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Abstract

Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage, obtained by fermenting sugared black tea, made from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves, with a consortium of yeast and predominantly acetic acid bacteria. In recent times, Kombucha tea has seen considerable increase in interest worldwide and can easily be said to be an emerging popular beverage. The fact that today Kombucha tea is available in multiple forms and flavors is a living testament of the massive amounts of transformation this beverage has undergone through the ages. One of the most important reasons behind the rise of the beverage is its claimed health benefits many of which have been established by scientific research. Of the various health benefits of Kombucha tea, its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer benefits are most attractive and appealing to ever increasing cohort of scientific investigators and entrepreneurs. The last decade saw noteworthy progress toward understanding the beneficial properties of this fermented tea. Scientific reports claim that drinking Kombucha tea can prevent several types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, invigorate liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Moreover, studies show that Kombucha tea is usually more effective than the original unfermented tea with respect to their biological activities. Therefore, Kombucha tea can now be regarded as a health drink and a functional beverage with potential beneficial properties.

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... Black Withered, rolled, fully oxidized (fermented), and dried [4,13,[18][19][20] Green Withered (heated or steamed), rolled/shaped, and dried [4,13,20,21] Oolong Solar withered, rolled/bruised, partially oxidized (semi-fermentation), fixed and dried [4,13,20] White Drying [4,13,20] Black tea originated in Mongolia/China and is currently cultivated in several other countries throughout the world. The highest quality of black tea comes from countries, such as India and Sri Lanka [22]. ...
... Black Withered, rolled, fully oxidized (fermented), and dried [4,13,[18][19][20] Green Withered (heated or steamed), rolled/shaped, and dried [4,13,20,21] Oolong Solar withered, rolled/bruised, partially oxidized (semi-fermentation), fixed and dried [4,13,20] White Drying [4,13,20] Black tea originated in Mongolia/China and is currently cultivated in several other countries throughout the world. The highest quality of black tea comes from countries, such as India and Sri Lanka [22]. ...
... Black Withered, rolled, fully oxidized (fermented), and dried [4,13,[18][19][20] Green Withered (heated or steamed), rolled/shaped, and dried [4,13,20,21] Oolong Solar withered, rolled/bruised, partially oxidized (semi-fermentation), fixed and dried [4,13,20] White Drying [4,13,20] Black tea originated in Mongolia/China and is currently cultivated in several other countries throughout the world. The highest quality of black tea comes from countries, such as India and Sri Lanka [22]. ...
Article
Kombucha is a fermented sweetened tea with a mixed fermenting culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. While the history of kombucha is not completely clear, it is now available around the world and has shown an increase in availability and demand in the United States market. The proponents of kombucha consumption tout the varied health benefits it can provide. The final kombucha flavor and composition is a function of both the initial tea used and the fermentation process. While the ascribed benefits are varied and numerous, the number of direct studies has been limited. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of the chemical composition and the potential health effects both positive and negative reported in the literature.
... Acetic acid bacteria synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polysaccharide by microbial fermentation (Chakravorty et al., 2019). Symbiotic growth of certain bacteria and yeast species is found to be the most efficient system for cellulose production. ...
... Bacterial species present dominantly in the SCOBY are members of the acetic acid bacteria family (Komagataeibacter xylinus, K. intermedius, Acetobacter aceti, A. pasteurianus, and Gluconobacter oxydans) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus and Lactococcus). Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Brettanomyces, and Pichia are the common yeast species found in the SCOBY (Chakravorty et al., 2019;Mukadam et al., 2016;Treviño-Garza et al., 2020). SCOBY containing microbial community adhering to it can be an inoculant for the subsequent batches (Jayabalan et al., 2010). ...
... Also, the database includes various tea types used for kombucha fermentation, such as black tea, green tea, waste tea, and the mixture of green and black tea in the ratio of 2:1. Some other tea varieties like corn silk tea, rooibos tea, oolong tea, white tea, red tea, and puerh tea are also being used widely in the regions of China (Chakravorty et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2013). In addition to these, operational parameters like the surface area and depth of culture vessels also influence the quality and quantity of cellulose produced (Abd El-Salam, 2012; Al-Kalifawi and Hassan, 2014; Ruka et al., 2012). ...
Article
The commercialization of by-product of Kombucha SCOBY (Symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeast) could be the sustainable way of transforming waste into value-added products. This study aims at developing a robust machine learning model for the prediction of SCOBY yield. Concentrations of tea, sucrose, SCOBY, inoculum, pH, temperature, and fermentation time were the input parameters considered. The robustness of the models was studied using correlation coefficient and root mean square error. Among the algorithms studied, XGB (eXtreme Gradient Boosting) was the most resilient model with high accuracy. By hyperparameter tuning and k-fold cross-validations, the model performance was improved to attain an R² value of 0.9048. The relationship between variables was depicted as Pair plot and Pearson correlation matrix. Fermentation temperature was the most influential parameter affecting SCOBY yield. Shapley additive explanations dependence plots and summary plot provided insights on the combined effects of input parameters on the SCOBY yield.
... 2021 becoming a worldwide trend. During its production, different fermentative parameters must be controlled, such as the type of tea, the initial concentration of sugar and inoculum, and the fermentation time [3]. However, these factors are not yet standardized, mainly because it is a drink that can be handcrafted. ...
... Yeast converts the available carbon source into ethanol, which is later converted to acetic acid and acetaldehyde by bacteria. The pH of the drink decreases due to the production of organic acids during fermentation [3,5], contributing to the refreshing sensory characteristics. Figure 4 shows a schematic of the steps in the process to obtain kombucha and it can be observed that during the fermentation process, sucrose is degraded through enzymes, produced by yeasts present in SCOBY, and converted into glucose and fructose. ...
... However, there are no studies on the effect of kombucha on gastrointestinal and microbiota health linked directly to humans [3]. ...
... As kombucha fermentation is typically performed at the household level with a large variety of ingredients and recipes, the diversity of microorganisms recovered from kombucha is very wide. [4,7,11,14,24,[29][30][31][32][33][34] The most characteristic microorganisms in kombucha fermentations are acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Lactic acid bacteria can occur, but do not seem to be an essential part of the kombucha microbial ecosystem as they are not always found. ...
... [35] The kombucha fermentation process typically lasts for 8-14 days at room temperature during which the properties of the sweetened tea change extensively. [33,36] At the start, the medium is aerobic, high in sucrose, and slightly acidic due to the addition of the inoculum. Gradually, the oxygenation of the liquor decreases because of the development of a cellulose layer on top of the fermenting liquor and the consumption of oxygen by the microorganisms in the zoogleal mat and the liquor (AAB and/or yeasts). ...
Article
Kombucha tea is made by aerobically fermenting a sweetened tea infusion with a kombucha culture, a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. The resulting beverage is usually non-alcoholic, sour and refreshing, but not naturally sparkling. Many consumers are drinking kombucha because of its alleged health effects and as kombucha tea is increasing in popularity, consumers are increasingly demanding kombucha beverages of better quality. To better adapt their products to these consumer demands, brewers are looking to the scientific knowledge about kombucha for answers. However, the scientific exploration of this complex naturally fermented beverage is still limited. This review paper presents the current state-of-the-art. To further deepen the understanding of the kombucha fermentation process and to help brewers in their search for higher-quality beverages, the microbial species diversity and its dynamics during the fermentation process should be investigated in detail, as well as the kinetics of the substrate consumption and metabolite production, and the relationship between the substrate and metabolite concentrations, and the consumer preferences for the resulting beverage.
... Kombucha is categorized as a functional beverage, i.e., a drink that promises health benefits beyond any inherent nutritional value. Purported benefits of kombucha tea include anti-inflammatory [5] and antioxidant properties [6], leading to reduction in cardiovascular disease such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertension [7] reduction in cancer progression [1]; as well as improved gastrointestinal functions and invigoration of liver function [8,9]. Antimicrobial properties are also widely reported. ...
... Gluconobacter oxydans [9,13] (Note: Acetobacter is also called Gluconacebacter and more recently Komagataeibacter [14]). The yeasts found in kombucha also vary and include Brettanomyces sp., Candida sp., Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp., Saccharomyces sp., Saccharomycoides sp., Schizosaccharomyces sp., Torulopsis sp., [8,15,16], and Pichia sp. [9,17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha, a domesticated consortium of several microorganisms grown on sugared tea, has been valued as a nutritive health aid for over a millennium. In this study, three cultures of kombucha were obtained from diverse sources. Different inoculation methods were compared, and the wet and dry weights of the nascent pellicles were measured when cultured on several carbon sources. In addition, the anti-bacterial properties of the fermented kombucha teas were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermis. Inoculation with macerated pellicles gave the fastest kombucha growth. The best carbon sources for growth of the nascent kombucha pellicles were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. On maltose, galactose, and lactose, not only did the kombucha pellicles grow poorly but 25% were also contaminated by common airborne molds. Good growth of the kombucha cultures was correlated with low pH of the fermented tea. Antibacterial effects of concentrated fermented teas and vinegar were similar to those of 1 mmol ampicillin against Escherichia coli or 0.01 mmol penicillin against Staphylococcus epidermis. When the pH of concentrated kombucha teas was neutralized, their bactericidal effects were no better than unfermented controls.
... Nanovesicle preparations derived from wild ecotype of KMC showed a killing activity toward B. subtilis, in a context of known KMC antimicrobial properties (Chakravorty et al., 2019), probably due to the hydrolytic enzyme(s), destroying the cell wall of Gram-positive bacterium. On the other hand, total vesicles from UV-illuminated tKMC lost this activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), produced by nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, have potentially useful biotechnological applications in extraterrestrial extreme environments. However, their biological effects under the impact of various stressors have to be elucidated for safety reasons. In the spaceflight experiment, model biofilm kombucha microbial community (KMC) samples, in which Komagataeibacter intermedius was a dominant community-member, were exposed under simulated Martian factors (i.e., pressure, atmosphere, and UV-illumination) outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. In this study, we have determined that OMVs from post-flight K. intermedius displayed changes in membrane composition, depending on the location of the samples and some other factors. Membrane lipids such as sterols, fatty acids (FAs), and phospholipids (PLs) were modulated under the Mars-like stressors, and saturated FAs, as well as both short-chain saturated and trans FAs, appeared in the membranes of OMVs shed by both post-UV-illuminated and "dark" bacteria. The relative content of zwitterionic and anionic PLs changed, producing a change in surface properties of outer membranes, thereby resulting in a loss of interaction capability with polynucleotides. The changed composition of membranes promoted a bigger OMV size, which correlated with changes of OMV fitness. Biochemical characterization of the membrane-associated enzymes revealed an increase in their activity (DNAse, dehydrogenase) compared to wild type. Other functional membrane-associated capabilities of OMVs (e.g., proton accumulation, interaction with linear DNA, or synaptosomes) were also altered after exposure to the spaceflight stressors. Despite alterations in membranes, vesicles did not acquire endotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Podolich et al. Fitness of Post-stress Outer Membrane Vesicles Frontiers in Microbiology | www.frontiersin.org 2
... Several benefits, such as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory potential, make Kombucha popular as a functional beverage or food [11]. Moreover, Kombucha can reduce blood pressure, and also it can inhibit cancer growth [12,13]. Finally, it is necessary to say that Kombucha can be used as a robust material for improving the immune system and function of the liver and gastrointestinal [14]. is wide range of advantages has led to developing the practicality of Kombucha and investigating the role of the microbiome on health [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a valuable traditional natural tea that contains beneficial compounds like organic acids, minerals, different vitamins, proteins, polyphenols, and several anions. Kombucha possesses anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activity as well as hepatoprotective effects. Considering the unique properties of Kombucha, several investigations have already been conducted on its nutritional properties. In this review, an effort has been devoted to pool recent literature on the biomedical application of Kombucha under the objectives, including the chemical composition of Kombucha and industrial production, and highlight different properties of Kombucha. Finally, we explain its adverse effects and prospect. This review is an active, in-depth, and inclusive report about Kombucha and its health benefits.
... Besides, LAB produce lactic acid using glucose and sucrose. As a result, the bacteria produce primarily acetic acid, gluconic acid, lactic acid and form a jellyfish like zoogleal mat where microorganism are attached (Chakravorty et al., 2019). The term of synbiotic is defined as the existence of both probiotic and prebiotic molecules together in food and kombucha is thought to contain probiotic microorganism and microcellulose which acts as a prebiotic component. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a beverage of Manchurian origin, generally prepared from black or green tea by the activity of various strain of yeasts and bacteria, especially acetic and lactic acid bacteria. The products (beverages) is rich in acetic, gluconic and glucuronic acids, and lower concentration of citric acid, as well as limited amount of ethanol and CO2. Synthetized acids cause the decrease of pH value of kombucha tea and contribute to the formation of its characteristic sour taste. This beverage has been consumed by people due to its health benefits for years. Kombucha is considered as a probiotic drink due to the diversity of naturally occurring symbiotic microorganisms. The health-promoting properties of the beverages drives also from short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other metabolites which improve immunity and also show antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects. In this paper, properties of kombucha were reviewed especially by focusing on its probiotic potential.
... Kombucha has gained popularity for its prophylactic and therapeutic features that have been generally reported based on observations, survey-based reports, and testimonials (Battikh et al., 2012a;Vīnaet al., 2014). Although some have been demonstrated by scientific studies, evidence based on human models is still absent (Chakravorty et al., 2019). It has a high antioxidant potential that has been related with prevention of cancer, immune system support, and improvement of joint rheumatism (Deghrigue et al., 2013;Srihari et al., 2013a;Jayabalan et al., 2014;Shenoy et al., 2019). ...
Article
In this study, sweetened black and green tea were utilized as substrate for kombucha fermentation. Linden, lemon balm, sage, echinacea, mint, and cinnamon infusions were added to kombucha to design a novel beverage with improved functional and organoleptic characteristics. After fermentation, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the kombucha increased by 13.96% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH), 48.90% ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 55.54% cupric reducing AC (CUPRAC). On days 0 and 9 of storage, the bioaccessibility of the total phenolics and AC (FRAP and CUPRAC) in all of the samples showed a significant increase after gastric and intestinal digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05). The AC (DPPH) after in vitro digestion at the beginning and end of storage in all of the beverages also increased after gastric digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05); however, it decreased after intestinal digestion (P < 0.05). By conducting in vitro and in vivo studies, the effects of kombucha on health and nutrition need to be further investigated.
... antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antihypertensive, anti-obesity, and antidiabetic properties [1][2][3]. Fermentation has been strongly correlated with an increased bioactivity of tea leaves as has been reported for the microbial fermented Chinese Pu-erh tea, Kombucha tea, and others [4,5]. Miang is an ethnic fermented tea (Camellia sinensis var. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the impact of the fermentation process on the phenolic contents and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in extracts of Miang, an ethnic fermented tea product of northern Thailand. The acetone (80%) extraction of Miang samples fermented by a non-filamentous fungi-based process (NFP) and filamentous fungi-based process (FFP) had elevated levels of total polyphenols, total tannins, and condensed tannins compared to young and mature tea leaves. The antioxidant studies also showed better the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for fermented leaves in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assays as well as improved ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to young and mature tea leaves. Extracts of NFP and FFP samples at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm showed better protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HT-29 colorectal cells without exerting cytotoxicity. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (a proinflammatory mediator as well as a reactive nitrogen species) was also inhibited by these fermented Miang extracts with an IC50 values of 17.15 μg/mL (NFP), 20.17 μg/mL (FFP), 33.96 μg/mL (young tea leaves), and 31.33 μg/mL (mature tea leaves). Therefore, both NFP-Miang and FFP-Miang showed the potential to be targeted as natural bioactive functional ingredients with preventive properties against free radical and inflammatory-mediated diseases.
... The former is a product category currently in expansion (e.g., Colonna, Hasenbeck, Jaeger, & Castura, 2019), and ability to identify consumers who are 'acceptors' vs 'rejectors' may have commercial interests. Many functional health benefits have been linked to kombucha, even if strong evidence for their efficacy in humans are still lacking (Chakravorty, Bhattacharya, Bhattacharya, Sarkar, & Gachhui, 2019;Dufresne & Farnworth, 2000;Kapp & Sumner, 2019). ...
Article
Consumers’ product experiences are increasingly uncovered using approaches that extend beyond acceptability and sensory perception. The present research is situated in this context and adopts a multi-response approach to jointly obtain attitudinal, conceptual, emotional, situational and/or sensorial evaluations. With the aim of greater methodological understanding, three case studies were conducted with samples in three product categories (fruit- and vegetable-based beverages (n = 10), seafood (n = 6) and chocolate (n = 7)) using consumers from New Zealand (n = 196), India (living in New Zealand) (n = 138) and China (n = 167), conducted in central location (CLT) or home-use test (HUT) settings. Showcasing this multi-response approach and demonstrating its versatility in product research is the main contribution of the research. Across the three case studies different combinations of response types and scaling formats were successfully used (including CATA (check-all-that-apply) questions, yes/no questions and rating scales), and it was also found that tasted foods and written stimuli (food names) served equally well as stimuli. The degree of liking or disliking for individual samples was a useful benchmark against which to interpret the other types of responses, and situational appropriateness, obtained as item-by-use (IBU) responses always contributed unique insights. Facial emoji to obtain product-emotion associations yielded less valuable insights than a conceptualisation task. As expected, and in accordance with the rationale for adopting a multi-response approach, the combination of response types yielded greater stimuli insights than would otherwise have been gained. This held for each of the three case studies and supported future applications using a multi-response approach that extends beyond many related initiatives by including four response types in each case study.
... Kombucha is believed to have originated in northeastern China (Manchuria), where it was valued during the Tsin Dynasty ("Ling Chi"), around 220 BC, for its supposed health benefits (Chakravorty et al., 2019). With the expansion of commercial routes, it started migrating to the rest of the world. ...
Article
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Kombucha has been gaining prominence around the world and becoming popular due to its good health benefits. This beverage is historically obtained by the tea fermentation of Camellia sinensis and by a biofilm of cellulose containing the symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The other substrates added to the C. sinensis tea have also been reported to help kombucha production. The type as well as the amount of sugar substrate, which is the origin of SCOBY, in addition to time and temperature of fermentation influence the content of organic acids, vitamins, total phenolics, and alcoholic content of kombucha. The route involved in the metabolite biotransformation identified in kombucha so far and the microorganisms involved in the process need to be further studied. Some nutritional properties and benefits related to the beverage have already been reported. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and antidiabetic and anticarcinogenic effects are some of the beneficial effects attributed to kombucha. Nevertheless, scientific literature needs clinical studies to evaluate these benefits in human beings. The toxic effects associated with the consumption of kombucha are still unclear, but due to the possibility of adverse reactions occurring, its consumption is contraindicated in infants and pregnant women, children under 4-years-old, patients with kidney failure, and patients with HIV. The regulations in place for kombucha address a number of criteria, mainly for the pH and alcohol content, in order to guarantee the quality and safety of the beverage as well as to ensure transparency of information for consumers.
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This study wants to investigate the effects of kombucha tea based on seagrapes on blood glucose levels, total cholesterol, and PGC-1α in Swiss albino mice that were given cholesterol- and fat-enriched diets (CFED). Anti-glycation, tyrosinase inhibitory, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were also determined. Forty male swiss webster albino mice weighing between 20 g–30 g were used for this study. Animals were distributed in random into 4 groups of 10 animals each; group A served as normal control (received standard dry pellet diet), group B were fed on CFED for 4 weeks, and groups C and D were fed on CFED and were administered 150 and 300 mg/kg of kombucha tea from seagrapes (Caulerpa racemosa) (p.o.). In vitro study show that the activity of anti-glycation, L-Tyrosine, L-Dopa, α-glucosidase, and α-amylase inhibition were 62.79 ± 0.78, 9.05 ± 0.16, 27.14 ± 1.62, 90.42 ± 0.77, and 80.44 ± 1.00, respectively. Group C has a better activity in increasing PGC-1-alpha serum in mice than group D (p < 0.05). There were no meaningful differences between group C and D in blood cholesterol and blood glucose reduction (p = 0.222), both groups have the same effect in lowering total cholesterol and blood glucose in mice. In conclusion, kombucha tea from seagrapes has potential as an anti-ageing functional food.
Article
In recent years, the concept of functional foods and beverages is fast capturing the world’s attention. The market growth of functional foods and beverages has been tremendous over the last decade. The reason can be the increased demand for healthy options of food over medicines. Factors such as convenience to incorporate suitable bioactive substances, comparatively easier processing and handling, along with wide acceptance by the population, make functional beverages the most popular category in the functional foods segment. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which is approaching to be the biggest global epidemic of the twenty first century. Due to the increased cost of treatment and probable side effects of the synthetic drugs, the possibility of using natural anti‐diabetic agents have been explored extensively nowadays. Numerous studies are being conducted and the present review tries to cover novel herbal and fruit/vegetable based anti‐diabetic functional beverages, current researches and limitations.
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Kombucha is a functional tea brewed through a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). It is applicable to various industrial sectors due to its several noteworthy features. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the following technological aspects of kombucha/SCOBY: (a) the effect of its production parameters on different scales, (b) microbiota features and factors that affect biofilm formation and fermentation so as to demonstrate its potential applications in different industrial sectors, and (d) how its consumption affects human health according to evidence collected in literature. Its production seldom occurs on an industrial scale and studies assessing its large-scale fermentation process are scarce. Various industrial sectors have benefited from SCOBY, such as the food industry, biotechnological processes and biomedicine. However, industrial applications require optimization of some parameters, such as specific equipment for product standardization aimed at cost reduction and process profitability.
Chapter
Bioactive compounds have been an important subject in food science and technology because of their potential benefits to health and wellness. Given that modern lifestyles have a profound influence on public health and that these bioactive substances are widely distributed in foods of all sources, food processing is an adequate means to increase their bioavailability and prevent losses thus contributing to the control of chronic diseases. In some cases, processing can be instrumentalto make a substance bioactive, as are the cases of isoflavones, isothiocyanates and thiosulfinates, for which thermal and mechanical treatments are necessary to make them available. In this chapter the known chemical changes responsible for the generation and alterations of glucosinolates, thiosulfinates, flavonoids, stilbenes and coumarins are presented and discussed with a focus on the role of processing techniques and their impact on the health properties.
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The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the addition of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) and umbu-cajá (Spondia tuberosa) fruits on the physicochemical parameters, volatiles, phenolics (profile and bioaccessibility) and antioxidant capacity of kombucha. All beverages TK (traditional kombucha), PFK (pitanga-flavored kombucha) and UCFK (umbu-cajá-flavored kombucha) showed throughout the 7-day evaluation process a reduction in pH, an increase in acidity, and a reduction in the content of soluble solids and sugars (glucose and fructose) that characterize the fermentation process. Higher values and lower sugar losses were found in the flavored kombuchas, showing that the pre-existing levels of glucose and fructose in fruits contributed to sweeter beverages. Acetic, butyric, citric, succinic, and malic acids were identified in all kombuchas, except for the malic acid in PFK. Terpenes were the main volatile compounds described in beverages, which was found to have favored the sensorial profile of PFK and UCFK, as they contributed to the increase and/or appearance of new terpenoids, such as curzerene and β-caryophyllene. In contrast, TK presented acetic acid as its major component. High antioxidant activity was observed for fruit flavored kombuchas, and among the identified phenolics, epigallocatechin gallate was the most predominant component in all beverages (above 63%). The most bioaccessible phenolics in all kombuchas were caftaric acid (22.38%–29.98%), catechin (17.61%–23.48%) and hesperidin (22.43%–28.47%). After a simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the phenolic contents in all kombuchas reduced, having an influence on the significant drop of the antioxidant capacity. Findings demonstrated that pitanga and umbu-cajá contribute to diversify and improve the chemical and bioactive characteristics of the kombucha, revealing a sweeter beverage, with a tendency to fruity aromas.
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Kombucha is a millennial beverage with great potential due to its functional claims. The infusion of black or green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) and sugar is fermented by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY) resulting in an acidic and lightly carbonated beverage, kombucha. It offers in its composition phytoconstituents with relevant nutritional valor, among these, flavonoids that stand out for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory characteristics and their association with decreasing the risks of various diseases. Previous studies in vivo and in vitro have shown promising results using kombucha as a functional beverage. Those studies promote the search for alternative raw materials for the production of kombucha, in addition, new ingredients interfere in the production, constitution, and nutritional potentialities of the beverage, as well as its functionality in the face of diseases. Thus, this graphical review compiles relevant scientific data on kombucha involving its origin, production, nutritional potential, and possible health benefits associated with its consumption.
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In recent years, an unstoppable trend toward minimally processed foods has increased the popularity of fermented foods as a beneficial nutritional and functional strategy. Within food fermentations, complex microbial communities trigger different biochemical reactions that result in the release of multiple bioactive compounds with beneficial effect on human health. In the present review the latest studies on fermented foods are summarized. Special attention has been paid on the health benefits of main fermented foods available nowadays, the principal bioactive compounds responsible for such properties as well as the future trends of research studies regarding their potentialities. This review emphasizes the need of clinical evidence to ensure that fermented foods may entail a significant improvement on well-being. Fermented foods may represent a non-invasive strategy to face multiple disorders, as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and multiple cognitive disordes, among others. Release of bioactive compounds, microbial enzymatic conversions or probiotic activities are the main responsible for such interesting properties. However, the need of well-designed clinical trials is a must in order to obtain conclusive results. Bioavailability and biodisponibility of bioactive compounds as well as the design of precision probiotics are also another focus of interest in which it must be deepen.
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Kombucha is a fermented beverage composed of a range of natural compounds such as sugars, ethanol, organic acids, and complex microbial communities of bacteria and yeasts. Based on this several biological properties are attributed to this drink. However, the production of kombucha is not standardized and the final composition of the beverage is highly dependent on the raw materials used and the physicochemical parameters adopted in the process. As a consequence, kombuchas not only vary from one producer to another but also from different batches of the same producer, making the assumptions of quality and properties questionable. In this review, we explore the largely unchecked relations between kombucha and its claimed health benefits. A systematic review was also performed to specifically discuss the potential probiotic and prebiotic effects of kombucha. Although several studies report that kombucha present antimicrobial, antioxidant, detoxifying, and hepatoprotective activities, among others, whereas others classify kombucha as a probiotic drink, there is a lack of scientific evidence about the content of probiotics in this drink and its possible role in the intestinal microbiota. These facts highlight the opportunities in researching and modifying the microbiome composition of kombucha, possibly improving the general qualities of this so-called functional drink.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.
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The Ginkgo biloba is one of ancient trees that exists from billions of years ago, its leaf and nut are used as herbs and foods in China, while so far its pollen does not have any application except pollination. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba pollen, and rapidly screen its antioxidative components, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, total flavonoid, total phenol, and proanthocyanidin of Ginkgo biloba pollen were determined and compared with those of Ginkgo biloba leaf and nut, and the off-line DPPH-HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI-MS² were applied for screening and identifying the antioxidant flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba pollen. The results showed that the DPPH scavenging ability of Ginkgo biloba pollen was much higher than Ginkgo biloba nut, but lower than Ginkgo biloba leaf, while the total content of flavonoid in Ginkgo biloba pollen was approximately 4.37 times higher than in Ginkgo biloba leaf. Further studies found that the major flavonol aglycone in Ginkgo biloba pollen was kaempferol, which accounted for 96.71% of the total aglycones (includes quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), and the main flavonoid components in Ginkgo biloba pollen were flavonoid glycosides. Finally, ten antioxidant peaks were screened and identified to be flavonoids (including kaempferol and nine flavonoid glycosides), so flavonoids were likely to be the main antioxidant components in GP, and among them, three novel kaempferol glycosides (peaks 1, 2, and 3) were found in Ginkgo biloba pollen for the first time, which had never been found in Ginkgo biloba.
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Background. Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer contain- ing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are poly- phenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. Material and methods. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. Results. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Conclusions. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components’ biological activity.
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Catechins are widely occurring in our diet and beverages. The cancer-preventive activities of catechins have been extensively studied. Of these, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal catechin in green tea, has received the most attention. The inhibitory activities of tea catechins against carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth have been demonstrated in a large number of laboratory studies. Many mechanisms for modulating cancer signaling and metabolic pathways have been proposed based on numerous studies in cell lines with EGCG, the most active tea catechin. Nevertheless, it is not known whether many of these mechanisms indeed contribute to the anti-cancer activities in animals and in humans. Human studies have provided some results for the cancer preventive activities of tea catechins; however, the activities are not strong. This article reviews the cancer preventive activities and mechanisms of action of tea catechins involving their redox activities, biochemical properties and binding to key enzymes or signal transduction proteins. These mechanisms lead to suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms for cancer prevention are assessed in the light of the situation in vivo. The potential and possible problems in the application of tea and tea-derived products for cancer prevention are discussed.
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The present study is undertaken to determine the membrane stabilizing effect of Bio-tea in the prevention of myocardial injury caused by Isoproterenol in rats. The efficiency of Bio-tea pre-treatment was compared against black tea pre-treatment and the positive control (Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats) and negative control (normal control rats). For this purpose, biochemical analysis of the in vivo antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione), glycoprotein components (hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, and fucose), lipids (total, ester, and free cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids), and transmembrane protein activities (Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, and Mg2+ ATPase) was carried out along with the histological and ultrastructural study of the myocardial tissue. Induction of myocardial infarction using Isoproterenol resulted in a significant decrease in tissue antioxidants and an increase in the levels of total, ester and free cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and glycoprotein components in plasma and heart. The phospholipid content showed an increase in plasma and a simultaneous decrease in the heart tissue, while the Na+/K+ ATPase activity decreased while Ca2+ ATPase, and Mg2+ ATPase activities increased resulting in destabilization of the membranes. Pre-treatment with Bio-tea was able to bring these components to near normality, indicating its reactive oxygen species scavenging, lipid lowering, membrane stabilizing and glycoprotein modulating effects and lending credibility to the regular use of Bio-tea.
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The emergence of multi-drug-resistant enteric pathogens has prompted the scientist community to explore the therapeutic potentials of traditional foods and beverages. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of Kombucha, a fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhimurium followed by the identification of the antibacterial components present in Kombucha. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the inhibition zone diameter, minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Kombucha fermented for 14 days showed maximum activity against the bacterial strains. Its ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective upon sequential solvent extraction of the 14-day Kombucha. This potent ethyl acetate extract was then subjected to thin layer chromatography for further purification of antibacterial ingredients which led to the isolation of an active polyphenolic fraction. Catechin and isorhamnetin were detected as the major antibacterial compounds present in this polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Catechin, one of the primary antibacterial polyphenols in tea was also found to be present in Kombucha. But isorhamnetin is not reported to be present in tea, which may thereby suggest the role of fermentation process of black tea for its production in Kombucha. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of isorhamnetin in Kombucha. The overall study suggests that Kombucha can be used as a potent antibacterial agent against entero-pathogenic bacterial infections, which mainly is attributed to its polyphenolic content.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the increased accumulation of hepatocellular lipids. Although Kombucha tea (KT) has emerged as a substance protecting the liver from damage, the effects of KT in NAFLD remain unclear. Hence, we investigated whether KT influenced hepatic steatosis. Db/db mice were fed either control or methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diets for 4 weeks. The MCD diet group was treated with KT or water for 3 weeks. KT treatment alleviated macrovesicular steatosis compared to the MCD-fed group. The levels of triglyceride, ALT, and AST also decreased in the KT+MCD-treated db/db mice. RNA expression in the MCD+KT group showed reduced triglyceride synthesis and uptake of fatty acids. Immunostaining and western blot assays for active caspase-3 demonstrated a lower level of apoptosis in the MCD+KT than in the MCD group. These results demonstrate that KT attenuated lipid accumulation and protected the liver from damage, promoting liver restoration in mice.
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The Acetobacteraceae family of the class Alpha Proteobacteria is comprised of high sugar and acid tolerant bacteria. The Acetic Acid Bacteria are the economically most significant group of this family because of its association with food products like vinegar, wine etc. Acetobacteraceae are often hard to culture in laboratory conditions and they also maintain very low abundances in their natural habitats. Thus identification of the organisms in such environments is greatly dependent on modern tools of molecular biology which require a thorough knowledge of specific conserved gene sequences that may act as primers and or probes. Moreover unconserved domains in genes also become markers for differentiating closely related genera. In bacteria, the 16S rRNA gene is an ideal candidate for such conserved and variable domains. In order to study the conserved and variable domains of the 16S rRNA gene of Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Acetobacteraceae family, sequences from publicly available databases were aligned and compared. Near complete sequences of the gene were also obtained from Kombucha tea biofilm, a known Acetobacteraceae family habitat, in order to corroborate the domains obtained from the alignment studies. The study indicated that the degree of conservation in the gene is significantly higher among the Acetic Acid Bacteria than the whole Acetobacteraceae family. Moreover it was also observed that the previously described hypervariable regions V1, V3, V5, V6 and V7 were more or less conserved in the family and the spans of the variable regions are quite distinct as well.
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There is a growing body of evidence that plant polyphenols such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, catechins, and terpenes like taxol are effectively used in the treatment of chronic conditions including cancer, Alzheimer, Parkinsonism, diabetes, aging, etc. The link between oxidative stress and inflammation is well accepted. Thus, the mechanism of action of these natural products is partly believed to be through their significant antioxidant properties. The main constituent of green tea, with clinical significance, is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). It has been associated with antitumor, anti-Alzheimer, and anti-aging properties, improve redox status at the tissue level possibly preventing system level structural damage. This review focuses on EGCG and its potential therapeutic role in health and disease. Graphical abstract
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidative potential and radioprotective ability of fermented black tea (FBT). Total polyphenol content in the FBT was found to be 148.30 ± 2.56 mg/g as determined by ferrous tartrate method. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging reached a maximum of 96% at 200 μg/ml of FBT and accordingly the reducing power also saturated at the very same concentration. Studies carried out with plasmid DNA revealed the ability of FBT to inhibit gamma radiation-induced single as well as double strand breaks. Prior administration of FBT to human lymphocytes significantly countered radiation-induced DNA damage as evaluated by micronuclei assay and chromosomal aberration study and cell death by trypan blue exclusion method. The results clearly indicate that FBT has significant potential to protect cellular system from radiation-induced damage and ability to scavenge free radicals might be playing an important role in its radioprotective manifestations.
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Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.
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Tea flavonoids and polyphenols are well known for their extraordinary antioxidant activity which is considered important for anti-aging processes in animals. This study evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of three different kinds of tea (Camellia sinensis) water extracts (CSWEs) including green, white, and black teas using a photoaged hairless mouse model. Data showed that the CSWE-treatment greatly improved skin conditions of mice suffering from UVB-induced photoaging, based on the parameters including the skin erythema index, moisture capacity, and transepidermal water loss. In addition, the wrinkle measurement and image analysis of skin replicas indicated that CSWEs remarkably inhibited wrinkle formation. In histological examination, the CSWE-treated mice exhibited diminished epidermal thickness and increased collagen and elastic fiber content, key signatures for skin restoration. Furthermore, the reduced expression of MMP-3, a collagen-degradative enzyme, was observed in the skin of CSWE-treated animals. Interestingly, comparative data between green, white, and black tea indicated that the anti-wrinkle activity of white tea and black tea is equally greater than that of green tea. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrated that CSWEs could be used as an effective anti-wrinkle agent in photoaged animal skin, implying their extended uses in therapeutics.
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In the present study, cytotoxic and anti-invasive properties of solvent fractions of kombucha tea were studied. Kombucha tea was fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Three solvent extracts and the final aqueous phase were concentrated and used for anti-cancer study at 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/mL concentrations. Results revealed that ethyl acetate fraction at a concentration of 100 μg/mL caused cytotoxic effect on 786-O and U2OS cells; reduced the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and-9 in 786-O cells and MMP-2 activity in A549 cells; and significantly reduced the cell invasion and cell motility in A549, U2OS and 786-O cells. Thus, ethyl acetate fraction was further purified by chromatographic studies and presence of dimethyl 2-(2-hydroxy-2-methoxypropylidene) malonate and vitexin were confirmed through IR, NMR and mass spectroscopic studies, which might be responsible for the observed anticancer property of kombucha tea.
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Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in hyperglycemic conditions. It has already been reported that mangiferin, a natural C-glucosyl xanthone and polyhydroxy polyphenol compound protects kidneys from diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the mechanism of its beneficial action in this pathophysiology. The present study, therefore, examines the detailed mechanism of the beneficial action of mangiferin on STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in Wister rats as the working model. A significant increase in plasma glucose level, kidney to body weight ratio, glomerular hypertrophy and hydropic changes as well as enhanced nephrotoxicity related markers (BUN, plasma creatinine, uric acid and urinary albumin) were observed in the experimental animals. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress related parameters, increased ROS production and decreased the intracellular antioxidant defenses were detected in the kidney. Studies on the oxidative stress mediated signaling cascades in diabetic nephropathy demonstrated that PKC isoforms (PKCα, PKCβ and PKCε), MAPKs (p38, JNK and ERK1/2), transcription factor (NF-κB) and TGF-β1 pathways were involved in this pathophysiology. Besides, TNFα was released in this hyperglycemic condition, which in turn activated caspase 8, cleaved Bid to tBid and finally the mitochorndia-dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, oxidative stress also disturbed the proapoptotic-antiapoptotic (Bax and Bcl-2) balance and activated mitochorndia-dependent apoptosis via caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Mangiferin treatment, post to hyperglycemia, successfully inhibited all of these changes and protected the cells from apoptotic death.
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Abstract Kombucha (Bio-tea) is a beverage produced by the fermentation of sugared black tea using a symbiotic association of bacteria and yeasts. Traditional claims about Kombucha report beneficial effects such as antibiotic properties, gastric regulation, relief from joint rheumatism and positive influence on the cholesterol level, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and aging problems. The present investigation was carried out to understand the preventive effect of Kombucha on heart weight, blood glucose, total protein, lipid profile and cardiac markers in rats with myocardial damage induced using Isoproterenol. As Bio-tea is produced by fermenting tea, the parameters were compared in rats pre-treated with normal black tea and Bio-tea for 30 days followed by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight). Normal rats as well as Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats were also used, which served as controls. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted control rats showed a significant increase in heart weight, blood glucose and cardiac markers and a decrease in plasma protein. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipids (LDL) and very low density lipids (VLDL) were also observed, while the high density lipid (HDL) content decreased. Bio-tea showed a higher preventive effect against myocardial infarction when compared to tea, as was observed by the significant reduction in heart weight, and blood glucose and increase in plasma albumin levels. Bio-tea significantly decreased cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL while simultaneously increasing the levels of HDL. Similarly a decrease in leakage of cardiac markers from the myocardium was also observed.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biologically active substances from Medusomyces gisevii zoogloea (MG zoogloeas) on intestine microbiocenosis of white rats during the experimental antibioticassociated dysbiosis. The intestinal dysbiosis of rats was induced by gentamicin sulfate in dose of 10 mg/ rat twice a day for 10 days for all the rats. Animals in the control group received a standard diet recommended by the Institute of Nutrition, the animals of the experimental group received 120 mg of active substance of MG zoogloea/ rat every day during the experiment, in addition to the usual diet. After the termination of the oral administration of gentamicin the animals of the second sub-group (experimental 2) received 120 mg of active substance of MG zoogloea every day during the experiment, in addition to the basic diet. The animals in the control group showed a dysbiosis symptoms, observed a significant decrease in the total bacterial counts, as well as the decrease of Bifidobacterium spp, Lactobacillus spp, Escherichia coli level starting from the fourth until 10th day of the experiment, the number of Candida spp. increased. Animals of the experimental group avoided the symptoms of dysbiosis, reduce of the test groups of bacteria occurred only on the eighth day, and Candida level did not rise. After discontinuation of gentamicin administration rats treated with MG showed rapid disappearance of dysbiosis symptoms, the number of microflora started to improve significantly already in the fourth day, while the control sub-group animals showed small increase occurred only on the eighth day. Results indicated that using biologically active substances from Medusomyces gisevii zoogloea has positive effects on intestine microbiocenosis of rats during the experimental antibiotic-associated dysbiosis.
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Black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha; however other sources such as oak leaves infusions can be used for the same purpose. Almost any white oak species have been used for medicinal applications by some ethnic groups in Mexico and could be also suitable for preparing kombucha analogues from oak (KAO). The objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of KAO by examining its modulation ability on macrophage-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6. Herbal infusions from oak and black tea were fermented by kombucha consortium during seven days at 28 °C. Chemical composition was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of samples against oxidative damage caused by H2O2 in monocytes activated (macrophages) was explored. Additionally, it was determined the anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages; in particular, the nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was assessed. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by the sample treatment. Likewise, NO production was lower in treatment with kombucha and KAO compared with LPS-stimulated macrophages. Fermented beverages of oak effectively down-regulated the production of NO, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Additionally, phytochemical compounds present in KAO decrease oxidative stress.
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Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unravelled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, a study compared microbial communities from industrial scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteriaceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8 day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, G. oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unravelled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization.
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In most modern technologies such as flat screens, highly effective magnets and lasers, as well as luminescence phosphors, Rare Earth Elements (REE) are used. Unfortunately no environmentally friendly recycling process exists so far. In comparison to other elements the interaction of microorganisms with REE has been studied to a less extent. However, as REE are ubiquitously present in nature it can be assumed that microorganisms play an important role in the biogeochemistry of REE. This study investigates the potential of organic acid-producing microbes for extracting REE from industrial waste. In Germany, 175 tons of fluorescent phosphor (FP) are collected per year as a distinct fraction from the recycling of compact fluorescent lamps. Because the FP contains about 10% of REE-oxides bound in the so-called triband dyes it is a readily accessible secondary resource of REE. Using the symbiotic mixed culture Kombucha, consisting of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, REE were leached at a significant rate. The highest leaching-rates were observed in shake cultures using the entire Kombucha-consortium or its supernatant as leaching agent compared to experiments using the isolates Zygosaccharomyces lentus and Komagataeibacter hansenii as leaching organisms. During the cultivation, the pH decreased as a result of organic acid production (mainly acetic and gluconic acid). Thus, the underlying mechanism of the triband dye solubilisation is probably linked to the carboxyl-functionality or a proton excess. In accordance with the higher solubility of REE-oxides compared to REE-phosphates and –aluminates, the red dye Y2O3:Eu²⁺ containing relatively expensive REE was shown to be preferentially solubilized. These results show that it is possible to dissolve the REE-compounds of FP with the help of microbial processes. Moreover, they provide the basis for the development of an eco-friendly alternative to the currently applied methods that use strong inorganic acids or toxic chemicals.
Chapter
Typically in aerobic metabolism, organic compounds such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids can undergo structural damage by oxidative reactions. This damage caused by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species has been recognized as “oxidative stress”. Despite the biological systems present efficient enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems, oxidative stress indicates a pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in favor of excessive generation of free radicals or decrease in the removal rate. Various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative clearly exemplify the chronic oxidative stress. Therefore, it is important to consider that at low and moderate ROS levels, it can, for example, act as signaling molecules that support cell proliferation and differentiation and activate survival pathways in response to stress. Correlations between oxidative stress and disease should be carefully investigated in order to understand whether oxidative stress actually increases susceptibility to a particular disease or opposite.
Article
Silymarin (SMN) has been shown to possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological effects. Besides, SMN has antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Thioacetamide (TAA) is a well-documented liver toxin that requires oxidative bioactivation to elicit its hepatotoxic effect which ultimately modifies amine-lipids and proteins. Our study has been designed in a TAA exposed mouse model to investigate whether SMN could protect TAA-induced oxidative stress mediated hepatic and renal damage. Results suggest that TAA generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), caused oxidative stress and induced apoptosis in the liver and kidney cells via JNK as well as PKC and MAPKs signaling. All these detrimental effects of TAA could, however, be suppressed by SMN which not only scavenged ROS but also induced PI3K-Akt cell survival pathway in the liver and prevented apoptotic pathways in both the organs. Histological studies, collagen staining and DNA fragmentation analysis also supported our results. Combining, we say that SMN possess beneficial role against TAA mediated hepatic and renal pathophysiology.
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The consumption of tea (Camellia sinensis) has been correlated with a low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, in which oxidative stress plays a critical role. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of green tea (GT) and black tea (BT). In addition to their redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as the ability to lower glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA) levels. These activities are mediated by pharmacological mechanisms such as enzymatic inhibition and interaction with transporters. Epigallocatechin gallate is the most active compound at inhibiting the enzymes involved in cholesterol and UA metabolism (hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and xanthine oxidase respectively) and affecting glucose transporters. The structural features of catechins that significantly contribute to their pharmacological effect are the presence/absence of the galloyl moiety and the number and positions of the hydroxyl groups on the rings. Although the inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, maltase, amylase and lipase, multidrug resistance 1, organic anion transporters and proton-coupled folate transport occur at higher concentrations than those apparent in the circulation, these effects could be relevant in the gut. In conclusion, despite the urgent need for further research in humans, the regular consumption of moderate quantities of GT and BT can effectively modulate their antioxidant capacity, mainly in people subjected to oxidative stress, and could improve the metabolism of glucose, lipid and UA. Linked articles: This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc.
Article
Chinese jasmine tea, a type of flower-scented tea, is produced by repeatedly mixing the base tea with the aromatic flowers of Jasminum sambac. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the volatiles, chemical components and antioxidant activities of Chinese jasmine tea during six rounds of the scenting processes. The results indicated that benzyl alcohol, linalool, benzyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, methyl anthranilate, indole and α-farnesene were seven major volatile compounds of jasmine tea. Moreover, the total amount of the volatile compounds increased gradually with increasing scenting rounds. The absorption of linalool became saturated quickly, while those of the other six major volatile compounds exhibited nearly linear increases throughout all six repeated scenting rounds. Importantly, the value of the jasmine tea flavor index, an evaluating indicator of the aroma quality, gradually increased with the progression of the repeated scenting rounds. The change of each detected taste component was less than 15% during six rounds of the scenting process. The antioxidant activities of the tea samples decreased in the first two rounds and later increased in the succeeding four rounds of the scenting process. However, the antioxidant activity of the finished tea was lower than that of the base tea, being significantly correlated with the change of catechin concentration. The findings provided insight into the changes in the volatiles, chemical components and antioxidant activity of Chinese jasmine green tea during the repetitious scenting process, which could provide beneficial insight on improving the quality grade of the tea.
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Mangiferin (MAG), a natural xanthone mainly derived from mangoes, possesses great antioxidative potentials. The present study has been carried out to investigate the hepato-protective role of MAG, against arsenic (As)-induced oxidative damages in the murine liver. As, a well-known toxic metalloid, is ubiquitously found in nature and has been reported to affect nearly all the organs of the human body via oxidative impairment. Administration of As in the form of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 ) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 3 months abruptly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, led to oxidative stress and significantly depleted the first line of antioxidant defense system in the body. Moreover, As caused apoptosis in hepatocytes. Treatment with MAG at a dose of 40 mg/kg for body weight for 30 days simultaneously and separately after NaAsO2 administration decreased the ROS production and attenuated the alterations in the activities of all antioxidant indices. MAG also protected liver against the NaAsO2 -induced apoptosis and disintegrated hepatocytes, thus counteracting with As-induced toxicity. It could significantly inhibit the expression of different proapoptotic caspases and upregulate the expression of survival molecules such as Akt and Nrf2. On inhibiting Akt (by PI3K inhibitor, LY294002) and ERK1/2 (by ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059) specifically, caspase 3 got activated abolishing mangiferin's protective role on As-induced hepatotoxicity. So here, we have briefly elucidated the signaling cascades involved in As-induced apoptotic cell death in the liver and also the detailed cellular mechanism by which MAG provides protection to this organ. © 2016 BioFactors, 2016.
Book
Tea in China explores the contours of religious and cultural transformation in traditional China from the point of view of an everyday commodity and popular beverage. The work traces the development of tea drinking from its mythical origins to the nineteenth century and examines the changes in aesthetics, ritual, science, health, and knowledge that tea brought with it. The shift in drinking habits that occurred in late medieval China cannot be understood without an appreciation of the fact that Buddhist monks were responsible for not only changing people’s attitudes toward the intoxicating substance, but also the proliferation of tea drinking. Monks had enjoyed a long association with tea in South China, but it was not until Lu Yu’s compilation of the Chajing (The Classic of Tea) and the spread of tea drinking by itinerant Chan monastics that tea culture became popular throughout the empire and beyond. Tea was important for maintaining long periods of meditation; it also provided inspiration for poets and profoundly affected the ways in which ideas were exchanged. Prior to the eighth century, the aristocratic drinking party had excluded monks from participating in elite culture. Over cups of tea, however, monks and literati could meet on equal footing and share in the same aesthetic values. Monks and scholars thus found common ground in the popular stimulant-one with few side effects that was easily obtainable and provided inspiration and energy for composing poetry and meditating. In addition, rituals associated with tea drinking were developed in Chan monasteries, aiding in the transformation of China’s sacred landscape at the popular and elite level. Pilgrimages to monasteries that grew their own tea were essential in the spread of tea culture, and some monasteries owned vast tea plantations. By the end of the ninth century, tea was a vital component in the Chinese economy and in everyday life. Tea in China transcends the boundaries of religious studies and cultural history as it draws on a broad range of materials-poetry, histories, liturgical texts, monastic regulations-many translated or analyzed for the first time. The book will be of interest to scholars of East Asia and all those concerned with the religious dimensions of commodity culture in the premodern world.
Article
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with a relatively high prevalence in many populations throughout the world. Despite the availability of many synthetic drugs many diabetic patients are seeking herbal medications to relieve the symptoms of the disease. Kombucha tea is a fermented remedy which is produced by cultivation of Kombucha mushroom in sweet black tea solution and is consumed by many diabetic patients, but its efficacy and safety has not been scientifically evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to assess the chronic effect of Kombucha Tea consumption on weight loss in diabetic Rats. 42 male diabetic Wistar rats were divided into six groups. DM was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Animals in 1st group (control) had free access to tap water the 2nd group (sham) consumed sweet black tea solution and the remaining 4 groups (test) received different dilutionts of Kombucha tea (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) for 15 days instead of tap water. Animals in all groups were weighted before DM induction and in days 1, 3, 7 and 15 post DM inductions. The data were analyzed as Mean ± SEM of weights in different days and in different groups by using T-test and one way ANOVA. Results: Our results showed that all groups had a significant weight loss due to DM induction (p< 0.05) which continued progressively in control group but in the sham and test groups there was a progressive weight gain during the 15 days of remedy consumption, so there was no significant difference between the weight of animals at the end of experiment and their weight before DM induction (p > 0.05). There was also not significant difference between the animal’s weight in sham and test groups at the end of this period (p > 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion our findings indicate that both black tea and Kombucha tea prevent weight loss in diabetic rats which may be due to some active agents in black tea itself.
Article
Fermented foods are prevalent in Southeast Asia to balance the fluctuation in food availability in the area during the stage of monsoonal circulation. Techniques of preserving cereal and seafood products are well-developed in Southeast Asia. The review concerning the indigenous carbohydrate-based fermented foods the region, including rice wine, fermented palm sap and tapai. The paper focuses on the popular indigenous fermented foods and beverages produced in the region including the consumption and processing methods. Microbiological and chemical properties of these indigenous fermented foods were also discussed. Another issue is in the alcohol-related health risk due to the consumption of the foods and beverages with high alcohol content. Hence, ethanol and other alcohol-related compounds present in the selected alcoholic fermented foods will be highlight.
Book
The history of civilization is, in many ways, the history of wine. This book is the first comprehensive and up-to-date account of the earliest stages of vinicultural history and prehistory, which extends back into the Neolithic period and beyond. Elegantly written and richly illustrated, Ancient Wine opens up whole new chapters in the fascinating story of wine and the vine by drawing upon recent archaeological discoveries, molecular and DNA sleuthing, and the texts and art of long-forgotten peoples. Patrick McGovern takes us on a personal odyssey back to the beginnings of this consequential beverage when early hominids probably enjoyed a wild grape wine. We follow the course of human ingenuity in domesticating the Eurasian vine and learning how to make and preserve wine some 7,000 years ago. Early winemakers must have marveled at the seemingly miraculous process of fermentation. From success to success, viniculture stretched out its tentacles and entwined itself with one culture after another (whether Egyptian, Iranian, Israelite, or Greek) and laid the foundation for civilization itself. As medicine, social lubricant, mind-altering substance, and highly valued commodity, wine became the focus of religious cults, pharmacopoeias, cuisines, economies, and society. As an evocative symbol of blood, it was used in temple ceremonies and occupies the heart of the Eucharist. Kings celebrated their victories with wine and made certain that they had plenty for the afterlife. (Among the colorful examples in the book is McGovern's famous chemical reconstruction of the funerary feast--and mixed beverage--of "King Midas.") Some peoples truly became "wine cultures." When we sip a glass of wine today, we recapitulate this dynamic history in which a single grape species was harnessed to yield an almost infinite range of tastes and bouquets. Ancient Wine is a book that wine lovers and archaeological sleuths alike will raise their glasses to.
Article
Fermented tea or "Kombucha" was prepared by a tea broth (1.7% w/v) and sucrose (10% w/v) with supplement of commercially available starter culture. Teas used in this study were mulberry tea, Japanese green tea, Jasmine tea, Ulong tea and black tea. The teas were fermented for two weeks as an inoculum, following by inoculation to another tea broth and required further two-week static fermentation. In this study the antibacterial activity of several teas were tested against pathogenic bacteria in human and shrimp (e.g. Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus) by disc agar diffusion assay. The pH of fermented teas decreased from around 5 to 2 and the OD600 of tea broth rose significantly from around 0 to 1.5 during fermentation period. Broth from black tea poses the greatest inhibitory activity by measuring diameters of inhibition zones. V. parahaemolyticus showed the largest susceptibility to the fermented tea while pathogenic bacteria in human appeared to be less sensitive. Changes in major components of tea broth were also observed by HPLC analysis. The key organic acids such as succinic acid and gluconic acid produced during the period increased with time, proving the major role of these acids in the microorganism's growth inhibition.
Article
Kombucha Tea Ferment (KT), was given to male albino rats, (lml/Kg of body weight), via gavages, during 2 weeks before intraperitoneal administration of 3.5 mg/Kg body weight CdCl2 and/or whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy, and during 4 weeks after each treatment. Hepatic and nephritic pathological changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and creatinine and urea contents with significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and kidney tissues expressed by significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents associated to significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were recorded. KT administration results in recovery of all the pathological changes. It could be concluded that KT might protect liver and kidney from oxidative damage induced by exposure to cadmium and/ or γ-irradiation.
Article
The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible protective effects of Kombucha tea against thioacetamide induced liver damage in rats. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control, treated with thioacetamide (TAA) treated with TAA and then Kombucha tea, treated with Kombucha tea and then TAA; following 3 weeks of treatment. All the animals were killed and liver tissue samples were obtained for histopafhological investigation. The data showed that TAA significantly increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) but not bilirubin. The treatment by Kombucha tea promoted a significant reduction in serum enzyme levels AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and reduction in bilirubin content. The results show that the Kombucha tea has protective effects against the thioacetamide induced hepatotoxicity that might be due to antioxidant activities of these plants.
Article
Kombucha is a refreshing beverage, obtained by fermenting sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeast, consumed for its positive effects on human health. In this study, the potential of kombucha supernatant for reduction of patulin (PAT) of three toxigenic fungal strains (Penicillium expansum LC015096, Talaromyces purpureogenus LC015095, and Acremonium implicatum LC015097) in liquid medium and apple fruit was investigated. In liquid medium, kombucha up to 10% (v/v) significantly inhibited PAT production of P. expansum by 77.2% and that of T. purpureogenus and A. implicatum by 100%. In apple fruit, inhibition percent of PAT accumulation by the respective fungal strains was 49.8%, 100%, and 53%. In aqueous solution, kombucha cells showed a relative greater PAT uptake capacity than Sacchromyces cerevisiae. The maximum PAT uptake (64.67% and 60.69%) by viable and heat-treated kombucha cells was achieved at pH 3.0 throughout 48 h incubation, respectively.
Article
The concept of using phytochemicals has ushered in a new revolution in pharmaceuticals. Naturally occurring polyphenols (like curcumin, morin, resveratrol, etc.) have gained importance because of their minimal side effects, low cost and abundance. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a component of turmeric isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Research for more than two decades has revealed the pleiotropic nature of the biological effects of this molecule. More than 7000 published articles have shed light on the various aspects of curcumin including its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Apart from these well-known activities, this natural polyphenolic compound also exerts its beneficial effects by modulating different signalling molecules including transcription factors, chemokines, cytokines, tumour suppressor genes, adhesion molecules, microRNAs, etc. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pivotal role in various diseases like diabetes, cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases. Curcumin, therefore, could be a therapeutic option for the treatment of these diseases, provided limitations in its oral bioavailability can be overcome. The current review provides an updated overview of the metabolism and mechanism of action of curcumin in various organ pathophysiologies. The review also discusses the potential for multifunctional therapeutic application of curcumin and its recent progress in clinical biology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model for multiple sclerosis (MS), in which an inflammatory demyelination and axonal damage occurs. Kombucha tea is a fermented beverage made from kombucha mushroom, brewed tea, and sugar. In recent years kombucha tea has attracted interest due to its pharmacological properties like antioxidant effects. The aim of the present research was to test the therapeutic effect of kombucha tea in EAE. We induced EAE model in 18 female C57BL/6 mice by inoculation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-35-55 (MOG35-55) in complete Freund’s adjuvant emulsion. Then, in order to ameliorate EAE symptoms, we used kombucha tea. During the course of study clinical evaluation was assessed, and on the day 21 post-immunization, for evaluation of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants capacity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), blood samples were taken from the heart of mice. The mice were sacrificed and brains and cerebellums of mice were removed for histological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that kombucha tea had beneficial effects on EAE by lower incidence, attenuation in the severity, and also a delay in the onset of disease. Histological analysis showed that inflammatory criteria including the number of infiltrated immune cells and plaques as well as demyelination in kombucha tea dosed mice were significantly lower than the control group. Also, in comparison with control mice, the serum levels of NO and TNF-α in kombucha tea-treated mice were significantly decreased. Kombucha tea with its potential therapeutic effects and immunomodulatory properties might be proposed, after additional necessary tests and trials, for treatment of MS.
Article
Total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH) are extracted from the widely distributed thorny bush Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Isorhamnetin (IS) is one of the representative ingredients in TFH. In this study, the absorption properties of IS in TFH and its pure form were compared through transepithelial transport and cellular uptake experiments in a Caco-2 cell model. Our results show that the absorption properties of IS in TFH and its pure form were remarkably different: (1) Both PappAB and PappBA of IS in TFH were dramatically increased compared with those of IS pure form; consequently, its Pratio was 2.3-fold higher than that of IS; (2) Both the accumulation and efflux of IS in TFH were significantly enhanced compared with the single compound. One likely reason for these differences is that the multiple components in TFH significantly down regulated the mRNA expression level of MRP2, which lead to a decrease in the protein level of MRP2, based on western blotting and RT-PCR assays. This study highlights the significant differences in the absorption properties of flavonoid components in different forms and the potential multi-component interactions in TFH. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dietary and demographic factors and some habits on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in 150 dyspeptic patients examined endoscopically and by the urea breath test. Positivity rate was lower (50.6%) in patients consuming honey ≥1day weekly compared with the remainder (70.8%) and in those consuming green/black tea ≥1day weekly (45.2%) compared with the other patients (64.8%). Logistic regression confirmed that the factors associated with significantly lower H. pylori positivity rate were the consumption of honey (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.78) and green/black tea (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95). In conclusion, honey and green/black tea intake is associated with reduced prevalence of H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Article
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with kombucha mat (consists of bacteria and yeast strains). Diabetes mellitus is group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, action or both. The present study was aimed to delineate the antihyperglycaemic effect of lyophilized extract of kombucha in streptozotocin-induced experimental rats. After the experimental period of 45 days we observed that kombucha supplementation with 6 mg/kg bw significantly decreased glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and increased the levels of plasma insulin, haemoglobin and tissue glycogen which was decreased up on streptozotocin (STZ) treatment and also significantly reversed the altered activities of gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase in the tissues of experimental rats. Thus, our results substantiate that kombucha found to exert hypoglycaemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggest that kombucha may be considered as a potential functional food candidate for future applications as functional food supplement for the treatment and prevention of diabetes.
Article
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin (ATO), is a highly effective drug used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Its application is restricted now-a-days due to several acute and chronic side effects. ATO induced anti hypercholesterolemia and hepatic tissue toxicity has been reported to follow different mechanisms. The present study has been carried out to investigate the protective role of arjunolic acid (AA) against ATO induced oxidative impairment and cell death in hepatic and renal tissue in mice. Administration of ATO (at a dose 30 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) enhanced serum markers, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and altered the pro oxidant-antioxidant status of liver and kidney tissues. Our experimental evidence suggests that ATO exposure induces apoptotic cell deathby the activation of caspase-3 and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2/Bax with the concomitant reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c,Apaf1, caspase-9. Besides, ATO markedly increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs, enhanced caspase-12 and calpain level. Histological studies and DNA fragmentation analysis also support the toxic effect of ATO in these organs pathophysiology. Post treatment with AA (at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days), however, reduced ATO-induced oxidative stress and suppressed all these apoptotic events. Results suggest that AA could effectively and extensively counteract these adverse effects and might protect liver and kidney from ATO-induced severe tissue toxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Article
Fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeast (tea fungus) yields kombucha tea which is consumed worldwide for its refreshing and beneficial properties on human health. Important progress has been made in the past decade concerning research findings on kombucha tea and reports claiming that drinking kombucha can prevent various types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, promote liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Considering the widespread reports on kombucha, we recognized the need to review and update the research conducted in relation to kombucha tea, its products and tea fungus. Existing reports have suggested that the protective effects of kombucha tea are as good as those of black tea, however, more studies on kombucha tea and its composition are needed before final conclusions can be made.
Article
Kombucha is widely consumed as black tea fermented for 7–14 days. The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial activities of two kombucha beverages originating from green and black teas fermented for 21 days and to characterize the antimicrobial compounds (heat resistance and pH stability). Green and black tea infusions were fermented with a traditional kombucha culture. The resulting kombucha antibacterial/antifungal activities against some pathogenic microorganisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and clinical Candida species, were investigated using the agar diffusion method. The results showed interesting antimicrobial potentials of both experimented kombucha teas against the tested microorganisms, except Candida krusei. The green fermented tea exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential. Indeed, it showed large inhibition zones against Staphylococcus epidermidis (22 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (22 mm) and Micrococcus luteus (21.5 mm). Furthermore, interesting anti-Candida potential was revealed by the reaction of green tea kombucha against Candida parapsilosis.