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Medicinal and pharmacological properties of Andrographis paniculata

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A lot of literature reviews about Andrographis paniculata has been published previously. Researchers are critically involved in the research to extract out the potential medicinal value that possess by the "King of Bitter". It has a broad pharmacological value. Traditionally many disease condition have been treated successfully. The success of the plant is due to the presence of few bioactive compounds such as andrographolide, homo-andrographolide andrographesterol, andrographopne which are identified through the phythochemistry studies of the plant which are having the wide therapeutic activities. The extremely bitter taste of the plant is due the compound known as andrographolide. However this bitter plant is having a sweet future for those appreciated the benefits of the plant. From the review it is proven that Andrographis paniculata is having antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anticancer, antivenom, anti HIV, antimalarial, antipyretic, antifertility, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic, antihiperlipidemic activities. Variety of literature concerning about the toxicity studies has confirmed that the plant is safe to consume although few findings revealed that consuming Andrographis paniculata for a long period of time may possess some unwanted action especially in the fertility studies.
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Sivananthan and Elamaran
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
REVIEW PAPER OPEN ACCESS
Medicinal and pharmacological properties of
Andrographis paniculata
Manoharan Sivananthan1*, Manoharan Elamaran2
1Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Biomedicine and Health, ASIA Metropolitan University,
G-8, Jalan Kemacahaya 11, Taman Kemacahaya, Batu 9, 43200 Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Pre University, Mahmud Secondary School, Jalan Tras, 27600 Raub, Pahang,
Malaysia
Article Published: 22 March 2013
Key words: Andrographis paniculata, pharmacological activities, andrographolide.
Abstract
A lot of literature reviews about Andrographis paniculata has been published previously. Researchers are critically
involved in the research to extract out the potential medicinal value that possess by the “King of Bitter”. It has a broad
pharmacological value. Traditionally many disease condition have been treated successfully. The success of the plant
is due to the presence of few bioactive compounds such as andrographolide, homo-andrographolide
andrographesterol, andrographopne which are identified through the phythochemistry studies of the plant which are
having the wide therapeutic activities. The extremely bitter taste of the plant is due the compound known as
andrographolide. However this bitter plant is having a sweet future for those appreciated the benefits of the plant.
From the review it is proven that Andrographis paniculata is having antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial,
anticancer, antivenom, anti HIV, antimalarial, antipyretic, antifertility, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic,
antihiperlipidemic activities. Variety of literature concerning about the toxicity studies has confirmed that the plant is
safe to consume although few findings revealed that consuming Andrographis paniculata for a long period of time
may possess some unwanted action especially in the fertility studies.
*Corresponding Author: Manoharan Sivananthan siva8905@gmail.com
International Journal of Biomolecules and Biomedicine (IJBB)
ISSN: 2221-1063 (Print) 2222-503X (Online)
Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 1-12, 2013
http://www.innspub.net
Sivananthan and Elamaran
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
Introduction
Andrographis paniculata is a plant that has been
eectively used in traditional Asian medicines for
centuries. Its perceived “blood purifying” property
results in its use in diseases where blood
“abnormalities” are considered causes of disease, such
as skin eruptions, boils, scabies, and chronic
undetermined fevers. The aerial part of the plant, used
medicinally, contains a large number of chemical
constituents, mainly lactones, diterpenoids, diterpene
glycosides, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides.
Controlled clinical trials report its safe and eective
use for reducing symptoms of uncomplicated upper
respiratory tract infections. Since many of the disease
conditions commonly treated with Andrographis
paniculata in traditional medical systems are
considered self-limiting, its purported benefits need
critical evaluation (Akbar, 2011).
Andrographis paniculata grows widely in many Asian
countries, such as China, India, Thailand and Sri
Lanka and has a long history of therapeutic usage in
Indian and Oriental medicine. The herb is official in
Indian Pharmacopoeia as a predominant constituent of
at least 26 Ayurvedic formulations used to treat liver
disorders. It is one of the herbs, which can be used to
treat neoplasm as mentioned in ancient Ayurvedic
literature. Andrographis paniculata is reported as a
cold property herb in Traditional Chinese medicine
(TCM) and is used to get rid of body heat and to expel
toxins (Majee et al., 2011). Table 1 represent the
taxonomy of Andrographis paniculata (Alireza et al.,
2011).
Andrographolide, a bitter principle obtained from
Andrographis paniculata is a diterpene lactone,
responsible for various pharmacological activities. This
is a well known phytoconstituent from Indian System
of Medicine, used in the management of different
diseases since time immemorial. Research activities
worldwide to exhibit the beneficial role of
Andrographolide are continuously enriching the
therapeutic arsenal of this important phytomolecule.
In addition to the well known pharmacological
activities like hepatoprotective, antioxidant,
hypoglycemic etc., recent advances in the management
of immune system and neoplastic diseases make
andrographolide the phytomolecule of the hour (Maiti
et al., 2006). The therapeutic value of Andrographis
paniculata is due to its mechanism of action which is
perhaps by enzyme induction (Meenatchisundaram et
al., 2009).
Table 1. Taxonomy of Andrographis paniculata.
Kingdom
Plantae, plants
Subkingdom
Tracheobionta, vascular plants
Superdivision
Spermatophyta, seed plants
Division
Angiosperma
Class
Dicotyledonae
Sub-class
Gamopetalae
Series
Bicarpellatae
Order
Personales
Tribe
Justicieae
Family
Acanthaceae
Genus
Andrographis
Species
Paniculata
Andrographis paniculata grows erect to a height of
30 110 cm in moist, shady places. The slender stem is
dark green, squared in cross-section with longitudinal
furrows and wings along the angles. The lance-shaped
leaves have hairless blades mea ruing up to 8
centimeters long by 2.5 wide. The small flowers are
borne in spreading racemes. The fruit is a capsule
around 2 centimeters long and a few millimeters wide.
It contains many yellow brown seeds (Kumar et al.,
2012). Figure 1 represent the image of A. paniculata.
The leaves of Andrographis paniculata contain
maximum active principle like andrographolide, homo-
andrographolide andrographesterol and
andrographopne. Andrographolide is the major
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
constituent in leaves which is bitter substance. The
leaves of the herb were found to contain the highest
amount of andrographolide and the seeds contain the
lowest. The average andrographolide content varied
from 12.44 to 33.52 mg/g in dried leaves found
maximum at 90-120 days (Parashar et al., 2011).
Fig. 1. Image of Andrographis paniculata.
Andrographis paniculata is being used mainly for
treating fever, liver disease, diabetes, snake bite
(Patidar et al., 2011). It is also used as antibiotic,
antiviral, antimicrobial, anti inflammatory, anticancer,
anti-HIV, anti-allergic (Jegathambigai et al., 2010). It
is also utilised for common cold, hepatoprotective
activity, antimalarial, antidiarrheal and intestinal
effect, cardiovascular activity, antifertility activity, pain
reduction (Jarukamjorn and Nemoto, 2008). It is also
possess antifungal activity, cholerectic activity and in
the Unani system of medicine, it is considered
aperient, emollient, astringent, diuretic,
emmenagogue, gastric tonic, carminative. it is
recommended for use in cases of leprosy, gonorrhea,
scabies, boils, skin eruptions, chronic and seasonal
fevers, pharyngolaryngitis, dysentery, cough with thick
sputum, carbuncle, sores (Akbar, 2011). It is also
having potential to be used as herbicidal and it is used
as antiarthritis (Alireza et al., 2011).
Antioxidant activity
Hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata
possesses antioxidant activity against oxidative
alterations in myocardium and confer significant
cardioprotective activity by helping in retaining the
cardiac function in a normal manner (Ojha et al.,
2009). In vitro antioxidant studies using 2,2-diphenyl-
1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that ethanol
extracts have superior free radical scavenging activity
with IC50 value = 10.9 than aqueous extracts with
IC50 value = 24.65. This study showed that
pretreatment with ethonolic extract of Andrographis
paniculata ethanolic provided significant antioxidant
property (Wasman et al., 2011). The active antioxidant
compounds are better extracted in methanol for
Andrographis paniculata. Also suggested that there is
a direct correlation between the total polyphenols
extracted and anti-oxidant activity. The methanol
extract of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata
exhibited appreciable activity indicating that
Andrographis paniculata has promising free radical
scavenging activity (Sharma and Joshi, 2011).
Evaluation of the antioxidant property of
Andrographis paniculata by employing three
different methods DPPH, Lipid Peroxidation and DNA
cleavage protective assay was carried out. In both the
DPPH and Lipid Peroxidation methods, gallic acid and
α- tocopherol were used as a standard antioxidant for
comparison to the antioxidant property of
Andrographis paniculata. Whereas in the DNA
cleavage, pBS plasmid was used to assess the
protective activity of Andrographis paniculata. In the
DPPH method the RSC (radical scavenging capacity)
of the plant extract was measured
spectrophotometrically at 512nm. The lipid
peroxidation inhibition activity of plant extract was
also evaluated by taking the absorbance of pink colored
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
complex formed at 535nm. In the DNA cleavage
protective assay, the electrophoretic pattern of DNA
after UV-induced photolysed H2O2 oxidative
damage were different in the absence and presence of
methanolic extract of plant. In the above mentioned
antioxidant assays the methanolic extract of
Andrographis paniculata showed higher antioxidant
activity than water- methanolic extracts (Huidrom and
Deka, 2012).
The beneficial effects of antioxidant properties
Andrographis paniculata were studied in the diabetic
animals. Diabetes was induced with single
intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg,
i.p) dissolved in freshly prepared citrate buffer (pH
4.5), resulted in elevation of blood glucose levels,
decrease in the superoxide dismutase and catalase
activity. Oral administration of Andrographis
paniculata (400 mg/kg, p.o) resulted in significant
decrease in the blood glucose levels and increase in the
activity of SOD and catalase. Study demonstrates that
Andrographis paniculata (400mg/kg, p.o) showed
potential antioxidant activity (Dandu and Inamdar,
2009).
Different µg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract
(200µg to 1000µg/ml) was used for the estimation of
antioxidant activity of Andrographis paniculata.
Initially 200 to 400 µg/ml increases the working
sample and inhibition also increased. Further
400 1000µg/ml concentration decreased ratio of the
activity was showed. Finally 91.01% of maximum
antioxidant activity was observed at the concentration
of 1000µg/ml (Doss and Kalaichelvan, 2012). Leaf
extracts showed the highest antioxidant potential
followed by stem and fruit extracts with the rabbit
erythrocytes hemolysis and superoxide dismutase
activity assays. However, Andrographis paniculata
fruit extracts exhibited the highest DPPH free radical
scavenging activity compared to the other extracts
(Rafat et al., 2010).
Anticancer activity
Three compounds were isolated from chloroform and
methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata which
were coded as AND-6, AND-4, AND-11. Among those
AND-4 possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cell
lines Hep G2,HCT-116 using MTT Assay (Mulukuri et
al., 2011).
Andrographolide isolated from Andrographis
paniculata at 0.35 mM , 0.70 mM and 1.40 mM
induced DNA fragmentation and increased the
percentage of apoptotic cells when TD-47 human
breast cancer cell line was treated for 24, 48 and 72
hours. The results demonstrated that andrographolide
can induce apoptosis in TD-47 human breast cancer
cell line in a time and concentration-dependent
manner by increase expression of p53, bax, caspase-3
and decrease expression of bcl-2 determined by
immunohistochemical analysis (Harjotaruno et al.,
2007).
The methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata
was fractionated into dichloromethane, petroleum
ether and aqueous extracts and screened for
bioactivity. Results indicate that the dichloromethane
fraction of the methanolic extract retains the active
compounds contributing for both the anticancer and
immunostimulatory activity. Dichloromethane fraction
significantly inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 (colon
cancer) cells and augments the proliferation human
peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) at low
concentrations. On further fractionation of the
dichloromethane extract we could isolate three
diterpene compounds, example andrographolide,14-
deoxyandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-
didehydroandrographolide. Andrographolide showed
anticancer activity on diverse cancer cells representing
different types of human cancers. Whereas all the three
molecules showed enhanced proliferation and
interleukin-2 (IL-2) induction in HPBLs (Kumar et al.,
2004).
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
The GC-MS evaluation of ethanolic leaf extract of
Andrographis paniculata revealed that tetradecanoic,
phytol, squalene, sitosterol compounds were having
anticancer properties (Kalaivani et al., 2012).
Hepatoprotective activity
In a research conducted to study the activity of
Andrographis paniculata in liver protective activity,
acute hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (150
mg/kg) in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of
Andrographis paniculata extract (100-200mg/kg)
offered a significant dose dependent protection against
paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity as assessed in
terms of biochemical and histopathological
parameters. Study revealed that the extracts of
Andrographis paniculata offered protection against
hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (Nagalekshmi
et al., 2011).
The effect of Andrographis paniculata extract was
studied on ethanol induced hepatic damage in rats.
Treatment with aqueous extract of Andrographis
paniculata (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg body
weight) was found to protect the rat from hepato toxin
action of ethanol an evidenced significant reduction in
the elevated serum transaminase levels (Vetriselvan et
al., 2010).
Antimicrobial activity
Ethanol extract of the aerial part of Andrographis
paniculata was prepared and evaluated for
antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial strains
by determining minimum inhibitory concentration and
zone of inhibition. Minimum inhibitory concentration
values were compared with control and zone of
inhibition values were compared with standard
ciprofloxacin in concentration 100 and 200 μg/ml. The
results revealed that, the ethanol extract is potent in
inhibiting bacterial growth of both Gram-negative and
Gram positive bacteria (Mishra et al., 2009).
Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Andrographis
paniculata Wall., was studied using different solvent
like chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water against
bacterial strains like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus
aureus, Pseudomonus aeruginosa and fungal strains
Aspergillus niger and Penicillum chrysogenum. The
antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion
method. Out of the four extract used, acetone and
ethanol extracts were found to be highly active against
Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Highest
in acetone (12 mm) and lowest in ethanol (10 mm)
(Hosamani et al., 2011)
The chloroform extracts of the stem and the root of
Andrographis paniculata showed considerable
antibacterial and antifungal activities. The chloroform
extract of the stem (100 µg/ml) showed the significant
antibacterial activity against all the tested organisms
compared with the standard benzyl penicillin, but the
chloroform extract of the root (100 µg/ml) showed
moderate activity against the organisms tested with the
standard benzyl penicillin. These extracts also showed
moderate antifungal activity against the tested
organisms compared with the standard fluconazole
(Radhika and Lakshmi, 2010).
The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract,
andrographolides and arabinogalactan proteins from
Andrographis paniculata were evaluated. The aqueous
extract showed significant antimicrobial activity, which
may be due to the combined effect of the isolated
arabinogalactan proteins and andrographolides
(Singha et al., 2003).
Hot and cold methanol extract of leaves and whole
plant of Andrographis paniculata were screened
separately for their anti-bacterial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-737) and Escherichia
coli (MTCC-452) using agar well diffusion method. The
susceptibility of the microorganisms to the extracts
was compared with each other and with selected
standard antibiotic. It was observed that hot methanol
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
extracts of leaves showed the significant anti bacterial
activity against both bacteria while least bacterial
activity was recorded with cold methanolic extracts of
whole plant of Andrographis paniculata.
Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of
flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, glycoside, tannins and
saponins (Sharma et al., 2011).
An ethanol extract of the leaves inhibited the growth in
vitro of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. A
50% methanol extract of the leaves inhibited growth in
vitro of Proteus vulgaris. However, no in vitro
antibacterial activity was observed when dried powder
from the aerial parts was tested against E.
coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi or Shige
lla species (Meenatchisundaram et al., 2009).
The antifungal activity of extracts of Andrographis
paniculata was evaluated by agar well diffusion
method against five selected fungal species. Stem
extracts of Andrographis paniculata showed high
antifungal activity against A.oryzae, Penicillum sp and
C.albicans. The root extracts showed high antifungal
activity against A. niger, A. flavus, C.albicans,
Penicillum sp and A.oryzae and also leaf extracts
showed high antifungal activity against Penicillum sp
and A. flavus but did not show antifungal activity
against C.albicans, A. niger, A.oryzae (Rajalakshmi et
al., 2012).
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract revealed lowest
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (100
μg/mL) against Microsporum canis, Candida albicans,
and Candida tropicalis, whereas methanol (MEOH)
extract revealed lowest MIC (150 µg/mL) against C.
tropicalis and Aspergillus niger. DCM extract showed
lowest minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) value
(250 µg/mL) against M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis
and A. niger, whereas MEOH extract showed lowest
MFC (250 µg/mL) against Trichophyton
mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, M. canis, C.
albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger (Sule et al., 2012).
Andrographis paniculata showed the presence of
promising antibacterial substances against B. cereus
and L. monocytogene under normal and osmotic stress
(Pitinidhipat and Yasurin, 2012).
The methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata
possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-
1( dengue virus serotype 1) in in vitro assays (Tang et
al., 2012). Andrographolide, neoandrographolide and
14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, ent-
labdene diterpenes isolated from Andrographis
paniculata showed viricidal activity against herpes
simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) (wiart et al., 2005).
Chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata
(30mg/ml) leaves and roots exhibit some antibacterial
activity against Staphylococcus aureus. In the study
conducted in Asia Metropolitan University, Malaysia
revealed that the zone of inhibition of Andrographis
paniculata against Staphylococcus aureus were as
follow: leaves (17.33 mm), roots (10.67 mm),
Erythromycin (24.00 mm), leaves and Erythromycin
(20.67 mm), roots and Erythromycin (21.67 mm),
leaves and roots (17.33 mm). The findings proved that
the plant is having potential antibacterial activity
against Staphylococcus aureus (Sivananthan and
Elamaran, 2013).
Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic
The purified extract and andrographolide significantly
(P<0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose,
triglyceride, and LDL compared to controls. However,
no changes were observed in serum cholesterol and rat
body weight. Metformin also showed similar effects on
these parameters (Nugroho et al., 2012).
The hot water and ethanol extracts of Andrographis
paniculata collected from Chittagong exhibited a
significant hypoglycemic (blood glucose lowering)
activity in both glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced
diabetic rats. Oral administration of glucose (1.5 g/kg
body weight) increased the blood sugar level while the
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
intraperitonial (ip) administration of alloxan (40
mg/kg body weight) enhanced the blood sugar level
much higher than that of the glucose-loaded rats. The
hot water (0.8 g/kg b.w.) and ethanol extracts (2 g/kg
b.w.) of Andrographis paniculata reduced the elevated
glucose level by 41.51 and 41.82%, respectively in
glucose-loaded rats as compared to the respective
diabetic control rats. On the other hand,
administration of hot water and ethanol extracts of A.
paniculata decreased the blood sugar level by 46.21
and 45.13%, respectively in alloxan induced diabetic
rats, when compared with that of diabetic control rats
(Alamgir et al., 2007).
The chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata
roots was tested for its antihyperglycemic activity in
alloxan induced diabetic rats using chronic and acute
studies. The blood glucose lowering activity was
determined after oral administration at doses of 50,
100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in acute study. Where
as in case of chronic study blood glucose, protein,
albumin and creatinine levels were estimated after 4
weeks of treatment at the dose of 300 mg/kg. The
study proved significant antidiabetic activity of
chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata roots
(Rao, 2006).
Water extract of Andrographis paniculata 10 mg/kg
body weight can prevent induction of hyperglycaemia
significantly (P < 0.001) induced by oral
administration of glucose 2 mg/kg body weight. But
any how failed to do so in adrenaline induced
hyperglycaemia. It also failed to demonstrate any
"fasting blood sugar lowering effect" upon chronic
administration (6 weeks) of Andrographis paniculata.
So probably Andrographis paniculata prevents
glucose absorption from gut. Whole experiment was
done on rabbits (Borhanuddin et al., 1994).
Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
activity
Aqueous extracts of the leaves inhibited HIV-1
infection and replication in the lymphoid cell line
MOLT-4. A hot aqueous extract of the aerial parts
reduced the percentage of HIV antigen-positive H9
cells. Dehydroandrographolide inhibited HIV-1 and
HIV-1 (UCD123) infection of H9 cells at 1.6mg/ml and
50mg/ml, respectively, and also inhibited HIV-1
infection of human lymphocytes at 50mg/ml. A
methanol extract of the leaves
suppressed syncytia formation in co-cultures of
uninfected and HIV-1-infected MOLT cells (median
effective dose [ED50] 70mg/ml) (Meenatchisundaram
et al., 2009).
Antipyretic activity
Intragastric administration of an ethanol extract of the
aerial parts (500mg/kg body weight) to rats decreased
yeast-induced pyrexia. The extract was reported to be
as effective as 200 mg/kg body weight of aspirin, and
no toxicity was observed at doses up to 600 mg/kg
body weight. Intragastric administration
of andrographolide (100 mg/kg body weight) to mice
decreased brewer’s yeast induced
pyrexia. Intragastric administrationof deoxyandrograp
holide, andrographolide, neoandrographolideor 11,12-
didehydro-14-deoxyandrographolide (100 mg/kg body
weight) to mice, rats or rabbits reduced pyrexia
induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol or endotoxins
(Meenatchisundaram et al., 2009).
Antidiarrhoeal activity
Herba Andrographis paniculata has
antidiarrhoeal activity in situ. An ethanol, chloroform
or 1-butanol extract of the aerial parts (300mg/ml)
inhibited the E. coli enterotoxin-
induced secretory response-which causes a diarrhoeal
syndrome in the rabbit and guinea-pig ileal loop assay.
However, an aqueous extract of the aerial parts was not
active. The
constituent diterpene lactones, andrographolide and
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
neoandrographolide, exhibited
potent antisecretory activity in vivo against Eschericia
coli enterotoxin induced diarrhoea. Andrographolide (1
mg per loop) was as active as loperamide when tested
against heat labile E. coli enterotoxin-induced
diarrhoea and more effective than loperamide when
tested against heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin
induced diarrhoea. Neoandrographolide (1 mg per
loop) was as effective as loperamide when tested
against heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin induced
diarrhoea and slightly less active than loperamide
when tested against heat-stable E. coli enterotoxin-
induced diarrhoea. The mechanism of action involves
inhibition of the intestinal secretory response induced
by heat labile Escherichia coli enterotoxins, which are
known to act through the stimulation
of adenylate cyclase, and by inhibition of the secretion
induced by heat-stable E. coli enterotoxins, which act
through the activation of guanylate cyclase. Incubation
of murine macrophages with andrographolide (1
50mol/l) inhibited bacterial endotoxin-induced nitrite
accumulation in a concentration- and time dependent
manner (Meenatchisundaram et al., 2009).
Antifertility activity
Dry leaf powder of Andrographis paniculata, when fed
orally to male albino rats, at a dose level of 20 mg
powder per day for 60 days, resulted in cessation of
spermatogenesis, degenerative changes in the
seminiferous tubules, regression of Leydig cells and
regressive and/or degenerative changes in the
epididymis, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and
coagulating gland. There was reduction in the weight
and fluid content of the accessory glands (Akbarsha et
al., 1990). No toxicity of andrographolide (50 mg/kg)
treatment for up to 8 weeks on number and motility of
sperm could be observed (Sattayasa et al., 2010).
Antimalarial activity
The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of
Andrographis paniculata (7.2 μg/ml) and the plant
extract was found to inhibit the ring stage of the
parasite (two strains of Plasmodium falciparum) and
did not show any in vivo toxicity (Mishra et al., 2009).
In an another separate study four xanthones were
isolated from the roots of Andrographis paniculata
using a combination of column and thin-layer
chromatographic methods. They were characterized as
1,8-di-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-xanthone, 4,8-
dihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-xanthone, 1,2-dihydroxy-
6,8-dimethoxy-xanthone and 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-
hydroxy xanthone by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopic
methods. In vitro study revealed that compound 1,2-
dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthone possessed
substantial anti-plasmodial activity against
Plasmodium falciparum with its IC(50) value of 4
microg ml(-1). Xanthones bearing hydroxyl group at 2
position demonstrated most potent activity while
xanthones with hydroxyl group at 1,4 or 8 position
possessed very low activity. In vivo anti-malarial
sensitivity test of this compound on Swiss Albino mice
with Plasmodium berghei infection using Peters' 4-day
test gave substantial reduction (62%) in parasitaemia
after treating the mice with 30 mg kg(-1) dose. In vitro
cytotoxicity against mammalian cells revealed that 1,2-
dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthone is non-cytotoxic
with its IC(50) > 32 microg ml(-1) (Dua et al., 2004).
Antivenom activity
Intraperitoneal injection of an ethanol extract of the
aerial parts (25 g/kg body weight) to mice poisoned
with cobra venom markedly delayed the occurrence of
respiratory failure and death. The same extract
induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum at
concentrations of 2 mg/ml. The contractions were
enhanced by physostigmine and blocked by atropine,
but were unchanged by antihistamines. These data
suggest that extracts of the aerial parts do not modify
the activity of the nicotinic receptors but produce
significant muscarinic activity, which accounts for its
antivenom effects (Meenatchisundaram et al., 2009).
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Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
Toxicity and dosing
In a research to determine toxicity and dosing, the
LD50 of the alcohol extract, obtained by cold
maceration, is 1.8 g/kg. The LD50 of andrographolide
(yield 0.78% w/w from whole plant) in male mice
through intraperitoneal route is 11.46 g/kg. In the
study on HIV-positive patients a dose of 1,500-2,000
mg of andrographolides was given daily for six weeks.
Side eects were common and the study was
discontinued early despite some improvements in
CD4+ counts. Until definitive information on
Andrographis paniculata and its constituents on
reproduction is available, it would be prudent for both
men and women to avoid this herb during desired
conception and for women during pregnancy (Akbar,
2011)
Conclusion
From the review it can be concluded that
Andrographis paniculata which is a famous medicinal
plant which is used in China and India for a centuries
is having a promising medicinal value. Critical research
using this plant must be conducted so that the hidden
medicinal value can be extracted out for the beneficial
of the publics. From the review it was proven that
Andrographis paniculata is having antioxidant,
hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anticancer,
antivenom, anti HIV, antimalarial, antipyretic,
antifertility, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic,
antihiperlipidemic activities.
Acknowledgement
Would like to thank to Miss Che Wan Imanina,
Programme Manager of department of Biomedical
Science, ASIA Metropolitan University for her support
and also would like to thank to our father, Manoharan
Muthu and mother, Neela Periasamy for their love,
supports and encouragement.
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... In India, it is grown in Assam, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and southern India [4]. Andrographis paniculata possesses a wide spectrum of medicinal properties, such as anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antivenom, antimalarial, anti-HIV, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, antifertility, antimicrobial, and antihyperlipidemic activities [5]. ...
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Andrographis paniculata (King of bitters), commonly known as Kalmegh is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani System of medicines for possess immunological, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective properties. Andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential to be developed as an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent as well. The study was carried out at the Research Farm of Dusty Acre Area, under the Department of Crop and Herbal Physiology, JNKVV, Jabalpur during kharif 2008-09 to investigate the influence of three row-spacings viz; 15, 30 & 45 cm and five nitrogen levels viz; 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kghaG on physiological 1 traits and productivity in Kalmegh along with magnitudes of biochemical constituents. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with three replications. 30 cm row-spacing, 80kg NhaG and their combinations 1 were associated with the highest magnitudes of biochemical constituents viz; nitrogen, protein, fat, fibre, ash, phosphorus, potassium and andrographolide in Kalmegh.
Article
A field experiment was conducted on Andrographis paniculata (during Kharif season 2007), at Dusty acre farm of JNKVV, Jabalpur. The experiment was laid out using randomized complete block design with four replicates. The samples were collected at seven different growth stages. The results were evaluated on the basis of growth analytical parameter (viz, Leaf area, Leaf area index, Crop growth rate, Relative crop growth rate, Leaf area duration, Biomass duration and Specific leaf area) as well as morpho-physiological (viz, Plant height, No. of leaves, No. of branches, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leaves fresh and dry weights and herbage yield) parameters. The result revealed that all the selected parameters goes on increasing with crop growth stages. However, the specific leaf area increases up to 90 DAS and there after it gradually decline up to 120 DAS indicating the maturity of crop.
Article
This work mainly focus on the anti-oxidant potency of aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of two Indian medicinal plants (Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora cordifolia). The methanolic extracts of leaves of Andrographis paniculata showed promising anti-oxidant activity followed by ethanolic extracts of leaves of Tinospora cordifolia. Results suggest that the active anti-oxidant compounds are better extracted in methanol for Andrographis paniculata and in ethanol for Tinospora cordifolia. Results also suggest that there is a direct co-relation between the total polyphenols extracted and anti-oxidant activity. Free radical scavenging potential of various extracts (methanol, ethanol and aqueous) of A.paniculata and T. cordifolia were evaluated by using reducing power. In this method, ascorbic acid was used as a standard of determining reducing power. The methanol extract of the leaves of A. paniculata exhibited appreciable activity as compared to the aqueous and ethanol extracts, indicating that A. paniculata has promising free radical scavenging activity.
Article
The chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata roots was tested for its antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats using chronic and acute studies. The blood glucose lowering activity was determined after oral administration at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in acute study. Where as in case of chronic study blood glucose, protein, albumin and creatinine levels were estimated after 4 weeks of treatment at the dose of 300 mg/kg. Significant reductions in blood glucose levels were observed in both acute and chronic studies. The extract significanly inhibited the induction of albuminuria, proteinemia and uremia. The present study clearly indicated a significant antidiabetic activity with the chloroform extract of A. paniculata roots and supports the traditional usage of the plant by Ayurvedic physicians for the control of diabetes. Also the extract is useful in preventing the incidence of long-term complication, diabetic nephropathy.
Article
In this study, effects of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata on sexual functions, vascular reactivity and serum testosterone level in experimental animals were observed. The suspension of andrographolide in 5% DMSO was administered orally at the dose of 50mg/kg to male ICR mice. The female mice involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The mating behaviors, mounting latency and mounting frequency, were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. Administration of andrographolide significantly decreased the mounting latency at 120 and 180 min and increased mounting frequency at 180 min after treatment. In endothelium-intact rat aortic strips, norepineprine-induced contraction was reduced by preincubation with andrographolide. Administration of 50mg/kg andrographolide orally to male mice once daily for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks had no significant effects on sperm morphology and motility. Interestingly, at week 4, serum testosterone level in mice treated with andrographolide was significantly increased when compared to the control. Thus, the effects of andrographolide on vascular response to norepinephrine and testosterone level observed in this study might be contributed to the sexual enhancing properties observed.