The experience of the research team in the field of cementation processes in which tin participates as a metal-cementator or tin is reduced by another metal from its compounds dissolved in solutions is generalized in the review. The processes of galvanic displacement were studied in the systems Zn/Sn(II), Zn/Ni(II), Zn/Ni/Sn(II), Sn/Bi(III), Sn/Cu(I), Cu/Sn(II), Sn/Ag(I), Sn/Au(I), Ni/Au/Sn(II). The conditions for tin coatings deposition on sublayers of copper, zinc, gold, as well as for obtaining Au-Sn, Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, Sn-Bi, Sn-Zn bimetallic powders or Sn-Ni-Zn, Sn-Au-Ni ternary powders with the use of cementation processes has been developed. The effect of solutions composition, such as the nature the cementing metal and the metal to be reduced, the presence and composition of ligands, the components concentration, the solutions pH and temperature, on the rate of formation of tin containing products, their elemental and phase composition, as well as the morphology has been revealed. Methods to obtain tin based binary alloys of the eutectic composition, which are of special interest as low-melting lead-free solders, are proposed. The conditions for the formation of intermetallic compounds just during the cementation process have been found. The phase transformations in tin-containing products of cementation under low-temperature heat treatments were determined. The effect of side processes accompanying the reduction of metal ions from solutions, including reactions of hydrolysis and redox transformations in the volume of solutions, on the rate of formation, composition and microstructure of the products obtained is shown. Conditions are determined under which the cementation of a metal from a solution is accompanied by hydrogen evolution stimulated by the formation of a galvanic couple, and the effect of this process on the microstructure, the rate of deposition and thickness of the coatings produced is demonstrated.
The obtained results are discussed with the use of known literature data.