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The Impact of Circus Arts Instruction in Physical Education on the Physical Literacy of Children in Grades 4 and 5

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Objective: To examine the impact of circus arts instruction in physical education (PE) on the physical literacy of children in Grades 4 and 5. Methods: A clustered, quasi-experimental design was used comparing children in schools with circus arts instruction in physical education (n = 101) with children in socioeconomic status-matched schools using standard PE instruction (n = 110). Physical literacy assessments performed at the beginning and end of one semester using the Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth tools. Results: Significant improvements in motor competence for both groups; endpoint differences favored the circus arts instruction in physical education schools for 15 of 18 movement skills for Grade 5 and 7 of 18 skills for Grade 4 (p < .05), with corresponding increases in children's confidence and comprehension of movement terminology, as well as active participation. The gap in motor competence between girls and boys in the circus arts instruction in physical education schools was smaller than in standard PE schools. Conclusions: Circus arts instruction enriched PE can effectively aid in the development of physical literacy in children with greater gender equity.

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... Castelli et al. [12] highlight that within the educational setting, curricula can contribute to PL in different ways, differentiating between structured activities, unstructured or informal physical activities (recess), or content-rich physical activity instruction (combining academic concepts with movement). In this regard, a number of studies are beginning to address PL both within the PE classroom [13,14] and during out-of-school periods [15,16]. ...
... However, there are no studies that have evaluated how it affects PL. Additionally, some studies observed that PL can be improved within physical education classes [13,14] or in the extracurricular field [15,16]. Thus, an intervention during rest periods could lead to an improvement in PL. ...
... Currently, there is a great deal of interest in the concept of physical literacy due to its comprehensive nature on the development of physical activity. In this regard, several studies have reported data on the improvement of physical literacy following a physical activity program both within physical education classes [13,14] and in the out-of-school environment [15,16]. However, no studies have been found in which physical literacy has been explored after a program of AB. ...
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Several studies have shown that active breaks (AB) lead to improvements in physical fitness, daily steps taken and participants' health. However, there are no studies that have evaluated how they affect physical literacy (PL). Aims: Therefore, this study examined the effects of a 4-week recreational AB program based on games whose main objective was to improve motivation and motor skills' improvement in PL in schoolchildren. Method: A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted with PL assessments before and after a 4-week recreational AB program. Results: Fifty-seven schoolchildren (10.28 ± 0.43 years) participated in the study, 29 in the control group and 28 in the experimental group. An improvement in PL was found between the experimental and control groups after the intervention (p = 0.017). Moreover, the experimental group also improved (p < 0.001) PL after the intervention. More specifically, within the domain of PL, improvements were found after the intervention in the experimental group in the domains of physical competence (p < 0.001), motivation and confidence (p < 0.001) and knowledge (p < 0.001) but not in the domain of daily activity (p = 0.051). Conclusion: The application of an AB program based on playful games, during four weeks, produced an increase in scores in the general PL level, as well as in the domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge and understanding in schoolchildren.
... Teaching circus at school became popularized in the late 1990s (Ontañón et al., 2012;Price, 2012), which led to official documentation by the federal government and some states incorporating circus as standard curricular content. Brazilian educational authorities are not alone in recognizing that circus can positively contribute to student physical and social development (Duprat et al., 2014), many other countries worldwide also include circus arts in educational practices (Garcia, 2007(Garcia, , 2013Bertin-Renoux, 2019;Kriellaars et al., 2019;Neave et al., 2020). ...
... Thus, it was in the 2000s that a group of teachers trained under the influence of the cultural paradigm entered the schools. When compared with experiences in other countries with no similar rise in PE circus activities (Bolton, 2004;Price, 2012;Coasne, 2013;Kriellaars et al., 2019), our preliminary hypothesis is that the cultural perspective of education made it possible to implement other content, such as the circus, in school Physical Education. ...
... Price (2012) argues that the search for innovative practices in New Zealand PE has led to the inclusion of circus. We see PE as one of the main "entrance doors" for teaching circus at school in Brazil (Takamori et al., 2010), something also noticed abroad (Tribalat, 2003;Bolton, 2004;Coasne, 2013;Kriellaars et al., 2019). It is important to note that two of our observed schools teach circus as an extracurricular activity, which also introduces circus into the school environment, albeit differently. ...
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Introduction: After more than a decade monitoring physical education instruction in Brazilian elementary schools we noticed an exponential increase in circus activities in both curricular physical education (PE) and in after-school programs. The purpose of this study was to analyze the children's participation and gender preferences in circus activities, with regard to recent studies reporting substantial gender inequalities in Brazilian PE. Method: A qualitative study, based on multiple-cases design, was conducted in two public and six private Brazilian elementary schools. Data collection consisted of 17 semi-structured interviews with PE teachers and school administrators and in situ observations totalizing more than 130 h. The data were analyzed using Content Analysis (thematic categories). Results: Boys and girls showed high participation levels in both curricular and extracurricular PE circus activities. In grades 1–5, participant activity preference was not linked to gender in either curricular or extracurricular situations and overall physical engagement was high. Gender preferences between activities were identified in grades 6–12: girls for aerial activities (trapeze, silks) and boys for juggling activities. Teacher preferences played an important role in the process of linking activities to specific genders both through modeled behavior and gendered encouragement of participants. Conclusion: Circus instruction engages children of all genders and is thereby an effective activity to counter low participation in PE for boys and, especially, girls. Although circus activities are not inherently gendered, gender preferences are cultivated by teachers through gendered behavior modeling (their activity preferences) and encouragement strategies (guiding students to activities based on gender), which is often observed in traditional PE school activities and sports.
... For example, youth circus programs generally allow youth to explore a wide variety of activities (e.g., acrobatics, juggling, clowning, wire-walking, trapeze) and thus may support autonomy (e.g., McCutcheon, 2003) more than single-sport programs. In addition, because most youth have limited experience with circus, more explicit competence support is often provided in these programs (e.g., Heller & Taglialatela, 2018;Kiez, 2015) than might be offered in traditional sports. Finally, the collaboration and trust required to produce a circus (Cadwell, 2018) may further promote relatedness. ...
... Because prior research suggests that youth psychosocial experiences in sport-based physical activities vary based on activity characteristics (Evans et al., 2017), it would be useful to extend this investigation to non-sport activities. Youth circus has been increasingly integrated into education (Kiez, 2015), recreation and social services (Sugarman, 2001), and therapeutic contexts (Maglio & McKinstry, 2008;Spiegel, Breilh, Campaña, Marcuse, & Yassi, 2015), thus further study of its impact on youth development is warranted. ...
... This finding is consistent with the previously observed gender invariance of motivational models based in SDT (Standage et al., 2005). In addition, circus training may provide gender-neutral opportunities for the development of motor competence (Kiez, 2015) that may help to offset the widely-observed lower levels of physical activity among females (Telford et al., 2016). For example, youth in our study engaged most frequently in various types of acrobatics, juggling, aerial, and balance activities in a mixed-gender environment. ...
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Youth development takes place in many contexts, with different resulting participant outcomes. Broadening the scope of research to include non-traditional contexts such as youth circus arts programs, which are both similar to and different from other out-of-school-time contexts, may promote better understanding of the ways in which these programs impact youth development. The present study examined the prevalence of support for basic psychological needs and positive developmental outcomes among youth circus program participants. Single time-point quantitative surveys were completed by 111 youth members of the American Youth Circus Organization (62% female), ranging in age from 10 to 21. Results indicated psychological need support predicted positive developmental outcomes. Relatedness was the strongest predictor of intrinsic motivation, affect, and positive youth development. This study illustrates a novel way in which physical activity and youth development can be integrated in youth programs. It contributes to the understanding of youths’ self-determined motivation in physical activities and points to the importance of examining under-studied youth activity contexts such as circus arts.
... Data collection took place in October 2016 over a 2-week period, where the participants completed the PLAYself, PLAY Inventory, and the questionnaire containing the CYRM and peer relations scale. Eight trained assessors rated the participants on the PLAYfun using a similar approach to that of Kriellaars and colleagues (30), and PE teachers completed a PLAYpe_teacher assessment for each child based on their recall of an individual after 1 month of exposure in the school setting. Parents completed a PLAYparent assessment for their own children. ...
... Therefore, the inclusion of robust physical literacy curricula in schools would likely lead to a greater participatory culture and arguably to greater human and social equity [see the "power pillar" of physical literacy (26)]. Indeed, some health and physical education curricula have already adopted a physical literacy approach (22,24), and initial implementations have been highly successful (30). ...
... As physical activity levels decrease more steadily for females than for males into adolescence, investigating corresponding changes in resilience could also help to address the challenge related to sex-related differences in resilience that have been identified at this age (57)(58)(59). This may then point to critical ages for schools to invest in physical literacy development to reduce the gap in movement competence and confidence (30). ...
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Background: There is growing interest in the relationship between physical and psychosocial factors related to resilience to better understand the antecedents of health and successful adaptation to challenges in and out of school, and across the lifespan. To further this understanding, a trans-disciplinary approach was used to investigate the association between the multidimensional constructs of physical literacy and resilience in children at a key stage in their development. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 227 school children aged 9-12 years old from five schools in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Resilience was measured using the Child and Youth Resilience Measure, and physical literacy through the Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth tools. Data were provided by self-report, surrogate assessors of the child (physical education teachers and parents), and trained assessors for movement skills. These data were analyzed using correlation and logistic regression. Results: Resilience was significantly correlated with numerous indicators of physical literacy, including movement capacity, confidence, and competence, environmental engagement, and overall perceptions of physical literacy. Regressions indicated that resilience could be predicted by movement confidence and competence, environmental engagement, and overall physical literacy. Conclusions: The findings of this study, using a constellation of sources, provide foundational evidence for the link between resilience and physical literacy among children, encouraging the importance of physical literacy development in schools. Longitudinal studies are required to further examine this relationship and how these previously unrelated fields may work together for a richer understanding of the interplay between the physical and psychological determinants of well-being.
... Given the increasing emphasis on physical literacy, a number of stakeholders have focused their efforts on improving physical literacy in school-aged children. Yet, there are few evidence-based examples (e.g., [31][32][33]) of how to intentionally target physical literacy as a whole, and the effect this will have on physical literacy and physical activity levels. ...
... While there has been great interest in the concept of physical literacy at both the policy and programming level, empirical inquiry has lagged behind theoretical interest. Recently, researchers have begun to design and evaluate interventions that employ a physical literacy-based approach [31][32][33]. Yet, much of this work includes program evaluations of existing programs or interventions only targeting some of the domains of physical literacy. Further, none of these studies have taken place in the afterschool setting-a setting that has been identified as a critical target for physical activity programming [14]. ...
... This could potentially limit barriers to implementation that were faced in the present study including limited access to the gymnasium and children being picked-up early from afterschool programming. Kriellaars and colleagues [31], for instance, recently evaluated a physical literacy-inspired circus arts instruction program for the physical education setting. ...
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Children (N = 90) from eight afterschool programs (n = 4 experimental sites with 47 children; n = 4 control sites with 43 children), along with the program leaders (N = 7) from the experimental sites, participated in a 12-week physical literacy intervention. Children were assessed on their physical literacy (movement competence, affect, confidence, and motivation) pre- and post-intervention using a suite of assessment tools that included the PLAYfun assessment of movement competence and a comprehensive child questionnaire. Experimental participants engaged in a daily physical literacy intervention at their afterschool program; controls engaged in their usual afterschool programming. Experimental group program leaders were assessed on their cognitions pre- and post-training and post-intervention, alongside questions regarding program acceptability and feasibility. Program leaders’ perceived knowledge and self-efficacy to implement the physical literacy program increased (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training and these effects were maintained at post-intervention. No group differences were observed in the change of children’s motor competence, self-efficacy, or motivation from baseline to post-intervention. However, significant increases in affect were observed among participants in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Program leaders said they would recommend the program to future leaders. However, they reported challenges with implementation due to equipment availability and behavioral challenges. Results suggest a comprehensive physical literacy program during the afterschool period can be feasible to implement and can lead to improvements in the affective domain of children’s physical literacy. Further research on childhood physical literacy interventions is warranted.
... PE pedagogy may be improved through a physical literacy lens to guide improved praxis. Kriellaars et al. (2019) examined the impact of circus arts instruction (CAI) in PE on the development of physical literacy. Results indicated the physical literacy CAI resulted in improvements in all domains of physical literacy including motor competence, confidence, and comprehension . ...
... The PLitPE intervention was effective at developing the physical competence domain of physical literacy as evidenced by average motor competence and movement vocabulary. The magnitude of these changes (d = 1.04) is substantial, and greater than those reported by Kriellaars et al. (2019) (d = 0.51), and the percentage improvements larger than those typically observed in studies that used FMS interventions (Kozera 2017;van Beurden et al. 2002). The improvement of both the experimental and control groups from pre to post could be due to the change in winter to spring where children were given the opportunity to be more physically active. ...
... In fact, looking aggregately the girls had a slightly bigger increase in magnitude, but not by a significant difference. It is encouraging to find an equal and substantive improvement in both males and females in the intervention group, which may indicate the reduction of gender bias consistent with Kriellaars et al. (2019). However, in the control, females demonstrated reactivity to the PE programme that the males did not. ...
Background: Although physical literacy is explicitly defined and integrated into Canadian provincial physical education curricula, limited empirical evidence substantiates the development of physical literacy in elementary physical education. Despite physical education curricular expectations, developing and assessing physical literacy in students may be difficult for teachers with little to no background in physical literacy or physical education. Purpose: The primary purpose was to explore the effect of a curricularly linked physical literacy enriched intervention in elementary school physical education. A secondary purpose involved an examination of the intervention’s effects on sex differences. Design: A quasi-experimental controlled intervention trial with a matched comparison group was used to determine the impact of a curricular-based physical literacy enriched physical education intervention on students’ development of physical literacy. Teachers (n = 6) and students (n = 131) from four Saskatchewan elementary schools participated in either a PLitPE (experimental) condition or a usual practice (control) condition. The PLitPE intervention was created using learning principles consistent with physical literacy and Self-Determination Theory. PLitPE instructional elements were developed with input from thirteen teachers who were members of the local school division’s physical education professional learning community. An embedded professional development model was used where a mentor teacher was present to facilitate and support the implementation of the PLitPE intervention. The Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth tools were used to assess motor competence (PLAYfun), student self-description (PLAYself), and movement participation (PLAYinventory). Each domain of physical literacy (physical competence, psychological, and behavioural) was evaluated using these tools. Results: Significant differences, favouring PLitPE over control, were observed for average motor competence (M = 49.4, M = 40.0, p < 0.001, PLAYfun), movement vocabulary (M = 10.3, M = 7.5, p < 0.001, PLAYfun), environmental participation (M = 423.9, M = 390.1, p < 0.05, PLAYself), and a reduction of sex differences on average motor competence and movement vocabulary. Statistically significant relationships with low to fair correlations between PLAYfun and PLAYself variables existed. Conclusions: This study provides empirical evidence supporting physical literacy enriched physical education. PLitPE developed the psychological domain (affective and cognitive) and significantly improved physical competence, however, the intervention did not manifest in improved behaviour. Concerning sex differences, the intervention yielded an equal and substantive improvement in both males and females in the intervention group. Future studies should consider the addition of reflective approaches, as well as the construction of positive challenges for children.
... Las actividades circenses se muestran, cada vez más, como una práctica con gran capacidad de adaptación al ambiente escolar, destacándose como un conocimiento innovador y bien recibido entre los estudiantes (Aguado & Fernández, 1992;Kriellars, Cairney, Bortoleto, Kiez, Dudley & Aubertin, 2019;Meller, De Araújo & Silveira, 2015). El potencial creativo y artístico que esta práctica posee de acuerdo con diversos estudiosos como Invernó (2004), pone de manifiesto algunas de las contribuciones de las actividades circenses cuando desarro-lladas en las escuelas, ya sea en asignaturas del currículo o como actividades extracurriculares (Ontañón, Duprat & Bortoleto, 2012). ...
... Este movimiento educativo que acabamos de indicar se observa en Brasil, país en el que se desarrolla este estudio, y también en muchos otros países, como en Argentina (Gómez, 2007), Alemania (Busse, 1991), Canadá (Kriellars et al, 2019), Chile (Retamal, Cáceres, Morales & Muñoz, 2012), China (Li, 2010), Dinamarca (Krabbe, 1988, España (Aguado & Fernandes, 1992Brozas-Polo, 1999;Invernó, 2003;, Francia (Aubertin & Funk, 2018;Fouchet, 2006;Hotier, 2003). ...
... En ese mismo estudio el autor discute que los profesores tienden a abordar pocas prácticas, normalmente, aquellas con las que tuvieron contacto previo y se siente con mayor dominio. Entendimos que, en contraposición a lo observado, es por medio de la diversidad que las actividades circenses presentan, que los alumnos podrán identificarse con una u otra modalidad, ampliando el interés y, por consiguiente, la participación activa (Kriellars et al 2019). ...
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Este estudio tiene como objetivo comprender como transcurre la enseñanza del circo en el contexto educativo como actividad extracurricular, por medio de una investigación de experiencias escolares. Metodológicamente, la investigación se caracteriza como un estudio de casos múltiples, de naturaleza cualitativa, que contó con la observación de clases en dos escuelas privadas con registro en un diario de campo; entrevista a cinco sujetos, profesores y coordinadores/directores de las dos escuelas; análisis documental de las planificaciones educativas. Los resultados muestran como la enseñanza del circo en el contexto extracurricular es un campo en pleno desarrollo, se presenta como una práctica con alta participación entre los alumnos, entretanto, centrada en algunas modalidades circenses, aéreos y manipulaciones, debido a una formación no sistemática de los profesores responsables. La enseñanza es realizada con docentes de ambos dos sexos y se mostró como una práctica lúdica, principalmente en los años iniciales, incluyendo presentaciones artísticas en ambas escuelas reconociendo la dimensión expresiva de dicha práctica. En ambos casos, pudimos apreciar que el circo presenta un relevante potencial educativo como posibilidad en la enseñanza extracurricular, no obstante, pensamos que todavía es necesario prestar atención a la demanda de formación específica de profesores y en la búsqueda de metodologías de enseñanza adecuadas a cada situación educativa. Abstract: This study aims to understand how circus teaching happens in the educational context as an extracurricular activity, through the investigation of schools experiences. Methodologically, the research is characterized as a multiple case study, qualitative in nature that included the observation of classes in two private schools with a record in a field diary; interview with five subjects, teachers and coordinators/ directors of the two schools; documentary analysis of educational planning. The results show how circus teaching in the extracurricular context is a field in full development. It is present as a practice with high participation among the students, meanwhile, focused on some circus modalities, aerial and manipulation, due to a non-systematic qualification of the responsible teachers. Teaching is carried out with male and female teachers and was shown as a playful practice, mainly in the initial years, including artistic presentations in both schools, recognizing the expressive dimension of said practice. We note in both cases that the circus has a high educational potential as a possibility in extracurricular teaching, even so, we think that it is still necessary to pay attention to the demand for specific teacher training and in the search for teaching methodologies appropriate to each educational situation.
... Similar to our results, females have previously demonstrated greater locomotor skills than males (Barnett et al. 2009), while males have demonstrated better object control skills than females (Barnett et al. 2009(Barnett et al. , 2010Cairney et al. 2018). Other research suggests that boys demonstrate higher motor proficiency, as demonstrated by higher PLAYfun scores in boys both before and after 1 semester of circusarts based physical education (Kriellaars et al. 2019). Interestingly, the difference between boys and girls in motor competence was smaller among students engaging in circus-based physical education and larger in students enrolled in the traditional physical education. ...
... Interestingly, the difference between boys and girls in motor competence was smaller among students engaging in circus-based physical education and larger in students enrolled in the traditional physical education. Circus-based physical activity programming may be a viable option to close the observed gender gap in PLAYfun (Kriellaars et al. 2019). We did not observe any differences between males and females in motivation, confidence and knowledge about physical literacy from the PLAYself questionnaire. ...
... We did not observe any differences between males and females in motivation, confidence and knowledge about physical literacy from the PLAYself questionnaire. Higher PLAYself scores have been reported by participants who participated in a circus-arts based physical education program versus traditional physical education programming, suggesting programming can impact children's motivation, confidence and knowledge around physical activity (Kriellaars et al. 2019). Females have reported lower adequacy and predilection than males in a study of youth from across Canada (MacDonald et al. 2018). ...
Article
The Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth (PLAY) Tools are a suite of tools to assess an individual’s physical literacy. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the PLAY Tools, including inter-rater reliability, internal consistency, validity and the associations between the tools. In this study, 218 children and youth (aged 8.4 to 13.7 years) and a parent/guardian completed the appropriate physical literacy assessments (i.e., PLAYbasic, PLAYfun, PLAYparent and PLAYself) and the Bruiniks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). Inter-rater reliability for PLAYfun was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94). The PLAYbasic, PLAYfun total, running and object control scores, and PLAYparent motor competence domain were higher in males than females, and PLAYfun locomotor skills were lower in males than females (p < 0.05). Age was positively correlated with PLAYbasic and PLAYfun (r = 0.14–0.32, p < 0.05). BOT-2 was positively correlated with PLAYfun and PLAYbasic (r = 0.19–0.59, p < 0.05). PLAYbasic is a significant predictor of PLAYfun (r ² = 0.742, p < 0.001). PLAYfun, PLAYparent and PLAYself were moderately correlated with one another. PLAYfun, PLAYparent and PLAYself demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.74–0.87, ω = 0.73–0.87). The PLAY Tools demonstrated moderate associations between one another, strong inter-rater reliability and good construct and convergent validity. Continued evaluation of these tools with other populations, such as adolescents, is necessary. Novelty: In school-age children, the PLAY Tools demonstrated strong inter-rater reliability, moderate associations with one another, acceptable internal consistency and good construct and convergent validity. The results suggest that that PLAY Tools are an acceptable method of evaluation for physical literacy in school-age children.
... A great interest in the concept of PL is emerging due to its comprehensive character on the development of physical activity. Several studies have started to evaluate and design intervention programmes based on it [30,31,44,45]. However, most of them are focused on some of the domains that comprised PL and not overall. ...
... However, most of them are focused on some of the domains that comprised PL and not overall. Moreover, most programmes have been carried out within physical education classes [44,45] or in out-ofschool settings [30,31]. This project would be the first to implement a programme to develop PL during the break period of the school day and, to the best of our knowledge, the first in Portugal to assess PL in children. ...
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(1) Background: Several studies have shown that active breaks have led to different improvements in their participants. However, no studies have assessed how they affect physical literacy (PL). (2) Aims: Therefore, this study will examine the effect of the PLBreaks programme on school children’s PL and body composition. (3) Methods: A parallel-group randomised controlled trial will be conducted with assessments of PL (Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy Development) and body composition (height, bodyweight, fat mass and fat-free mass) before and after an active breaks programme. PLBreak programme will run for 3 months and will be carried out 3 days a week for 20 min each day. The PLBreaks programme will consist of two blocks of 10 min of different physical activities (PA). The first block will be focused on the acquisition of knowledge and healthy life habits that will contribute to the development of the domains of knowledge and understanding and daily activity. The second block will be focused on physical competence and motivation throughout games. (4) Conclusions: The present study will investigate the efficacy of PLBreaks in schoolchildren in improving their PL and body composition. If the efficacy of the program is demonstrated, including the programme in public education programmes can be possible. This could be a scientific breakthrough in terms of health-related PA improvement and adherence, as well as the prevention of diseases associated with inactivity.
... Por su parte, Kiez (2015) señala que la educación circense incluye diferentes formas para involucrarse con las artes del circo, a saber: educativa, terapéutica, artística, deportiva o recreativa. En Canadá, el profesorado en escuelas primarias, asociaciones civiles o centros comunitarios utilizan el circo social como forma de intervención educativa mediada por el entrenamiento de las artes circenses para ayudar en lo personal, psíquico, social, salud emocional, consciencia corporal y desarrollo físico de aquellos individuos en riesgo -principalmente con malestar emocional, problemas de conducta o apáticos al trabajo en equipo-. ...
... Desde el campo de la pedagogía experimental, se explican diversos hallazgos actuales de la inclusión de las artes de circo en las escuelas en diferentes latitudes del mundo. Así, el principal aporte a la transversalización de la educación circense en la enseñanza general ha sido propuesto por Kiez (2015), quien realizó pruebas en grupos experimentales con 30 niñas y 30 niños de educación primaria en Manitoba, Canadá, encontrando una relación positiva entre el entrenamiento circense con puntuaciones de habilidades en pensamiento matemático mediado por el empleo de las malabares. El proyecto de Kiez contempló previamente la preparación del profesorado de educación física como educadores circenses. ...
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Resumen. Como punto de partida está la transición del circo tradicional en carpas ecuestres de origen inglés y ruso a finales del siglo XVIII a los programas actuales de formación en artes circenses contemporáneas en México bajo la influencia intercultural. Desde 2007, el circo mexicano ya es considerado como parte de las Bellas Artes y su estudio está profesionalizado. Sin embargo, las artes de circo aún no se incluyen en los planes y programas de educación básica o especial. Desde el enfoque cualitativo se realizó una investigación autoetnográfica con apoyo de 10 entrevistas no estructuradas realizadas con artistas de circo internacionales en diferentes intercambios académicos realizadas por el autor y coautoras con escuelas de circo en México, Cuba, Estados Unidos, Rusia, China y Tanzania. Por lo cual, el artículo evidencia el aporte a los procesos de creación artística en las disciplinas circenses denominadas contemporáneas y las experiencias creativas llevadas a cabo tanto por educadores como por la inclusión de artistas circen-ses mexicanos en las escuelas. Esta experimentación pedagógica impacta las clases de educación artística, educación física y matemáticas a través de resultados concretos. Destaca el circo social con enfoque de educación popular para todos sin exclusión y la circoterapia como disciplina auxiliar de la educación especial. Abstract A starting point in this research endeavor is the transition from the traditional circus in equestrian tents of English and Russian origin in the late eighteenth century to the current training programs in contemporary circus arts in Mexico under the intercultural influence. Since 2007, the Mexican circus has been considered part of the Fine Arts and its study is professionalized. However, circus arts are not yet included in basic or special
... The effective interventions often followed a robust theoretical framework such as the Social Ecological Model (Castelli et al., 2014;Bélanger et al., 2016), or Health Belied Model (Castelli et al., 2014). These studies mostly used quantitative rather than qualitative or mixed methods (Kiez, 2015;Mateus et al., 2015;Bélanger et al., 2016;George et al., 2016;Johnstone et al., 2017;Lavery et al., 2017;McGrane et al., 2018;Wainwright et al., 2018). However, as theorized by Whitehead (2001Whitehead ( , 2013, PL is a state of embodied capability. ...
... The positive change in overall PL was mainly contributed by improvements shown in the cognitive (d = 0.24), physical (d = 0.25), and affective (d = 0.26) domains. Consistent with previous studies, knowledge and understanding (Demetriou et al., 2015;Kiez, 2015;Chen et al., 2019) and affective domain variables (Sánchez-Oliva et al., 2017;Wainwright et al., 2018) can be improved through school-based interventions. The PL changes, in small effect size, may be due to the possibility that PL development is a life journey and the eightweek workshop could only render small effects. ...
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Purpose: Positive youth development (PYD) can be achieved through effective and purposeful instructions in physical education (PE) and other relevant experiences both in and beyond schools. Students' PYD is associated with their physical literacy (PL) development, which has become a primary emphasis of PE, especially in the United States, in recent years. This study aimed to (a) characterize middle school students' physical literacy (PL) and (b) capture their PL developing trajectories in light of receiving a self-determination theory (SDT)-based pedagogical workshop, with the long-term vision on PYD. Methods: Participants ( N = 226) completed the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL-2) in physical education (PE). A subsample ( n = 49) received four workshop sessions over 8 weeks; and completed the CAPL-2 and participated in focus group interviews before and after the workshop. Results: Both boys and girls' CAPL-2 scores were in the “progressing” stage. Significant differences in PL and PL domains were observed by gender, grade, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), and race/ethnicity. The low PL group showed improvements in PL and PL domains. Interview data delineated positive PL developing trajectories for physical activity (PA) type, frequency, and intensity; perceived motives; and participation barriers. Conclusion: PL is a dynamic state that can be improved through purposeful PE. Future work should examine the effect (and implementation) of opportunities in (e.g., PE) and beyond schools (e.g., youth sports programs) to ultimately advance PYD.
... This cluster frequently positions children as a target audience (e.g. Cairney, Clark et al. 2019;Kriellaars et al. 2019), despite PL being considered 'essential' across the 'lifespan' (Cairney et al. 2018, 1). Accordingly, a particular focus is given to the assessment of PL for children and youth (e.g. ...
... Accordingly, a particular focus is given to the assessment of PL for children and youth (e.g. Kriellaars et al. 2019). Reasons being: (i) 'PL development, particularly early in life, will influence subsequent [physical activity] participation and related outcomes across the life course' (Cairney, Dudley et al. 2019, 375); and (ii) embedding PL assessment in childhood settings allows 'monitor[ing of] how a child is progressing (or not)' (Dudley, Kriellaars, and Cairney 2016, 198). ...
Article
Background: Physical Literacy (PL) is a concept enduring controversy. Based on Actor-Network Theory and Venturini’s definition, PL is considered a controversy because it is a ‘situation’ in which actors disagree and there is ‘shared uncertainty’ around what it is and is not. Given the increasing expectation, in some countries, that PL becomes a feature of health and/physical education (H/PE) it is important that the profession is aware of and understands the multiple versions that exist, the actors who have assembled them and in the name of what. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map in unprecedented detail the controversial state of PL as presented by different actors on the scholarly web (i.e. peer-reviewed, scholarly literature). This is important, as actors assemble to create territories and these territories describe bounded spaces. This research helps to better understand what territories are being marked out on the scholarly web, defined by actors that work together to produce different PL ‘modes of ordering’ and the implications this has for further research, policy and ultimately, how PL is made to act in H/PE. Method: Utilising Venturini’s ‘cartography of controversies’, 77 PL scholarly articles were analysed to observe and describe the network of heterogeneous actors involved in the PL controversy, along with viewpoints, relations and ideologies. Finding/discussion: Analysis of the scholarly articles revealed that four clusters of actors have formed, each of which is invested in certain ideologies as to what PL should be. These clusters serve to restrict alternative perspectives of PL through a process of framing and deletion. As a result, a mix of overlapping yet contested PL framings that render PL ontologically unstable are present on the scholarly web. This instability can be attributed, at least in part, to actors who reshape their relations and bridge ideas across clusters and disciplinary boundaries. This has enabled porous boundaries and fluid ‘forms of knowledge’ of what PL should be. The implication is that the different versions of PL flow in many directions. Consequently, PL appears to be an attractive, all-encompassing concept, albeit understood/utilised differently across clusters of actors, that does everything from combating non-communicable diseases to fostering individuals’ embodied potential, with the possibility of addressing little in reality. Conclusion:As expectations rise for H/PE teachers and coaches to engage with PL, an awareness of PL’s various compositions, interests and logics should be informative. The solidity of each version of PL is highly contingent, and their influence will rise and fall with the fluctuation of alliances. The reforming and fluid nature of the PL actor-network(s) means that there is no single, grand narrative for PL, but rather multiple, and partial possibilities. We conclude by drawing on the findings to share four possible futures for PL.
... Rhythmic movement helps to develop the rhythmic and tonal senses, further ropes and silks, balls, pins, diabolo and balls. Circus arts instruction was introduced as an alternative intervention to new physical education workshops in Montreal, Canada (43). Participants who attended the training lessons in circus arts instruction classes were shown to have improved competencies, understanding of movement vocabularies and confidence compared to those in the control group. ...
... The myriad of activities in a circus, ranging from acrobatics to clowning, provides "something for everyone". Thus, allowing more than one set of skill progression, whereas sports provide a limited progression in terms of skills sets (43). Moreover, learning to perform in front of the crowd is essentially different from playing sports in front of others, whereby the audience or crowd is not a vital part of the process, but rather a by-product. ...
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Physical literacy can be de ned as having an individual’s mind and body in a state of harmony. Previous studies introduced circus arts and actor training as a way to encourage physical literacy. Musical literacy is the “perception of music as a whole”, where it requires the interpretation of its meaning, the aesthetic values and the ideas that the musician wanted to convey. Correspondingly, the yin-yang was a representation of two polar forces coming together and harmonising together as one in Eastern tradition. This study aimed to introduce new ways and possibilities in endorsing physical and musical literacy, through the extensive use of 24 Season Drums. This study would further explore how 24 Season Drums, a musical performance that originated from Malaysia, can enhance one’s development in terms of their musical (the yin) and physical (the yang) embodiment. This is followed by a comprehensive explanation of why drumming training is relevant in developing a holistic and well-rounded medical student. The literature search was performed using databases from PubMed, ResearchGate, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Google search engine using specific keywords, ranging from May 2000 to September 2020. We hope that this article could pave the way for more future studies on the effects of 24 Season Drums training in terms of an individual’s physical and musical literacy.
... Moreover, the diverse range of activities, from clowning to juggling to acrobatics, means there is 'something for everyone' and therefore more than one skill progression pathway. It is for all these reasons that circus arts instruction is viewed as particularly relevant to use for the development of physical literacy as it emphasises skill development, confidence and competence, as well as fun and social participation using activities that are challenging, engaging, novel and quite distinct from each other [40]. ...
... One study has evaluated the use of circus arts instruction as an alternative pedagogy to standard physical education classes in Montreal, Canada to achieve physical literacy [40]. Children in the circus arts instruction intervention (content through the National Circus School in Montreal) were compared to children receiving standard curricular physical education using the PLAYfun [41] and PLAYself tools. ...
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The aim of this communication is to highlight synergies and opportunities between the fields of education, sport and health and the performing arts for the promotion of physical literacy. First, physical literacy is introduced and then defined according to the definition used in this communication. Secondly, we highlight the gap in physical literacy interventions, in that they do not address learning based on a holistic comprehensive definition of physical literacy. Then we provide examples of interventions that do borrow from the arts, such as circus arts, and show how these approaches explicitly link to the discipline of arts. This is followed by program examples, which approach motor and language development from discipline-specific perspectives. Then we introduce actor training (within the discipline of arts) in terms of how this approach may be useful to our understanding of physical literacy and how to expand the conception of physical literacy to include affective meaning making, and tolerance for ambiguity and discomfort in not-knowing. Finally, we conclude with the next step for the bridging of disciplines in order to further our journey to understand and improve physical literacy.
... By CTT standards, the PLAYself demonstrated robust psychometric properties including good to excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. With regard to the latter, PLAYself demonstrated significant fair to moderate correlations with measures that capture specific aspects of physical literacy (Cairney et al., 2019). The PLAYself environmental and self-description domains were related to movement competence, motivation, and selfperceptions, overall, as well as to subdomains of the MPAM-R, such as competence, interest/enjoyment, and social motivations; all of which are key components of physical literacy. ...
... In addition to the robust psychometric properties of the PLAYself, strengths of the tool include the fact that it is freely available, can be deployed with minimal training, and takes only 5-10 minutes to complete. These favourable qualities make PLAYself ideal for large-scale surveillance or population-based studies and it has already shown utility in intervention studies (Kozera 2017;Kriellaars et al. 2019). Further, when used together with PLAYfun, it can provide a comprehensive assessment of the multiple dimensions that comprise physical literacy. ...
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PLAYself is a tool designed for self-description of physical literacy in children and youth. We examined the tool using both the Rasch model and Classical Test Theory to explore its psychometric properties. A random selection of 300 children aged 8–14 years (47.3% female) from a dataset of 8513 Canadian children were involved in the Rasch analysis. The 3 subscales of the measure demonstrated good fit to the Rasch model, satisfying requirements of unidimensionality, having good fit statistics (item and person fit residuals = –0.17–1.47) and internal reliability (Person Separation Index = 0.70–0.82), and a lack of item bias and problematic local dependency. In a separate comparable sample, 297 children also aged 8–14 years (53.9% female) completed the PLAYfun, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ), Physical Activities Measure-Revised (MPAM-R), a physical activity inventory (PLAYinventory), and repeated the PLAYself 7 days later. The tests with this sample confirmed test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.81–0.84), and convergent and construct validity consistent with contemporary physical literacy definitions. Overall, the PLAYself demonstrated robust psychometric properties, and is recommended for researchers and practitioners who are interested in assessing self-reported physical literacy. Novelty: The PLAYself is a self-reported measure of physical literacy This study validates the measure using the Rasch model and classical test theory The PLAYself was found to have strong psychometric properties
... While this framing of PL is primarily situated in the context of sport, as a key feature of athletic and physical activity development, 'PL as motor competence' appears to be infiltrating H/PE in a range of ways. Sport for Life Society has, for example, been involved in the development and promotion of the Physical Literacy Assessment for Youth (PLAY), a PL assessment tool that helps trained professionals, including H/PE teachers, assess the FMS of children aged seven years and older (Higgs et al., 2019;Kriellaars et al., 2019;Sport for Life Society, 2018;Young et al., 2020). In addition, the Government of British Columbia (2019) explicitly refers to PL as one of their four K-10 'Curricula Competencies'. ...
Article
This paper explores how various ideological positions or ‘cosmoses’ associated with physical literacy (PL) have come to be and, in doing so, extends scholarship by examining and presenting PL as a multiplicity of physical literacies. Drawing on Stengers’ notion of ‘cosmopolitics’ and Venturini's ‘cartography of controversies’ method, 167 scholarly articles and 23 non-scholarly texts were analysed to observe and describe how PL has been framed over time as a result of dynamic political factors. Findings reveal that three ‘waves’ of PL cosmoses have unfolded over time (PL as health-promoting physical activity, PL as motor competence and PL as phenomenological embodiment). Whilst all three seek to promote engagement in physical activity and have loose ties to ‘health’, each PL cosmos is bound by different objectives, actors and obligations and is orientated towards solving a different problem. Rather than continued confusion and controversy, we propose that PL be understood as a multiverse wherein the three different PL cosmoses are held apart as physical literacies that play co-existing roles based on the problem that each cosmos is trying to solve. While understanding PL as a multiverse is not a solution to the controversy and uncertainty surrounding PL, it provides those who are interested in or tasked with enacting PL an opportunity to become aware of and understand what the different PL cosmoses or physical literacies constitute and thus make possible (or not) on the basis of their ontological differences.
... In fact, fostering movement creativity can contribute to an increased movement repertoire, but has also been associated with psychological well-being (Bournelli, Makri, & Mylonas, 2009;Grammatikopoulos, Gregoriadis, & Evridiki, 2012;Theodorakou & Zervas, 2003). Studies have shown a possibility to increase motor creativity (Bournelli & Mountakis, 2008;Dominguez, Diaz Pereira, & Martinez-Vidal, 2015), and physical literacy including motor competence through the inclusion of specialized physical education programs (e.g., Kriellaars et al., 2019). Unfortunately, because the measurement of movement creativity is currently a complex pursuit (Agnoli, Corazza, & Runco, 2016), evidence-based interventions remain scarce limiting our understanding of motor creativity, and its development in schools and other sectors. ...
Article
Few assessment tools have been designed to assess motor creativity, and the existing tools have limitations. To bridge this gap, the current study aimed at designing a new movement creativity assessment tool that considers the unique features underlying the expression of creativity through movement. A modified Delphi technique was used to collect experts’ perspective and derive tasks suitable for evaluation of the main features underlying movement creativity. From these expert ‘consultations, 11 tasks measuring up to 6 movement creativity variables (i.e., fluency, originality, imagination, elaboration, appropriateness, flow) were included in the initial PLAY Creativity measurement model. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN checklist) were followed to ensure methodological quality. Overall, 367 children from grade 4 to 6 participated in this study. Results indicated strong test-retest, inter, and intra observer reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an inadequate fit of the hypothesized model leading to some modifications. After combining originality and imagination, and excluding elaboration, the final measurement model provided an adequate fit. PLAY creativity, in its final form, has adequate validity and can be considered a reliable instrument to assess movement creativity in children. This study thus provides a useful tool to assess and promote movement creativity.
... On the other hand, improved actual motor skill competence is related to increased physical fitness [10], higher perceived physical competence [7], and increased motivation toward physical activity (PA; [11]). Recently, researchers have successfully begun to implement interventions that employ an evidence-based model of physical literacy (i.e., a multidimensional framework that refers to movement competence, affect, confidence, and motivation toward PA; [12]) as a health determinant of school-aged children through participation in PA [13][14][15]. Notwithstanding this evidence, little experimental or longitudinal research has explored the benefits of improved actual and perceived physical competence on physical and psychosocial difficulties of obese children [1,2]. ...
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With the current obesity epidemic and the decline of fitness among school-aged children, the importance of obesity interventions to promote physical activity and healthy habits has become indisputable. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a school-based multicomponent intervention in increasing physical activity (PA) levels, actual physical abilities, and perceived physical abilities in clinical and nonclinical samples of overweight/obese boys and girls aged 10–12 years. The clinical intervention group (n = 35) participated in a 7-month after-school program in addition to curricular physical education lessons, while the nonclinical control group (n = 29) received usual curricular lessons. Measures included levels of PA and fitness and individual’s perceptions of physical ability. After treatment, the intervention group showed improved PA levels, perceived physical ability, and throwing and jumping task performances compared to the control group. Results indicate that a multicomponent program can improve levels of PA, fitness, and perceived competence of overweight participants. Findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive healthy lifestyle program that includes physical, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and suggest practical implications for educators, trainers, and teachers in identifying best practices targeting childhood obesity.
... Thus, a substantial increase in, for example, gross motor skills, can be found if the classes include similar types of gross movements/exercises that can be found in the assessment batteries. Indeed, studies that reported the most-pronounced effect sizes in the current meta-analysis were relatively close in similarity to physical education content and type of assessment [55,60,62]. Furthermore, differences in risk of bias can also relate to heterogeneity in study results included in the current meta-analysis [71]. ...
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Appropriate levels of motor competence are an integrated part of individuals’ health-related fitness, and physical education is proposed as an important context for developing a broad range of motor skills. The aim of the current study was to apply meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of curriculum-based physical education on the development of the overall motor competence of children and adolescents. Studies were located by searching seven databases and included according to predefined criteria. Random effects models using the standardized effect size (Hedges’ g) were used to aggregate results, including an examination of heterogeneity and inconsistency. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, and a total of 38 effect sizes were calculated. A statistically significant improvement in motor competence following curriculum-based physical education compared to active control groups was observed in children and adolescents (g = −0.69, 95% CI −0.91 to −0.46, n = 23). Participants’ ages, total time for physical education intervention, and type of motor competence assessment did not appear to be statistically significant moderators of effect size. Physical education with various curricula can, therefore, increase overall motor competence in children and adolescents.
... Informed by empirical work and applied intervention done within the circus context (e.g., Ménard and Hallé, 2014;Burtt and Lavers, 2017), CfD presents a continuum of competencies to be developed through and for circus artists' optimal growth from novice to expert. Namely, it integrates four key attributes that have been shown to contribute to artists' performance and wellbeing, including physical attributes (Decker et al., 2019;Kriellaars et al., 2019;Barker et al., 2020), psychological attributes (Shrier and Hallé, 2011;Filho et al., 2016;Ross and Shapiro, 2017;Donohue et al., 2018;van Rens and Filho, 2019), interpersonal and social attributes (Filho et al., 2017;Filho and Rettig, 2018), and creative attributes (Leroux and Batson, 2016). These four attributes will inform the learning domains of the intervention delivered to students to ensure that their holistic development and wellness are addressed. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the abrupt closure of circus schools, venues, and companies, introducing a myriad of novel stressors. Performers and students must now attempt to maintain their technical, physical, artistic, creative, and cognitive abilities without in-person support from their coaches and must manage the isolation from their training and performing spaces. For circus artists, the transposition of the work space to a home environment is not possible, which creates novel stressors that could lead to the exacerbation and escalation of mental health issues. The purpose of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a holistic interventional program based on the socioecological model of resilience and operationalized through physical literacy. This will be a prospective longitudinal study with a retrospective comparison to data from a similar student cohort pre-pandemic. Interventions were designed using a population-specific, participant-based developmental model within a knowledge translation framework. The interventional program includes group webinars, small group information sessions, and one-on-one Zoom meetings, in addition to the distribution of electronic educational materials. The interventions will holistically provide psychological, physical, social, technical, artistic, and creative supports. Resources will be deployed throughout the closure period and through recovery, as transitions to return to training after prolonged hiatus will magnify known psychological and physical difficulties. Repeated, longitudinal assessment of students will be utilized to track changes over time at key transitions in the pandemic and school year and will be compared to a pre-pandemic school year. The framework for this program will be translatable to other performing arts and high performance contexts. The program has implications for the mental health and overall wellbeing of artists and for cultural and economic recovery of the industry.
... It appears in contexts such as obesity (Gately, 2010), the young child (Gu et al., 2019;Maude, 2010), individuals with a disability (Vickerman & DePauw, 2010), and older adult populations (Almond, 2010). Furthermore, literacy literature examines many pedagogical perspectives in PE (see for example Haydn-Davies, 2010;Kriellaars et al., 2019;Mandigo et al., 2019;Murdoch & Whitehead, 2010;Roberts et al., 2019;Standal, 2015;Whitehead et al., 2018) and PE teacher education issues Starck et al., 2018). Here we will mention that Standal (2015) argues that some features are essential elements of any pedagogical model that could be considered a form of PL, or movement literacy as Standal proposes, where we will point out three elements: The first is to emphasize the qualitatively felt experience of moving, the second is to encourage exploration of each student's individual movement potential, and the third is to emphasize collaboration between students as opposed to competition. ...
Article
The aim of the study is to examine friluftsliv, which has been used as both a Norwegian and English term in the research literature, in relation to physical literacy (PL) in physical education (PE) pedagogies. The term friluftsliv is associated to outdoor recreation and it relates to moving and being moved in nature over a specified period of time, changing one's environment, having experiences of nature and respect for the nature and its’ sustainable future. The PL discourse in the research literature does not draw on many perspectives on nature and on education for an environmentally sustainable future, especially in our present times of climate change. The research questions is: How can friluftsliv broaden the understanding of PL in PE pedagogies and include a friluftsliv- and nature perspective? We argue that friluftsliv adds an interesting nature element in the concept of PL, and we propose the concept of ‘friluftsliv literacy’ to broaden the understanding of PL. We exemplify and elaborate on ‘friluftsliv literacy’ through an analysis of data from a study of experiences of friluftsliv trips taken by students in a upper secondary school that offers the three-year education program in friluftsliv in Norway. A key point of the analysis is that key aspects of ‘friluftsliv literacy’, which are outlined in the study, both support and refresh the concept of PL, which especially draws on existential and phenomenological perspectives. At the same time, ‘friluftsliv literacy’ will problematize the concept of PL, as the PL discourse should relate more to education for an environmental sustainable future and for protection of life on earth both locally and globally.
... The development and maintenance of physical literacy are of vital importance for disabled children (Pohl et al., 2019), who are under-represented and vulnerable during this pandemic. The policymakers and caregivers can do fun interventions for disabled children, for instance, the circus arts program to keep children active and mentally engaged during this pandemic (Kriellaars et al., 2019). In addition, many digital channels provide disadvantaged children with programs. ...
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The present work presents an analytical and investigatory view of the existing issues regarding COVID-19 with attention to children and their overall well-being during the second quarter of 2020. The authors conducted an extensive content analysis of media reports, government briefings, social platforms, and provide some recommendations to the policymakers and care providers for building more robust responses for the pandemic affected children. The article contributes to the existing field of study in the following ways. Firstly, the present manuscript describes the impact of COVID-19 on the psychosocial health of children. Secondly, the authors offered some outcome-based responses to policymakers and caregivers to mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic on COVID affected families and children. Thirdly, the article highlights the importance of social media, the role of storytelling, and using the concept of mandalas in handling the pandemic affected sensitive sections of the society. Lastly, the authors furnish some response initiatives to combat the novel COVID-19 pandemic based on real-world observations. These initiatives can influence policymakers as well as help caregivers to design efficient and adequate response programs for the pandemic affected children.
... This theme can itself be seen as a kind of umbrella theme subsuming, how principles are practised pedagogically (Rhoades and Hopper 2018), how principles can be practised in different ways (Correia et al. 2019;Renshaw and Chow 2019;Roberts, Newcombe, and Davids 2019) and what the consequences of implementing these principles are, for instance (Bedard, Bremer, and Cairney 2020;Coker 2018;Lindgren and Barker 2019). The implementation of physical literacy, in particular, has received substantial attention recently with two special issues in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (Durden-Myers and Whitehead 2018; Kriellaars et al. 2019). ...
... Of the 38 articles included in this review, 36 cited a range of definitions of physical literacy proposed by Whitehead, including Whitehead's published version 11,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] , the International Physical Literacy Association (IPLA: https://www.physical-literacy.org. uk/?v=7516fd43adaa) published versions 12,16,18,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] , and the one published by Canada's Physical Literacy Consensus Statement 2015 (https://sportforlife.ca/wp-content/ ...
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Physical literacy has been gaining popularity worldwide in physical education, physical activity, and sports. However, more attention has been focused on the concept of physical literacy, and its assessment is still in its early stages. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the current development of the definition, especially the assessment of physical literacy worldwide, and to provide valuable information for researchers and related policymakers in the field of physical education and sports promotion in Japan. In this review, a search of the literature in English was conducted using two major electronic databases, which yielded 38 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study summarized the characteristics of physical literacy definitions and assessments involved in 38 studies and then compared the similarities and differences between these assessment tools in terms of components, usage scenarios, and applicable populations. Finally, we integrated the results with the Japanese social context to provide suggestions on how to develop physical literacy in Japan.
... Despite programs and interventions which have been designed using a PL approach [20,21], there is little consensus on how best to measure PL to monitor change and/ or responsiveness to intervention [22,23]. Therefore, the research on PL highlights the necessity of designing an instrument for measuring and accurate assessment of PL [7,19,24]. ...
Article
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Background The concept of physical literacy (PL) has gained worldwide interest due in large part to alarming decreases in physical activity (PA) and increases in overweight and obesity. Although the concept is gaining in popularity, critical gaps in research remain including the need to develop quality assessment tools to determine PL levels, to evaluate interventions and monitor changes and trends over time. Aims This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the popular Canadian assessment of physical literacy (CAPL) in a sample of Iranian 8- to 12 year-olds and to determine the current levels of PL in that population. Methods The study consisted of 504 children (boys, n = 327, girls, n = 177). Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), test–retest, and inter-rater reliability. Results The content validity of the CAPL was calculated to be 0.86. Factor analysis, using 12 indicators in four domains (i.e., physical competence, motivation and confidence, knowledge and understanding, and daily behavior), showed a good fit. The reliability of the instrument was equal to 0.95. According to CAPL’s interpretation system, the average level of PL in the sample was determined to be “progressing”. Moreover, a statistically significant relationship was found between PL scores, age, and gender. Conclusions The conceptual model of PL was compatible with the Iranian sample of 8- to 12 year-olds. Directions based on these findings are discussed.
... Together, these actions can contribute to the promotion of a culture of safety in the circus. Nesse sentido, é importante indicar que os acidentes vêm sendo discutidos pela literatura (BOLLING et al., 2019) que, frequentemente, reforça a tese de que a maioria desses problemas não é reportada oficialmente e, quando acontece, é feita pela mídia/jornalismo não especializado (WANKE et al., 2012;KRIELLAARS et al., 2019). De fato, este assunto ainda é tratado como "tabu" devido ao receio da repercussão negativa e, muitos dos acidentes de menor proporção que são mais frequentes, são considerados como ocorrências "normais" e não recebem a devida atenção (FERREIRA; BORTOLETO; SILVA, 2015). ...
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O circo – com destaque para as modalidades aéreas – vem ganhando espaço no Brasil. São poucas as investigações que analisam o rico e os acidentes no contexto circense de modo que o objetivo foi debater a formação dos responsáveis pela instalação dos aparelhos aéreos e descrever as ancoragens. Este estudo exploratório-descritivo teve dois instrumentos de coleta de dados: um questionário semiestruturado e o registro fotográfico das ancoragens. Os dados foram analisados a partir da Análise de Conteúdo e da Estatística Descritiva. Os achados indicam a escassez de formação específica e regulamentação dos equipamentos e processos dentro do circo. Assim, se faz importante a implementação de políticas públicas/normatização específica que favoreçam a qualificação profissional e a elaboração protocolos de trabalho no âmbito da segurança no circo.
... Longitudinally, these findings do not hold up as strongly, with one research group finding only object control skills influencing PA [16] mediated by perceived sports competence [17] and another finding no associations [18]. Beyond FMS lies physical literacy (PL), a multidimensional construct transcending FMS to include cognitive, emotional, and social elements that collectively influence movement experiences existentially [19,20]. Each of these constructscognitive, emotional, and social-theoretically affect the full experience of PA, such as enjoyment. ...
Article
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There exists a general understanding that physical education (PE) is a means to create a physically healthy population. However, disagreements arise over primary practices within PE to achieve this end. The primary divergence is whether PE facilitators should primarily ensure participants exert a specific level of energy during class or develop their confidence, competence, knowledge, and motivation for meaningful physical activity (PA) participation outside of the PE classroom (referred to as physical literacy (PL)). This study uses structural equation modeling to examine associations between enjoyment of PA and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in PE class in grade 5 (mean age = 10) and participation in PA and feelings about PA 1 year later, in grade 6 (mean age = 11), in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD, N = 1364). Enjoyment of PA in grade 5 predicted sport self-concept (β = 0.347, p ≤ 0.001), MVPA (β = 0.12, p ≤ 0.001), and enjoyment of PA (β = 0.538, p ≤ 0.001) in grade 6. These associations remained when including weekday MVPA performed in grade 5 as an indirect effect (β = 0.058, p ≤ 0.001). MVPA performed during PE in grade 5 was not associated with any PA outcomes in grade 6. Findings suggest PE instructors should prioritize PL development over maintenance of high energy expenditure during PE class for long-term MVPA.
... A total of 19 intervention studies (43.2%) provided information of how they realized the requested intertwining of the three PL domains (details and key phrases can be retrieved from Appendix Table 3). In studies with an educational focus, this intertwining has frequently been nested within student-or learner-centered instruction approaches, for instance, by relying on the concepts of Teaching Games for Understanding or Sport Education (Arbour-Nicitopoulos et al., 2018;Bremer, Graham, & Cairney, 2020;Choi et al., 2020;Choi et al., 2021;Kriellaars et al., 2019;Mandigo et al., 2019;Rudd, Crotti et al., 2020;Santos et al., 2017;Strobl et al., 2020;Wright et al., 2020). Again studies with extractable information regarding intertwining were published significantly later relative to articles without these hints, t(32.2) = 2.40, Strength and conditioning program to improve athletic motor skill competencies Emphasis of athletic motor skills within PE; gamebased and constraints-led approach Rudd, Crotti, et al. (2020) PE with a linear pedagogy approach 45 min on-task teaching + 15 min warm-up/cooldown; 5 weeks dance, 5 weeks gymnastic, 5 weeks ball skills lessons; five principles ...
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The concept of physical literacy (PL) has gained increasing attention over the last decade and posits that individuals value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities for life through (a) motivation/ confidence, (b) physical competence, and (c) knowledge/understanding. There is a mounting number of articles that have recently transformed the conceptual ideas of PL into interventions. The goal of this pre-registered (PROSPERO CRD42020188926) systematic review was to analyze and summarize PL interventions in terms of design and content. A total of 18 databases were searched drawing on the 2020 preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were English language, publication by November 2020, and interventions based on or inspired by PL. Articles that met these criteria were analyzed in relation to basic delivery characteristics, theoretical foundations, study objectives, intervention content, and potential links between the PL domains (a-c) and content. The multiphase screening process with two independent raters yielded 44 eligible interventions across 46 articles. The analyses of the review demonstrated that the majority of interventions were conducted on children or adolescents and in countries with higher economic development. While 77.3% of the interventions adopted a holistic understanding of PL, only 38.6% formulated study goals or intervention content to cover all the core PL domains. Importantly, only 25.0% of the interventions showed substantial links between PL domains and intervention content and can thus be classified as theory-based. Taken together, most interventions targeted aspects of physical competence (84.1%), whereas knowledge/understanding (59.1%) and motivation/confidence (47.7%) were often neglected. Therefore, future interventions should commit to systematically address all domains of PL simultaneously. PL interventions exposed weaknesses in reporting delivery characteristics and content. Finally, a model is suggested which assumes that practical PL efforts may better harmonize with PL theory and conception if they cultivated a tight interlocking with the three core domains of PL at all stages of the intervention process.
... PLAYself displayed no significant changes from pre-to post-intervention. Other studies have also reported an increase in physical competence with no change in PLAYself scores (Hennessy et al., 2018;Kriellaars et al., 2019). Additionally, none of domains within the PLAYself changed post intervention. ...
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Preliminary evidence suggests that children with congenital heart disease (CHD) may have low physical literacy (PL). High PL is a determinant of physical activity participation. Therefore, we assessed the effect of a 12-week intervention on the PL of children with CHD. PL was assessed pre- and post-intervention in 14 participants with CHD, aged 9-16 years, using the PLAY tools. The intervention involved six bi-weekly sessions that consisted of a fundamental movement skill practice designed to enhance gross motor function and confidence. PLAYfun assessed physical competence. PLAYself assessed the child’s perception of their PL. PLAYparent was completed by parents to assess their perception of their child’s PL. We found a significant increase in overall physical competence (PLAYfun, p<.001), along with the domains of running (p=.001), locomotor (p=.002), upper body object control (p<.001), and balance (p=.006). No significant changes were found in PLAYself or PLAYparent indicating no changes to their self and parental perceived PL. We demonstrated that a 12-week fundamental movement skill intervention can improve PL in children with CHD. Children with CHD are at an increased risk of sequelae secondary to their reported physical inactivity, PL development may augment physical activity engagement and provide health benefits to this at-risk population.
... Physical literacy promotes self-efficacy, self-confidence, and creativity (Whitehead et al., 2018), which improves the cognitive, social, and emotional status of children regardless of their gender or individual differences (Gehris et al., 2018), and decreases health problems (Longmuir et al., 2015). In the literature, previous studies indicate that children's motor competence (Caput-Joginica, Locaric, & Privitello, 2009;Kozera, 2017;Kriellaars et al., 2019;Mandigo, Lodewyk, & Trendway, 2019) and their dietary behaviors are improved as a result of the physical literacy-related intervention. Furthermore, some studies reveal that boys had better strength and coordination (Caput-Joginica et al., 2009), better motor competence (Kozera, 2017), higher physical activity level. ...
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Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have problems such as inactivity and the lack of communication need interventions that enable them to participate in society just like their peers. The purpose of this study was to investigate ‘I can have physical literacy’ programme (ICPL) on physical literacy (PL) in children with ASD. This study was a quasi-experimental study with the pre-test, post-test design, and control group. The intervention programme was based on ICPL and the Canadian assessment of physical literacy (CAPL). The results showed that physical competence (p=.005), daily behaviour (p=.003), motivation and confidence (p=.005), knowledge (p=.001), and PL (p=.005). The intervention is based on the PL effect on physical competence to engage in physical activity (PA), and also embraces more than the body and development of physical skills which includes other factors.
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The current interview with the Prof. Dr. Marco Antonio Coelho Bortoleto, from the University of Campinas (Unicamp, Brazil), was held in April 2018. The main purpose was to dialogue about the advances of the circus as an object of study and research, considering its intricate net of political, social and historical relationships, which still precedes its scientific consolidation. His opinions questions the status quo of the circus in Brazil assuring that, even though the Circus is strongly present in the national and international artistic sight, and despite having the Unesco recognition, the Brazilian institutions, including the universities, are still resistant and not enough engaged to its scientific consolidation, making even more difficult its academic recognition.
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Swedish compulsory school education rests upon the foundation of democracy, and the Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and school-age educare 2011 (Skolverket, 2018) stresses that children should have the opportunity to take initiatives. Research shows that children are not able to have any influence on activities in Physical Education and Health (PEH). Usually, they have to follow the teacher’s instructions and reproduce specific movement patterns. This article discusses a research project that challenged traditional ways of teaching PEH, in order to give 10-year-old children the opportunity to have an influence on PEH. The project involved 10 circus lessons in which the children were encouraged to explore movement and put their own ideas into practice. In terms of theory, the approach is based on Hart’s (1997) Ladder of Children’s Participation. Data were collected through participant observations, video observations, interviews, and a field diary. The results show that the children participated in varying degrees and experienced attempts to increase their influence in different ways: Some found it fun and free, while others found it difficult and boring. One important conclusion is that influence and participation need to be practised – both by children and by teachers. Circus activities, because of the playfulness and creativity involved, may be very suited to practising influence and participation..
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The World Health Organization recommends that children and adolescents aged 5‐17 should engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity a day. Physical activity is defined as bodily movement performed by skeletal muscles that demand energy expenditure. The physical benefits of this include musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health, a healthy body weight and neuromuscular awareness, for coordination and controlling movement. The psychological benefits include managing anxiety and building self‐esteem, which are both important for children’s psycho‐social development (1).
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Physical literacy has become a focus in school physical education and youth sports programs. Despite the global attention, physical literacy remains an elusive concept in regards to its definition, assessment, and interventions. In this article, we review the existing scholarship on physical literacy definitions, assessments, and interventions. We first present the historic evolution of physical literacy and the various definitions, followed by a synthesis of its underlying components. We next summarize the current physical literacy assessments along with a commentary on the challenges to accurately and feasibly assess the concept. Following this we describe the characteristics and efficacy of the existing physical literacy-related interventions in children and adolescents. The article concludes with an interpretive discussion of the findings to stimulate future efforts of research, practice, and policy for fostering physically literate individuals.
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Physical literacy can be defined as having an individual’s mind and body in a state of harmony. Previous studies introduced circus arts and actor training as a way to encourage physical literacy. The present paper aimed to introduce new ways and possibilities in endorsing the promotion of physical literacy, through the extensive use of 24 Season Drums. The study would further explore how 24 Season Drums, a musical performance originated from Malaysia, can enhance one’s physical embodiment development. The manuscript also covers the method of training carried out in Universities Sains Malaysia Kubang Kerian (Health Campus). The literature search was performed using databases from PubMed and Google Scholar search engine using specific keywords, ranging from January 2000 to June 2021. We hope that this paper could pave ways for more future studies on the effects of 24 Season Drums training in terms of an individual's physical and musical literacy.
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INTRODUÇÃO: Diante do aumento progressivo das publicações sobre o ensino das atividades circenses na escola, estudos de revisão podem ajudar professores e profissionais na busca por conhecimentos baseados em evidências que orientem suas intervenções. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é identificar como o ensino do Circo na escola vem sendo tratado pela literatura científico-pedagógica. MÉTODOS: O estudo é de natureza qualitativa delineado como levantamento bibliográfico sistemático. Para tanto, realizou-se buscas em sete bases de dados, duas revistas especializadas e uma rede social. Adotou-se a análise temática de conteúdo para tratar dos dados. O corpus documental foi composto por 74 documentos em 4 idiomas (47 artigos, 3 teses, 8 dissertações, 4 livros e 12 capítulos de livros). RESULTADOS: Os resultados denotam uma concepção ampliada de escola, bem como o aumento de publicações sobre o ensino das atividades circenses, com destaque para a Educação Infantil, pouco relatados em estudos anteriores. Os discursos que buscam legitimar o ensino do Circo na Educação Física escolar são o da cultura corporal; diversidade de conteúdo; desenvolvimento de capacidades físicas, habilidades motoras e relações interpessoais e o da articulação com documentos oficiais. Os desafios pedagógicos mais recorrentes são a falta de materiais específicos, de infraestrutura e a descontinuidade do trabalho docente. Os resultados indicam maior preocupação com a segurança e com a adaptação de materiais, embora esse último aspecto pareça implicar na recorrente falta de investimentos nesse âmbito. Destaca-se, ainda, a falta de clareza no processo avaliativo e o distanciamento entre as propostas e a dimensão artística do Circo. CONCLUSÃO: O ensino do Circo na escola já é uma realidade em muitas unidades escolares brasileiras, porém, ainda há dificuldades que o afasta desse contexto, sendo assim, se faz necessário que a comunidade científica crie outros meios de comunicação com as comunidades pedagógicas.
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O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar um projeto de extensão universitária em atividade desde 2006 e cujo intuito reside no oferecimento de atividades circenses para crianças de 6 a 12 anos nas dependências de uma Universidade pública brasileira no interior do estado de São Paulo. Considerando que se trata de um projeto consolidado, em curso há mais de 10 anos, foi realizada pesquisa qualitativa, por meio de observações de campo durante um semestre de atividades (16 encontros) e entrevistas semiestruturadas com os monitores e com o coordenador do projeto. Os resultados apontam aulas ministrados por educadores em formação acadêmica (graduados e pós-graduandos em Educação Física) sendo suplantados por um coletivo de estudiosos do Circo (artistas, historiadores, pedagogos), atividades e ações pedagógicas orientadas por uma diversidade de fontes de conhecimentos e (re)ações discentes em acordo com as proposições educativas do projeto. A ludicidade dos jogos e brincadeiras, a aceitação das diferenças e o contato com a diversidade de práticas circenses atreladas à expressividade, criatividade e criticidade foram elementos que permearam o projeto e configuram-se em princípios a serem extrapolados (adaptados e/ou inspiradores) para outras iniciativas com a pedagogia das atividades circenses. Por fim, ressaltamos, a partir dos resultados observados e das proposições apresentadas, que a desejada composição arte circense/Educação Física escolar dá azo ao tensionamento de uma educação demasiada informativa, opinativa e imediatista. De resto, vale a menção de que está em jogo o desafio aos professores de Educação Física por engendrar gretas para a temática circense em suas propostas curriculares.
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This paper utilises Bernstein's theorising of curriculum and pedagogical relations to analyse Physical Literacy (PL) assessment with implications for the field of Health and/Physical Education (H/PE). It acknowledges the significance of assessment for what knowledge and skills are valued in PL and in turn, H/PE. PL takes different forms and is assessed in a range of ways. Bernstein's concepts of classification and framing are used to analyse six PL assessment tools identified through a systematic review of literature. Findings suggest that current PL assessment tools mainly feature strong classification and framing, pointing towards enactment of PL that both tightens and narrows curriculum and pedagogic possibilities. Examples are also identified with weaker classification and framing. We conclude that PL and its assessment, could have a role to play in opening up the domains considered important for lifelong and life wide participation, across schooling and community, individually tailored to accommodate student ownership and voice. Or not.
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Specific objectives are: • to evaluate the effects of school-based interventions on increasing physical activity and improving fitness among children and adolescents; • to evaluate the effects of school-based interventions on improving body composition; and • to determine whether certain combinations or components (or both) of school-based interventions are more effective than others in promoting physical activity and fitness in this target population. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, SPORTDiscus, and Sociological Abstracts to 1 June 2020, without language restrictions. We screened reference lists of included articles and relevant systematic reviews. We contacted primary authors of studies to ask for additional information. Selection criteria: Eligible interventions were relevant to public health practice (i.e. were not delivered by a clinician), were implemented in the school setting, and aimed to increase physical activity among all school-attending children and adolescents (aged 6 to 18) for at least 12 weeks. The review was limited to randomised controlled trials. For this update, we have added two new criteria: the primary aim of the study was to increase physical activity or fitness, and the study used an objective measure of physical activity or fitness. Primary outcomes included proportion of participants meeting physical activity guidelines and duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time (new to this update). Secondary outcomes included measured body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, health-related quality of life (new to this update), and adverse events (new to this update). Television viewing time, blood cholesterol, and blood pressure have been removed from this update. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two independent review authors used standardised forms to assess each study for relevance, to extract data, and to assess risk of bias. When discrepancies existed, discussion occurred until consensus was reached. Certainty of evidence was assessed according to GRADE. A random-effects meta-analysis based on the inverse variance method was conducted with participants stratified by age (children versus adolescents) when sufficient data were reported. Subgroup analyses explored effects by intervention type. Main results: Based on the three new inclusion criteria, we excluded 16 of the 44 studies included in the previous version of this review. We screened an additional 9968 titles (search October 2011 to June 2020), of which 978 unique studies were potentially relevant and 61 met all criteria for this update. We included a total of 89 studies representing complete data for 66,752 study participants. Most studies included children only (n = 56), followed by adolescents only (n = 22), and both (n = 10); one study did not report student age. Multi-component interventions were most common (n = 40), followed by schooltime physical activity (n = 19), enhanced physical education (n = 15), and before and after school programmes (n = 14); one study explored both enhanced physical education and an after school programme. Lack of blinding of participants, personnel, and outcome assessors and loss to follow-up were the most common sources of bias. Results show that school-based physical activity interventions probably result in little to no increase in time engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (mean difference (MD) 0.73 minutes/d, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 1.30; 33 studies; moderate-certainty evidence) and may lead to little to no decrease in sedentary time (MD -3.78 minutes/d, 95% CI -7.80 to 0.24; 16 studies; low-certainty evidence). School-based physical activity interventions may improve physical fitness reported as maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) (MD 1.19 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.82; 13 studies; low-certainty evidence). School-based physical activity interventions may result in a very small decrease in BMI z-scores (MD -0.06, 95% CI -0.09 to -0.02; 21 studies; low-certainty evidence) and may not impact BMI expressed as kg/m² (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.01; 50 studies; low-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain whether school-based physical activity interventions impact health-related quality of life or adverse events. Authors' conclusions: Given the variability of results and the overall small effects, school staff and public health professionals must give the matter considerable thought before implementing school-based physical activity interventions. Given the heterogeneity of effects, the risk of bias, and findings that the magnitude of effect is generally small, results should be interpreted cautiously.
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Physical literacy is the competence to perform movement skills combined with the motivation, confidence, and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activity across the lifespan. It has also been defined as the foundational attributes for beginning and maintaining physical activity, and therefore the capacity for an active lifestyle. The benefits of physical literacy include enhanced health through increased physical activity, and also improvements in confidence and participation, as individuals recognise their movement competencies and engage more fully with their environments. Growing recognition of the value of physical literacy has led to global drives to involve physical literacy in multiple sectors including broadening early childhood and elementary curricula to aid child development, with proponents arguing for it to be emphasised similarly to literacy and numeracy. In parallel, educators, health professionals, and policymakers, among others, are becoming increasingly interested in ways to build resilience. Rather than addressing potential vulnerabilities and weaknesses, resilience approaches promote fostering protective factors that help individuals experiencing adversity to avoid poor default trajectories and instead achieve positive outcomes (through recovery, adaptation, or transformation). This paper explores links between the two desirable and promising constructs of physical literacy and resilience, considering their conceptual interplay and the shared notion of engaging ‘positive challenges’ that may be essential for nurturing important resources when facing subsequent adversity. This connection provides the base for further robust empirical studies that involve both physical literacy and resilience and for the development of holistic resilience programme development.
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Community arts projects have long been used in community development. Nevertheless, despite many liberatory tales that have emerged, scholars caution that well-meaning organizations and artists may inadvertently become complicit in efforts that distract from fundamental inequities, instrumentalizing creative expression as a means to transform potentially dissident youth into productive and cooperative ‘citizens’. This article examines how social circus – using circus arts with equity-seeking communities – has been affecting personal and community development among youth with marginalized lifestyles in Quebec, Canada. Employing a ‘critical mixed methods’ design, we analysed the impacts of the social circus methodology and partnership model deployed on transformation at the personal and community level. Our analysis suggests that transformation in this context is grounded in principles of using embodied play to re-forge habits and fortify an identity within community and societal acceptance through recognizing individual and collective creative contributions. The disciplinary dimension of the programme, however, equally suggests an imprinting of values of ‘productivity’ by putting marginality ‘to work’. In the social circus programmes studied, tensions between the goal of better coping within the existing socioeconomic system and building skills to transform inequitable dynamics within dominant social and cultural processes, are navigated by carving out a space in society that offers alternative ways of seeing and engaging.
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Evidence supports a positive association between competence in fundamental movement skills (e.g., kicking, jumping) and physical activity in young people. Whilst important, fundamental movement skills do not reflect the broad diversity of skills utilized in physical activity pursuits across the lifespan. Debate surrounds the question of what are the most salient skills to be learned which facilitate physical activity participation across the lifespan. In this paper, it is proposed that the term ‘fundamental movement skills’ be replaced with ‘foundational movement skills’. The term ‘foundational movement skills’ better reflects the broad range of movement forms that increase in complexity and specificity and can be applied in a variety of settings. Thus, ‘foundational movement skills’ includes both traditionally conceptualized ‘fundamental’ movement skills and other skills (e.g., bodyweight squat, cycling, swimming strokes) that support physical activity engagement across the lifespan. A proposed conceptual model outlines how foundational movement skill competency can provide a direct or indirect pathway, via specialized movement skills, to a lifetime of physical activity. Foundational movement skill development is hypothesized to vary according to culture and/or geographical location. Further, skill development may be hindered or enhanced by physical (i.e., fitness, weight status) and psychological (i.e., perceived competence, self-efficacy) attributes. This conceptual model may advance the application of motor development principles within the public health domain. Additionally, it promotes the continued development of human movement in the context of how it leads to skillful performance and how movement skill development supports and maintains a lifetime of physical activity engagement.
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Framed within Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of the present study was to test the effects of a training program with physical education (PE) teachers. Participants were 21 high school PE teachers (experimental group, n = 10; control group, n = 11), and their 836 students, aged 12 to 16 years. Teachers in the experimental group received a training program consisting of strategies to support autonomy, competence, and relatedness need satisfaction. A repeated measures ANCOVA was carried out for each dependent variable. After the intervention, students in the experimental group significantly increased their scores on autonomy support, relatedness support, autonomy satisfaction, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and intention to be physically active, as compared to the control group. These findings emphasize the utility of a training program with PE teachers to promote the students’ psychological need satisfaction, and hence, self-determined motivation toward PE classes.
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Background: The concept of physical literacy has received increased research and international attention recently. Where intervention programs and empirical research are gaining momentum, their operationalizations differ significantly. Objective: The objective of this study was to inform practice in the measure/assessment of physical literacy via a systematic review of research that has assessed physical literacy (up to 14 June, 2017). Methods: Five databases were searched using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols guidelines, with 32 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria. English-language, peer-reviewed published papers containing empirical studies of physical literacy were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Qualitative methods included: (1) interviews; (2) open-ended questionnaires; (3) reflective diaries; (4) focus groups; (5) participant observations; and (6) visual methods. Quantitative methods included: (1) monitoring devices (e.g., accelerometers); (2) observations (e.g., of physical activity or motor proficiency); (3) psychometrics (e.g., enjoyment, self-perceptions); (4) performance measures (e.g., exergaming, objective times/distances); (5) anthropometric measurements; and (6) one compound measure. Of the measures that made an explicit distinction: 22 (61%) examined the physical domain, eight (22%) the affective domain; five (14%) the cognitive domain; and one (3%) combined three domains (physical, affective, and cognitive) of physical literacy. Researchers tended to declare their philosophical standpoint significantly more in qualitative research compared with quantitative research. Conclusions: Current research adopts diverse often incompatible methodologies in measuring/assessing physical literacy. Our analysis revealed that by adopting simplistic and linear methods, physical literacy cannot be measured/assessed in a traditional/conventional sense. Therefore, we recommend that researchers are more creative in developing integrated philosophically aligned approaches to measuring/assessing physical literacy. Future research should consider the most recent developments in the field of physical literacy for policy formation.
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The International Charter for Physical Education, Physical Activity, and Sport clearly states that vested agencies must participate in creating a strategic vision and identify policy options and priorities that enable the fundamental right for all people to participate in meaningful physical activity across their life course. Physical literacy is a rapidly evolving concept being used in policy making, but it has been limited by pre-existing and sometimes biased interpretations of the construct. The aim of this article is to present a new model of physical literacy policy considerations for key decision makers in the fields of public health, recreation, sport, and education. Internationally debated definitions of physical literacy and the wider construct of literacy were reviewed in order to establish common pillars of physical literacy in an applicable policy model. This model strives to be consistent with international understandings of what " physical literacy " is, and how it can be used to achieve established and developing public health, recreation, sport, and educative goals.
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Background The concept of physical literacy has stimulated increased research attention in recent years—being deployed in physical education, sport participation, and the promotion of physical activity. Independent research groups currently operationalize the construct differently. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a systematic review of the physical literacy construct, as reflected in contemporary research literature. Methods Five databases were searched using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria were English language, peer reviewed, published by March 2016, and seeking to conceptualize physical literacy. Articles that met these criteria were analyzed in relation to three core areas: properties/attributes, philosophical foundations and theoretical associations with other constructs. A total of 50 published articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed qualitatively using inductive thematic analysis. Results The thematic analysis addressed the three core areas. Under definitions, core attributes that define physical literacy were identified, as well as areas of conflict between different approaches currently being adopted. One relatively clear philosophical approach was prominent in approximately half of the papers, based on a monist/holistic ontology and phenomenological epistemology. Finally, the analysis identified a number of theoretical associations, including health, physical activity and academic performance. Conclusions Current literature contains different representations of the physical literacy construct. The costs and benefits of adopting an exclusive approach versus pluralism are considered. Recommendations for both researchers and practitioners focus on identifying and clearly articulating the definitions, philosophical assumptions and expected outcomes prior to evaluating the effectiveness of this emerging concept.
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In this commentary, an argument for using physical literacy as a guiding framework for the design, implementation and evaluation of physical activity interventions targeting cognitive development in early childhood is offered. While physical activity and exercise have been shown to be positively linked to cognitive development, selecting the right kinds of activities for children, particularly in the first six years of life, is critical to ensuring children stay engaged and benefit from participation. The concept of " thinking movement " has been described before, where emphasis is placed not only on the importance of physical activity, but the combination of cognitive (e.g., problem solving) and movement based skills together as necessary for stimulating positive change in cognitive ability. Physical literacy offers great potential as a framework beyond thinking movement because it focuses not only on movement (motor skill) and physical activity, but also affective (fun) and motivational domains such as competence and confidence. The intersections of motor skill, positive affect and motivation are the core elements required to ensure children want to be active and are critical for maintenance of physical activity across the life-course.
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Background Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify the potential correlates of gross motor competence in typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3–18 years) using an ecological approach. Methods Motor competence was defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination, but excluding motor fitness. Studies needed to assess a summary score of at least one aspect of motor competence (i.e., object control, locomotor, stability, or motor coordination). A structured electronic literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Six electronic databases (CINAHL Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO®, Scopus and SPORTDiscus with Full Text) were searched from 1994 to 5 August 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between potential correlates and motor competency if at least three individual studies investigated the same correlate and also reported standardized regression coefficients. Results A total of 59 studies were identified from 22 different countries, published between 1995 and 2014. Studies reflected the full range of age groups. The most examined correlates were biological and demographic factors. Age (increasing) was a correlate of children’s motor competence. Weight status (healthy), sex (male) and socioeconomic background (higher) were consistent correlates for certain aspects of motor competence only. Physical activity and sport participation constituted the majority of investigations in the behavioral attributes and skills category. Whilst we found physical activity to be a positive correlate of skill composite and motor coordination, we also found indeterminate evidence for physical activity being a correlate of object control or locomotor skill competence. Few studies investigated cognitive, emotional and psychological factors, cultural and social factors or physical environment factors as correlates of motor competence. Conclusion This systematic review is the first that has investigated correlates of gross motor competence in children and adolescents. A strength is that we categorized correlates according to the specific ways motor competence has been defined and operationalized (object control, motor coordination, etc.), which enables us to have an understanding of what correlates assist what types of motor competence. Indeed our findings do suggest that evidence for some correlates differs according to how motor competence is operationalized.
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Understanding the factors that influence physical activity can aid the design of more effective interventions. Previous reviews of correlates of youth physical activity have produced conflicting results. A comprehensive review of correlates of physical activity was conducted, and semiquantitative results were summarized separately for children (ages 3-12) and adolescents (ages 13-18). The 108 studies evaluated 40 variables for children and 48 variables for adolescents. About 60% of all reported associations with physical activity were statistically significant. Variables that were consistently associated with children's physical activity were sex (male), parental overweight status, physical activity preferences, intention to be active, perceived barriers (inverse), previous physical activity, healthy diet, program/facility access, and time spent outdoors. Variables that were consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity were sex (male), ethnicity (white), age (inverse), perceived activity competence, intentions, depression (inverse), previous physical activity, community sports, sensation seeking, sedentary after school and on weekends (inverse), parent support, support from others, sibling physical activity, direct help from parents, and opportunities to exercise. These consistently related variables should be confirmed in prospective studies, and interventions to improve the modifiable variables should be developed and evaluated.
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Youth with better motor abilities may find it easier to be physically active and may be more likely to engage in physical activity compared with peers with poorer motor competence. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old children. Self-efficacy toward physical activity was also assessed. Sixty-five children (34 girls and 31 boys) were studied. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Manufacturing Technologies Incorporated/Computer Science and Applications Incorporated model 7164 accelerometer, and their motor proficiency was determined by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. The Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity scale measured children's self-perceptions of adequacy in performing and desire to participate in physical activities. Children's motor proficiency was positively associated with activity counts and percentage of time in moderate and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and inversely related to percentage of time in sedentary activity. Children in the greatest quartile of motor proficiency were the most physically active compared with children with lower levels of motor proficiency who had similar levels of physical activity. Children with greater standardized BMI were less physically active, more sedentary, and had poorer motor proficiency compared with children with a lower standardized BMI. Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity scores were positively associated with Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency standard score for boys. Children's motor proficiency explained an additional 8.7% of the variance in physical activity in multiple linear regression after controlling for factors that may influence physical activity. Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity and inversely associated with sedentary activity in children, but there may be a threshold of motor proficiency above which children may be the most physically active. Children's motor proficiency may be an appropriate target for increasing physical activity in youth.
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Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants' well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas a motivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.
Book
With a billion-dollar industry centred in Montreal, the province of Quebec has established itself as a major hub for contemporary circus. Cirque du Soleil has a global presence, and troupes such as Cirque Éloize and 7 doigts de la main are state-of-the-art innovators. The National Circus School of Montreal - the only state-funded elite training facility in North America - is an influential leader in artistry and technique. Montreal-based Cirque du Soleil’s Cirque du Monde supports arts for social change on many continents and is renowned for its social-circus training and research. Cirque Global is the first book-length study of this new variety of circus and its international impact. The contributors offer critical perspectives on this rapidly developing art form and its aesthetics, ethics, business practices, pedagogical implications, and discursive significations. Essays explore creative, entrepreneurial, and cultural forces that are shaping Quebec’s dynamic nouveau cirque. Lavishly illustrated with photographs from circus performances, the volume showcases Quebec circus’s hybrid forms, which have merged the ethos and aesthetics of European circuses with American commercial and industrial creativity. Cirque Global is the definitive study of the phenomenon of Quebec circus and is an important model for future research on contemporary circus. Details 400 Pages, 6.25 x 9.25 65 photos, 8 tables ISBN 9780773546738 June 2016 Formats: Cloth, Paperback, eBook
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Introduction: PLAYfun is a measure of motor competence, comprehension and confidence which is part of a suite of scales used to assess physical literacy in children and youth. However, its measurement properties have not been reported in the published literature. The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of PLAYfun, in addition to variations in PLAYfun subscale results by age and sex. Method: In this study, we use a sample of children and youth aged 7 to 14 years (n=215) to test a proposed factor structure for the motor competence component of PLAYfun and to examine age and sex differences in subscale and total scores. The initial (n=128) and secondary (n=98) samples were drawn from a stratified (by geographic region), random sample of 27 afterschool programs from a larger pool of 400 programs across the province of Ontario. Seven research assistants were initially trained on the administration of PLAYfun and rated a small pilot sample of 10 children. These trained assessors then assessed the full sample.. Results: Inter-rater agreement was very good (ICC=.87). The hypothesized 5-factor structure of the scale was found to have an acceptable fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.055, 90% CI = 0.03 to 0.075; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.94). In general, PLAYfun scores increased with age as developmentally expected. There were few sex differences across skills, but girls did not perform as well as boys on upper and lower body object control skills. Conclusion: The factor structure and patterns of results by age and sex support PLAYfun as a measure of motor competence. Continued evaluation of the tool and other subscales of PLAY are required.
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... If this difference was a consistent feature of a child&apos;s behavior across a typical 5-day school week and ... Add to this the decreased time spent in sedentary behaviors by children with better-developed skills, and the potential contribution of the level of motor skill performance to an ...