxidant and protec-
tive agent against degenerative diseases (Abbas etal., 2014).
The remarkable antioxidant activity exhibited by sugarcane
was also investigated by Kadam etal. through different assays. The
oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); 2,2-azobis-3-ethyl
benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS); radical scavenging abilities
using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric reducing antioxi-
dant power (FRAP); and protection of membranes evaluated by inhib-
itory effect over lipid peroxidation was analyzed through these assays.
In addition to these measurements, the phenol and flavonoid contents
were assessed. The samples were aqueous extracts of differing sugar-
cane cultivars. The results showed excellent antioxidant property as
well as inhibition of radiation-induced damage in pBR322 plasmid
DNA and E. coli cultures. These properties were attributed to the scav-
enging of free radicals by ScJ and reduction of iron complex. The juice
may also inhibit lipid peroxidation and is thus a beneficial food source
for enhanced health (Kadam etal., 2008).
In an interesting study, the ability of ScJ to impart its beneficial an-
tioxidant attributes to ice cream was assessed. In this study by Rahman
Ullah, the ice cream comprising of 13% sucrose was supplemented
with 20%, 40%, and 60% ScJ (82, 164, and 246 mL/L, treatments T1,
T2, and T3, respectively). The flavonoid contents of control, T1, T2,
and T3 ice-cream samples were evaluated at 0.18 ± 0.02, 0.51 ± 0.04,
0.92 ± 0.09, and 1.65 ± 0.14 mg of quercetin equivalents/mL, respec-
tively. The DPPH free-radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, and
T3 ice-cream samples were 5.64 ± 0.19%, 16.39 ± 0.15%, 37.66 ± 1.21%,
and 55.78 ± 0.98%, respectively. In addition, nitric oxide free-radical
scavenging activities were 2.36 ± 0.17%, 7.12 ± 0.32%, 18.67 ± 0.55%,
and 42.35 ± 2.36%, respectively. Thus, the supplementation inhibited
the unsaturated fatty acid oxidation during the storage period of 180.
Moreover, the sensory characteristic for the T1 and T2 treatment levels
remained unaltered (Ullah etal., 2015).
8.4.5 Anti-Neurointoxication Activity
The sugarcane (S. officinarum L) extracts were evaluated for phe-
nolic compound content as well the therapeutic influence by Duarte-
Almeida etal. (2006). Consolidating the previous studies, the samples
exhibited a range of phenolic molecules such as flavonoids and cin-
namic acids (luteolin, sinapic acids, apigenin, caffeic, tricin deriva-
tives, and isomers of chlorogenic acid) (Coutinho et al., 2016). The
identification and quantification of phenolic compounds was carried
out through analytical HPLC and photodiode array detection. These
assays confirmed the quantitative predominance of phenolic acids
(particularly hydroxycinnamic, caffeic, and sinapic acids) as well as fla-
vonoids (particularly flavones, such as apigenin, luteolin, and tricin de-
rivatives). These compounds accounted for a content of approximately
160 mg/L, the highest percentage (>10% of the total) being represented
by a tricin derivative. An invivo model of MeHgCl neurointoxication
was utilized to assess therapeutic influence of sugarcane extracts. The
extracts reduced the appearance of disease symptoms and progression
and affected weight gain, consumption of food, and mortality. In paral-
lel studies on spontaneous peroxidation in rat brain homogenates, the
extract exhibits a low IC50 for inhibition. The research consolidates the
perception that high percentage of anti-oxidative phenolic compounds
renders a therapeutic influence to ScJ in relative oxidative stress. In rat
brain homogenates, it was inhibited by the phenolic extract and exvivo
lipoperoxidation was significantly reduced, thus indicating therapeutic
application (Duarte-Almeida etal., 2006).
8.4.6 Antitumor Activity
In recent studies, the therapeutic application of sugarcane against
more complex and degenerative ailments has been assessed. The
therapeutic effect is attributed mainly to the dominance of flavonoids,
such as flavones naringenin, tricin, apigenin, and luteolin derivatives
(Harborne and Williams, 1988; Williams etal., 1996). These flavonoids
inhibit the degenerative process and disease development in cardio-
vascular diseases and cancer (García-Lafuente etal., 2009).
Tricin (3,5-dimetoxyapigenin) has been evaluated for its chemo-
preventive effect against murine gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and
has been approved for further clinical developments (Ninomiya etal.,
2011; Verschoyle etal., 2006). Tricin is present in dominant quantities
in monocotyledons. It has recently been reported to reduce (Cai etal.,
2004; Beatrice Magne Nde etal., 2015; Duarte-Almeida etal., 2007).
Apigenin is another flavone that has been assessed for its antitu-
mor activity in various systems. The bioactivity of tricin, apigenin,
and luteolin in combination could produce synergistic effects and is a
promising avenue for future research (Duarte-Almeida etal., 2006). In
ground-breaking research pertaining to flavones in sugarcane extracts,
Duarte-Almeida isolated and identified tricin-7-O-β-(6-methoxy-
cinnamic)-glucoside and orientin through spectroscopic methods.
The isolated tricin acylated glycoside derivative was evaluated for its
antioxidant activity through DPPH assay. Reportedly, it exhibited an
influence higher than that of Trolox®. On several human cancer cell
lines, this compound exhibited a significant antiproliferative activity
invitro, showing greater selectivity toward cells of the breast resistant
NIC/ADR line (Duarte-Almeida etal., 2007).
Studies were carried out on commercial Brazilian hybrid vari-
ety of sugarcane by Alves etal. (2016). The assessment of nutrient
content allowed for isolation of steroids (stigmasterol, sitosterol,
and campesterol), phenolic acids (acids p-hydroxybenzoic,
p-hydroxycinnamic, vanillic, and ferulic acid), α-tocopherol, ter-
penoids, and β-carotene. Moreover, a novel flavonoid was identified
and termed as aglyconetricin (5,7,4-trihydroxy-3,5- dimethoxyflavone).
The hybrid extracts, in addition to containing novel flavonoids, also
exhibits the cytotoxic activity of mid-polarity against human cancer
cell lines. This cytostatic activity can be attributed to a large percent-
age of phenolic acids and the flavonoid tricin.
The Brazilian hybrid leaves and culms were utilized for ethyl ace-
tate. The methanol partition, hexane, and ethyl acetate were tested at
varying concentration against eight tumor cell lines employing a colori-
metric method for growth inhibition evaluation. The cytostatic activity
was pronounced in ethyl acetate extracts (ranging from 25.8 to 61.8 μg/
mL) and in ethyl acetate partition. Compared to these compounds, the
hexanic and methanolic fractions exhibited lower activity (inactivation
at GI50 > 250 μg/mL) for all observed cell lines. Thus, corroborating the
cytostatic influence of ethyl acetate and prioritizing it for further frac-
tionation. The fractioning indicated a dominance of flavonoid tricin in
the extract. Among the tumor cell lines [glioma (U521), breast (MCF-
7), resistant ovary (NCI/ADR-RES), kidney (786-0), lung (NCI-H460),
prostate (PC-3), ovary (OVCAR-3), and colon (HT29)], tricin showed
promising cytostatic activity against OVCAR-3 (GI50 = 41.1 μg/mL) and
NCI-ADR/RES (GI50 = 70.3 μg/mL). And among the non-tumoral cell
lines [human keratinocyte (HaCat)], tricin showed values comparable
to doxorubicin (GI50 = 69.6 μg/mL). These results established the che-
mopreventive activity of tricin and the inhibitory effects of sugarcane
extracts over cancer cell proliferation (Alves etal., 2016).
8.4.7 Antimicrobial Activity
The preservatives and synthetic pesticides form a part and parcel
of the modern day food processing/culturing. Besides being useful
for augmenting shelf life, these methods pose dire effects on human
health when used without regulation. In order to alleviate the un-
wanted spoilage, natural substances are being studied for their anti-
pathogenic activity. There is a need for antimicrobial substances that
can potentially replace conventional ones. Racowski designed a study
that examined antimicrobial activity of pasteurized ScJ (Saccharum
spp.) against fungi (Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp.).
The antimicrobial activity was assessed utilizing the percent growth
inhibition (PGI) values. The verification of PGI aids in the examina-
tion of colony-growth count inhibited, in comparison with the control
sample. The ScJ was employed in 90% dilution (with water) and ob-
served for 48 h of inhibitory action. A PGI of 84% was observed against
Aspergillus sp. While 41% PGI was seen against Fusarium sp. when ScJ
was diluted to 70% (Racowski etal., 2015).
Another process for observing antimicrobial activity and phyto-
chemical is the disc diffusion method and standard methods. The
aqueous ethanolic extract of S. officinarum exhibited a remarkable in-
hibitory action against gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa). In contrast, the inhibitory effect against gram-positive
bacteria (S. aureus) was observed to be minimal. The results indicate
a robust presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and reducing sug-
ars within the extract, catalyzing the antimicrobial activity. Although
gram- positive bacteria show some resistance, the sugarcane plant bark
exhibits pronounced bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacte-
ria. Thus sugarcane derivatives can be used in bacterial growth control
and treatment of infections (Uchenna etal., 2015).
8.5 Gas Chromatography-Mass
Spectroscopy Analysis of Phytocomponents
in Juice Sample of Indian Cane: Saccharum
The biological activity of a plant is augmented through the presence
of naturally occurring phyto-components. These phyto- components
impart a myriad of activity, including the antifungal, anticancer, or
antidiabetic attribute to plants. These components thus bring about
chelation of free radicals and scavenging of useful substances. The
presence of phyto-components can be assessed through gas chroma-
tography (GC) as well as mass spectroscopy (MS).
MS identifies various components and isolates them, on the basis of
charged ion and mass to charge ratio. Gas spectroscopy simply segre-
gates the mixture into individual components. An analysis of sugarcane
cultivar Mungo 254 (S. barberi) for the phyto-component evaluation
gave the most dominant compound as sucrose (30.64%) with reten-
tion time 12.18. Pentanal, 2-methyl (0.10%) was the compound present
in lowest percentages, with 6.48 retention time (Sharma etal., 2015).
These compounds impart antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-
oxidant, anti-mutagenic as well a hypercholesterolemic activity to
sugarcane extract (Table8.6). The n-hexane extract from the studied
cultivar gave a reported 30 phytochemical compounds. These were
represented by 30 individual peaks within the GC-MS chromatogram.
The highest concentration of sucrose (30.64%) gave retention time
of 12.18. 2-3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone gave a concentration of 18.77%
Table8.6 Pharmacological Activities of the Phytochemicals of the
Substance Desired Pharmacological Activity References
2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone Antimicrobial activity Sung etal. (2007)
Melamine Trypanocidal activity Stewart etal. (2004)
Tridemorph Antifungal activity Srinivasulu and Rangaswamy
Pentanal, 2-methyl- Antimicrobial Jananie etal. (2011)
Levulinic acid Precursor to pharmaceuticals, plasticizers Riemenschneider and Bolt (2005)
4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- Anticancer agent, antifungal activity Rajasekaran etal. (2012)
4-Hydroxydihydro-2(3H)-furanone Antifungal and antioxidant Mathur and Kamal (2012)
3Trifluoroacetoxy tridecane Antimicrobial activity Sarada etal. (2011)
1,2-Benzenediol Use as an antioxidant in electroplating baths, photographic
developer carcinogenic activity
Branch (2004)
Allyl acetate Fumigant activity Kalaiselvan etal. (2012)
2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)- Antifungal, antibacterial activity Oskoueian etal. (2011)
Salicyl alcohol Antibiotic resistance Cohen etal. (1993)
2,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid Anticancer agent Dixit and Singh (2012)
Ethanone, 1-(6,6-dimethylbicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en-2-yl)- Antifungal activity Behtoei etal. (2012)
Syringol Antioxidant activities Zeng (2011)
2-Methoxy-1,4-benzenediol Antibacterial, antidermatitic, antimutagenic, antioxidant,
antiseptic, fungicide, etc.
Sangeetha and Vijayalakshmi
Sucrose Antihiccup, antiophthalmic, antioxidant, atherogenic, collyrium
demulcent, flatugenic, hypercholesterolemic, preservative,
triglycerigenic, uricogenic, vulnerary
Duke (2016)
3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone Antifungal activity Moharram etal. (2012)
n-Hexadecanoic acid Antiinflammatory Aparna etal. (2012)
9-Octadecenoic acid Antiandrogenic, allergenic, hypocholesterolemic Omotoso etal. (2014)
n-Octadecanoic acid 5-α reductase inhibitor, hypocholesterolemic Omotoso etal. (2014)
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid Anticarcinogenicantiatherogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory Jain etal. (2012)
Oleic acid Treatment of skin papillomas Gustafsson etal. (2004)
with retention time 15.12. Furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)
was present in a concentration of 14.90% with retention time 14.90.
Lastly, octadecenoic acid, with a 13.10% concentration and retention
time of 18.13 was identified. Lower percentage components included
pentanal, 2-methyl (0.10%), syringol (0.22), oleic acid (0.20) with re-
tention time 6.48, 9.49, and 19.316, respectively.
The identified components pertain to different classes of esters,
acids, steroids, alkaloids, phytosterols, ketones, etc. Among the identi-
fied compounds, were 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5- dihydroxy-6-
methyl-, oleic acid, 2-desoxy-ribose, and n-hexadecanoic acid. These
compounds are present in higher levels compared to others, as is evi-
dent from their peak properties.
The components that are identified impart different biologi-
cal activities. The antioxidant function is imparted by syringol and
4-hydroxydihydro-2(3H)-furanone. The antimicrobial effect is con-
solidated through the presence of tridemorph, pentanal, 2-methyl,
4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3,dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, 4-ydroxydihydro-
2(3H)-furanone, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-.
The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, nematicide, pesticide, antian-
drogenic, hemolytic, and 5-alpha reductase inhibitor activities are
brought about by n-hexadecanoic acid. Skin papilloma treatment is
augmented through oleic acid. Antitumor and anticancerous activity
have been demonstrated by 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and palmitic
acid. The vasodilator activity during heart failure is exhibited by iso-
sorbidedinitrate. For lower plasma cholesterol levels, the phytocompo-
nent stearic acid is employed. Trypanocidal activity is demonstrated
by melamine, anti-adipogenic actions are shown by 1,2,3-propanetriol
and 1-acetate. Phyto-component that displays carcinogenic activity is
1,2- benzenediol. Lastly, levulinic acid acts as a pharmaceutical precur-
sor. Thus, a plethora of identified phyto-components displays various
significant biological uses.
8.6 Hepatoprotection Activity
The sugarcane extract has been observed to curb hazardous side
effects of lifesaving drugs. For instance, tuberculosis treatment in-
cludes a significant drug isoniazid (INH). Isoniazid reportedly causes
acute liver damage that can be fatal when left untreated. This hepa-
totoxicity induced by a lifesaving drug can be curbed by ScJ usage, as
shown by studies on male albino mice. This evaluation carried out by
Khan etal. investigated oxidative liver injury caused by INH in mice
and the damage-inhibitory effect of S. officinarum L. juice used in
conjunction with the drugs (Khan etal., 2015). The laboratory sam-
ple encompassed of 30 mice divided into three groups designated at
one control (A) and two experimental groups (B and C). All groups
contained 10 mice. The experimental group B received 100 mg/kg
INH per day orally whilst C received INH in conjunction with 15 mL/
kg S. officinarum L. juice, per day. The process was carried out over a
period of 30days, following which, blood samples from group B and C
were collected through cardiac puncture under anesthesia. Moreover,
the liver in each sample was taken out for microscopic evaluation. The
group B or INH treated mice exhibited dangerously high levels of se-
rum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST),
alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin levels (mean ± SEM).
The group C, or INH + S. officinarum L. juice treated mice showed re-
duced levels of the biochemical parameters.
Alternatively, the histopathological analysis of liver structure in
all groups showed normal livers in control group (A), damaged livers
in INH treated group (B), and significantly recovered livers in INH+
S. officinarum L. juice treated group (C). The third group showed
intact histological structure, which was a very promising result. The
hepato-protective effect of S. officinarum L. juice can be attributed
to antioxidant flavanoids and anthocyanins. The INH induced liver
damage can be curbed by coadministration of S. officinarum L. juice
(15 mL/kg bw) to reduce the oxidative stresses (Khan etal., 2015).
8.7 Sugarcane Extract as a Sports Beverage
ScJ is widely popular as an energy-boosting beverage in trop-
ical Asian regions. But the studies that evaluate and establish its
performance-enhancing effect are negligible. A recent study aimed
to assess the sports performance and exercise metabolism in athletes
that consumed the juice, in comparison with commercial beverages
and plain water (PW). The results indicated that a ScJ is equally effec-
tive as commercial sports drink (SpD) during comfortable exercising
environment (<30°C). As a postexercise rehydration drink, the ScJ sur-
passed both commercially designed drinks and PW.
The muscle glycogen resynthesis was observed to be enhanced by
ScJ. Studies encompassing 15 young male athletes (18–25years) asked
to exercise (cycling) till the point of volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2.
The athletes were presented PW at regular intervals during trial 1,
commercial SpD during trial 2, and ScJ during trial 3. An equal quan-
tity of drink, stipulated at 3 mL/kg/BW of 6% of carbohydrate (CHO)
fluid was consumed by athletes every 20 min in all trials. At every inter-
val, the blood sample from athletes was obtained to measure their he-
matological parameters. During the recovery process, a 200 mL of 9%
CHO fluid was consumed by athletes and blood samples were drawn
at 5, 10, and 15 min interval. The glucose levels in blood were observed
to be enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) with ScJ intake. In contrast, SpD
and PW intake did not increase this parameter significantly. But the
total exercise time, heart rate, blood lactate, and plasma volume was
almost equivalent with intakes of different fluids. Thus, ScJ is assessed
as an equally effective fluid, and a more potent rehydration drink com-
pared to SpD and PW (Kalpana etal., 2013).
8.8 Therapeutic Attributes of Dominant
Sugarcane Derivatives
The dominant sugarcane derivatives include jaggery and sugar.
Sugar is produced through a complex manufacturing process that
employs a myriad of chemicals. The white sugar production utilizes
lime, bleaching agents, sulfur dioxide, phosphoric acid, and viscos-
ity reducers. Jaggery on the hand utilizes no chemicals during the re-
fining stages. Thus, white sugar is non-medicinal and only used as a
sweetener, whilst jaggery exhibits medicinal attributes. Also denoted
as “medicinal sugar,” jaggery is particularly potent against dry cough,
sputum alleviation, constipation, and indigestion.
An interesting feature of sugarcane derivates is its enclosure in
ancient manuscripts. These accounts from 2500 years back, speak
highly of sugarcane for its treatment of rheumatic ailments, afflictions
of bile, blood purification, and nutritive characteristics (Karthikeyan
and Samipillai, 2010). Jaggery demonstrates a high-order preventive
action against smoke-induced lesions in lungs. The work-place haz-
ards of industry dealing with smoke and dusty environments can be
avoided by using jaggery. The laboratory tests on rats showed that
turbinado sugar translocated coal particles from rat lungs to tracheo-
bronchial lymph nodes (Seguí etal., 2015).
8.9 Health Significance of Jaggery
Jaggery, also known as Panela, is a rich source of minerals, pro-
teins, and vitamins. These nutrients form the essential constituents of
a healthy diet. Jaggery, in contrast with white sugar, contains a robust
quantity of iron and copper percentage (Seguí etal., 2015). The liberal
vitamin content makes jaggery a superior class of natural sweeteners.
An established blood-purifying agent among tropical inhabitants, it is
classified as an energy food that regulates body functions. The vital
organs retain optimum function through regular jaggery use. It con-
tains vitamin B complex in 1 g/kg concentration, calories in 19 cal/
tbsp, folic acid in 1 mg/kg, calcium in 5 g/100 g, and iron in 1 mg/g
8.10 ScJ in Recombinant Protein
The recombinant proteins are the scientifically produced, en-
hanced protein variants. With established exceeding efficiency for
treatment of a plethora of diseases, these are designated as the medi-
cal magic bullets of the future. The demonstrated potential has led to
an extensive use of recombinant proteins in food processing and ther-
apeutic industries. Among many uses is the wide-scale production of
recombinant protein, insulin, for treatment of diabetes. In addition,
more than 300 recombinant proteins are undergoing clinical trials to
form a part of approved therapeutic treatment for complex diseases
like cystic fibrosis and cancer. These fast-paced developments are still
prone to challenges of cost effectively and safety. It is imperative for
recombinant proteins to be a safer and cheaper alternative if they ever
are to be commercialized. Splicing genes and gene combinations into
organisms that are induced to produce recombinant proteins is the
most popular production method.
Sugarcane (Fig. 8.5) is poised to be an ideal candidate for bio-
pharming owing to its rapid growth cycle, and large biomass. The
recombinant protein production can also benefit from sugarcane’s
storage tissue, as well as the efficient carbon fixation pathway. The
Fig.8.5 Steps involved in recombinant protein production in sugarcane (Mohan, 2017).
recombinant proteins can be easily harvested from sugarcane by
crushing the cane to obtain juice. A large proportion of storage paren-
chyma cells in sugarcane stem is taken up by vacuoles, hence provid-
ing well-developed storage system. The lytic vacuoles can be targeted
for production of high-quality proteins that can easily be extracted and
purified from the juice. Previously no vacuolar targeting sequence was
identified to link heterologous protein storage in sugarcane vacuoles.
A recent study identified the N-terminal 78-bp-long putative vacuolar-
targeting sequence in Triticum aestivum 6-SFT (sucrose: fructan
6-fructosyl transferase). This sequence was a part of the N-terminal
domain of unknown function (DUF). The study exhibited targeting of
green fluorescent protein (GFP) to transgenic sugarcane vacuoles. The
generated transgenic had a gene coding for GFP fused with N-terminal
(vacuolar targeting determinant). The gene production was enhanced
by a strong constitutive promoter (Port ubi882).
Another transgenic sugarcane variant produced in the study in-
cluded lytic vacuole targeted with His-tagged β-glucuronidase (GUS)
and aprotinin. The subsequent isolation and purification of these pro-
teins from sugarcane was done and compared to commercial market
samples. Thus, a localized production of r-proteins was attained that
gave a high yield, purified by market standards through simple steps.
The successful generation of transgenic sugarcane variant provided
a model for protein harvesting with pharmaceutical and therapeutic
applications. The medicinal proteins, oral vaccines, or intermediate
proteins can be produced through this model. The model has demon-
strated successful production of recombinant β-glucuronidase (GUS)
protein. The yield of this partially purified, vacuole targeted protein
was 1 mg/mL of juice. The yield was robust, as 1 kg of stalk synthesized
600–650 mL of juice with an estimated purity of protein at 70%.
Another lucrative factor regarding ScJ is that it contains scanty
amounts of proteins originally (about 0.04%) and thus purification of
heterologous proteins is easier. The expression of these proteins is ro-
bust, thus yield is high. The cells in mature cane contain 80%–85% area
of vacuoles. The large storage target allows for the production of un-
conventional phytotoxic proteins as well, that can be isolated. As with
traditional transgenic organisms, the biosafety issues of sugarcane
stalks are low, owing to the vegetative production of the plant. The
variety of proteins that can be produced through this model is exten-
sive and diverse. This model presents a novel harvest method of direct
delivery of protein through consumption of juice. The juice remains
palatable, thus nutraceuticals can be obtained directly (Palaniswamy
etal., 2016).
Banking on the recent developments, three prospective avenues
of exploitation remain for future research. The thorough and exten-
sive understanding of all components of compounds present in sug-
arcane juice. A precise identification will open doors for exploitation
of metabolic pathways of the promising components. Second, the
components of unrefined sugarcane yield, such as jaggery can be tar-
geted for phytochemical analysis. This will allow an in-depth analysis
of thermostable components of the ScJ. Lastly, the third avenue in-
cludes a phytopharmacological evaluation of sugarcane derivatives.
Despite a large number of identified products from sugarcane, their
phytopharmacological examination remains a neglected area.
8.11 Conclusion
The chapter covered phytochemical and pharmacological research
pertaining to sugarcane extract. Following the trail of the traditional
Ayurvedic system of medicine, the modern clinical trials have now, a
clear evidence of therapeutic activity of the noble cane crude extract.
The status of ScJ as a nutritional beverage is well established owing
to the presence of variable contents of hydrophilic components. The
exhibition of biological activities has rendered this extract a prom-
ising therapeutic agent for future studies. The unrefined products of
sugarcane, along with its extract are the richest source of phenolic
compounds. The phenolic acids, glycosides, and flavonoids together
impart the pharmacological applicability to the juice. The unrefined
products include jaggery, molasses, and brown sugar, whereas the
crude extract includes 70%–75% of water. The presence of lipophilic
compounds in the ScJ is highly improbable. As corroborated by recent
research, the scope for the presence of novel compounds and flavones
in hybrid sugarcane species is very likely, opening further avenues of
biological activity. The sugarcane resource is abundant and cost effec-
tive. Although the S. officinarum species has exhibited the presence of
carcinogenic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), there
is a need for advanced studies to corroborate the presence of these
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... In line with the backward integration programme being promoted by the global sugar industry, these two products have been utilized for the production of a wide variety of materials apart from sugar, which increases their demand, thereby positively affecting the sugar industry (Kaavya et al. 2019). In this regard, SGJ, apart from being used for sugar production, has been utilized for the production of jaggery, alcohol, molasses, and SGJ powder (Arif et al. 2019). SGJ is an energetic, nutritive, non-alcoholic, and refreshing beverage (Arif et al. 2019). ...
... In this regard, SGJ, apart from being used for sugar production, has been utilized for the production of jaggery, alcohol, molasses, and SGJ powder (Arif et al. 2019). SGJ is an energetic, nutritive, non-alcoholic, and refreshing beverage (Arif et al. 2019). Various studies have studied in detail the chemical composition of SGJ. ...
Sugarcane juice (SGJ) has been known to possess nutritious, curative, and preventive properties. However, its use and marketing have been greatly limited due to issues such as preservation difficulty and short shelf life, which come into play due to enzymes and microbial activity. The conversion of the juice into powder has been shown to retain the nutrients of the juice as well as be a sustainable solution to its preservation problems. This study is a review of the documented observations of various researchers on the production of SGJ powder. This study critically analysed for similarities, differences, and trends in reported studies, as well as gave some recommendations to improve the quality of the powder. It was observed that for the production of the powder, the most successful and utilized drying technique is the spray drying technique. Operating parameters such as the choice and concentration of the drying agent, inlet and outlet air temperature, presence of additives, total soluble solids of feed solution, and the atomizer disc rotational speed were observed to affect the yield and the powder properties. Maltodextrin, a drying agent, was observed to give the highest yield and the best sensory and non-sensory properties in relation to other drying agents that have been utilized. The highest yield of SGJ powder obtained is 91.19% of the total solids of the feed material. It is expected that this study would lay the foundation to educate future researchers interested in the production of quality SGJ powder.
... These flavonoids prevent degeneration and progression in cardiovascular diseases and cancer [43]. Modern medicine has increasingly advocated phytochemical compounds and flavonoids as an alternative to conventional therapies for pathologies [13]. ...
... Composition (Arif et al., 2019;Jaffé, 2015;Sahu and Saxena, 1994; comparative analysis among granulated sugar, light jaggery block, regular jaggery block, muscovado sugar, brown sugar, and cane honey was done in terms of TPC assay, total flavonoid content (TFC) assay, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Barrera et al., 2020). The result showed that maximum and minimum TPC and TFC content was measured for granulated jaggery (TPC: 3.64 ± 0.03; TFC: 5.8 ± 0.4) and brown sugar (TPC: 0.58 ± 0.016; TFC: 1.09 ± 0.09), respectively. ...
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Foods as medicine have been utilized from ancient civilizations and shared from generation to generation as dietary health practices. It provides therapeutic assistance along with nutrition and health benefits. Presently, food products, diet, and individual health are receiving a lot of attention and are in high demand. In this context, jaggery is an important part of food and diet in the rural areas of many regions/countries. It is made up of sugarcane juice and is recognized as a natural source of nutraceuticals due to the presence of different types of essential amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant potential along with other biological applications. In this updated review article, we discussed the newest research and information on traditional uses, nutraceutical profiling, chemical composition, and biological applications of jaggery. The published data were collected from different scientific search engines including PubMed, Springer Link, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Wiley online library. Given these findings, we can conclude that jaggery is a strong source of nutraceuticals and its nutraceutical potential can be enhanced with value addition and other scientific interventions. Detailed investigations on preclinical (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) studies along with its actual mechanism of action in depth are required. Additionally, clinical trials also should be conducted to validate the preclinical studies. The main objective of the present study is to provide a systematic and updated review of the scientific data regarding traditional, nutritional, and biological activities of sugar cane jaggery.
... Penelitian sebelumnya berhasil menganalisis manfaat dan kandungan nira tebu terhadap peforma ketika berolahraga [12,13]. Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Kalpana et al. (2013) menunjukkan bahwa pemberian nira tebu pada atlet sepeda memberikan waktu tempuh bersepeda yang lebih lama dibandingkan sport drink dan air putih [14]. ...
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Kelelahan dalam olahraga dapat dipengaruhi oleh ketersediaan substrat energi. Ketersediaan energi yang rendah selama latihan dapat mempengaruhi metabolisme glikogenolisis hati dan produksi laktat di jaringan. Manfaat suplementasi karbohidrat sebelum olahraga diketahui dapat mencegah penipisan glikogen hati dan meningkatkan oksidasi laktat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki pengaruh tebu pada glikogen hati dan laktat darah. Penelitian ini menggunakan 36 ekor tikus Sprague Dawley berumur 8 minggu. Hewan dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol menetap dengan tebu merah (Sedentairl), tebu + renang (GMT), glukosa + renang (Glu), dan aquades + renang (Aqu). Semua kelompok diberi makan glukosa atau sukrosa 0,3 g/100 g berat badan tikus yang dilarutkan dalam 1 ml aquades/100 g berat badan tikus, 10 menit sebelum latihan. Suplemen tebu coklat yang diberikan pada kelompok GMT menghasilkan glikogen hati pasca-intervensi yang lebih tinggi (5,56 mg/dl) dibandingkan kelompok latihan lainnya (p=0,000). Selain itu, peningkatan laktat darah juga ditemukan 50% lebih rendah dibandingkan kelompok Glu dan Aqu (p=0,000). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan suplementasi tebu merah sebagai makanan sebelum latihan dapat mempengaruhi pemecahan glikogen hati dan pergantian laktat selama latihan.
... This sugary drink is a popular summer drink that keeps hydrated and provides many health advantages, as shown in Fig. 1. It provides anti-allergic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective effects to our bodies [1]. Calcium-rich advantages promote the development of the skeletal system, bones, and teeth. ...
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Sugarcane juice (Saccharum officinarum) is a proven nutritious beverage with high levels of antioxidants, polyphenols, and other beneficial nutrients. It has recently gained consumer interest due to its high nutritional profile and alkaline nature. Still, high polyphenolic and sugar content start the fermentation in juice, resulting in dark coloration. Lately, some novel techniques have been introduced to extend shelf life and improve the nutritional value of sugarcane juice. The introduction of such processing technologies is beneficial over conventional processes and essential for producing chemical-free, high-quality, fresh juices. The synergistic impact of these novel technologies is also advantageous for preserving sugarcane juice. In literature, novel thermal, non-thermal and hurdle technologies have been executed to preserve sugarcane juice. These technologies include high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ultrasound (US), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), ohmic heating (OH), microwave (MW), microfludization and ozone treatment. This review manifests the impact of novel thermal, non-thermal, and synergistic technologies on sugarcane juice processing and preservation characteristics. Non-thermal techniques have been successfully proved effective and showed better results than novel thermal treatments. Because they reduced microbial load and retained nutritional content, while thermal treatments degraded nutrients and flavor of sugarcane juice. Among non-thermal treatments, HHP is the most efficient technique for the preservation of sugarcane juice while OH is preferable in thermal techniques due to less nutritional loss.
... It is thought that phenolic food compounds, particu-409 larly flavonoids could have favorable effects on human health. Such compounds, however, are 410 undesirable components in the making process of sugar and are detached from juice through pro-411 cessing (Arif, Batool, Nazir, Khan, & Khalid, 2019;Khan et al., 2021;Zia, Khan, Zeng, Shabbir, 412 & Aadil, 2019). ...
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Refined sugar is a processed product containing 99% sucrose, which is obtained from sugarcane (70%) or sugar beet (30%). In modern societies, sugar continues to play a significant role in the diet, recognised not only for its flavour and special sweetening properties but also for its role in food preservation. On the other hand, a high consumption of refined sugar is associated with non-communicable diseases and many health issues such as a high risk of dental caries, overweight and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Alternatives like unrefined sugars have generated a lot of interest as a healthy substitute due to their nutraceutical properties. This paper is aimed to review the beneficial effects of sugar derived from natural sources and highlight health problems that could be caused by refined processed sugar. Refined sugar is frequently used in variety of items including processed foods, soft drinks or ice creams although it is considered unhealthy due to its high salt and sugar content as well as added fats and artificial coloring. Natural sugars are preferred because they have a high nutritional value and a high concentration of healthy compounds, which offset the negative effects of refined sugar. Therefore, removing refined sugar or at least reducing its consumption should be promoted as a healthier option in food choices.
... As a beverage, sugarcane juice has plentiful medicinal properties, and it is considered to strengthen the stomach, kidneys, heart, eyes, brain, and urinary system (Agarkar et al. 2019). Arif et al. (2019) also mentioned sugarcane juice as a promising therapeutic agent. ...
Sucrose has been the major commercial product of the sugar industry for decades. Sugarcane is a C4 photosynthetic crop and has great diversification potential. It can be used to produce dozens of bioproducts, apart from ethanol, electricity, paper, vinasse, and other green products of commercial importance already being generated. The optimal processing of sugarcane can yield food, feed, biofertilizers, bioplastics, and biomolecules, apart from sucrose of several applications as sucrochemistry. The diversification of the sugar industry would not only enhance the commercial competitiveness of this sector but will also limit the wastes production from sugar mills, offering environmental benefits. Nevertheless, despite the exceptional possibilities of the biorefinery concept of the sugar industry, the industrial adoption of this strategy has remained limited in most of the sugarcane growing countries for some reasons. In the current scenario of sugarcane agroindustry in many areas of the world, sugarcane diversification is crucial for improving the sugarcane value chain, ensuring the efficient exploitation of sugarcane agriculture, and contributing to the 2030 sustainable development goals. The purpose of this review was to carry out an analysis of the factors and constraints that determine the potential of sugarcane supply areas and sugar mills to establish diversification projects. The analysis presented in this study would serve as a useful guide to formulate strategies for optimal utilization of sugarcane crop and sugar industry wastes, by maximizing its benefits through modifying/converting the sugar mills to so-called bio-refineries. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.
... On one hand (and similarly to vinasse), high potassium concentrations are found in juice (0.77-1.31 Bx% as K 2 O [72]) and molasses (30-50% of the bases in ashes [73]), indicating an equally high fertilizing potential. On the other hand (and differently from in natura vinasse), the labile organic content found in juice/ molasses is expected to be fully converted in the proposed AD scenarios, so that the residual recalcitrant organic fraction (COD = 500-1000 mg L − 1 [27]) composed majorly of phenolics derived from plant tissues and some coloring compounds should pose null environmental risks to soil. ...
Energy transition patterns point towards a gas-fueled society in coming decades, whereby natural gas plays an initial leading role. Naturally, biogas will become the primary energy source once gas reserves are depleted, which motivates investigating approaches to efficiently supply biogas-fueled facilities. Sugarcane biorefineries have the potential to become leading biogas producers, based on recent successful experiences on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of primary sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses. This study assessed the techno-economics of operating AD-based sugarcane biorefineries producing electricity or biomethane as alternatives to conventional ethanol production. Scenarios including the processing of molasses or combining juice and molasses in single- and two-stage (acidogenesis + methanogenesis) AD were considered. Detailed energy balance analyses demonstrated that biogas production/processing is much more efficient than ethanol production, with energy return on investment levels (4.33–8.67) at least 4-fold higher than in the case of ethanol (1.06–1.32). Despite the relevant energetic contribution of H2 from substrate fermentation in some cases (up to 9%), extremely high production costs eliminated any trace of economic competitiveness for H2-producing biorefineries (internal rate of return – IRR < 16%) compared to ethanol plants (IRR = 24.9%). However, investing on substrate fermentation (without H2 production) coupled to NaOH-supplied methanogenesis could maintain electricity- (IRR = 26.9%) or biomethane- (IRR = 25.1%) producing plants economically more attractive than ethanol production. While relatively minimum increments in the price of electricity would be necessary to support the first plants, both reducing investment costs coupled with valorizing biomethane would be essential in the latter. Hence, biogas-producing biorefineries may be more than a match for ethanol facilities, and sugarcane has a great potential to play the role of a leading feedstock within the context of energy transition.
Saccharum officinarum L., commonly known as sugarcane, is one of the most widely cultivated crops worldwide. In addition to its global value as the main source of sucrose, sugarcane possesses a variety of bioactivities owing to its myriad constituents. Despite the reported health benefits of sugarcane, phytochemical studies in sugarcane are scarce and its bioactive compounds have still not been adequately exploited. This review presents an updated knowledge of the potential bioactivities of sugarcane and its by-products in relation to its phytochemical profiles. We present a thorough understanding of the pharmacological activities of sugarcane and its by-products with a future prospective for maximizing their benefits as valuable medicinal products, in addition to opening new venues in the field of sugarcane industry. Various techniques used for sugarcane juice preservation as major product to maintain its bioactive compounds and stability are presented which in turn could enhance its introduction to a wider market.
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The sugarcane syrup prepared from fresh sugarcane juice as well as the sugarcane syrup (70o Brix) was processed, packed in three different packaging materials viz., polyethylene (400 gauge) bag (P1), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) jars (P2) and glass bottles (P3) and stored at ambient conditions to study the storage quality. The changes in physical, chemical characteristics, microbial load and sensory scores were evaluated at periodic intervals of 30 days during the period of storage study (180 days). The moisture, pH and total sugar content of sugarcane syrup decreased during storage. An increase in acidity and reducing sugar content of sugarcane syrup were observed at the end of storage. The mineral composition was observed to be high in sugarcane syrup (ash 1.67g/100g, calcium 43.2 mg/100g, phosphorus 42.5 mg/100g and iron 2.22 mg/100g) than sugar syrup. However, there was slight changes were observed in mineral content of the samples during storage. Initially there was no bacterial, fungal and yeast count in control and treated samples. A slight increase in bacterial, fungal and yeast population noticed at the end storage period was found to be within acceptable limits.
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This book provides exhaustive information on several recent technologies that are employed for sugarcane improvement through biotechnology and will be of great interest to plant scientists, biotechnologists, molecular biologists and breeders who work on sugarcane crop. Topics discussed in this volume include genomics and transcriptomics, transgenic sugarcane for trait improvement, potential candidate promoters, new strategies for transformation, molecular farming, sugarcane as biofuel, chloroplast transformation, and genome editing.
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The analysis of the quality indexes of sugarcane juice plays a vital role in the process of refining sugarcane, breeding, cultivation, and production management. The paper analyzes the dynamic laws of five quality indexes (i.e., brix, purity, polarization, sucrose content, and reducing sugar) combined with graphs over time along the course of crushing season (December–March) in Guangxi province of China. During this time, the sugarcane is in the mature stage and hypermature stage. At the beginning of December to early January, during which sugarcane is in the later stage of maturity, the nutrients are accumulating, causing brix, purity, polarization, and sucrose content increase. At the beginning of January to mid-February, due to low temperature and insufficient light, it is not conducive to accumulation of nutrients. However, there is the so-called “sugar back” phenomenon and reducing sugar rises gradually in March, leading to deterioration of the quality of sugarcane juice. The results show that timely harvest of sugarcane is beneficial for sugar making. The regression analysis results show that some of quality indexes have strong correlation between them and the regression models are extremely significant, indicating that the prediction results are ideal.
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The cultivation of sugarcane hybrids (X Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important revenue source for the Brazilian economy. Herein it is reported the evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of mid-polarity sugarcane extracts against human cancer cell lines, as well as the isolation of steroids sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, phenolic acids p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxycinnamic, vanillic and ferulic acid, terpenoids α-tocopherol and β-carotene and a novel substance in sugarcane, the flavonoid aglycone tricin (5,7,4-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyflavone). The presence of large amounts of phenolic acids and the flavonoid tricin may explain the cytostatic activity observed for the mid-polarity crude extract and filtrates.
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Sugarcane is an important agricultural crop in the economy of tropical regions, and Brazil has the largest cultivated acreage in the world. Sugarcane accumulates high levels of sucrose in its stalks. Other compounds produced by sugarcane are currently not of economic importance. To explore potential co-products we have studied the chemical diversity of sugarcane genotypes, via metabolite profiling of leaves by NMR and LC-DAD-MS. Metabolites were identified via in-house and public databases. From analysis of 20 HPLC-fractionated extracts, LC-DAD-MS detected 144 metabolites, of which 56 were identified (MS-MS and 1H NMR), including 19 phenolics and 25 flavones, with a predominance of isomeric flavone C-glycosides. Multivariate analysis of the profiles from genotypes utilized in Brazilian breeding programs revealed clustering according to sugar, phenolic acid and flavone content.
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Sugarcane is an important economic crop in southwest Japan, but its production is decreasing. To increase sugar production, both sugarcane yield and quality should be improved. Fertilizer management is one of the factors that influence sugarcane quality. We accordingly focused on nutrients present in sugarcane juice and attempted to identify the key factors affecting sugarcane quality. We collected sugarcane samples from 2013 to 2015 from all of the sugar mills in Japan and examined the relationships between juice nutrients and sucrose concentration. Juice analysis over 3 year showed that potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl−) were the most abundant cation and anion in the juice and that both negatively correlated with the sucrose concentration. K+ and Cl− concentrations significantly varied depending on production areas and those with higher K+ and Cl− concentrations had a low sucrose concentration. This finding suggests that sugarcane in those areas may have been supplied with these two ions in excess. Electrical conductivity (EC) in the juice always positively correlated with K+ and Cl− concentrations. EC may thus be a reliable indicator of K+ and Cl− concentrations and could be used for nutrient diagnosis because of its ease of measurement. For improving sugarcane quality, we recommend that potassium chloride, which supplies both K+ and Cl− and is a commonly used potassium fertilizer for sugarcane production in Japan, should be used in lower quantities in a year following one in which the EC of sugarcane juice at harvest is found to be high.
Sugarcane is the major cash crop of the Indian tropical and sub-tropical region. Mostly the foremost part of Indian economy is based on sugarcane crop, which is cultivated major state in India. Phyto-components are the compound that occurred in plant naturally and play important role for biologically activity (Anti fungal, Anti cancer Anti diabetic etc), to prevent the many disease, scavenging and chelating the free radicals. In the present study we identified the phytocomponent presence in juice sample of Mungo 254 (Saccharum barberi) through GC-MS analysis. The major compound sucrose (30.64%) with retention time 12.18 and lower percentage compound was Pentanal, 2-methyl (0.10%) with 6.48 retention time. The identified compounds having biological and pharmacological activity such as Antimicrobial, Antifungal, Anticancer, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic and Hypercholesterolemic etc
The aim of the present study was to investigate the spray drying behavior of sugarcane juice with (PSJ) and without (CSJ) citric acid the effects of different levels (10–50%) of carrier agents (maltodextrin (MD), Gum Arabic, liquid glucose and carrot fiber) at varying operating conditions of inlet and outlet temperature and feed concentration during spray drying was also studied. Spray dried powders from PSJ and CSJ were analyzed for physical properties such as wettability, cohesiveness, dispersibility, flowability, hygroscopicity, particle morphology etc. Different correlations between product recovery and operating conditions were obtained. Amongst the different carrier agents used maltodextrin (30%) proved to be the best in terms of sensory properties and product yield. Spray dried powder without citric acid (PSJ) proved to be superior in terms of porosity, flowability and other reconstitution properties with low hygroscopicity. Moreover PSJ powder revealed regular spherical shape with smooth surface and less agglomeration between particles.
Bangladesh has several existing traditional medicinal systems, which are practiced along with modern allopathic medicine. The four major traditional medicinal systems include homeopathy, Ayurveda, Unani, and folk medicine. Ayurveda has an Indian origin and is well established in Bangladesh, the country being a part of the Indian sub-continent. Unani medicine, originally arising from the Greeks and later developed by the Arabs, also has a strong presence in Bangladesh, primarily because of the majority Muslim population. Practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine are locally known as Kavirajes or Vaidyas, while practitioners of Unani medicine are known as Hakims or Hekims. Like allopathic doctors, Ayurvedic Kavirajes and Unani Hakims are located more in the urban than in the rural areas. Folk medicinal practitioners (also known as Kavirajes) practice a more simple form of medicine, particularly in the rural areas, where medicinal plants form the chief and most often only ingredients of formulations. The formulations also are simple, being mainly juice obtained from whole plant or plant parts, which may be orally or topically administered depending on the disease. Medicinal plants also form a major base for Ayurvedic and Unani formulations but are mixed with other ingredients depending on the imbalances in 'humor' leading to the disease (as in Ayurveda) or the 'temperament' of the disease as well as the ingredient (as in Unani). The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the folk medicinal practitioners of Khulna city, which is in the south-western part of Bangladesh. A total of five prominent folk medicinal practitioners were interviewed in the present survey. Among the five, three termed themselves as Hakims, showing the influence of Unani medicinal practices in their folk medicinal treatments. Also surprisingly, among the three Hakims, two were Hindus, which was unusual, for Hakims generally come from the Muslim religion. The other two termed themselves Kavirajes. Although medicinal plants formed the major base for all formulations of all the practitioners, some of their formulations contained additives not observed to be used in other ethnomedicinal surveys conducted by us in other regions of the country and which strongly suggested, particularly Unani medicinal influences. Another unusual feature was the use of a single plant for treatment of wide and diverse type of ailments. A total of 67 plant species were used by the five practitioners. Taken together, the results suggest the enormous potentialities of the plant kingdom in the treatment of ailments, some of which are incurable by modern allopathic medicine. The present survey, conducted in an urban area, further suggests that at least in Khulna city, folk medicinal practitioners may be influenced by other forms of traditional medicine.